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hydrolysis

hydrolysis

hydrolysis Sentence Examples

  • Fischer among the products of hydrolysis of proteids.

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  • It may be artificially prepared by the hydrolysis of isopropylcyanide with alkalies, by the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid (I.

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  • Some appear to be glucosides of gallic acid, since they yield this acid and a sugar on hydrolysis, e.g.

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  • Some appear to be glucosides of gallic acid, since they yield this acid and a sugar on hydrolysis, e.g.

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  • Beckmann, Ber., 1886, 1 9, p. 9 8 9; 188 7, 20, p. 2580), yielding as final products an acid-amide or anilide, thus: RC(:N OH)R'-RC(OH) :NR' ---> As regards the constitution of the oximes, two possibilities exist, namely >C: NOH, or > C' ?, and the first of these is presumably correct, since on alkylation and subsequent hydrolysis an alkyl hydroxylamine of the type NH 2 OR is obtained, and consequently it is to be presumed that in the alkylated oxime, the alkyl group is attached to oxygen, and the oxime itself therefore contains the hydroxyl group. It is to be noted that the oximes of aromatic aldehydes and of unsymmetrical aromatic ketones frequently exist in isomeric forms. This isomerism is explained by the HantzschWerner hypothesis (Ber., 1890, 23, p. II) in which the assumption is made that the three valencies of the nitrogen atom do not lie in the same plane.

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  • Hydrolysis gives acetic acid and benzaconine, the chief constituent of the alkaloids picraconitine and napelline; further hydrolysis gives aconine.

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  • Pseudaconitine, obtained from Aconitum ferox, gives on hydrolysis acetic acid and veratrylpseudaconine, the latter of which suffers further hydrolysis to veratric acid and pseudaconine.

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  • - The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give monocarboxylic acids, which yield lactones; these compounds when reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar containing one more carbon atom.

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  • It occurs naturally in the form of the glucoside amygdalin (C20H27N011), which is present in bitter almonds, cherries, peaches and the leaves of the cherry laurel; and is obtained from this substance by hydrolysis with dilute acids: C20H27N011+2H20 =HCN+2C6H,206+C6H5CHO.

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  • Weith, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1513), and by the spontaneous hydrolysis of an aqueous solution of cyanogen gas.

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  • Hydrolysis with baryta water gives acetic and salicylic acids.

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  • Hydrolysis with baryta water gives acetic and salicylic acids.

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  • Nef to be divalent, since these substances readily form addition compounds, such addition taking place on the carbon atom, as is shown by the products of hydrolysis; for example with ethyl carbylamine: C 2 H 5 NC -FCH 3 C0C1--> C 2 H 5 NC(00CH 3)CI -->HCI -{- C2H5NH3 -fCH3CO C02H.

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  • Acetonyl acetone, CH 3 CO CH 2 CH 2 CO -CH a liquid boiling at 194° C., may be obtained by condensing sodium aceto-acetate with mono-chloracetone (C. Paal, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 59), CH3000H2C1+Na CH [[Coch3(Coor) ->Ch3co Ch2 Ch 000h,(Coor) -Ch3co]] CH2 CH2 000H3; or by the hydrolysis of diaceto-succinic ester, prepared by the action of iodine on sodium aceto-acetate (L.

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  • Hofmann, Ber., 188 2, 1 5, p. 977), by the partial hydrolysis of the nitriles, by the action of ammonia or ammonium carbonate on acid chlorides or anhydrides, or by heating the.

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  • They combine with hydrocyanic acid to form nitriles, which on hydrolysis furnish hydroxyacids, (CH3)2C0 -> (CH 3) 2 C OH CN - (CH3)2 C OH C02H; with phenylhydrazine they yield hydrazones; with hydrazine they yield in addition ketazines RR' C:N N:C RR' (T.

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  • Lea and Miguel further proved that the hydrolysis is due to an enzyme - urase - separable with difficulty from the bacteria concerned.

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  • Roser (Ann., 1888, 249, p. 156; 1889, 2 54, p. 334.) By hydrolysis it yields opianic acid, C10H1005, and hydrocotarnine, C 12 1-1 15 NO 3; reduction gives meconine, C10H1004, and hydrocotarnine; whilst oxidation gives opianic acid and cotarnine, C12H15N04.

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  • Lea and Miguel further proved that the hydrolysis is due to an enzyme - urase - separable with difficulty from the bacteria concerned.

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  • It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.

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  • The aldehydes may be prepared by the careful oxidation of primary alcohols with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid,-3R�CH OH+K Cr 07+4H SO = K2S04+ Cr (SO) +7H O+3R�CHO; by distilling the calcium salts of the fatty acids with calcium formate; and by hydrolysis of the acetals.

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  • Ketone hydrolysis,- CH3�CO�C(XY)�C02C2H5-jCH3�CO�CH(XY)+C2HSOH+C02; Acid hydrolysis:- CH 3 �CO�C(XY) C02C2H5--)CH3.

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  • HYDROLYSIS (Gr.

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  • Soap when dissolved in a large amount of water suffers hydrolysis, with formation of a precipitate of acid salt and a solution containing free alkali.

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  • These esters on hydrolysis yield the free acids, which readily decompose, with loss of carbon dioxide and formation of an aldehyde, R /Crri /Crri Oc< +�Cl � CH � [[Cooc H - O I ?Ch Cooc H 0c Ch�Cooh - Co +Chrr I Cho]].

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  • Bladin HC -N (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 183) by the action of acetic)NH anhydride on dicyanophenylhydrazine (formed N: CH from cyanogen and phenylhydrazine), the resulting acetyl derivative losing water and yielding phenylmethylcyanotriazole, which, on hydrolysis, gives the free acid.

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  • Gay-Lussac. It is present in varying amounts in certain plants, being a product of the hydrolysis of the cyanogenetic glucosides, e.g.

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  • Hydrolysis of hydrocyanic acid by means of hydrochloric acid yields formic acid.

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  • Meta-oxyazobenzene, C 6 H 5 N: N(1)C 6 H 4 OH(3), was obtained in 1903 by P. Jacobson (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 4 0 93) by condensing ortho-anisidine with diazo benzene, the resulting compound being then diazotized and reduced by alcohol to benzene-azometa-anisole, from which meta-oxyazobenzene was obtained by hydrolysis with aluminium chloride.

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  • Heated with sulphur it forms benzoic acid and stilbene: 2C 7 H 6 0+S = C6HS000H+C6H5CHS, 2C 6 H 5 CHS =2S +C14H12 Its addition compound with hydrocyanic acid gives mandelic acid C 6 H 5 CH(OH) COOH on hydrolysis; when heated with sodium succinate and acetic anhydride, phenyl-iso-crotonic acid C 6 H 5 CH: CH CH 2 000H is produced, which on boiling is converted into a-naphthol C 10 H 7 0H.

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  • Saccharomyces Marxianus will not hydrolyse maltose, but it does attack cane sugar and ferment the products of hydrolysis.

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  • Dibromcotinine on hydrolysis yields oxalic acid, methylamine and 0-methyl pyridyl ketone: C10H10Br2N20+3H20+0= H2C204-ECH 3 NH 2 +C 5 H 4 N 000H 3 +2HBr; whilst dibromticonine yields methylamine, malonic acid and nicotinic acid: C10H8Br2N202+ 4H20=CH 3 NH 2 +CH 2 (CO 2 H) 2 +C 5 H 4 N CO 2 H+2HBr, or if heated with zinc and caustic potash, methylamine and pyridyl-ay-dioxybutyric acid.

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  • The acetone dicarboxylic acid, CO(CH 2 CO 2 H) 2, so obtained combines with hydrocyanic acid, and this product yields citric acid on hydrolysis.

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  • Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.

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  • The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.

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  • The first term includes simple sugars containing two to nine atoms of carbon, which are known severally as bioses, trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, &c.; whilst those of the second group have the formula C12H22011 and are characterized by yielding two monosaccharose molecules on hydrolysis.

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  • Hofmann, Ber., 1885, 18, P. 2 734; 1886, 19, p. 1822); CH3CONH2-CH3CONHBr - >CH3CONKBr - > CH 3 NC0 - > CH3NH2; and by the hydrolysis of substituted urethanes (Th.

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  • Wolffenstein, 1899, p. 2 534); by the hydrolysis of succinonitrile (from ethylene dibromide) C 2 H 4 - >C 2 H 4 Br 2 --*C 2 H 4 (CN) 2 - >C 2 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2; by the hydrolysis of 0-cyanpropionic ester; and by the condensation of sodioinalonic ester with monochloracetic ester and hydrolysis of the resulting ethane tricarboxylic ester (R02C)2CH CH2 C02R; this method is applicable to the preparation of substituted succinic acids.

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  • The latter is now either converted by hydrolysis into sulphuric acid and nitrogen oxides: 2SO 5 NH + H 2 O = 2H 2 SO 4 + NO + N02, the latter acting as before: or it reacts with more S02, forming again sulphonitronic acid: 2SO 5 NH + SO 2 + 2H 2 O = H 2 SO 4 + 2SO 5 NH 2.

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  • Cyclo-propane carboxylic acid, C 3 H 5 CO 2 H, is prepared by heating the 1.1- dicarboxylic acid; and by the hydrolysis of its nitrile, formed by heating y-chlorbutyro-nitrile with potash (L.

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  • When sodio-malonic ester is condensed with trimethylene bromide the chief product is ethyl pentane tetracarboxylate, tetramethylene dicarboxylic ester being also formed, and from this the free acid may be obtained on hydrolysis.

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  • Wislicenus, Ann., 18 93, 2 75, p. 312), is also obtained by the action of sodium on the esters of pimelic acid; by the distillation of calcium succinate; and by hydrolysis of the cyclopentanone carboxylic acid, obtained by condensing adipic and oxalic esters in the presence of sodium ethylate.

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  • Methyl-I-cyclo-hexanone-3, CH 3 C 5 H 9 0, is prepared by the hydrolysis of pulegone.

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  • 4 is obtained by the hydrolysis of succino-succinic ester.

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  • Sodium amalgam (hot) Sodium amalgam ± acetic acid Phthalic Acid Sodium amalgam (cold) Bo with Dihydro o Boil with water water 1'5 Dihydro Sodium amalgam Boil + NaOH Tetrahydro Dibromide -{- Reduce alcoholic potash D1HYDRO TEREPhthalic Acid Tropilene, C 7 H 10 0, is obtained in small quantities by the distillation of methyltropine methyl hydroxide, and by the hydrolysis of 13methyltropidine with dilute hydrochloric acid.

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  • Buchner (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2242) they may be represented as follows: The a-acid (a-isophenylacetic acid) is obtained by the hydrolysis of pseudophenylacetamide, formed by condensing diazoacetic ester with benzene, the resulting pseudophenyl acetic ester being then left in contact with strong ammonia for a long time.

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  • Hydrolysis >>

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  • Hydrolysis by means of acids or alkalis converts the asparagines into aspartic acid; whilst on heating with water in a sealed tube they are converted into ammonium aspartate.

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  • The changes conditioning rancidity, although not yet fully understood in all details, must be ascribed in the first instance to slow hydrolysis ("saponification") of the oils and fats by the moisture of the air, especially if favoured by insolation, when water is taken up by the oils and fats, and free fatty acids are formed.

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  • If the action of air and moisture is allowed free play, the hydrolysis of the oils and fats may become so complete that only the insoluble fatty acids remain behind, the glycerin being washed away.

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  • CO 2 H,with sodium amalgam, by conversion of trimethylene bromide into the cyanide and hydrolysis of this compound, or from acetoacetic ester, which, in the form of its sodium derivative, condenses with j3-iodopropionic ester to form acetoglutaric ester, CH 3 CO CH(CO 2 C 2 H 5) CH 2.

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  • CH 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5, from which glutaric acid is obtained by hydrolysis.

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  • This compound is then decomposed by ammonia, dinitrophenylhydrazoate being formed, which on hydrolysis with alcoholic potash gives potassium hydrazoate (azide) and dinitrophenol.

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  • Bibliographic Information The facile hydrolysis of chlorine nitrate in aqueous sulfate aerosols.

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  • alkaline hydrolysis.

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  • Usually the pH is made more alkaline by hydrolysis of urea (NH 2 CONH 2) in boiling aqueous solution.

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  • amide hydrolysis have been successfully modeled.

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  • Catalytic Type The catalytic type of a peptidase relates to the chemical groups responsible for its catalysis of peptide bond hydrolysis.

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  • cleavage of this bond by hydrolysis spontaneous?

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  • Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP + P i converts the protein to the inactive conformation.

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  • ester hydrolysis?

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  • ethylene dichloride and is susceptible to hydrolysis in prolonged contact with hot water.

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  • EC 3. Hydrolases These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of various bonds.

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  • The anhydrides 1b - 1d are much more efficient inhibitors of GGPTase-I than are the corresponding succinic acids (obtained by hydrolysis ).

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  • Some enzymatic hydrolysis of the drug may occur in the gastrointestinal tract prior to its absorption.

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  • The original RNA strand is then removed by alkaline hydrolysis.

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  • Gaultherin, from which methyl salicylate is released on mild hydrolysis, has been reported to occur in the leaves (Towers et al.

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  • In this article, we describe an approach to generating peptide maps by limited acid hydrolysis.

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  • To this end, the polysaccharide preparations have been subjected to enzymic hydrolysis and methylation analysis.

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  • hydrolysis reaction for a polypeptide of n residues is.. .

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  • hydrolysis products) are used in food products.

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  • hydrolysis process breaks apart peptide bonds, which destroys the protein structure.

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  • Prev by Date: Re: [ccp4bb ]: structural basis for amide vs ester hydrolysis?

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  • starch hydrolysis was measured by the change in iodine staining (as determined using a spectrophotometer ).

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  • Enzymic phosphoryl transfer and amide hydrolysis have been successfully modeled.

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  • The plant is designed for a two-step dilute acid hydrolysis process and a combination with enzyme hydrolysis.

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  • hydrolysis of esters is covered in the catalysis section of this site.

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  • hydrolysis of various bonds.

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  • hydrolysis of amides is described on a separate page.

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  • hydrolysis of the protein into amino acids 1. Half fill a test tube with trypsin solution.

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  • hydrolysis of starch by enzymes including salivary and pancreatic.

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  • hydrolysis of a nitrile produces a carboxylic acid ' .

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  • The two main reasons for iron gall ink corrosion have been identified to be acid hydrolysis and oxidation, catalyzed by ferrous ions.

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  • Hydrolysis of the ester linkage yields the second peptide product.

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  • monosaccharide chains in some polysaccharides can be broken down by acid hydrolysis.

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  • This involves hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate of the ATP.

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  • phosphate ester formed in glucose-6-phosphate has a lower D G of hydrolysis.

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  • solvatespan>solvating waters actively participate in the hydrolysis mechanism.

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  • starch hydrolysis was measured by the change in iodine staining (as determined using a spectrophotometer ).

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  • On heating with water it undergoes hydrolysis into urea and allanturic acid C 3 H 4 O 3 N 2.

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  • Saccharomyces Marxianus will not hydrolyse maltose, but it does attack cane sugar and ferment the products of hydrolysis.

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  • It may be prepared by boiling a-dichlorpropionic acid with silver oxide; by the hydrolysis of acetyl cyanide with hydrochloric acid (J.

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  • Hofmann, Ber., 188 2, 1 5, p. 977), by the partial hydrolysis of the nitriles, by the action of ammonia or ammonium carbonate on acid chlorides or anhydrides, or by heating the.

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  • Dibromcotinine on hydrolysis yields oxalic acid, methylamine and 0-methyl pyridyl ketone: C10H10Br2N20+3H20+0= H2C204-ECH 3 NH 2 +C 5 H 4 N 000H 3 +2HBr; whilst dibromticonine yields methylamine, malonic acid and nicotinic acid: C10H8Br2N202+ 4H20=CH 3 NH 2 +CH 2 (CO 2 H) 2 +C 5 H 4 N CO 2 H+2HBr, or if heated with zinc and caustic potash, methylamine and pyridyl-ay-dioxybutyric acid.

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  • Acetyl and benzoyl derivatives of nicotine on hydrolysis do not yield nicotine, but an isomeric, inactive oily liquid (metanicotine).

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  • It may also be obtained by oxidizing allylene and propylene with cold potassium permanganate solution, by the hydrolysis of barbituric acid (malonyl urea) with alkalis (A.

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  • Baeyer, Ann., 1864, 130, p. 143); by the hydrolysis of cyanacetic acid (H.

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  • The acetone dicarboxylic acid, CO(CH 2 CO 2 H) 2, so obtained combines with hydrocyanic acid, and this product yields citric acid on hydrolysis.

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  • Soap when dissolved in a large amount of water suffers hydrolysis, with formation of a precipitate of acid salt and a solution containing free alkali.

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  • As to the detergent action of a soap, Berzelius held that it was due to the free alkali liberated with water; but it is difficult to see why a solution which has just thrown off most of its fatty acids should be disposed to take up even a glyceride, and, moreover, on this theory, weak cold solutions, in which the hydrolysis is considerable, should be the best cleansers, whilst experience points to the use of hot concentrated solutions.

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  • Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.

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  • Fischer among the products of hydrolysis of proteids.

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  • Beckmann, Ber., 1886, 1 9, p. 9 8 9; 188 7, 20, p. 2580), yielding as final products an acid-amide or anilide, thus: RC(:N OH)R'-RC(OH) :NR' ---> As regards the constitution of the oximes, two possibilities exist, namely >C: NOH, or > C' ?, and the first of these is presumably correct, since on alkylation and subsequent hydrolysis an alkyl hydroxylamine of the type NH 2 OR is obtained, and consequently it is to be presumed that in the alkylated oxime, the alkyl group is attached to oxygen, and the oxime itself therefore contains the hydroxyl group. It is to be noted that the oximes of aromatic aldehydes and of unsymmetrical aromatic ketones frequently exist in isomeric forms. This isomerism is explained by the HantzschWerner hypothesis (Ber., 1890, 23, p. II) in which the assumption is made that the three valencies of the nitrogen atom do not lie in the same plane.

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  • It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.

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  • Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.

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  • Hantzsch, Ann., 1896, 2 9 2, p. 3 1 7); by the action of hydroxylamine sulphate on alkaline nitrites in the presence of lime or calcium carbonate, the mixture being rapidly heated to 60° C.; or by the hydrolysis of dimethyl nitroso-oxyurea, (CH 3) 2 N CO N(NO) OH (A.

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  • P. Luff obtained apoaconitine, aconine and benzoic acid by hydrolysis; while, in 1892, C. Ehrenberg and A.

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  • Hydrolysis gives acetic acid and benzaconine, the chief constituent of the alkaloids picraconitine and napelline; further hydrolysis gives aconine.

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  • Pseudaconitine, obtained from Aconitum ferox, gives on hydrolysis acetic acid and veratrylpseudaconine, the latter of which suffers further hydrolysis to veratric acid and pseudaconine.

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  • In 1905, Dunstan and his collaborators discovered two new aconite alkaloids, indaconitine in "mohri" (Aconitum chasmanthum, Stapf), and bikhaconitine in "bikh" (Aconitum spicatum); he also proposes to classify these alkaloids according to whether they yield benzoic or veratric acid on hydrolysis (Jour.

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  • The aldehydes may be prepared by the careful oxidation of primary alcohols with a mixture of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid,-3R�CH OH+K Cr 07+4H SO = K2S04+ Cr (SO) +7H O+3R�CHO; by distilling the calcium salts of the fatty acids with calcium formate; and by hydrolysis of the acetals.

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  • These esters on hydrolysis yield the free acids, which readily decompose, with loss of carbon dioxide and formation of an aldehyde, R /Crri /Crri Oc< +�Cl � CH � [[Cooc H - O I ?Ch Cooc H 0c Ch�Cooh - Co +Chrr I Cho]].

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  • Bladin HC -N (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 183) by the action of acetic)NH anhydride on dicyanophenylhydrazine (formed N: CH from cyanogen and phenylhydrazine), the resulting acetyl derivative losing water and yielding phenylmethylcyanotriazole, which, on hydrolysis, gives the free acid.

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  • The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.

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  • The first term includes simple sugars containing two to nine atoms of carbon, which are known severally as bioses, trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, &c.; whilst those of the second group have the formula C12H22011 and are characterized by yielding two monosaccharose molecules on hydrolysis.

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  • In addition trisaccharoses are known of the formula C13H32016; these on hydrolysis yield one molecule of a monosaccharose and one of a disaccharose, or three of a monosaccharose.

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  • - The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give monocarboxylic acids, which yield lactones; these compounds when reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar containing one more carbon atom.

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  • Goldschmidt, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 3232); by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on the isonitriles, R�NC+2H20=R�NH2-}-H2C02; by heating the mustard oils with a mineral acid, by the hydrolysis of the alkyl phthalimides (S.

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  • Hofmann, Ber., 1885, 18, P. 2 734; 1886, 19, p. 1822); CH3CONH2-CH3CONHBr - >CH3CONKBr - > CH 3 NC0 - > CH3NH2; and by the hydrolysis of substituted urethanes (Th.

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  • CON 3 --> R�NH�CO 2 C 2 H 5 - R.NH2 azide urethane The secondary amines are prepared, together with the primary and tertiary, by the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides (see below), or by the hydrolysis of para-nitroso derivatives ` of tertiary aromatic amines, such as para-nitrosodimethylaniline, thus: NO�C 6 H 4 �N(CH 3) 2 � H 2 O = NO�C 6 H 4.

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  • Weith, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1513), and by the spontaneous hydrolysis of an aqueous solution of cyanogen gas.

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  • HYDROLYSIS (Gr.

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  • sago, soap) has the same meaning, but it is more properly restricted to the hydrolysis of the fats, i.e.

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  • Alcohol is produced by fermentation from vegetable substances containing starch or sugar, from fermentable sugars produced by the hydrolysis of cellulosic bodies, and synthetically from calcium carbide and from the ethylene contained in coal and coke-oven gases.

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  • Gay-Lussac. It is present in varying amounts in certain plants, being a product of the hydrolysis of the cyanogenetic glucosides, e.g.

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  • Nef to be divalent, since these substances readily form addition compounds, such addition taking place on the carbon atom, as is shown by the products of hydrolysis; for example with ethyl carbylamine: C 2 H 5 NC -FCH 3 C0C1--> C 2 H 5 NC(00CH 3)CI -->HCI -{- C2H5NH3 -fCH3CO C02H.

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  • Hydrolysis of hydrocyanic acid by means of hydrochloric acid yields formic acid.

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  • Meta-oxyazobenzene, C 6 H 5 N: N(1)C 6 H 4 OH(3), was obtained in 1903 by P. Jacobson (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 4 0 93) by condensing ortho-anisidine with diazo benzene, the resulting compound being then diazotized and reduced by alcohol to benzene-azometa-anisole, from which meta-oxyazobenzene was obtained by hydrolysis with aluminium chloride.

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  • It occurs naturally in the form of the glucoside amygdalin (C20H27N011), which is present in bitter almonds, cherries, peaches and the leaves of the cherry laurel; and is obtained from this substance by hydrolysis with dilute acids: C20H27N011+2H20 =HCN+2C6H,206+C6H5CHO.

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  • Heated with sulphur it forms benzoic acid and stilbene: 2C 7 H 6 0+S = C6HS000H+C6H5CHS, 2C 6 H 5 CHS =2S +C14H12 Its addition compound with hydrocyanic acid gives mandelic acid C 6 H 5 CH(OH) COOH on hydrolysis; when heated with sodium succinate and acetic anhydride, phenyl-iso-crotonic acid C 6 H 5 CH: CH CH 2 000H is produced, which on boiling is converted into a-naphthol C 10 H 7 0H.

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  • They may also be prepared by the decomposition of ketone chlorides with water; by the oxidation of the tertiary hydroxyacids; by the hydrolysis of the ketonic acids or their esters with dilute alkalis or baryta water (see Aceto-Acetic Ester); by the hydrolysis of alkyl derivatives of acetone dicarboxylic acid, HO 2 C CH 2 CO CHR CO 2 H; and by the action of the Grignard reagent on nitriles (E.

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  • They combine with hydrocyanic acid to form nitriles, which on hydrolysis furnish hydroxyacids, (CH3)2C0 -> (CH 3) 2 C OH CN - (CH3)2 C OH C02H; with phenylhydrazine they yield hydrazones; with hydrazine they yield in addition ketazines RR' C:N N:C RR' (T.

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  • Acetonyl acetone, CH 3 CO CH 2 CH 2 CO -CH a liquid boiling at 194° C., may be obtained by condensing sodium aceto-acetate with mono-chloracetone (C. Paal, Ber., 1885, 18, p. 59), CH3000H2C1+Na CH [[Coch3(Coor) ->Ch3co Ch2 Ch 000h,(Coor) -Ch3co]] CH2 CH2 000H3; or by the hydrolysis of diaceto-succinic ester, prepared by the action of iodine on sodium aceto-acetate (L.

    0
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  • Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.

    0
    0
  • a-Naphthoic acid, C 1 oH 7 CO 2 H, is formed by hydrolysis of the nitrile, obtained by distilling potassiuma-naphthalene sulphonate with potassium cyanide (V.

    0
    0
  • It forms needles which melt at 160° C. (3-Naphthoic acid, obtained b y boiling 0-methylnaphthalene with dilute nitric acid, or by hydrolysis of its nitrile (formed when formyl-0-naphthalide is heated with zinc dust), crystallizes from alcohol in needles which Nitrosonaplithols or naphthoquinone-oxames, C 1 oH 6 (OH)(NO) or melt at 184° C. C 1 oH 6 (: NOH): 0.

    0
    0
  • It may be prepared by the hydrolysis of ethyl acetoacetate, or by passing carbon monoxide over a mixture of sodium acetate and sodium ethylate at 205° C. (A.

    0
    0
  • It may be artificially prepared by the hydrolysis of isopropylcyanide with alkalies, by the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid (I.

    0
    0
  • Hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid or baryta water gives tropic acid and tropine; on the other hand, by boiling equimolecular quantities of these substances with dilute hydrochloric acid, atropine is reformed.

    0
    0
  • MESOXALIC ACID (dioxymalonic acid), (HO 2 C) 2 C(OH) 2 or C3H406, is obtained by hydrolysis of alloxan with baryta water (J.

    0
    0
  • Alkyl ureas are formed by the action of primary or secondary amines on isocyanic acid or its esters: [[Conh+Nh2r= R Nhc0nh]] 2 i [[Conr+Nhr 2 =Nr 2 Co Nhr]]; by the action of carbonyl chloride on amines: COC12+2NHR2=C0(NR2)2+2HC1; and in the hydrolysis of many ureides.

    0
    0
  • Hydrolysis by alkalis decomposes them into carbon dioxide, amines and ammonia.

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    0
  • 1868, 148, p. 51); by hydrolysis of benzonitrile or of hippuric acid; by the action of carbon dioxide on benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.

    0
    0
  • This change of the calcium sulphide may be brought about either by the oxidizing action of the air or by " hydrolysis," produced by prolonged contact with hot water, the use of which, on the other hand, cannot be avoided in order to extract the sodium carbonate itself.

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    0
  • It has the formula C 10 H 12 0 4, and on hydrolysis is converted into cantharinic acid, C10H1405.

    0
    0
  • Wolffenstein, 1899, p. 2 534); by the hydrolysis of succinonitrile (from ethylene dibromide) C 2 H 4 - >C 2 H 4 Br 2 --*C 2 H 4 (CN) 2 - >C 2 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2; by the hydrolysis of 0-cyanpropionic ester; and by the condensation of sodioinalonic ester with monochloracetic ester and hydrolysis of the resulting ethane tricarboxylic ester (R02C)2CH CH2 C02R; this method is applicable to the preparation of substituted succinic acids.

    0
    0
  • CH (CH 3) C02H, is formed by the dry distillation of tartaric acid; by heating pyruvic acid with concentrated hydrochloric acid to 180° C.; by the reduction of citraconic and mesaconic acids with sodium amalgam; and by the hydrolysis of /-cyanbutyric acid.

    0
    0
  • Ethylidene succinic acid or isosuccinic acid, CH3 CH(C02H)2, is produced by the hydrolysis of a-cyanpropionic acid and by the action of methyl iodide on sodio-malonic ester.

    0
    0
  • These alkyl substitution products are important, for they lead to the synthesis of many organic compounds, on account of the fact that they can be hydrolysed in two different ways, barium hydroxide or dilute sodium hydroxide solution giving the socalled ketone hydrolysis, whilst concentrated sodium hydroxide gives the acid hydrolysis.

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  • Ketone hydrolysis,- CH3�CO�C(XY)�C02C2H5-jCH3�CO�CH(XY)+C2HSOH+C02; Acid hydrolysis:- CH 3 �CO�C(XY) C02C2H5--)CH3.

    0
    0
  • Hydrolysis by alkaline solutions gives a sugar and caffeic acid; whilst fusion with potassium hydroxide gives protocatechuic acid.

    0
    0
  • This variety is also formed by the hydrolysis of glyoxal cyanhydrin (F.

    0
    0
  • The boric acid being scarcely ionized gives only a very small quantity of hydrogen ions, whilst the base (sodium hydroxide) produced by the hydrolysis occasioned by the dilution of the solution, being a "strong base," is highly ionized and gives a comparatively large amount of hydroxyl ions.

    0
    0
  • In effect the urea first becomes carbonate of ammonia by a simple hydrolysis brought about by bacteria, more and more definitely known since Pasteur, van Tieghem and Cohn first described them.

    0
    0
  • Roser (Ann., 1888, 249, p. 156; 1889, 2 54, p. 334.) By hydrolysis it yields opianic acid, C10H1005, and hydrocotarnine, C 12 1-1 15 NO 3; reduction gives meconine, C10H1004, and hydrocotarnine; whilst oxidation gives opianic acid and cotarnine, C12H15N04.

    0
    0
  • It is formed in the hydrolysis of piperine by alcoholic potash, by the reduction of trimethylene cyanide (A.

    0
    0
  • The latter is now either converted by hydrolysis into sulphuric acid and nitrogen oxides: 2SO 5 NH + H 2 O = 2H 2 SO 4 + NO + N02, the latter acting as before: or it reacts with more S02, forming again sulphonitronic acid: 2SO 5 NH + SO 2 + 2H 2 O = H 2 SO 4 + 2SO 5 NH 2.

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    0
  • Cyclo-propane carboxylic acid, C 3 H 5 CO 2 H, is prepared by heating the 1.1- dicarboxylic acid; and by the hydrolysis of its nitrile, formed by heating y-chlorbutyro-nitrile with potash (L.

    0
    0
  • When sodio-malonic ester is condensed with trimethylene bromide the chief product is ethyl pentane tetracarboxylate, tetramethylene dicarboxylic ester being also formed, and from this the free acid may be obtained on hydrolysis.

    0
    0
  • Wislicenus, Ann., 18 93, 2 75, p. 312), is also obtained by the action of sodium on the esters of pimelic acid; by the distillation of calcium succinate; and by hydrolysis of the cyclopentanone carboxylic acid, obtained by condensing adipic and oxalic esters in the presence of sodium ethylate.

    0
    0
  • Methyl-I-cyclo-hexanone-3, CH 3 C 5 H 9 0, is prepared by the hydrolysis of pulegone.

    0
    0
  • 4 is obtained by the hydrolysis of succino-succinic ester.

    0
    0
  • Sodium amalgam (hot) Sodium amalgam ± acetic acid Phthalic Acid Sodium amalgam (cold) Bo with Dihydro o Boil with water water 1'5 Dihydro Sodium amalgam Boil + NaOH Tetrahydro Dibromide -{- Reduce alcoholic potash D1HYDRO TEREPhthalic Acid Tropilene, C 7 H 10 0, is obtained in small quantities by the distillation of methyltropine methyl hydroxide, and by the hydrolysis of 13methyltropidine with dilute hydrochloric acid.

    0
    0
  • The corresponding oxyacid is obtained by the hydrolysis of the nitrile, which is formed by the addition of hydrocyanic acid to suberone (A.

    0
    0
  • Buchner (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2242) they may be represented as follows: The a-acid (a-isophenylacetic acid) is obtained by the hydrolysis of pseudophenylacetamide, formed by condensing diazoacetic ester with benzene, the resulting pseudophenyl acetic ester being then left in contact with strong ammonia for a long time.

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    0
  • Hydrolysis by means of acids or alkalis converts the asparagines into aspartic acid; whilst on heating with water in a sealed tube they are converted into ammonium aspartate.

    0
    0
  • The changes conditioning rancidity, although not yet fully understood in all details, must be ascribed in the first instance to slow hydrolysis ("saponification") of the oils and fats by the moisture of the air, especially if favoured by insolation, when water is taken up by the oils and fats, and free fatty acids are formed.

    0
    0
  • If the action of air and moisture is allowed free play, the hydrolysis of the oils and fats may become so complete that only the insoluble fatty acids remain behind, the glycerin being washed away.

    0
    0
  • CO 2 H,with sodium amalgam, by conversion of trimethylene bromide into the cyanide and hydrolysis of this compound, or from acetoacetic ester, which, in the form of its sodium derivative, condenses with j3-iodopropionic ester to form acetoglutaric ester, CH 3 CO CH(CO 2 C 2 H 5) CH 2.

    0
    0
  • CH 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5, from which glutaric acid is obtained by hydrolysis.

    0
    0
  • This compound is then decomposed by ammonia, dinitrophenylhydrazoate being formed, which on hydrolysis with alcoholic potash gives potassium hydrazoate (azide) and dinitrophenol.

    0
    0
  • The solvating waters actively participate in the hydrolysis mechanism.

    0
    0
  • Bamboo fibers created by hydrolysis alkalization using multi-phase bleaching are not environmentally friendly.

    0
    0
  • Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.

    0
    1
  • It forms needles which melt at 160° C. (3-Naphthoic acid, obtained b y boiling 0-methylnaphthalene with dilute nitric acid, or by hydrolysis of its nitrile (formed when formyl-0-naphthalide is heated with zinc dust), crystallizes from alcohol in needles which Nitrosonaplithols or naphthoquinone-oxames, C 1 oH 6 (OH)(NO) or melt at 184° C. C 1 oH 6 (: NOH): 0.

    0
    1
  • Hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid or baryta water gives tropic acid and tropine; on the other hand, by boiling equimolecular quantities of these substances with dilute hydrochloric acid, atropine is reformed.

    0
    1
  • MESOXALIC ACID (dioxymalonic acid), (HO 2 C) 2 C(OH) 2 or C3H406, is obtained by hydrolysis of alloxan with baryta water (J.

    0
    1
  • Alkyl ureas are formed by the action of primary or secondary amines on isocyanic acid or its esters: [[Conh+Nh2r= R Nhc0nh]] 2 i [[Conr+Nhr 2 =Nr 2 Co Nhr]]; by the action of carbonyl chloride on amines: COC12+2NHR2=C0(NR2)2+2HC1; and in the hydrolysis of many ureides.

    0
    1
  • 1868, 148, p. 51); by hydrolysis of benzonitrile or of hippuric acid; by the action of carbon dioxide on benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.

    0
    1
  • This amidoguanidine decomposes on hydrolysis with the formation of semicarbazide, NH 2 CO NH NH 21 which, in its turn, breaks down into carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrazine.

    0
    1
  • This change of the calcium sulphide may be brought about either by the oxidizing action of the air or by " hydrolysis," produced by prolonged contact with hot water, the use of which, on the other hand, cannot be avoided in order to extract the sodium carbonate itself.

    0
    1
  • It has the formula C 10 H 12 0 4, and on hydrolysis is converted into cantharinic acid, C10H1405.

    0
    1
  • CH (CH 3) C02H, is formed by the dry distillation of tartaric acid; by heating pyruvic acid with concentrated hydrochloric acid to 180° C.; by the reduction of citraconic and mesaconic acids with sodium amalgam; and by the hydrolysis of /-cyanbutyric acid.

    0
    1
  • Ethylidene succinic acid or isosuccinic acid, CH3 CH(C02H)2, is produced by the hydrolysis of a-cyanpropionic acid and by the action of methyl iodide on sodio-malonic ester.

    0
    1
  • These alkyl substitution products are important, for they lead to the synthesis of many organic compounds, on account of the fact that they can be hydrolysed in two different ways, barium hydroxide or dilute sodium hydroxide solution giving the socalled ketone hydrolysis, whilst concentrated sodium hydroxide gives the acid hydrolysis.

    0
    1
  • Hydrolysis by alkaline solutions gives a sugar and caffeic acid; whilst fusion with potassium hydroxide gives protocatechuic acid.

    0
    1
  • The boric acid being scarcely ionized gives only a very small quantity of hydrogen ions, whilst the base (sodium hydroxide) produced by the hydrolysis occasioned by the dilution of the solution, being a "strong base," is highly ionized and gives a comparatively large amount of hydroxyl ions.

    0
    1
  • In effect the urea first becomes carbonate of ammonia by a simple hydrolysis brought about by bacteria, more and more definitely known since Pasteur, van Tieghem and Cohn first described them.

    0
    1
  • This amidoguanidine decomposes on hydrolysis with the formation of semicarbazide, NH 2 CO NH NH 21 which, in its turn, breaks down into carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrazine.

    0
    1
  • It may be prepared by boiling a-dichlorpropionic acid with silver oxide; by the hydrolysis of acetyl cyanide with hydrochloric acid (J.

    0
    2
  • As to the detergent action of a soap, Berzelius held that it was due to the free alkali liberated with water; but it is difficult to see why a solution which has just thrown off most of its fatty acids should be disposed to take up even a glyceride, and, moreover, on this theory, weak cold solutions, in which the hydrolysis is considerable, should be the best cleansers, whilst experience points to the use of hot concentrated solutions.

    0
    2
  • Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.

    0
    2
  • In addition trisaccharoses are known of the formula C13H32016; these on hydrolysis yield one molecule of a monosaccharose and one of a disaccharose, or three of a monosaccharose.

    0
    2
  • Goldschmidt, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 3232); by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on the isonitriles, R�NC+2H20=R�NH2-}-H2C02; by heating the mustard oils with a mineral acid, by the hydrolysis of the alkyl phthalimides (S.

    0
    2
  • sago, soap) has the same meaning, but it is more properly restricted to the hydrolysis of the fats, i.e.

    0
    2
  • Alcohol is produced by fermentation from vegetable substances containing starch or sugar, from fermentable sugars produced by the hydrolysis of cellulosic bodies, and synthetically from calcium carbide and from the ethylene contained in coal and coke-oven gases.

    0
    2
  • a-Naphthoic acid, C 1 oH 7 CO 2 H, is formed by hydrolysis of the nitrile, obtained by distilling potassiuma-naphthalene sulphonate with potassium cyanide (V.

    0
    2
  • Hydrolysis by alkalis decomposes them into carbon dioxide, amines and ammonia.

    0
    2
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