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hydrofluoric

hydrofluoric Sentence Examples

  • Cobalt fluoride, CoF 2.2H 2 0, is formed when cobalt carbonate is evaporated with an excess of aqueous hydrofluoric acid, separating in rose-red crystalline crusts.

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  • Electrolysis of a solution in hydrofluoric acid gives cobaltic fluoride, CoF3.

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  • The dark product obtained is washed with water, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and finally calcined again with the oxide or with borax, being protected from air during the operation by a layer of charcoal.

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  • It may be condensed and yields a solid which melts at - 55° C. Sulphuretted hydrogen decomposes it with formation of hydrofluoric acid and liberation of sulphur.

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  • It is decomposed by water into hydrofluoric and sulphurous acids.

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  • Fluorsulphonic acid, SO 2 F OH, is a mobile liquid obtained by the action of an excess of hydrofluoric acid on well-cooled sulphur trioxide.

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  • Balard completed for many years Berzelius's group of " halogen " elements; the remaining member, fluorine, notwithstanding many attempts, remained unisolated until 1886, when Henri Moissan obtained it by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Hydrobromic and hydriodic acids were investigated by Gay Lussac and Balard, while hydrofluoric acid received considerable attention at the hands of Gay Lussac, Thenard and Berzelius.

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  • It is a gas at ordinary temperature; when liquefied it boils at -63.5° C. and on solidification melts at -139° C. Water decomposes it into nitric and hydrofluoric acids.

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  • This salt gives the corresponding chloride and fluoride with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, and the phosphate, Pb(HP04)2, with phosphoric acid.

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  • It is then dissolved in hydrofluoric acid and heated in order to expel silicon fluoride; finally the columbium, tantalum and titanium fluorides are separated by the different solubilities of their double fluorides (C. Marignac, Ann.

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  • Columbium pentafluoride, CbF5, is obtained when the pentoxide is dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The salt separates from solutions containing hydrofluoric acid in large plates, which are greenish yellow in colour.

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  • Stannous Fluoride, SnF 2, is obtained as small, white monoclinic tables by evaporating a solution of stannous oxide in hydrofluoric acid in a vacuum.

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  • Stannic Fluoride, SnF 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving hydrated stannic oxide in hydrofluoric acid; it forms a characteristic series of salts, the stannofluorides, M 2 SnF 6, isomorphous with the silico-, titano-, germanoand zirconofluorides.

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  • They pass through a viscous stage in cooling from a state of fluidity; they develop effects of colour when the glass mixtures are fused with certain metallic oxides; they are, when cold, bad conductors both of electricity and heat, they are easily fractured by a blow or shock and show a conchoidal fracture; they are but slightly affected by ordinary solvents, but are readily attacked by hydrofluoric acid.

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  • In the " etching " process the surface of the glass is etched by the chemical action of hydrofluoric acid, the parts which are not to be attacked being covered with a resinous paint.

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  • The surface of the glass had usually been treated with hydrofluoric acid so as to have a satin-like gloss.

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  • Schwanhart of the process of etching on glass by means of hydrofluoric acid, and the rediscovery by J.

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  • Another crystalline form, differing from the former by its solubility in hydrofluoric acid, was prepared by H.

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  • It is only soluble in a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acid, or in solutions of the caustic alkalis, in the latter case yielding hydrogen and a silicate: Si-}-2KHO+H 2 O = K 2 SiO 3 +2H 2.

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  • Silicofluoric acid, H2SiF6, is obtained as shown above, and also by the action of sulphuric acid on barium silicofluoride, or by absorbing silicon fluoride in aqueous hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The anhydrous acid is not known, since on evaporating the aqueous solution it gradually decomposes into silicon fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • A better method is Wohler's, in which the finely powdered mineral is fused with twice its weight of potassium carbonate in a platinum crucible, the melt powdered and treated in a platinum basin with aqueous hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The filtrate, which may be collected in glass vessels if an excess of hydrofluoric acid has been avoided, deposits the greater part of the salt on cooling.

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  • 557.) Titanium fluoride, TiF 4, is a fuming colourless liquid boiling at 284°, obtained by distilling a mixture of titanium oxide, fluorspar and sulphuric acid; by heating barium titanofluoride, BaTiF6 (Emrich, Monats., 1904, 25, p. 907); and by the action of dry hydrofluoric acid on the chloride (Ruff and Plato, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 673).

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  • By dissolving the dioxide in hydrofluoric acid a syrupy solution is obtained which probably contains titanofluoric acid, H 2 TiF 6.

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  • They are obtained by neutralizing the solution of the acid, or by fusing the oxide with potassium carbonate and treating the melt with hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Strontium fluoride, SrF 2, is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on the carbonate, or by the addition of potassium fluoride to strontium chloride solution.

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  • Hydrofluoric acid is the only acid which attacks it.

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  • Filtration in the chemical laboratory is commonly effected by the aid of a special kind of unsized paper, which in the more expensive varieties is practically pure cellulose, impurities like feric oxide, alumina, lime, magnesia and silica having been removed by treatment with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids.

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  • Mineral acids generally attack the crystallized metal very little even in the heat; aqua regia, however, dissolves it readily, and so does hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The porcelain-like melt is powdered, boiled with water, and acidified with hydrofluoric acid, and the residual potassium fluosilicate is filtered off.

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  • The anhydrous oxide is with difficulty soluble even in hydrofluoric acid; but a mixture of two parts of concentrated sulphuric acid and one of water dissolves it on continued heating as the sulphate, Zr(S04)2.

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  • Moissan in 1886 by the electrolysis of pure anhydrous hydrofluoric acid containing dissolved potassium fluoride.

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  • The fluorine, which is liberated as a gas at the anode, is passed through a well cooled platinum vessel, in order to free it from any acid fumes that may be carried over, and finally through two platinum tubes containing sodium fluoride to remove the last traces of hydrofluoric acid; it is then collected in a platinum tube closed with fluor-spar plates.

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  • At 200° C. this salt decomposes, giving off hydrofluoric acid, and between 230-250° C. fluorine is liberated.

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  • Moissan); it has been liquefied, the liquid also being of a yellow colour and boiling at - 187° C. It is the most active of all the chemical elements; in contact with hydrogen combination takes place between the two gases with explosive violence, even in the dark, and at as low a temperature as - 210 C.; finely divided carbon burns in the gas, forming carbon tetrafluoride; water is decomposed even at ordinary temperatures, with the formation of hydrofluoric acid and "ozonised" oxygen; iodine, sulphur and phosphorus melt and then inflame in the gas; it liberates chlorine from chlorides, and combines with most metals instantaneously to form fluorides; it does not, however, combine with oxygen.

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  • Only one compound of hydrogen and fluorine is known, namely hydrofluoric acid, HF or H 2 F 2, which was first obtained by C. Scheele in 1771 by decomposing fluor-spar with concentrated sulphuric acid, a method still used for the commercial preparation of the aqueous solution of the acid, the mixture being distilled from leaden retorts and the acid stored in leaden or gutta-percha bottles.

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  • Soc., 1889, 55, p. 163) determined the vapour density of hydrofluoric acid at different temperatures, and showed that there is no approach to a definite value below about 88° C. where it reaches the value 10.29 corresponding to the molecular formula HF; at temperatures below 88° C. the value increases rapidly, showing that the molecule is more complex in its structure.

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  • The salts of hydrofluoric acid are known as fluorides and are easily obtained by the action of the acid on metals or their oxides, hydroxides or carbonates.

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  • A characteristic property of the alkaline fluorides is their power of combining with a molecule of hydrofluoric acid and with the fluorides of the more electro-negative elements to form double fluorides, a behaviour not shown by other metallic halides.

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  • - Potassium fluoride, KF, is a very deliquescent salt, crystallizing in cubes and having a sharp saline taste, which is formed by neutralizing potassium carbonate or hydroxide with hydrofluoric acid and concentrating in platinum vessels.

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  • It forms the acid fluoride KHF 2 when dissolved in aqueous hydrofluoric acid, a salt which at a red heat gives the normal fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The fluoride, CrF3, results on passing hydrofluoric acid over the heated chloride, and sublimes in needles.

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  • His work included investigations of osmic acid, of the ferrates, stannates, plumbates, &c., and of ozone, attempts to obtain free fluorine by the electrolysis of fused fluorides, and the discovery of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and of a series of acides sulphazotes, the precise nature of which long remained a matter of discussion.

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  • Aluminium fluoride, AlF 3, obtained by dissolving the metal in hydrofluoric acid, and subliming the residue in a current of hydrogen, forms transparent, very obtuse rhombohedra, which are insoluble in water.

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  • In 1886 he succeeded in obtaining the element fluorine in the free state by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid at a low temperature.

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  • Or barium peroxide may be decomposed by hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, sulphuric or silicofluoric acids (L.

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  • Thallous fluoride, T1F, forms white glistening octahedra; it is obtained by crystallizing a solution of the carbonate in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Thorium fluoride, ThF 4, is obtained as a heavy white insoluble powder by dissolving the hydrate in hydrofluoric acid and evaporating.

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  • Potassium thorofluoride, K2ThF6 4H20, is a heavy black powder formed by boiling the hydroxide with potassium fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Nickel fluoride, NiF 2, obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on nickel chloride, crystallizes in yellowish green prisms which volatilise above m000° C. It is difficultly soluble in water, and combines with the alkaline fluorides to form double salts.

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  • It is soluble in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids, and the powdered metal, in aqua regia, but slowly attacked by sulphuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids separately; it is also soluble in boiling potash solution, giving a tunstate and hydrogen.

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  • By using hot acid the yellow anhydrous tungstic acid is precipitated, which is insoluble in water and in all acids except hydrofluoric. It may be obtained in a flocculent form by exposing the hexachloride to moist air.

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  • It forms golden cubes which are unattacked by alkalis or by any acid except hydrofluoric. It appears to be a mixture of which the components vary with the materials and methods used in its production (Philipp, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 499).

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  • - Although the trioxide is soluble in hydrofluoric acid, evaporation of the solution leads to the recovery of the oxide unchanged.

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  • 2KF WO 2 F 2 H 2 O, is obtained as crystalline scales by dissolving normal potassium tungstate in hydrofluoric acid and adding potassium hydroxide till a permanent precipitate is just formed.

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  • The hexafluoride, WF 6, is a very active gaseous compound, which attacks glass and metals, obtained from tungsten hexachloride and hydrofluoric acid (Ruff and Eisner, Ber., 1905, 38, p. 74 2).

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  • The trientoxide, Cu 3 0, is obtained when cupric oxide is heated to 1500 0 -2000° C. It forms yellowish-red crystals, which scratch glass, and are unaffected by all acids except hydrofluoric; it also dissolves in molten potash.

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  • Cuprous fluoride, CuF, is a ruby-red crystalline mass, formed by heating cuprous chloride in an atmosphere of hydrofluoric acid at I g oo°-1200° C. It is soluble in boiling hydrochloric acid, but it is not reprecipitated by water, as is the case with cuprous chloride.

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  • Cupric fluoride, CuF 2, is obtained by dissolving cupric oxide in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Antimony trifluoride, SbF 3, is obtained by dissolving the trioxide in aqueous hydrofluoric acid or by distilling antimony with mercuric fluoride.

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  • By rapid evaporation of its solution it may be obtained in small prisms. The pentaflhoride SbF 5 results when metantimonic acid is dissolved in hydrofluoric acid, and the solution is evaporated.

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  • It is used as a source of hydrofluoric acid, which it evolves when heated with sulphuric acid.

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  • Hydrochloric acid forms a surface film of silver chloride; hydriodic acid readily dissolves it, while hydrofluoric acid is without action.

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  • Silver fluoride, AgF, is obtained as quadratic octahedra, with one molecule of water, by dissolving the oxide or carbonate in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • A similar distribution of electric charges is produced when a crystal is subjected to pressure; quartz being thus also piezo-electric. Etched figures, both natural and artificial (in the latter case produced by the action of hydrofluoric acid), on the faces of the crystals are in accordance with the symmetry, and may serve to distinguish leftand righthanded crystals.

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  • The mineral is a non-conductor of electricity; it is unattacked by acids with the exception of hydrofluoric acid, and is only slightly dissolved by solutions of caustic alkalis.

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  • It is slowly decomposed by water giving hydrofluoric and phosphorous acids, or, in addition, fluorphosphorous acid, HPF4.

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  • It fumes in moist air and is quickly decomposed by water giving hydrofluoric and phosphoric xxi.

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  • Water gives hydrofluoric and phosphoric acids.

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  • Hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric and many other acids are manufactured by the action of sulphuric acid on their salts; the alkali and chlorine industries, and also the manufacture of bromine and iodine, employ immense quantities of this acid.

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  • Ferrous fluoride, FeF21 is obtained as colourless prisms (with 8H2O) by dissolving iron in hydrofluoric acid, or as anhydrous colourless rhombic prisms by heating iron or ferric chloride in dry hydrofluoric acid gas.

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  • Ferric fluoride, FeF 31 is obtained as colourless crystals (with 42H2O) by evaporating a solution of the hydroxide in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • It dissolves slowly in hydrofluoric acid and in nitric acid, the solution turning blue; it is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.

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  • It is decomposed by water into arsenious and hydrofluoric acids, and absorbs ammonia forming the compound 2AsF3.5NH3 By the action of gaseous ammonia on arsenious halides at -30° C. to -40° C., arsenamide, As(NH2) is formed.

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  • ammonium bicarbonate and hydrofluoric acid were also tested for a contact time of three hours.

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  • Cobalt fluoride, CoF 2.2H 2 0, is formed when cobalt carbonate is evaporated with an excess of aqueous hydrofluoric acid, separating in rose-red crystalline crusts.

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  • Electrolysis of a solution in hydrofluoric acid gives cobaltic fluoride, CoF3.

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  • The dark product obtained is washed with water, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and finally calcined again with the oxide or with borax, being protected from air during the operation by a layer of charcoal.

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  • It is insoluble in water and unaffected by most reagents, but when heated in a current of steam or boiled for some time with a caustic alkali, slowly decomposes with evolution of ammonia and the formation of boron trioxide or an alkaline borate; it dissolves slowly in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • It may be condensed and yields a solid which melts at - 55° C. Sulphuretted hydrogen decomposes it with formation of hydrofluoric acid and liberation of sulphur.

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  • It is decomposed by water into hydrofluoric and sulphurous acids.

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  • Fluorsulphonic acid, SO 2 F OH, is a mobile liquid obtained by the action of an excess of hydrofluoric acid on well-cooled sulphur trioxide.

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  • Balard completed for many years Berzelius's group of " halogen " elements; the remaining member, fluorine, notwithstanding many attempts, remained unisolated until 1886, when Henri Moissan obtained it by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Hydrobromic and hydriodic acids were investigated by Gay Lussac and Balard, while hydrofluoric acid received considerable attention at the hands of Gay Lussac, Thenard and Berzelius.

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  • It is a gas at ordinary temperature; when liquefied it boils at -63.5° C. and on solidification melts at -139° C. Water decomposes it into nitric and hydrofluoric acids.

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  • This salt gives the corresponding chloride and fluoride with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, and the phosphate, Pb(HP04)2, with phosphoric acid.

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  • It is then dissolved in hydrofluoric acid and heated in order to expel silicon fluoride; finally the columbium, tantalum and titanium fluorides are separated by the different solubilities of their double fluorides (C. Marignac, Ann.

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  • Columbium pentafluoride, CbF5, is obtained when the pentoxide is dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The salt separates from solutions containing hydrofluoric acid in large plates, which are greenish yellow in colour.

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  • Alkaline and other stannates when treated with aqueous hydrofluoric acid are converted into fluostannates (e.g.

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  • Stannous Fluoride, SnF 2, is obtained as small, white monoclinic tables by evaporating a solution of stannous oxide in hydrofluoric acid in a vacuum.

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  • Stannic Fluoride, SnF 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving hydrated stannic oxide in hydrofluoric acid; it forms a characteristic series of salts, the stannofluorides, M 2 SnF 6, isomorphous with the silico-, titano-, germanoand zirconofluorides.

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  • They pass through a viscous stage in cooling from a state of fluidity; they develop effects of colour when the glass mixtures are fused with certain metallic oxides; they are, when cold, bad conductors both of electricity and heat, they are easily fractured by a blow or shock and show a conchoidal fracture; they are but slightly affected by ordinary solvents, but are readily attacked by hydrofluoric acid.

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  • In the " etching " process the surface of the glass is etched by the chemical action of hydrofluoric acid, the parts which are not to be attacked being covered with a resinous paint.

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  • The surface of the glass had usually been treated with hydrofluoric acid so as to have a satin-like gloss.

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  • Schwanhart of the process of etching on glass by means of hydrofluoric acid, and the rediscovery by J.

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  • Another crystalline form, differing from the former by its solubility in hydrofluoric acid, was prepared by H.

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  • It is only soluble in a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acid, or in solutions of the caustic alkalis, in the latter case yielding hydrogen and a silicate: Si-}-2KHO+H 2 O = K 2 SiO 3 +2H 2.

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  • Silicofluoric acid, H2SiF6, is obtained as shown above, and also by the action of sulphuric acid on barium silicofluoride, or by absorbing silicon fluoride in aqueous hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The anhydrous acid is not known, since on evaporating the aqueous solution it gradually decomposes into silicon fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • A better method is Wohler's, in which the finely powdered mineral is fused with twice its weight of potassium carbonate in a platinum crucible, the melt powdered and treated in a platinum basin with aqueous hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The filtrate, which may be collected in glass vessels if an excess of hydrofluoric acid has been avoided, deposits the greater part of the salt on cooling.

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  • 557.) Titanium fluoride, TiF 4, is a fuming colourless liquid boiling at 284°, obtained by distilling a mixture of titanium oxide, fluorspar and sulphuric acid; by heating barium titanofluoride, BaTiF6 (Emrich, Monats., 1904, 25, p. 907); and by the action of dry hydrofluoric acid on the chloride (Ruff and Plato, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 673).

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  • By dissolving the dioxide in hydrofluoric acid a syrupy solution is obtained which probably contains titanofluoric acid, H 2 TiF 6.

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  • They are obtained by neutralizing the solution of the acid, or by fusing the oxide with potassium carbonate and treating the melt with hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Strontium fluoride, SrF 2, is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on the carbonate, or by the addition of potassium fluoride to strontium chloride solution.

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  • Hydrofluoric acid is the only acid which attacks it.

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  • Filtration in the chemical laboratory is commonly effected by the aid of a special kind of unsized paper, which in the more expensive varieties is practically pure cellulose, impurities like feric oxide, alumina, lime, magnesia and silica having been removed by treatment with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids.

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  • Mineral acids generally attack the crystallized metal very little even in the heat; aqua regia, however, dissolves it readily, and so does hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The porcelain-like melt is powdered, boiled with water, and acidified with hydrofluoric acid, and the residual potassium fluosilicate is filtered off.

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  • The anhydrous oxide is with difficulty soluble even in hydrofluoric acid; but a mixture of two parts of concentrated sulphuric acid and one of water dissolves it on continued heating as the sulphate, Zr(S04)2.

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  • (See SAL-Ammoniac.) Ammonium fluoride, NH 4 F, may be obtained by neutralizing ammonia with hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Moissan in 1886 by the electrolysis of pure anhydrous hydrofluoric acid containing dissolved potassium fluoride.

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  • The fluorine, which is liberated as a gas at the anode, is passed through a well cooled platinum vessel, in order to free it from any acid fumes that may be carried over, and finally through two platinum tubes containing sodium fluoride to remove the last traces of hydrofluoric acid; it is then collected in a platinum tube closed with fluor-spar plates.

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  • At 200° C. this salt decomposes, giving off hydrofluoric acid, and between 230-250° C. fluorine is liberated.

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  • Moissan); it has been liquefied, the liquid also being of a yellow colour and boiling at - 187° C. It is the most active of all the chemical elements; in contact with hydrogen combination takes place between the two gases with explosive violence, even in the dark, and at as low a temperature as - 210 C.; finely divided carbon burns in the gas, forming carbon tetrafluoride; water is decomposed even at ordinary temperatures, with the formation of hydrofluoric acid and "ozonised" oxygen; iodine, sulphur and phosphorus melt and then inflame in the gas; it liberates chlorine from chlorides, and combines with most metals instantaneously to form fluorides; it does not, however, combine with oxygen.

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  • Only one compound of hydrogen and fluorine is known, namely hydrofluoric acid, HF or H 2 F 2, which was first obtained by C. Scheele in 1771 by decomposing fluor-spar with concentrated sulphuric acid, a method still used for the commercial preparation of the aqueous solution of the acid, the mixture being distilled from leaden retorts and the acid stored in leaden or gutta-percha bottles.

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  • Soc., 1889, 55, p. 163) determined the vapour density of hydrofluoric acid at different temperatures, and showed that there is no approach to a definite value below about 88° C. where it reaches the value 10.29 corresponding to the molecular formula HF; at temperatures below 88° C. the value increases rapidly, showing that the molecule is more complex in its structure.

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  • The salts of hydrofluoric acid are known as fluorides and are easily obtained by the action of the acid on metals or their oxides, hydroxides or carbonates.

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  • A characteristic property of the alkaline fluorides is their power of combining with a molecule of hydrofluoric acid and with the fluorides of the more electro-negative elements to form double fluorides, a behaviour not shown by other metallic halides.

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  • - Potassium fluoride, KF, is a very deliquescent salt, crystallizing in cubes and having a sharp saline taste, which is formed by neutralizing potassium carbonate or hydroxide with hydrofluoric acid and concentrating in platinum vessels.

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  • It forms the acid fluoride KHF 2 when dissolved in aqueous hydrofluoric acid, a salt which at a red heat gives the normal fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The fluoride, CrF3, results on passing hydrofluoric acid over the heated chloride, and sublimes in needles.

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  • His work included investigations of osmic acid, of the ferrates, stannates, plumbates, &c., and of ozone, attempts to obtain free fluorine by the electrolysis of fused fluorides, and the discovery of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and of a series of acides sulphazotes, the precise nature of which long remained a matter of discussion.

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  • Aluminium fluoride, AlF 3, obtained by dissolving the metal in hydrofluoric acid, and subliming the residue in a current of hydrogen, forms transparent, very obtuse rhombohedra, which are insoluble in water.

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  • In 1886 he succeeded in obtaining the element fluorine in the free state by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid at a low temperature.

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  • Or barium peroxide may be decomposed by hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, sulphuric or silicofluoric acids (L.

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  • Thallous fluoride, T1F, forms white glistening octahedra; it is obtained by crystallizing a solution of the carbonate in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Ceric fluoride, CeF 4 H 2 O, is obtained when the hydrated dioxide is dissolved in hydrofluoric acid and the solution evaporated on the water bath (B.

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  • Thorium fluoride, ThF 4, is obtained as a heavy white insoluble powder by dissolving the hydrate in hydrofluoric acid and evaporating.

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  • Potassium thorofluoride, K2ThF6 4H20, is a heavy black powder formed by boiling the hydroxide with potassium fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Nickel fluoride, NiF 2, obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on nickel chloride, crystallizes in yellowish green prisms which volatilise above m000° C. It is difficultly soluble in water, and combines with the alkaline fluorides to form double salts.

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  • It is soluble in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids, and the powdered metal, in aqua regia, but slowly attacked by sulphuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids separately; it is also soluble in boiling potash solution, giving a tunstate and hydrogen.

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  • By using hot acid the yellow anhydrous tungstic acid is precipitated, which is insoluble in water and in all acids except hydrofluoric. It may be obtained in a flocculent form by exposing the hexachloride to moist air.

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  • It forms golden cubes which are unattacked by alkalis or by any acid except hydrofluoric. It appears to be a mixture of which the components vary with the materials and methods used in its production (Philipp, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 499).

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  • - Although the trioxide is soluble in hydrofluoric acid, evaporation of the solution leads to the recovery of the oxide unchanged.

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  • 2KF WO 2 F 2 H 2 O, is obtained as crystalline scales by dissolving normal potassium tungstate in hydrofluoric acid and adding potassium hydroxide till a permanent precipitate is just formed.

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  • The hexafluoride, WF 6, is a very active gaseous compound, which attacks glass and metals, obtained from tungsten hexachloride and hydrofluoric acid (Ruff and Eisner, Ber., 1905, 38, p. 74 2).

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  • The trientoxide, Cu 3 0, is obtained when cupric oxide is heated to 1500 0 -2000° C. It forms yellowish-red crystals, which scratch glass, and are unaffected by all acids except hydrofluoric; it also dissolves in molten potash.

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  • Cuprous fluoride, CuF, is a ruby-red crystalline mass, formed by heating cuprous chloride in an atmosphere of hydrofluoric acid at I g oo°-1200° C. It is soluble in boiling hydrochloric acid, but it is not reprecipitated by water, as is the case with cuprous chloride.

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  • Cupric fluoride, CuF 2, is obtained by dissolving cupric oxide in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Antimony trifluoride, SbF 3, is obtained by dissolving the trioxide in aqueous hydrofluoric acid or by distilling antimony with mercuric fluoride.

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  • By rapid evaporation of its solution it may be obtained in small prisms. The pentaflhoride SbF 5 results when metantimonic acid is dissolved in hydrofluoric acid, and the solution is evaporated.

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  • It is used as a source of hydrofluoric acid, which it evolves when heated with sulphuric acid.

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  • Hydrochloric acid forms a surface film of silver chloride; hydriodic acid readily dissolves it, while hydrofluoric acid is without action.

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  • Silver fluoride, AgF, is obtained as quadratic octahedra, with one molecule of water, by dissolving the oxide or carbonate in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • A similar distribution of electric charges is produced when a crystal is subjected to pressure; quartz being thus also piezo-electric. Etched figures, both natural and artificial (in the latter case produced by the action of hydrofluoric acid), on the faces of the crystals are in accordance with the symmetry, and may serve to distinguish leftand righthanded crystals.

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  • The mineral is a non-conductor of electricity; it is unattacked by acids with the exception of hydrofluoric acid, and is only slightly dissolved by solutions of caustic alkalis.

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  • It is slowly decomposed by water giving hydrofluoric and phosphorous acids, or, in addition, fluorphosphorous acid, HPF4.

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  • It fumes in moist air and is quickly decomposed by water giving hydrofluoric and phosphoric xxi.

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  • Water gives hydrofluoric and phosphoric acids.

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  • Hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric and many other acids are manufactured by the action of sulphuric acid on their salts; the alkali and chlorine industries, and also the manufacture of bromine and iodine, employ immense quantities of this acid.

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  • Ferrous fluoride, FeF21 is obtained as colourless prisms (with 8H2O) by dissolving iron in hydrofluoric acid, or as anhydrous colourless rhombic prisms by heating iron or ferric chloride in dry hydrofluoric acid gas.

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  • Ferric fluoride, FeF 31 is obtained as colourless crystals (with 42H2O) by evaporating a solution of the hydroxide in hydrofluoric acid.

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  • It dissolves slowly in hydrofluoric acid and in nitric acid, the solution turning blue; it is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.

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  • It is decomposed by water into arsenious and hydrofluoric acids, and absorbs ammonia forming the compound 2AsF3.5NH3 By the action of gaseous ammonia on arsenious halides at -30° C. to -40° C., arsenamide, As(NH2) is formed.

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