Hydrolysis sentence example

hydrolysis
  • Some appear to be glucosides of gallic acid, since they yield this acid and a sugar on hydrolysis, e.g.
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  • Hydrolysis gives acetic acid and benzaconine, the chief constituent of the alkaloids picraconitine and napelline; further hydrolysis gives aconine.
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  • Pseudaconitine, obtained from Aconitum ferox, gives on hydrolysis acetic acid and veratrylpseudaconine, the latter of which suffers further hydrolysis to veratric acid and pseudaconine.
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  • - The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give monocarboxylic acids, which yield lactones; these compounds when reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar containing one more carbon atom.
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  • It occurs naturally in the form of the glucoside amygdalin (C20H27N011), which is present in bitter almonds, cherries, peaches and the leaves of the cherry laurel; and is obtained from this substance by hydrolysis with dilute acids: C20H27N011+2H20 =HCN+2C6H,206+C6H5CHO.
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  • Saccharomyces Marxianus will not hydrolyse maltose, but it does attack cane sugar and ferment the products of hydrolysis.
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  • Dibromcotinine on hydrolysis yields oxalic acid, methylamine and 0-methyl pyridyl ketone: C10H10Br2N20+3H20+0= H2C204-ECH 3 NH 2 +C 5 H 4 N 000H 3 +2HBr; whilst dibromticonine yields methylamine, malonic acid and nicotinic acid: C10H8Br2N202+ 4H20=CH 3 NH 2 +CH 2 (CO 2 H) 2 +C 5 H 4 N CO 2 H+2HBr, or if heated with zinc and caustic potash, methylamine and pyridyl-ay-dioxybutyric acid.
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  • The acetone dicarboxylic acid, CO(CH 2 CO 2 H) 2, so obtained combines with hydrocyanic acid, and this product yields citric acid on hydrolysis.
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  • Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.
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  • The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.
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  • The first term includes simple sugars containing two to nine atoms of carbon, which are known severally as bioses, trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, &c.; whilst those of the second group have the formula C12H22011 and are characterized by yielding two monosaccharose molecules on hydrolysis.
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  • Hofmann, Ber., 1885, 18, P. 2 734; 1886, 19, p. 1822); CH3CONH2-CH3CONHBr - >CH3CONKBr - > CH 3 NC0 - > CH3NH2; and by the hydrolysis of substituted urethanes (Th.
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  • The latter is now either converted by hydrolysis into sulphuric acid and nitrogen oxides: 2SO 5 NH + H 2 O = 2H 2 SO 4 + NO + N02, the latter acting as before: or it reacts with more S02, forming again sulphonitronic acid: 2SO 5 NH + SO 2 + 2H 2 O = H 2 SO 4 + 2SO 5 NH 2.
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  • When sodio-malonic ester is condensed with trimethylene bromide the chief product is ethyl pentane tetracarboxylate, tetramethylene dicarboxylic ester being also formed, and from this the free acid may be obtained on hydrolysis.
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  • Methyl-I-cyclo-hexanone-3, CH 3 C 5 H 9 0, is prepared by the hydrolysis of pulegone.
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  • 4 is obtained by the hydrolysis of succino-succinic ester.
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  • Buchner (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2242) they may be represented as follows: The a-acid (a-isophenylacetic acid) is obtained by the hydrolysis of pseudophenylacetamide, formed by condensing diazoacetic ester with benzene, the resulting pseudophenyl acetic ester being then left in contact with strong ammonia for a long time.
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  • Hydrolysis by means of acids or alkalis converts the asparagines into aspartic acid; whilst on heating with water in a sealed tube they are converted into ammonium aspartate.
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  • The changes conditioning rancidity, although not yet fully understood in all details, must be ascribed in the first instance to slow hydrolysis ("saponification") of the oils and fats by the moisture of the air, especially if favoured by insolation, when water is taken up by the oils and fats, and free fatty acids are formed.
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  • If the action of air and moisture is allowed free play, the hydrolysis of the oils and fats may become so complete that only the insoluble fatty acids remain behind, the glycerin being washed away.
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  • This compound is then decomposed by ammonia, dinitrophenylhydrazoate being formed, which on hydrolysis with alcoholic potash gives potassium hydrazoate (azide) and dinitrophenol.
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  • Usually the pH is made more alkaline by hydrolysis of urea (NH 2 CONH 2) in boiling aqueous solution.
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  • Catalytic Type The catalytic type of a peptidase relates to the chemical groups responsible for its catalysis of peptide bond hydrolysis.
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  • Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP + P i converts the protein to the inactive conformation.
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  • The anhydrides 1b - 1d are much more efficient inhibitors of GGPTase-I than are the corresponding succinic acids (obtained by hydrolysis ).
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  • Some enzymatic hydrolysis of the drug may occur in the gastrointestinal tract prior to its absorption.
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  • The original RNA strand is then removed by alkaline hydrolysis.
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  • In this article, we describe an approach to generating peptide maps by limited acid hydrolysis.
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  • To this end, the polysaccharide preparations have been subjected to enzymic hydrolysis and methylation analysis.
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  • Enzymic phosphoryl transfer and amide hydrolysis have been successfully modeled.
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  • The plant is designed for a two-step dilute acid hydrolysis process and a combination with enzyme hydrolysis.
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  • The two main reasons for iron gall ink corrosion have been identified to be acid hydrolysis and oxidation, catalyzed by ferrous ions.
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  • Hydrolysis of the ester linkage yields the second peptide product.
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  • This involves hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate of the ATP.
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  • On heating with water it undergoes hydrolysis into urea and allanturic acid C 3 H 4 O 3 N 2.
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  • Acetyl and benzoyl derivatives of nicotine on hydrolysis do not yield nicotine, but an isomeric, inactive oily liquid (metanicotine).
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  • Hantzsch, Ann., 1896, 2 9 2, p. 3 1 7); by the action of hydroxylamine sulphate on alkaline nitrites in the presence of lime or calcium carbonate, the mixture being rapidly heated to 60° C.; or by the hydrolysis of dimethyl nitroso-oxyurea, (CH 3) 2 N CO N(NO) OH (A.
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  • The aldehydes may be prepared by the careful oxidation of primary alcohols with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid,-3R�CH OH+K Cr 07+4H SO = K2S04+ Cr (SO) +7H O+3R�CHO; by distilling the calcium salts of the fatty acids with calcium formate; and by hydrolysis of the acetals.
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  • These esters on hydrolysis yield the free acids, which readily decompose, with loss of carbon dioxide and formation of an aldehyde, R /Crri /Crri Oc< +�Cl � CH � [[Cooc H - O I ?Ch Cooc H 0c Ch�Cooh - Co +Chrr I Cho]].
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  • The solvating waters actively participate in the hydrolysis mechanism.
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  • Bamboo fibers created by hydrolysis alkalization using multi-phase bleaching are not environmentally friendly.
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  • Soap when dissolved in a large amount of water suffers hydrolysis, with formation of a precipitate of acid salt and a solution containing free alkali.
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  • Hydrolysis with baryta water gives acetic and salicylic acids.
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  • It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.
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  • The aldehydes may be prepared by the careful oxidation of primary alcohols with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid,-3R�CH OH+K Cr 07+4H SO = K2S04+ Cr (SO) +7H O+3R�CHO; by distilling the calcium salts of the fatty acids with calcium formate; and by hydrolysis of the acetals.
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  • These esters on hydrolysis yield the free acids, which readily decompose, with loss of carbon dioxide and formation of an aldehyde, R /Crri /Crri Oc< +�Cl � CH � [[Cooc H - O I ?Ch Cooc H 0c Ch�Cooh - Co +Chrr I Cho]].
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  • Gay-Lussac. It is present in varying amounts in certain plants, being a product of the hydrolysis of the cyanogenetic glucosides, e.g.
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  • Meta-oxyazobenzene, C 6 H 5 N: N(1)C 6 H 4 OH(3), was obtained in 1903 by P. Jacobson (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 4 0 93) by condensing ortho-anisidine with diazo benzene, the resulting compound being then diazotized and reduced by alcohol to benzene-azometa-anisole, from which meta-oxyazobenzene was obtained by hydrolysis with aluminium chloride.
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  • Heated with sulphur it forms benzoic acid and stilbene: 2C 7 H 6 0+S = C6HS000H+C6H5CHS, 2C 6 H 5 CHS =2S +C14H12 Its addition compound with hydrocyanic acid gives mandelic acid C 6 H 5 CH(OH) COOH on hydrolysis; when heated with sodium succinate and acetic anhydride, phenyl-iso-crotonic acid C 6 H 5 CH: CH CH 2 000H is produced, which on boiling is converted into a-naphthol C 10 H 7 0H.
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  • Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.
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  • Hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid or baryta water gives tropic acid and tropine; on the other hand, by boiling equimolecular quantities of these substances with dilute hydrochloric acid, atropine is reformed.
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  • Alkyl ureas are formed by the action of primary or secondary amines on isocyanic acid or its esters: [[Conh+Nh2r= R Nhc0nh]] 2 i [[Conr+Nhr 2 =Nr 2 Co Nhr]]; by the action of carbonyl chloride on amines: COC12+2NHR2=C0(NR2)2+2HC1; and in the hydrolysis of many ureides.
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  • This amidoguanidine decomposes on hydrolysis with the formation of semicarbazide, NH 2 CO NH NH 21 which, in its turn, breaks down into carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrazine.
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  • This change of the calcium sulphide may be brought about either by the oxidizing action of the air or by " hydrolysis," produced by prolonged contact with hot water, the use of which, on the other hand, cannot be avoided in order to extract the sodium carbonate itself.
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  • It has the formula C 10 H 12 0 4, and on hydrolysis is converted into cantharinic acid, C10H1405.
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  • Ethylidene succinic acid or isosuccinic acid, CH3 CH(C02H)2, is produced by the hydrolysis of a-cyanpropionic acid and by the action of methyl iodide on sodio-malonic ester.
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  • These alkyl substitution products are important, for they lead to the synthesis of many organic compounds, on account of the fact that they can be hydrolysed in two different ways, barium hydroxide or dilute sodium hydroxide solution giving the socalled ketone hydrolysis, whilst concentrated sodium hydroxide gives the acid hydrolysis.
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  • Hydrolysis by alkaline solutions gives a sugar and caffeic acid; whilst fusion with potassium hydroxide gives protocatechuic acid.
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  • The boric acid being scarcely ionized gives only a very small quantity of hydrogen ions, whilst the base (sodium hydroxide) produced by the hydrolysis occasioned by the dilution of the solution, being a "strong base," is highly ionized and gives a comparatively large amount of hydroxyl ions.
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  • In effect the urea first becomes carbonate of ammonia by a simple hydrolysis brought about by bacteria, more and more definitely known since Pasteur, van Tieghem and Cohn first described them.
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  • Lea and Miguel further proved that the hydrolysis is due to an enzyme - urase - separable with difficulty from the bacteria concerned.
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  • Roser (Ann., 1888, 249, p. 156; 1889, 2 54, p. 334.) By hydrolysis it yields opianic acid, C10H1005, and hydrocotarnine, C 12 1-1 15 NO 3; reduction gives meconine, C10H1004, and hydrocotarnine; whilst oxidation gives opianic acid and cotarnine, C12H15N04.
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  • As to the detergent action of a soap, Berzelius held that it was due to the free alkali liberated with water; but it is difficult to see why a solution which has just thrown off most of its fatty acids should be disposed to take up even a glyceride, and, moreover, on this theory, weak cold solutions, in which the hydrolysis is considerable, should be the best cleansers, whilst experience points to the use of hot concentrated solutions.
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  • In addition trisaccharoses are known of the formula C13H32016; these on hydrolysis yield one molecule of a monosaccharose and one of a disaccharose, or three of a monosaccharose.
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  • Alcohol is produced by fermentation from vegetable substances containing starch or sugar, from fermentable sugars produced by the hydrolysis of cellulosic bodies, and synthetically from calcium carbide and from the ethylene contained in coal and coke-oven gases.
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