How to use Hydrometer in a sentence
In Beck's hydrometer the zero of the scale corresponds to density 1 000 and the division 30 to density.
If you have a battery hydrometer, the reading should be between 1.28 and 1.30.
The more reliable narrow spectrum hydrometer gave a reading of 1.026 which actually would mean a saline figure of 35.
The use of Sikes's hydrometer necessitates the employment of a considerable quantity of spirit.
The specific gravity of each batch in the stock solution should be checked at least weekly by designated staff with a calibrated hydrometer.Advertisement
I believe you have to go back to using a conventional floating hydrometer.
Clarke's hydrometer, as afterwards constructed for the purposes of the excise, was provided with thirty-two weights to adapt it to spirits of different specific gravities, and eleven smaller weights, or "weather weights" as they were called, which were attached to the instrument in order to correct for variations of temperature.
Other bits and bobs A hydrometer is a good piece of kit to have to measure the specific gravity of the biodiesel.
Then, once you have ensured that the battery exhaust tube is open and serviceable, firmly replace the battery caps and test the battery with either a hydrometer or voltmeter.
The great news is that the equipment can be reused, including a fermenter, hydrometer, sulfite, siphoning system, carboy and airlock stopper.Advertisement
Hydrometer - This device measures the density of the wine.
The quantity of alcohol present in an aqueous solution is determined by a comparison of its specific gravity with standard tables, or directly by the use of an alcoholometer, which is a hydrometer graduated so as to read per cents by weight (degrees according to Richter) or volume per cents (degrees according to Tralles).
Acting on a principle quite different from any previously discussed is the capillary hydrometer or staktometer of Brewster, which is based upon the difference in the surface tension and density of pure water, and of mixtures of alcohol and water in varying proportions.
The capillary hydrometer consists simply of a small pipette with a bulb in the middle of the stem, the pipette terminating in a very fine capillary point.
In the laboratory the specific gravity is determined in a pyknometer by actual weighing, and on board ship by the use of an areometer or hydrometer.Advertisement
The quantity of mercury or shot inserted depends upon the density of the liquids for which the hydrometer is to be employed, it being essential that the whole of the bulb should be immersed in the heaviest liquid for which the instrument is used, while the length and diameter of the stem must be such that the hydrometer will float in the lightest liquid for which it is required.
The plan commonly adopted to obviate the necessity of inconveniently long stems is to construct a number of hydrometers as nearly alike as may be, but to load them differently, so that the scaledivisions at the bottom of the stem of one hydrometer just overlap those at the top of the stem of the preceding.
In comparing the densities of different liquids, it is clear that this instrument is precisely equivalent to that of Fahrenheit, and must be employed in the same manner, weights being placed in the top scale only until the hydrometer sinks to the mark on the wire, when the specific gravity of the liquid will be proportional to the weight of the instrument together with the weights in the scale.
Cartier's hydrometer was very similar to that of Baume, Cartier having been employed by the latter to construct his instruments for the French revenue.
Quin's universal hydrometer is described in the Transactions of the Society of Arts, viii.Advertisement
Sikes's hydrometer, on account of its similarity to that of Bories, appears to have been borrowed from that instrument.
Table showing the Densities corresponding to the Indications of Sikes's Hydrometer.
Keene, of the Hydrometer Office, London, has constructed an instrument after the model of Sikes's, but provided with twelve weights of different masses but equal volumes, and the instrument is never used without having one of these attached.
Twaddell's hydrometer is adapted for densities greater than that of water.
It resembles Sikes's hydrometer in other respects, but is provided with eight weights.Advertisement
The salinometer is a hydrometer originally intended to indicate the strength of the brine in marine boilers in which sea-water is employed.
The peculiarity of the instrument consists in the stream of water, as it enters the hydrometer chamber, being made to impinge against a disk of metal, by which it is broken into drops, thus liberating the steam, which would otherwise disturb the instrument.
In addition, it is quite common for them to use a hydrometer to randomly test spirits to determine their alcohol by volume.
Clarke's hydrometer, however, remained the standard instrument for excise purposes from 1787 until it was displaced by that of Sikes.
The above example illustrates how Nicholson's or Fahrenheit's hydrometer may be employed as a weighing machine for small weights.
This error diminishes as the diameter of the stem is reduced, but is sensible in the case of the thinnest stem which can be employed, and is the chief source of error in the employment of Nicholson's hydrometer, which otherwise would be an instrument of extreme delicacy and precision.
It is possible by applying a little oil to the upper part of the bulb of a common or of a Sikes's hydrometer, and carefully placing it in pure water, to cause it to float with the upper part of the bulb and the whole of the stem emerging as indicated in fig.
Charles's balance areometer is similar to Nicholson's hydrometer, except that the lower basin admits of inversion, thus enabling the instrument to be employed for solids lighter than water, the inverted basin serving the same purpose as the pointed screw in Atkins's modification of the instrument.
The first of these was found by immersing the hydrometer in pure water, and marking the stem at the level of the surface.
The instrument thus adapted to the determination of densities exceeding that of water was called the hydrometer for salts.
The hydrometer intended for densities less than that of water, or the hydrometer for spirits, is constructed on a similar principle.
If the mercury in the thermometer stand above this zero the spirit must be reckoned weaker than the hydrometer indicates by the number on the thermometer scale level with the top of the mercury, while C f if the thermometer indicate a temperature a? ?!
At the side of each of the four scales on the stem of the hydrometer is en r ' graved a set of small numbers indicating the contraction in volume which would be experienced if the requisite amount of water (or spirit) were added to bring the sample tested to the proof strength The hydrometer constructed by Dicas of Liverpool is provided with a sliding scale which FIG.
Atkins's hydrometer, as originally constructed, is described in Nicholson's Journal, 8vo, 276.
Dr Bones of Montpellier constructed a hydrometer which was based upon the results of his experiments on mixtures of alcohol and water.
The merit of Sikes's system lies not so much in the hydrometer as in the complete system of tables by which the readings of the instrument are at once converted into percentage of proof-spirit.
In the above table for Sikes's hydrometer two densities are given corresponding to each of the degrees 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, indicating that the successive weights belonging to the particular instrument for which the table has been calculated do not quite agree.
A table which indicates the weight per gallon of spirituous liquors for every degree of Sikes's hydrometer is printed in 23 and 24 Vict.
Sikes's hydrometer was established for the purpose of collecting the revenue of the United Kingdom by Act of Parliament, 56 Geo.
When loaded with either of the lightest two weights the instrument is specifically lighter than Sikes's hydrometer when unloaded, and it may thus be used for specific gravities as low as that of absolute alcohol.
This seems to be the first reference to the hydrometer in modern times.
This difficulty may be met, as in Keene's hydrometer, by having all the weights of precisely the same volume but of different masses, and never using the instrument except with one of these weights attached.
The upper part of this wire is filed flat on one side, for the stem of the hydrometer, with a mark at m, to which it sinks exactly in proof spirits.
Adie's sliding hydrometer is of the ordinary form, but can be adjusted for liquids of widely differing specific gravities by drawing out a sliding tube, thus changing the volume of the hydrometer while its weight remains constant.
Baume, which has been extensively used in France, consists of a common hydrometer graduated in the following manner.
The length of 100 divisions of the scale, or the length of the uniform stem the volume of which would be equal to that of the hydrometer up to the zero graduation, Francceur called the "modulus" of the hydrometer.