Hydroxide sentence example

hydroxide
  • Cobalt monoxide, CoO, is prepared by heating the hydroxide or carbonate in a current of air, or by heating the oxide C0304 in a current of carbon dioxide.

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  • A blue basic salt is precipitated first, which, on boiling, rapidly changes to the rose-coloured hydroxide.

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  • It is also obtained by heating para-chlorphenoldisulphonic acid with potassium hydroxide.

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  • Gay-Lussac in 181q, is usually obtained in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then precipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide.

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  • It polymerizes to a tetrose under the action of sodium hydroxide.

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  • A hydrated dioxide, approximating in composition to SrO 2.8H 2 O, is formed as a crystalline precipitate when hydrogen peroxide is added to an aqueous solution of strontium hydroxide.

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  • Traces of ethyl alcohol in solutions are detected and estimated by oxidation to acetaldehyde, or by conversion into iodoform by warming with iodine and potassium hydroxide.

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  • Metallic sodium possesses a silvery lustre, but on exposure to moist air the surface is rapidly dulled by a layer of the hydroxide.

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  • It forms a grey mass, which melts at a red heat and violently combines with water to give the hydroxide.

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  • The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).

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  • Sodium and potassium hydroxide solutions precipitate green chromium hydroxide from solutions of chromic salts; the precipitate is soluble in excess of the cold alkali, but is completely thrown down on boiling the solution.

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  • Chromous oxide, CrO, is unknown in the free state, but in the hydrated condition as Cr04H 2 0 or Cr(OH) 2 it may be prepared by precipitating chromous chloride by a solution of potassium hydroxide in air-free water.

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  • The sesquioxide, Cr 2 0 3, occurs native, and can be artificially obtained in several different ways, e.g., by igniting the corresponding hydroxide, or chromium trioxide, or ammonium bichromate, or by passing the vapours of chromium oxychloride through a red-hot tube, or by ignition of mercurous chromate.

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  • Chromic sulphate, Cr2(S04)3, is prepared by mixing the hydroxide with concentrated sulphuric acid and allowing the mixture to stand, a green solution is first formed which gradually changes to blue, and deposits violet-blue crystals, which are purified by dissolving in water and then precipitating with alcohol.

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  • The nitrate, Cr(NO 3) 3.9H 2 0, crystallizes in purple prisms and results on dissolving the hydroxide in nitric acid, its solution turns green on boiling.

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  • Chromic thiocyanate, Cr(SCN) 3, an amorphous deliquescent mass, is formed by dissolving the hydroxide in thiocyanic acid and drying over sulphuric acid.

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  • Magnesium Oxide, magnesia, MgO, occurs native as the mineral periclase, and is formed when magnesium burns in air; it may also be prepared by the gentle ignition of the hydroxide or carbonate.

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  • Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2, occurs native as the minerals brucite and nemalite, and is prepared by precipitating solutions of magnesium salts by means of caustic soda or potash.

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  • Magnesium hydroxide is a white amorphous solid which is only slightly soluble in water; the solubility is, however, greatly increased by ammonium salts.

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  • It may be prepared by dissolving the metal, its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in dilute hydrochloric acid, or by mixing concentrated solutions of magnesium sulphate and common salt, and cooling the mixture rapidly, when the less soluble sodium sulphate separates first.

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  • Water decomposes it with liberation of ammonia and formation of magnesium hydroxide.

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  • Its action upon turmeric is characteristic; a turmeric paper moistened with a solution of boric acid turns brown, the colour becoming much darker as the paper dries; while the addition of sodium or potassium hydroxide turns it almost black.

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  • Seeing that sodium was the only possible reducing agent, he set himself to cheapen its cost, and deliberately rejecting sodium carbonate for the more expensive sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), and replacing carbon by a mixture of iron and carbon - the so-called carbide of iron - he invented the highly scientific method of winning the alkali metal which has remained in existence almost to the present day.

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  • The solution of sodium aluminate, containing aluminium oxide and sodium oxide in the molecular proportion of 6 to 1, is next agitated for thirty-six hours with a small quantity of hydrated alumina previously obtained, which causes the liquor to decompose, and some 70% of the aluminium hydroxide to be thrown down.

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  • Alumina is obtained as a white amorphous powder by heating aluminium hydroxide.

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  • The nitrate, Al(N03)3, is obtained as deliquescent crystals (with 81120) by evaporating a solution of the hydroxide in nitric acid.

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  • These results point to the conclusion that the iso-diazo hydroxide is a tautomeric substance.

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  • Similar results have been obtained by using diazotized para-anisidine, a synand an anticompound being formed, as well as a third isomeric cyanide, obtained by evaporating para-methoxybenzenediazonium hydroxide in the presence of an excess of hydrocyanic acid at ordinary temperatures.

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  • Benzene diazonium hydroxide, although a strong base, reacts with the alkaline hydroxides to form salts with the evolution of heat, and generally behaves as a weak acid.

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  • On mixing dilute solutions of the diazonium hydroxide and the alkali together, it is found that the molecular conductivity of the mixture is much less than the sum of the two electrical conductivities of the solutions separately, from which it follows that a portion of the ions present have changed to the non-ionized condition.

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  • Lanthanum hydroxide, La(OH) 3, is a white amorphous powder formed by precipitating lanthanum salts by potassium hydroxide.

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  • The iron and aluminium precipitates are filtered off, and the filtrate boiled, when a basic beryllium hydroxide containing a little ferric oxide is precipitated.

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  • The hydroxide Be(OH)2 separates as a white bulky precipitate on adding a solution of an alkaline hydroxide to a soluble beryllium salt; and like those of aluminium and zinc, this hydroxide is soluble in excess of the alkaline hydroxide, but is reprecipitated on prolonged boiling.

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  • Beryllium salts are easily soluble and mostly have a sweetish taste (hence the name Glucinum, from yXv,dc, sweet); they are readily precipitated by alkaline sulphides with formation of the white hydroxide, and may be distinguished from salts of all other metals by the solubility of the oxide in ammonium carbonate.

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  • Rock-salt when pure is colourless and transparent, but is usually red or brown by mechanical admixture with ferric oxide or hydroxide.

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  • It will be observed that in the hydration of tricalcium silicate, the main constituent of Portland cement, a large portion of the lime appears as calcium hydroxide, i.e.

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  • But the hydroxide of thallium, in most of its properties, comes very close to the alkali metals; it is strongly basic, forms an insoluble chloroplatinate, and an alum strikingly similar to the corresponding potassium compounds.

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  • When kept in contact with water and air it is gradually converted into hydroxide, T10H.

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  • Thallous hydroxide, T10H, is most conveniently prepared by decomposing the solution of the sulphate with baryta water.

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  • Thallic hydroxide, TI(OH) 31 is obtained as a brown precipitate by adding a hot solution of thallous chloride in sodium carbonate to a solution of sodium hypochlorite.

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  • The hydroxide is obtained as brown hexagonal plates by fusing thallic oxide with potash to which a little water has been added.

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  • Manganous hydroxide, Mn (OH) 2, is obtained as a white precipitate on adding a solution of a caustic alkali to a manganous salt.

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  • By the addition of caustic soda to cerous salts, a white precipitate of cerous hydroxide is formed.

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  • By suspending the precipitated cerous hydroxide in water and passing chlorine through the solution, a hydrated form of the dioxide, 2CeO 2.3H 2 O, is obtained, which is readily soluble in nitric and sulphuric acids, forming ceric salts, and in hydrochloric acid, where it forms cerous chloride, with liberation of chlorine.

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  • Cerium compounds may be recognized by the red precipitate of ceric hydroxide, which is formed when sodium hypochlorite is added to a colourless cerous salt.

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  • The object of the latter is to convert the manganous hydroxide by the atmospheric oxygen into manganese dioxide, but this would take place much too slowly if there was not an excess of lime present ready to combine with the manganese dioxide to form a calcium manganite.

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  • Potassium thorofluoride, K2ThF6 4H20, is a heavy black powder formed by boiling the hydroxide with potassium fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • A number of salts of thorium have been prepared for therapeutic use, including the hydroxide, nitrate, salicylate, oleate and lactate.

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  • The monoxide, NiO, occurs naturally as bunsenite, and is obtained artificially when nickel hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate or sulphate is heated.

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  • The hydroxide, Ni(OH) 2, is obtained in the form of a greenish amorphous powder when nickel salts are precipitated by the caustic alkalis.

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  • The caustic alkalis added to solutions of nickel salts give a pale green precipitate of the hydroxide, insoluble in excess of the precipitant.

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  • Ammonium hydroxide gives a green precipitate of the hydroxide, soluble in excess of ammonia, forming a blue solution.

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  • Rubidium hydroxide, RbOH, is a colourless solid which is formed by the action of rubidium on water, or by the addition of baryta water to a solution of rubidium sulphate.

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  • Rubidium chloride, RbC1, is formed on burning rubidium in chlorine, or on dissolving the hydroxide in aqueous hydrochloric acid.

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  • Rubidium carbonate, Rb2C03, formed by the addition of ammonium carbonate to rubidium hydroxide, is a crystalline mass which melts in its water of crystallization when heated.

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  • Chalcopyrite is decomposed by nitric acid with separation of sulphur and formation of a green solution; ammonia added in excess to this solution changes the green colour to deep blue and precipitates red ferric hydroxide.

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  • A nitride, W2N3, is obtained as a black powder by acting with ammonia on the oxytetrachloride or hexachloride; it is insoluble in sodium hydroxide, nitric and dilute sulphuric acids; strong sulphuric acid, however, gives ammonia and tungstic acids.

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  • The salts of hydrochloric acid, known as chlorides, can, in most cases, be prepared by dissolving either the metal, its hydroxide, oxide, or carbonate in the acid; or by heating the metal in a current of chlorine, or by precipitation.

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  • Balard determined the volume composition of the gas by decomposition over mercury on gentle warming, followed by the absorption of the chlorine produced with potassium hydroxide, and then measured the residual oxygen.

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  • They may be prepared by dissolving or suspending a metallic oxide or hydroxide in water and saturating the solution with chlorine; by double decomposition; or by neutralizing a solution of chloric acid by a metallic oxide, hydroxide or carbonate.

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  • These alkyl substitution products are important, for they lead to the synthesis of many organic compounds, on account of the fact that they can be hydrolysed in two different ways, barium hydroxide or dilute sodium hydroxide solution giving the socalled ketone hydrolysis, whilst concentrated sodium hydroxide gives the acid hydrolysis.

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  • Cupric oxide, CuO, occurs in nature as the mineral melaconite (q.v.), and can be obtained as a hygroscopic black powder by the gentle ignition of copper nitrate, carbonate or hydroxide; also by heating the hydroxide.

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  • Cupric hydroxide, Cu(OH) 2, is obtained as a greenish-blue flocculent precipitate by mixing cold solutions of potash and a cupric salt.

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  • Both the oxide and hydroxide dissolve in ammonia to form a beautiful azure-blue solution (Schweizer's reagent), which dissolves cellulose, or perhaps, holds it in suspension as water does starch; accordingly, the solution rapidly perforates paper or calico.

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  • Hydrolysis by alkaline solutions gives a sugar and caffeic acid; whilst fusion with potassium hydroxide gives protocatechuic acid.

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  • In many of the lakes of Sweden there is still in progress the formation of an iron ore, called sjomalm, ferric hydroxide, deposited in forms resembling peas, coins, &c., and used for the manufacture of iron.

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  • It is a greyish coloured solid, which combines very energetically with water to form the hydroxide, much heat being evolved during the combination; on heating to redness in a current of oxygen it combines with the oxygen to form the dioxide, which at higher temperatures breaks up again into the monoxide and oxygen.

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  • Barium hydroxide, Ba(OH) 2, is a white powder that can be obtained by slaking the monoxide with the requisite quantity of water, but it is usually made on the large scale by heating heavy spar with small coal whereby a crude barium sulphide is obtained.

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  • This sulphide is then heated in a current of moist carbon dioxide, barium carbonate being formed, BaS+H 2 O+CO 2 =BaCO 3 +H 2 S, and finally the carbonate is decomposed by a current of superheated steam, BaC03+H20 = Ba(OH) 2 + C02, leavingaresidue of the hydroxide.

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  • A saturated solution of the hydroxide deposits on cooling a hydrated form Ba(OH) 2.8H 2 0, as colourless quadratic prisms, which on exposure to air lose seven molecules of water of crystallization.

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  • It is a white powder which is readily decomposed by water with the formation of the hydroxide and hydrosulphide.

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  • The boric acid being scarcely ionized gives only a very small quantity of hydrogen ions, whilst the base (sodium hydroxide) produced by the hydrolysis occasioned by the dilution of the solution, being a "strong base," is highly ionized and gives a comparatively large amount of hydroxyl ions.

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  • The stibonium iodide on treatment with moist silver oxide gives the corresponding tetramethyl stibonium hydroxide, Sb(CH 3)40H, which forms deliquescent crystals, of alkaline reaction, and absorbs carbon dioxide readily.

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  • The ferric hydroxide accumulates in the sheath, and gradually passes into the more insoluble ferric oxide.

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  • It is sparingly soluble in water (one part in 3000); and the moist oxide frequently behaves as the hydroxide, AgOH, i.e.

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  • Pictet (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 2117) obtained it by oxidizing nicotine methyl hydroxide with potassium permanganate.

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  • Carum copticum, from which it may be extracted by shaking with potassium hydroxide, filtering and precipitating the phenol with hydrochloric acid.

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  • It decomposes water at ordinary temperature, liberating hydrogen and forming lithium hydroxide.

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  • It is a white powder which readily dissolves in water to form the hydroxide, LiOH, which is also obtained by boiling the carbonate with milk of lime.

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  • It forms a white caustic mass, resembling sodium hydroxide in appearance.

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  • Lithium phosphate, Li 3 PO 4, obtained by the addition of sodium phosphate to a soluble lithium salt in the presence of sodium hydroxide, is almost insoluble in water.

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  • This latter compound readily forms an iodmethylate, which on treatment with silver oxide yields the corresponding ammonium hydroxide.

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  • Red ferric hydroxide dissolves in acids to form a well-defined series of salts, the ferric salts, also obtained by oxidizing ferrous salts; they are usually colourless when anhydrous, but yellow or brown when hydrated.

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  • Ferric fluoride, FeF 31 is obtained as colourless crystals (with 42H2O) by evaporating a solution of the hydroxide in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Alcohols may be readily prepared from the corresponding alkyl haloid by the action of moist silver oxide (which behaves as silver hydroxide); by the saponification of their esters; or b the reduction of of h dric alcohols by P Y Y with hydriodic acid, and the subsequent conversion of the resulting alkyl iodide into the alcohol by moist silver oxide.

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  • In Fleitmann's test, the solution containing the arsenious compound is mixed with pure potassium hydroxide solution and a piece of pure zinc or aluminium foil dropped in and the whole then heated.

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  • The prismatic variety of the oxide can be obtained by crystallization from a saturated boiling solution in potassium hydroxide, or by the crystallization of a solution of silver arsenite in nitric acid.

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  • The tertiary arsines, such as As(CH3)3, trimethyl arsine, and the quaternary arsonium iodides and hydroxides, (CH3)4AsI and (CH3)4AsOH, tetramethyl arsonium iodide and hydroxide, have been obtained.

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  • The precipitated indium hydroxide is converted into a basic sulphite by boiling with excess of sodium bisulphite, and then into the normal sulphite by dissolving in hot sulphurous acid.

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  • Indium oxide, In203, is a yellow powder which is formed on ignition of the hydroxide.

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  • The hydroxide, In(OH) 3j is prepared, as a gelatinous precipitate, by adding ammonia to any soluble indium salt.

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  • The protein conjugate is adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvant.

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  • The ester is heated under reflux with a dilute alkali like sodium hydroxide solution.

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  • Ammonia (NH 3) also dissolves in water to produce an ammonium hydroxide (NH 4 OH ), an alkaline solution.

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  • The hydroxide can then be reacted with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate.

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  • On cooling this calcium oxide will take up water to form calcium hydroxide.

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  • Recently, packing the abscess cavity with calcium hydroxide has been recommended.

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  • However the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide, which is very conductive, resulting in low internal impedance for the cell.

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  • Sodium chloride is a very important raw material from which hydrogen, chlorine and sodium hydroxide can be manufactured by electrolysis.

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  • The curve will be exactly the same as when you add hydrochloric acid to sodium hydroxide.

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  • In the first case, only one of the acidic hydrogens has reacted with the hydroxide ions from the base.

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  • Other ingredients are disodium hydrogen phosphate; phosphoric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment.

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  • The color change is brought about by spraying with dilute sodium hydroxide.

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  • The free oxygen then oxidizes the cadmium metal to form more cadmium hydroxide to prevent hydrogen from being formed.

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  • They use nickel and cadmium as electrodes and aqueous potassium hydroxide as electrolyte.

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  • Oxygen in the air oxidizes the iron(II) hydroxide precipitate to iron(III) hydroxide precipitate to iron(III) hydroxide especially around the top of the tube.

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  • The acidic nature of the oxides All of these oxides also react with bases like sodium hydroxide solution.

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  • Unfortunately, not everyone has access to ACS grade ammonium hydroxide.

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  • A simple explanation of what is happening You need to think about where the beryllium hydroxide came from in the first place.

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  • Some strong bases like calcium hydroxide aren't very soluble in water.

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  • An alkali is a solution containing excess hydroxide ions OH - (aq ).

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  • There must have been some slight reaction with the water to produce hydroxide ions in solution.

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  • You will get complexes formed involving hydroxide ions, but the formulae of these aren't very clear-cut.

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  • Sodium chlorate(I) solution is alkaline and contains enough hydroxide ions to carry out the second half of the reaction.

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  • There must have been some slight reaction with the water to produce hydroxide ion with the water to produce hydroxide ions in solution.

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  • The finished TA-NIC vaccine consists of the protein conjugate adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvant in a sodium phosphate buffer containing mannitol.

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  • Each mole of sodium hydroxide dissolves to give a mole of hydroxide ions in solution.

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  • In the case of a phenol, you can react the phenol with sodium hydroxide solution first, producing the more reactive phenoxide ion.

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  • Oxygen in the air oxidizes the iron(II) hydroxide precipitate to iron(III) hydroxide especially around the top of the tube.

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  • To make iron hydroxide slurry into a yellow oxide seed it was first mixed with iron sulfate solution.

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  • Textiles These contain sodium hydroxide, acids and dyes which have severe inhibiting effects on treatment.

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  • Further impurities are removed using aqueous sodium hydroxide to neutralize free acids and steam which removes volatile compounds.

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  • Now add 2M sodium hydroxide, drop by drop, noting any color change.

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  • In the second case (using twice as much sodium hydroxide ), both have reacted.

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  • Osmotic laxatives The most commonly used osmotic laxatives include magnesium hydroxide, sodium potassium tartrate, lactulose and glycerol.

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  • The hydroxide, Ir(OH) 3, may be obtained by the addition of caustic potash to iridium sodium chloride, the mixture being then heated with alcohol.

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  • The corresponding hydroxide, Ir(OH) 4, is formed when potassium iridate is boiled with ammonium chloride, or when the tetrachloride is boiled with caustic potash or sodium carbonate.

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  • Cobaltous hydroxide, Co(OH) 21 is formed when a cobaltous salt is precipitated by caustic potash in the absence of air.

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  • Cobaltic hydroxide, Co(OH) 31 is formed when a cobalt salt is precipitated by an alkaline hypochlorite, or on passing chlorine through water containing suspended cobaltous hydroxide or carbonate.

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  • By suspending cobaltous hydroxide in water and adding hydrogen peroxide, a strongly acid liquid is obtained (after filtering) which probably contains cobaltous acid, H2CoO 3.

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  • Cobalt nitrate, Co(NO 3) 2.6H 2 0, is obtained in dark-red monoclinic tables by the slow evaporation of a solution of the metal, its hydroxide or carbonate, in nitric acid.

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  • The hydroxide or caustic soda, NaOH, is usually manufactured from the carbonate or by electrolysis of salt solution (see Alkali Manufacture).

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  • Mallet, Comptes rendus, 1867, 64,' p. 226; 1868, 66, p. 349); by the electrolysis of solutions of sodium hydroxide, using nickel electrodes; by heating calcium plumbate (obtained from litharge and calcium carbonate) in a current of carbon dioxide (G.

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  • Beketoff, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 424 ref.); by reducing the carbonate (C. Winckler, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 51) or the hydroxide with magnesium (H.

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  • Running acid into the alkali For the first part of the graph, you have an excess of sodium hydroxide.

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  • In the second case (using twice as much sodium hydroxide), both have reacted.

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  • Fehling 's solution contains copper(II) ions complexed with tartrate ions in sodium hydroxide solution.

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  • Saline cathartics include dibasic sodium phosphate (Phospo-Soda), magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts), sodium biphosphate, and others.

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  • Some of the chemicals in this product are strong and dangerous, including sodium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite.

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  • Sodium hydroxide is listed in the US Department of Health and Human Services' Hazardous substance Data Bank.

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  • Most alkaline battery leaks involve the potassium hydroxide inside the battery leaking out.

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  • Potassium hydroxide is a thick paste, it can harden and form gunk inside your electronics.

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  • Since potassium hydroxide is a base, you need an acid to clean it out.

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  • The material that leaks from alkaline batteries is potassium hydroxide which is the electrolyte of the battery's make-up.

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  • The potassium hydroxide, a base, is mixed with water inside the battery making a paste like substance.

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  • Under certain conditions, such as extreme heat, the potassium hydroxide paste inside the battery expands.

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  • Once the potassium hydroxide reaches the metal terminals or connectors, it causes them to corrode producing a powder that is a greenish blue color.

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  • Since potassium hydroxide is a base, an acid must be used to clean the leakage.

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  • The potassium hydroxide that leaks from batteries is a corrosive material that is highly toxic.

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  • If the potassium hydroxide makes contact with your skin, flush the area well with water.

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  • As you learn and discover more about soap making, you will find out about glycerin, castor oil, sodium hydroxide, borax, hot process soap making and many more terms and techniques.

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  • Lye is another word for sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.

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  • Lye is a corrosive alkaline substance also known as "sodium hydroxide" or "caustic soda."

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  • It is important to choose a shaving cream/gel without alcohol, menthol, mint, camphor, or high levels of potassium or sodium hydroxide.

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  • These other ingredients include sodium hydroxide and vegetable oils.

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  • Sold under the name "Milk of Magnesia," magnesium hydroxide works as a drying facial mask that eradicates acne.

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  • To use magnesium hydroxide on your acne, dampen your skin with a warm cloth.

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  • Dip your washcloth in the cup, then apply the magnesium hydroxide to your face in a thin layer.

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  • Iridium tetrachloride, IrC1 41 is obtained by dissolving the finely divided metal in aqua regia; by dissolving the hydroxide in hydrochloric acid; and by digesting the hydrated sesquichloride with nitric acid.

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  • This hydroxide is soluble in well cooled acids, forming solutions which contain cobaltic salts, one of the most stable of which is the acetate.

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  • The cobaltous salts are formed when the metal, cobaltous oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, are dissolved in acids, or, in the case of the insoluble salts, by precipitation.

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  • It dissolves easily in water, forming the hydrated chloride, CoC12.6H20, which may also be prepared by dissolving the hydroxide or carbonate in hydrochloric acid.

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  • Cadmium hydroxide, Cd(OH) 2, is obtained as a white precipitate by adding potassium hydroxide to a solution of any soluble cadmium salt.

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  • It is decomposed by heat into the oxide and water, and is soluble in ammonia but not in excess of dilute potassium hydroxide; this latter property serves to distinguish it from zinc hydroxide.

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  • Molybdenum sesquioxide, Mo 2 O 3, a black mass insoluble in acids, is formed by heating the corresponding hydroxide in vacuo, or by digesting the trioxide with zinc and hydrochloric acid.

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  • It is a yellow amorphous powder which is soluble in dilute alkalis, the solution on acidification giving an hydroxide, C1 4 Mo 3 (OH) 2, which is soluble in nitric acid, and does not give a reaction with silver nitrate.

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  • The solution obtained may be evaporated in vacuo until it attains a density of 1.46 when, if partially saturated with potassium hydroxide and filtered, it yields crystals of potassium pentathionate, K 2 S 5 0 6.3H 2 0.

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  • The next group precipitate may contain the white gelatinous aluminium hydroxide, the greenish chromium hydroxide, reddish ferric hydroxide, and possibly zinc and manganese hydroxides.

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  • Treatment with casutic soda dissolves out aluminium hydroxide, which is reprecipitated by the addition of ammonium chloride.

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  • By electrolysis it yields uranium dioxide as a pyrophoric powder, and peruranic hydroxide, U04.2H20, when treated with hydrogen peroxide.

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  • The action is very rapid, and the product, which rises to the top of the acids, is separated and washed successively with cold and then tepid water, and finally with water made slightly alkaline with sodium carbonate or hydroxide, to remove all adhering or dissolved acids which would otherwise render the product very unstable.

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  • With potassium hydroxide it yields potassium silicofluoride,.

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  • By warming its aqueous solution with an excess of silver oxide it is converted into tetramethylammonium hydroxide, N(CH3)40H, which crystallizes in hygroscopic needles, and has a very alkaline reaction.

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  • The chlorine reacts with the caustic soda, forming sodium hypochlorite, and this in turn, with an excess of chlorine and at higher temperatures, becomes for the most part converted into chlorate, whilst any simultaneous electrolysis of a hydroxide or water and a chloride (so that hydroxyl and chlorine are simultaneously liberated at the anode) also produces oxygen-chlorine compounds direct.

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  • Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.

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  • Aqueous alcohol becomes turbid when mixed with benzene, carbon disulphide or paraffin oil; when added to a solution of barium oxide in absolute alcohol, a white precipitate of barium hydroxide is formed.

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  • The bismuth hydroxide so obtained is finally reduced by hydrogen.

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  • Caesium hydroxide, Cs(OH) 2, obtained by the decomposition of the sulphate with baryta water,is a greyish-white deliquescent solid,which melts at a red heat and absorbs carbon dioxide rapidly.

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  • CsCl, is obtained by the direct action of chlorine on caesium, or by solution of the hydroxide in hydrochloric acid.

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  • Caesium sulphate, Cs 2 SO 4, may be prepared by dissolving the hydroxide or carbonate in sulphuric acid.

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  • Zirconium hydroxide, Zr(OH) 4, as thus obtained, is quite appreciably soluble in water and easily in mineral acids, with formation of zirconium salts, e.g.

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  • But, if the hydroxide is precipitated in the heat, it demands concentrated acids for its solution.

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  • The hydroxide readily loses its water at a dull red heat and passes into anhydride with vivid incandescence.

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  • It fumes in air; with water it gives ZrOI 2.8H 2 0; and with alcohol ethyl iodide and zirconium hydroxide are formed.

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  • The sulphate, Zr(S04)2, is a white mass obtained by dissolving the oxide or hydroxide in sulphuric acid, evaporating and heating the mass to nearly a red heat.

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  • A basic nitrate, Ca(NO 3)2 Ca(OH) 2.3H 2 0, is obtained by dissolving calcium hydroxide in a solution of the normal nitrate.

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  • The aqueous solution of ammonia is very basic in its reactions, and since it is a weak electrolyte, one must assume the solution to contain a certain amount of ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH, although it is probably chiefly composed of a solution of ammonia in water.

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  • The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.

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  • Exposed to moist air it rapidly oxidizes to the hydroxide; and it burns on heating in air with a yellow flame, yielding the monoxide and dioxide.

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  • Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of aluminium borides with more or less carbon.

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  • Ammonium hydroxide has no appreciable action at ordinary temperatures, but strong solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxides start a decomposition, with rise of temperature, in which some nitrate and always some nitrite is produced.

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  • The acid carbonates of the alkali metals can be prepared by saturating an aqueous solution of the alkaline hydroxide with carbon dioxide, M OH+ C02= Mhco 3, and from these acid salts the normal salts may be obtained by gentle heating, carbon dioxide and water being produced at the same time, 2Mhco 3 = M2C03+H02+C02.

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  • This substance absorbs and combines with water very greedily, at the same time becoming very hot, and falling into a fine dry powder,' calcium hydroxide or slaked lime, which when left in the open slowly combines with the carbon dioxide of the air and becomes calcium carbonate, from which we began.

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  • Boiling water attacks it appreciably, but slightly, with evolution of hydrogen and formation of the hydroxide, Zn(OH) 2.

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  • Zinc hydroxide, Zn (OH) 2, is prepared as a gelatinous precipitate by adding a solution of any zinc salt to caustic potash.

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