How to use Hydrochloric-acid in a sentence

hydrochloric-acid
  • The mixed solution of poiysulphides and thiosulphate of calcium thus produced is clarified, diluted largely, and then mixed with enough of pure dilute hydrochloric acid to produce a feebly alkaline mixture when sulphur is precipitated.

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  • It dissolves easily in water, forming the hydrated chloride, CoC12.6H20, which may also be prepared by dissolving the hydroxide or carbonate in hydrochloric acid.

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  • Podophyllin is a resinous powder obtained by precipitating an alcoholic tincture of the rhizome by means of water acidulated with hydrochloric acid.

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  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid converts it into oxamide.

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  • Sodium amalgam or zinc and hydrochloric acid reduce it to lactic acid, whilst hydriodic acid gives propionic acid.

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  • They form compounds with hydrochloric acid when this gas is passed into their ethereal solution; these compounds, however, are very unstable, being readily decomposed by water.

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  • The dark product obtained is washed with water, hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and finally calcined again with the oxide or with borax, being protected from air during the operation by a layer of charcoal.

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  • Boron hydride has probably never been isolated in the pure condition; on heating boron trioxide with magnesium filings, a magnesium boride Mg 3 B 2 is obtained, and if this be decomposed with dilute hydrochloric acid a very evil-smelling gas, consisting of a mixture of hydrogen and boron hydride, is obtained.

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  • After fusion, the melt is well washed with dilute hydrochloric acid and then with water, the nitride remaining as a white powder.

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  • When heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid the amino group is replaced by the hydroxyl group and the phenolic eurhodols are produced.

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  • A curious property is to be observed when a crystal of pharmacosiderite is placed in a solution of ammonia - in a few minutes the green colour changes throughout the whole crystal to red; on placing the red crystal in dilute hydrochloric acid the green colour is restored.

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  • It can be purified by solution in hydrochloric acid and subsequent precipitation by metallic zinc.

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  • Molybdenum sesquioxide, Mo 2 O 3, a black mass insoluble in acids, is formed by heating the corresponding hydroxide in vacuo, or by digesting the trioxide with zinc and hydrochloric acid.

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  • It forms quadratic prisms, having a violet reflex and insoluble in boiling hydrochloric acid.

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  • Several hydrated forms of the oxide are known, and a colloidal variety may be obtained by the dialysis of a strong hydrochloric acid solution of sodium molybdate.

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  • It can also be obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through a solution of the dioxide in hydrochloric acid.

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  • To obtain pure sulphuretted hydrogen the method generally adopted consists in decomposing precipitated antimony sulphide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

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  • The dithionates are all soluble in water and when boiled with hydrochloric acid decompose with evolution of sulphur dioxide and formation of a sulphate.

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  • The mass is then covered with two-thirds of its weight of alcohol, and saturated with hydrochloric acid gas.

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  • Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.

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  • Glycerin when treated with hydrochloric acid gives propenyl dichlorhydrin, which may be oxidized to s-dichloracetone.

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  • Potassium cyanide reacts with this acid to form the corresponding dinitrile, which is converted by hydrochloric acid into citric acid.

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  • Ruthenium in bulk resembles platinum in its general appearance, and has been obtained crystalline by heating an alloy of ruthenium and tin in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.

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  • Ruthenium sulphides are obtained when the metal is warmed with pyrites and some borax, and the fused mass treated with hydrochloric acid first in the cold and then hot.

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  • For example, one volume of oxygen combined with two of hydrogen to form two volumes of steam, three volumes of hydrogen combined with one of nitrogen to give two volumes of ammonia, one volume of hydrogen combined with one of chlorine to give two volumes of hydrochloric acid.

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  • The distribution of weight in chemical change is readily expressed in the form of equations by the aid of these symbols; the equation 2HC1+Zn =ZnCl2+H2, for example, is to be read as meaning that from 73 parts of hydrochloric acid and 65 parts of zinc, 136 parts of zinc chloride and 2 parts of hydrogen are produced.

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  • Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.

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  • We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.

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  • In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.

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  • Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.

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  • A further generalization was effected by August Kekule, who rejected the hydrochloric acid type as unnecessary, and introduced the methane type and condensed mixed types.

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  • Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.

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  • Hold a small portion of the substance moistened with hydrochloric acid on a clean platinum wire in the fusion zone' of the Bunsen burner, and note any colour imparted to the flame.

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  • In this case, the precipitate is dissolved in as little as possible hydrochloric acid and boiled with ammonium acetate, acetic acid and ferric chloride.

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  • The white precipitate formed by cold hydrochloric acid is boiled with water, and the solution filtered while hot.

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  • The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.

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  • Dissolve the residue in hydrochloric acid and test separately for antimony and tin.

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  • If barium is present, the solution of the carbonates in hydrochloric acid is evaporated and digested with strong alcohol for some time; barium chloride, which is nearly insoluble in alcohol,is thus separated, the remainder being precipitated by a few drops of hydrofluosilicic acid, and may be confirmed by the ordinary tests.

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  • Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on.

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  • In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.

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  • The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.

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  • Sulphur and phosphorus can sometimes be estimated by Messinger's method, in which the oxidation is effected by potassium permanganate and caustic alkali, or by potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and water; and potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid to chloranil.

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  • In a purer condition it may be obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferrous sulphate, or of hydrochloric acid on a mixture of potassium nitrate and ferric chloride.

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  • Similar phenomena are seen in the case of a solution of hydrochloric acid.

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  • Let us allow dilute sodium acetate to react with dilute hydrochloric acid.

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  • In dilute solution such substances as hydrochloric acid and potash are almost completely dissociated, so that, instead of representing the reaction as HC1+KOH = KC1 d-H20, we must write The ions K and Cl suffer no change, but the hydrogen of the acid and the hydroxyl (OH) of the potash unite to form water, which is only very slightly dissociated.

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  • The aldehyde group also reacts with phenyl hydrazine to form two phenylhydrazones; under certain conditions a hydroxyl group adjacent to the aldehyde group is oxidized and glucosazone is produced; this glucosazone is decomposed by hydrochloric acid into phenyl hydrazine and the keto-aldehyde glucosone.

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  • Treatment with a warm alkaline solution is afterwards advisable, in order to remove traces of hydrochloric acid generated during the process.

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  • If a suspension of lead dichloride in hydrochloric acid be treated with chlorine gas, a solution of lead tetrachloride is obtained; by adding ammonium chloride ammonium plumbichloride, (NH 4) 2 PbC1 6, is precipitated, which on treatment with strong sulphuric acid yields lead tetrachloride, PbC1 4, as a translucent, yellow, highly refractive liquid.

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  • With water it forms a hydrate, and ultimately decomposes into lead dioxide and hydrochloric acid.

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  • It is artificially obtained by adding hydrochloric acid to a solution of lead salt, as a white precipitate, little soluble in cold water, less so in dilute hydrochloric acid, more so in the strong acid, and readily soluble in hot water, from which on cooling, the excess of dissolved salt separates out in silky rhombic needles.

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  • It dissolves in strong nitric acid with the formation of the nitrate and sulphate, and also in hot concentrated hydrochloric acid.

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  • But the most delicate precipitant for lead is sulphuretted hydrogen, which produces a black precipitate of lead sulphide, insoluble in cold dilute nitric acid, less so in cold hydrochloric, and easily decomposed by hot hydrochloric acid with formation of the characteristic chloride.

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  • When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus it forms phenylacetic acid; whilst concentrated hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid at moderate temperatures convert it into phenylbromand phenylchlor-acetic acids.

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  • By this means a mixture is obtained which by distillation or the action of hydrochloric acid yields trithioaldehyde, (C2H4S)3.

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  • The oxyfluoride, CbOF 3, results when a mixture of the pentoxide and fluorspar is heated in a current of hydrochloric acid.

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  • It is also obtained by dissolving the oxide in hydrochloric acid and evaporating.

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  • The solution when subjected to distillation behaves very much like a physical solution of the oxide in hydrochloric acid, while a solution of orthostannic acid in hydrochloric acid behaves like a solution of SnC1 4 in water, i.e.

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  • A colloidal or soluble stannic acid is obtained by dialysing a mixture of tin tetrachloride and alkali, or of sodium stannate and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Stannous Chloride, SnC1 2, can only be obtained pure by heating pure tin in a current of pure dry hydrochloric acid gas.

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  • This salt is also formed by dissolving tin in strong hydrochloric acid and allowing it to crystallize, and is industrially prepared by passing sufficiently hydrated hydrochloric acid gas over granulated tin contained in stoneware bottles and evaporating the concentrated solution produced in tin basins over granulated tin.

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  • Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.

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  • It burns when brought into contact with chlorine, forming silicon chloride and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Smiles (Comptes rendus, 1902, pp. 5 6 9, 1 549) from the products obtained in the action of hydrochloric acid on magnesium silicide.

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  • It decomposes water at ordinary temperature with evolution of hydrogen but without production of silicon hydride, whilst cold hydrochloric acid attacks it vigorously with evolution of hydrogen and spontaneously inflammable silicon hydride.

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  • Aqueous Sulphuric or Hydrochloric Acid readily dissolves groups I and 2, with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides or sulphates.

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  • The chlorides AsC1 3, SbC1 3, BiC1 3, are at once decomposed by (liquid) water, with formation of oxide (As203) or oxychlorides (SbOC1, BiOCI) and hydrochloric acid.

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  • All chlorides, except those of silver and mercury (and, of course, those of gold and platinum), are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, with elimination of hydrochloric acid.

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  • On warming the osazone with hydrochloric acid the phenylhydrazine residues are removed and an osone results, which on reduction with zinc and acetic acid gives a ketose.

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  • The osazone prepared from a-acrose resembled most closely the glucosazone yielded by glucose, mannose, and fructose, but it was optically inactive; also the ketose which it gave after treatment with hydrochloric acid and reduction of the osone was like ordinary fructose except that it was inactive.

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  • We may notice that the pentoses differ from other sugars by yielding furfurol when boiled with hydrochloric acid.

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  • By acting with hydrochloric acid on glucose Fischer obtained isomaltose, a disaccharose very similar to maltose but differing in being amorphous and unfermentable by yeast.

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  • In the ordinary chemical analyses of the soil determinations are made of the nitrogen and various carbonates present as well as of the amount of phosphoric acid, potash, soda, magnesia and other components soluble in strong hydrochloric acid.

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  • It combines directly with the halogens, and dissolves in cold dilute sulphuric acid, in hot strong hydrochloric acid and in aqua regia, but less readily in nitric acid.

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  • A hydrated form is prepared when a solution of titanic acid in hydrochloric acid is digested with copper, or when the trichloride is precipitated with alkalis.

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  • Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.

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  • The anhydrous chloride is formed by heating strontium or its monoxide in chlorine, or by heating the hydrated chloride in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.

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  • It is a white solid, which combines with gaseous ammonia to form SrC1 2.8NH 3, and when heated in superheated steam it decomposes with evolution of hydrochloric acid.

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  • The existence of acids not containing oxygen was, in itself, sufficient to overthrow this idea, but, although Berthollet had shown, in 1789, that sulphuretted hydrogen (or hydrosulphuric acid) contained no oxygen, Lavoisier's theory held its own until the researches of Davy, Gay-Lussac and Thenard on hydrochloric acid and chlorine, and of Gay-Lussac on hydrocyanic acid, established beyond all cavil that oxygen was not essential to acidic properties.

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  • Thus, a number of copper-tin alloys when digested with hydrochloric acid leave the same crystalline residue, which on analysis proves to be the compound Cu 3 Sn.

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  • The metal is soluble in solutions of chlorine, bromine, thiosulphates and cyanides; and also in solutions which generate chlorine, such as mixtures of hydrochloric acid with nitric acid, chromic acid, antimonious acid, peroxides and nitrates, and of nitric acid with a chloride.

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  • Aurous cyanide, AuCN, forms yellow, microscopic, hexagonal tables, insoluble in water, and is obtained by the addition of hydrochloric acid to a solution of potassium aurocyanide, KAu(CN)2.

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  • Bismuth combines directly with the halogens, and the elements of the sulphur group. It readily dissolves in nitric acid, aqua regia, and hot sulphuric acid, but tardily in hot hydrochloric acid.

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  • Bismuth disulphide is a grey metallic substance, which is decomposed by hydrochloric acid with the separation of metallic bismuth and the formation of bismuth trichloride.

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  • The bottle is carefully cleansed by washing with soda, hydrochloric acid and distilled water, and then dried by heating in an air bath or by blowing in warm air.

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  • CsCl, is obtained by the direct action of chlorine on caesium, or by solution of the hydroxide in hydrochloric acid.

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  • This on being washed and decomposed with hydrochloric acid yielded a stream of acetylene gas.

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  • By means of a piece of stretched rubber tubing, this crucible is supported in the mouth of an ordinary funnel which is connected with an exhausting apparatus; and water holding in suspension fine scrapings of asbestos, purified by boiling with strong hydrochloric acid and washing with water, is run through it, so that the perforated bottom is covered with a layer of felted asbestos.

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  • Aposafranone, C,8H12N20, is formed by heating aposafranine with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

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  • The tetroxide, 0s04, can be easily reduced to the metal by dissolving it in hydrochloric acid and adding zinc, mercury, or an alkaline formate to the liquid, or by passing its vapour, mixed with carbon dioxide and monoxide, through a red-hot porcelain tube.

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  • Potassium osmichloride, K 2 OsC1 6, is formed when a mixture of osmium and potassium chloride is heated in a current of chlorine, or on adding potassium chloride and alcohol to a solution of the tetroxide in hydrochloric acid.

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  • Troost produced crystallized zirconium by fusing the double fluoride with aluminium in a graphite crucible at the temperature of melting iron, and extracting the aluminium from the melt with hydrochloric acid.

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  • The precipitate, being difficult to wash, is (after a preliminary washing) re-dissolved in hydrochloric acid and re-precipitated with ammonia.

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  • When heated with hydrochloric acid it gives isopilocarpine.

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  • Sulphuric acid gives a white precipitate of calcium sulphate with strong solutions; ammonium oxalate gives calcium oxalate, practically insoluble in water and dilute acetic acid, but readily soluble in nitric or hydrochloric acid.

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  • Chlorine takes fire when passed into ammonia, nitrogen and hydrochloric acid being formed, and unless the ammonia be present in excess, the highly explosive nitrogen chloride NC1 3 is also produced.

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  • The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.

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  • Dr Thomson first pointed out a process by synthesis, which has the advantage of being very simple, and at the same time rigidly accurate, resulting from his observation that when hydrochloric acid gas and ammonia gas are brought in contact with each other, they always combine in equal volumes.

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  • It is now obtained from the ammoniacal liquor of gas works by distilling the liquor with milk of lime and passing the ammonia so obtained into hydrochloric acid.

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  • A variety of animal charcoal is sometimes prepared by calcining fresh blood with potassium carbonate in large cylinders, the mass being purified by boiling out with dilute hydrochloric acid and subsequent reheating.

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  • Water decomposes it violently, with formation of carbon dioxide and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Hot concentrated nitric acid oxidizes it to picric acid and oxalic acid, whilst on treatment with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate it yields chloranil (tetrachloroquinone).

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  • When hydrochloric acid gas is passed into the solution the salt is completely precipitated as a fine powder.

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  • If the original solution contained the chlorides of magnesium or calcium or sulphate of potassium all impurities remain in the mother-liquor (the sulphur as KHS04), and can be removed by washing the precipitate with strong hydrochloric acid.

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  • A later method consists in boiling the weed with sodium carbonate; the liquid is filtered and hydrochloric acid added to the filtrate, when alginic acid is precipitated; this is also filtered off, the filtrate neutralized by caustic soda, and the whole evaporated to dryness and carbonized, the residue obtained being known as kelp substitute.

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  • They are more easily reduced than the corresponding chlorates; an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid giving free iodine and a metallic oxide, whilst aqueous hydrochloric acid gives iodine trichloride, chlorine, water and a chloride.

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  • He was an active worker in physiological chemistry, and carried out many analyses of the products of living organisms, among them being one of the gastric juice which, at the end of 1823, resulted in the notable discovery that the acid contents of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid which is separable by distillation.

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  • Hydroferrocyanic acid, H 4 Fe(NC)s, is best obtained by decomposing the lead salt with sulphuretted hydrogen under water, or by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a concentrated ether solution of the potassium salt.

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  • It can be estimated quantitatively by mixing a dilute solution with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid in excess, adding excess of zinc sulphate, neutralizing the excess of free acid with sodium bicarbonate, and determining the amount of free iodine by a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.

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  • Hydroferricyanic acid, H 3 Fe(NC)s, obtained by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid to a cold saturated solution of potassium ferricyanide, crystallizes in brown needles, and is easily decomposed.

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  • The metallic cyanides may be detected by adding ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride, and hydrochloric acid to their solution, when a precipitate of Prussian blue is produced; if the original solution contains free acid it must be neutralized by caustic potash before the reagents are added.

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  • Wohler reduced the sesquioxide by zinc, and obtained a shining green powder of specific gravity 6.81, which tarnished in air and dissolved in hydrochloric acid and warm dilute sulphuric acid, but was unacted upon by concentrated nitric acid.

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  • Chromium as prepared by the Goldschmidt process is in a passive condition as regards dilute sulphuric acid and dilute hydrochloric acid at ordinary temperatures; but by heating the metal with the acid it passes into the active condition, the same effect being produced by heating the inactive form with a solution.

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  • Heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid it liberates chlorine, and with sulphuric acid it liberates oxygen.

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  • Potassium chlorochromate, CrO 2 Cl OK, is produced when potassium bichromate is heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little water, or from chromium oxychloride and saturated potassium chloride solution, when - it separates as a red crystalline salt.

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  • The constitution of methyl orange follows from the fact that on reduction by stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid solution it yields sulphanilic acid and para-aminodimethyl aniline.

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  • Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.

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  • The hydrated salt loses water on heating, and partially decomposes into hydrochloric acid and magnesium oxychlorides.

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  • Magnesium oxychloride when heated to redness in a current of air evolves a mixture of hydrochloric acid and chlorine and leaves a residue of magnesia, a reaction which is employed in the Weldon-Pechiney and Mond processes for the manufacture of chlorine.

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  • It may also be obtained by the decomposition of boracite with hot hydrochloric acid.

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  • Thus he clearly described the preparation of hydrochloric acid by the action of oil of vitriol on common salt, the manifold virtues of sodium sulphate - sal mirabile, Glauber's salt - formed in the process being one of the chief themes of his Miraculum mundi; and he noticed that nitric acid was formed when nitre was substituted for the common salt.

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  • This result gives a value of D for dilute hydrochloric acid equal to 2.49 to compare with the observed value of 2.30.

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  • Alumina dissolves readily enough in aqueous hydrochloric acid to yield a solution of the chloride, but neither this solution, nor that containing sodium chloride, can be evaporated to dryness without decomposition.

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  • Crystallized alumina is also obtained by heating the fluoride with boron trioxide; by fusing aluminium phosphate with sodium sulphate; by heating alumina to a dull redness in hydrochloric acid gas under pressure; and by heating alumina with lead oxide to a bright red heat.

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  • It is very hygroscopic, absorbing water with the evolution of hydrochloric acid.

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  • It readily forms addition products with chlorine and with hydrogen; the dichloride, C10H8C12, is obtained as a yellow liquid by acting with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate; the solid tetrachloride, C,o 11 8 C1 4, results when chlorine is passed into naphthalene dissolved in chloroform.

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  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid converts it into chlorbenzene, aniline and nitrogen.

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  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid decomposes it with formation of C6H 6 N OH HO'N'H chloranilines and elimination of nitrogen, whilst on boiling with sulphuric acid it is converted into aminophenols.

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  • In preparing the gas by the action of metals on acids, dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid is taken, and the metals commonly used are zinc or iron.

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  • To purify the oxide, it is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid until the acid is neatly neutralized, the solution is cooled, filtered, and baryta water is added until a faint permanent white precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide appears; the solution is now filtered, and a concentrated solution of baryta water is added to the filtrate, when a crystalline precipitate of hydrated barium peroxide, Ba0 2 8 H 2 0, is thrown down.

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  • Bernthsen); by the action of ammonium chloride or hydrochlorides of amines on nitriles; by condensing amines and amides in presence of phosphorus trichloride; by the action of hydrochloric acid on acid-amides (0.

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  • By evaporation of a solution of lanthanum oxide in hydrochloric acid to the consistency of a syrup, and allowing the solution to stand, large colourless crystals of a hydrated chloride of the composition 2LaC1 3.15H 2 O are obtained.

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  • This process is repeated several times, and the final precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and precipitated by ammonia, washed and dried.

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  • Hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid or baryta water gives tropic acid and tropine; on the other hand, by boiling equimolecular quantities of these substances with dilute hydrochloric acid, atropine is reformed.

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  • It is made commercially by boiling benzotrichloride (obtained from toluene) with milk of lime, the calcium benzoate so obtained being then decomposed by hydrochloric acid 2C 6 H 5 CC1 3 +4Ca(OH) 2 = (C6H6000)2Ca-1-3CaC12+4H20.

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  • Bunsen prepared the metal by electrolysing manganese chloride in a porous cell surrounded by a carbon crucible containing hydrochloric acid.

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  • It is a reddish-brown powder, which when heated with hydrochloric acid yields chlorine.

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  • When heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid it yields chlorine, and with concentrated sulphuric acid it yields oxygen.

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  • The manganites are amorphous brown solids, insoluble in water, and decomposed by hydrochloric acid with the evolution of chlorine.

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  • The anhydrous chloride, MnCl2, is obtained as a rose-red crystalline solid by passing hydrochloric acid gas over manganese carbonate, first in the cold and afterwards at a moderate red heat.

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  • The hydrated chloride, MnCl2.4H2O, is obtained in rose-red crystals by dissolving the metal or its carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid and concentrating the solution.

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  • Strecker, who oxidized guanine with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate.

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  • A hydrated chloride of composition 2CeC1 3.15H 2 O is also known, and is obtained when a solution of cerous oxide in hydrochloric acid is evaporated over sulphuric acid.

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  • The term alkali is employed in a technical sense for the carbonate and hydrate (of sodium), but since in the Leblanc process the manufacture of sodium sulphate necessarily precedes that of the carbonate, we include this as well as the manufacture of hydrochloric acid which is inseparable from it.

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  • We also treat of the utilization of hydrochloric acid for the manufacture of chlorine and its derivatives, which are usually comprised within the meaning of the term " alkali manufacture."

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  • The gaseous hydrochloric acid evolved during all this time must be absorbed in water, unless it is directly converted into chlorine (see below, 2 and 3).

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  • The latter was formerly often constructed as a reverberatory furnace, which is easy to build and to work, but the hydrochloric acid given off here, being mixed with the products of the combustion of the fuel, cannot be condensed to strong acid and is partly, if not entirely, wasted.

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  • This requires more time and fuel than the work in " open " furnaces, but in the muffles the gaseous hydrochloric acid is separated from the fire-gases, just like that evolved in the pot, and can therefore be condensed into strong hydrochloric acid, like the pot-acid.

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  • It is not easy to keep the muffles permanently tight, and as soon as any leakages occur, either hydrochloric acid must escape into the fire-flue, or some fire-gases must enter into the muffle.

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  • The former is decidedly more objectionable than the latter, as it means that uncondensed hydrochloric acid is sent into the air.

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  • In consequence the fire-gases, when arriving there by the chimney shaft (a), have already a good upward draught, and when circulatung round the muffle are at a lower pressure than the gases within the muffle, so that in case of any cracks being formed, no hydrochloric acid escapes into the fire-flues, but vice versa.

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  • This means that the previous manufacture of sulphuric acid in the vitriol-chambers is done away with, but this apparently great simplification is balanced by the great cost of the Hargreaves plant, and by the fact that the whole of the hydrochloric acid is mixed with nine or ten times its volume of inert gases.

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  • The scientific and technical principles of the condensation of hydrochloric acid are now thoroughly well understood, and it is possible to recover nearly the whole of it in the state of strong commercial acid, containing from 32 to 36% of pure hydrochloric acid, although probably the majority of the manufacturers are still content to obtain part of the acid in a weaker state, merely to satisfy the requirements of the law prescribing the prevention of nuisance.

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  • The principles of the condensation, that is of converting the gaseous hydrochloric acid given off during the decomposition of common salt into a strong solution of this gas in water, can be summarized in a few words.

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  • The hydrochloric acid gas, which is always diluted with air, sometimes to a very great extent, must be brought into the most intimate contact possible with water, which greedily absorbs it, forming ordinary hydrochloric acid, and this process must be carried so far that scarcely any hydrochloric acid remains in the escaping gases.

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  • Since the solubility of hydrochloric acid in water decreases with the increase of the temperature, it is necessary to keep the latter down - a task which is rendered somewhat difficult both by the original FIG.

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  • Manufacture of Hydrochloric Acid (commercially also known as " muriatic acid ").

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  • This process is excellent for effecting a complete condensation of the hydrochloric acid as prescribed by the Alkali Acts, and for recovering the bulk of the acid in a tolerably strong state, but less so for recovering nearly the whole of it in the most concentrated state, although even this is occasionally attained.

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  • It is clear that free chlorine must be prepared from hydrochloric acid by oxidizing the hydrogen.

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  • This action must be promoted by heating the mixture, but even then nothing like all of the hydrochloric acid employed is made to act as above, because the attack on the manganese ore requires a certain minimum concentration of the acid.

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  • Formerly, instead of free hydrochloric acid a mixture of common salt and sulphuric acid was sometimes employed, but this is never done on a manufacturing scale now.

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  • Moreover it is of a most disagreeable kind, as the waste "still-liquor," containing very much free hydrochloric acid and even some free chlorine, forms a most deleterious impurity when finding its way into drains or watercourses, apart from the intolerable nuisance caused by the escapes of chlorine from the stills and otherwise, which cannot be at all times avoided.

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  • It begins with " still-liquor," obtained in the old way from native manganese ore and hydrochloric acid.

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  • This additional lime, which is called the " basis," certainly takes up hydrochloric acid in the next stage of the process, but that causes no more waste of acid than the incomplete action on native manganese ore, mentioned before.

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  • There are also other advantages of this process which explain its wide extension, in spite of the fact that only from 30 to 35 parts of the hydrochloric acid employed is converted into chlorine, the remainder ultimately leaving the factory in the shape of a harmless but useless solution of calcium chloride.

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  • The mixture of hydrochloric acid and air is taken directly from the " decomposing-pan " of an ordinary salt-cake furnace, is first cooled down in pipes sufficiently to condense most of the moisture present 1 ?i; \'\` (together with about 8% of the hydrochloric acid), and then passed through a cast-iron superheater and from this into the " decomposer."

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  • The gaseous mixture, issuing from the latter, is washed with water in the usual condensing apparatus, to remove the 40 or 50 parts of hydrochloric acid left unchanged, and can then be immediately employed for the manufacture of chlorate of potash.

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  • The hydrochloric acid from the calcining-furnaces or "roasters" cannot be employed immediately for the Deacon process, as the sulphuric acid always contained in the roaster gases soon " poisons " the contact-substance and renders it inoperative.

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  • This acid must, therefore, be condensed in the ordinary way into liquid hydrochloric acid and formerly could be worked up only by the Weldon process.

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  • All endeavours to obtain either hydrochloric acid or free chlorine in the ammoniasoda process have proved commercial failures, all the chlorine of the sodium chloride being ultimately lost in the shape of worthless calcium chloride.

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  • The dibrominated product so obtained was then fused with caustic potash, the melt dissolved in water, and on the addition of hydrochloric acid to the solution, alizarin was precipitated.

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  • The metal is obtained from zinc blende (which only contains it in very small quantity) by dissolving the mineral in an acid, and precipitating the gallium by metallic zinc. The precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and foreign metals are removed by sulphuretted hydrogen; the residual liquid being then fractionally precipitated by sodium carbonate, which throws out the gallium before the zinc. This precipitate is converted into gallium sulphate and finally into a pure specimen of the oxide, from which the metal is obtained by the electrolysis of an alkaline solution.

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  • It is very heavy, its density being about 11; it inflames when heated in air and is not attacked by alkalis; it readily dissolves in nitric acid and aqua regia, but with difficulty in hydrochloric acid.

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  • When obtained by reduction processes at as low a temperature as possible the finely divided metal so formed is pyrophoric, and according to P. Schutzenberger (Comptes rendus, 1891,113, p. 177) dry hydrochloric acid gas converts this form into nickel chloride and a volatile compound of composition NiHC1.

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  • When heated with oxy-acids it dissolves, with evolution of oxygen, and with hydrochloric acid it evolves chlorine.

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  • Knorre (Ber., 1885, 18, p. 169) separate the metals by adding nitros01 3-naphthol in the presence of 50% acetic acid, a precipitate of cobalti nitroso-13-naphthol, [C 10 H 6 0(NO)] 3 Co, insoluble in hydrochloric acid, being formed, whilst the corresponding nickel compound dissolves in hydrochloric acid.

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  • Pinerua separates the metals by taking advantage of the fact that cobalt chloride is soluble in ether which has been saturated with hydrochloric acid gas at low temperature.

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  • Rubidium chloride, RbC1, is formed on burning rubidium in chlorine, or on dissolving the hydroxide in aqueous hydrochloric acid.

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  • Tungsten dioxide, W02, formed on reducing the trioxide by hydrogen at a red heat or a mixture of the trioxide and hydrochloric acid with zinc, or by decomposing the tetrachloride with water, is a brown strongly pyrophoric powder, which must be cooled in hydrogen before being brought into contact with air.

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  • A crystalline form was obtained by Debray as olive-green prisms by igniting a mixture of sodium tungstate and carbonate in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, and by Nordenskjold by heating hydrated tungstic acid with borax.

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  • Metatungstic acid, H2W4013.7H20, is obtained by decomposing the barium salt with sulphuric acid or the lead salt with hydrochloric acid.

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  • The metatungstates of the alkalis are obtained by boiling normal tungstates with tungstic acid until the addition of hydrochloric acid to the filtrate gives no precipitate.

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  • This salt is obtained by roasting wolfram with sodium carbonate, lixiviating, neutralizing the boiling filtrate with hydrochloric acid and crystallizing at ordinary temperatures.

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  • Its solution liberates chlorine from hydrochloric acid and iodine from potassium iodide.

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  • It is very hygroscopic and with cold water gives the oxide and hydrochloric acid.

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  • When perfectly pure, the hexachloride is stable even in moist air, but the presence of an oxychloride brings about energetic decomposition; similarly water has no action on the pure compound, but a trace of the oxychloride occasions sudden decomposition into a greenish oxide and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Berthollet, regarding it as being a compound of hydrochloric acid and oxygen, termed it oxygenized muriatic acid.

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  • In the form of alkaline chlorides it is found in sea-water and various spring waters, and in the tissues of animals and plants; while, as hydrochloric acid it is found in volcanic gases.

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  • Owing to the reduction in the supply of available hydrochloric acid (on account of the increasing use of the "ammonia-soda" process in place of the "Leblanc" process for the manufacture of soda) Weldon tried to adapt the former to the production of chlorine or hydrochloric acid.

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  • His method consisted in using magnesia instead of lime for the recovery of the ammonia (which occurs in the form of ammonium chloride in the ammonia-soda process), and then by evaporating the magnesium chloride solution and heating the residue in steam, to condense the acid vapours and so obtain hydrochloric acid.

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  • Many compounds containing hydrogen are readily decomposed by the gas; for example, a piece of paper dipped in turpentine inflames in an atmosphere of chlorine, producing hydrochloric acid and a copious deposit of soot; a lighted taper burns in chlorine with a dull smoky flame.

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  • The solution of chlorine in water, when freshly prepared, possesses a yellow colour, but on keeping becomes colourless, on account of its decomposition into hydrochloric acid and oxygen.

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  • Perfectly dry hydrochloric acid gas has no action on metals, but in aqueous solution it dissolves many of them with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides.

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  • The fused mass is then extracted with water to remove potassium chloride, and warmed with hydrochloric acid to remove unaltered chlorate, and finally extracted with water again, when a residue of practically pure perchlorate is obtained.

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  • The choice of sulphuric or hydrochloric acid depends mainly upon the cost, both acting with about the same rapidity; thus if a Leblanc soda factory is near at hand, then hydrochloric acid would most certainly be employed.

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  • The conversion of copper sulphide into the chlorides may be accomplished by calcining with common salt, or by treating the ores with ferrous chloride and hydrochloric acid or with ferric chloride.

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  • The presence of even a small proportion of hydrochloric acid imparts a brown tint to the deposit.

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  • Cuprous oxide is reduced by hydrogen, carbon monoxide, charcoal, or iron, to the metal; it dissolves in hydrochloric acid forming cuprous chloride, and in other mineral acids to form cupric salts, with the separation of copper.

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  • It is also obtained by burning the metal in chlorine, by heating copper and cupric oxide with hydrochloric acid, or copper and cupric chloride with hydrochloric acid.

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  • Its solution in hydrochloric acid readily absorbs carbon monoxide and acetylene; hence it finds application in gas analysis.

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  • Cupric chloride, CuC1 2, is obtained by burning copper in an excess of chlorine, or by heating the hydrated chloride, obtained by dissolving the metal or cupric oxide in an excess of hydrochloric acid.

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  • Cuprous iodide, Cu 2 l 21 is obtained as a white powder, which suffers little alteration on exposure, by the direct union of its components or by mixing solutions of cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid and potassium iodide; or, with liberation of iodine, by adding potassium iodide to a cupric salt.

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  • It also absorbs gaseous hydrochloric acid.

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  • Copper sulphate is readily soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol; it dissolves in hydrochloric acid with a considerable fall in temperature, cupric chloride being formed.

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  • For the preparation of the acid the crude argol is boiled with hydrochloric acid and afterwards precipitated as calcium tartrate by boiling with milk of lime, the calcium salt being afterwards decomposed by sulphuric acid.

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  • Bunsen in 1854 electrolysed a thick paste of barium chloride and dilute hydrochloric acid in the presence of mercury, at 10o C., obtaining a barium amalgam, from which the mercury was separated by a process of distillation.

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  • The chloride crystallizes in colourless rhombic tables of specific gravity 3.9 and is readily soluble in water, but is almost insoluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid and in absolute alcohol.

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  • Barium and its salts can be readily detected by the yellowishgreen colour they give when moistened with hydrochloric acid and heated in the Bunsenflame, or by observation of their spectra, when two characteristic green lines are seen.

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  • When the secretion of gastric juice is deficient it may be excited by gastric tonics, such as ten grains of bicarbonate of soda and a drachm of compound tincture of gentian in water shortly before meals, and may be supplemented by the administration of pepsin and hydrochloric acid after meals.

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  • Dilute hydrochloric acid is without action on it, but on warming with the concentrated acid, antimony trichloride is formed; it dissolves in warm concentrated sulphuric acid, the sulphate Sb2(S04)3 being formed.

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  • The compound formed, antimoniuretted hydrogen or stibine, SbH 3, may also be prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid on an alloy of antimony and zinc, or by the action of nascent hydrogen on antimony compounds.

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  • It is a nonvolatile white powder, and has a specific gravity of 6.6952; it is insoluble in water and almost so in acids - concentrated hydrochloric acid dissolving a small quantity.

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  • It is insoluble in water, but dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid.

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  • Antimony trichloride ("Butter of Antimony"), SbCl 31 is obtained by burning the metal in chlorine; by distilling antimony with excess of mercuric chloride; and by fractional distillation of antimony tetroxide or trisulphide in hydrochloric acid solution.

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  • Thioresorcin is obtained by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on the chloride of benzene meta-disulphonic acid.

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  • This leaves the gold in the insoluble residue, which is filtered off, and the silver in the solution is thrown down by hydrochloric acid.

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  • The copper is then dissolved in 5 cc. of nitric acid; if silver is present a drop or two of hydrochloric acid is added, the solution diluted to about 50 cc., and filtered.

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  • One gramme of ore is usually taken for assay and treated in a small flask or beaker with 10 cc. of hydrochloric acid.

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  • The product is treated with water, filtered, and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid and added to the main solution.

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  • In a chloridizing roast chlorine produces its effect as nascent chlorine or gaseous hydrochloric acid.

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  • As some watervapour is always present, hydrochloric acid will invariably be formed with the chlorine.

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  • It is almost insoluble in water, soluble in 50,000 parts of nitric acid, and more soluble in strong hydrochloric acid and solutions of alkaline chlorides.

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  • Carum copticum, from which it may be extracted by shaking with potassium hydroxide, filtering and precipitating the phenol with hydrochloric acid.

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  • Nilson (Ber., 1874, 7, p. 1719) digests the well-washed chamber mud with a moderately concentrated solution of potassium cyanide, whereby the element goes into solution in the form of potassium selenocyanide, KSe(CN), from which it is precipitated by hydrochloric acid.

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  • Any sulphuric acid present is removed by baryta water, the precipitated barium sulphate filtered off, the solution acidified by hydrochloric acid and reduced by sulphur dioxide.

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  • This method is to exhaust the powdered bark with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid and then to precipitate the alkaloids by caustic soda.

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  • In this sense alone quinine is a tonic. The hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice is stated to convert any salt of quinine into a chloride, and it seems probable that the absorption of quinine takes place mainly from the stomach, for when the drug reaches the alkaline secretions of the duodenum it is precipitated, and probably none of it is thereafter absorbed.

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  • The whole region abounds with fissures from which steam highly charged with hydrochloric acid is continually issuing, and in many places boiling water is found at a very few feet below the surface.

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  • Hittorf's phosphorus is another crystalline allotrope formed by heating phosphorus with lead in a sealed tube to redness, and removing the lead by boiling the product with nitric and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Solid Phosphoretted Hydrogen, P 4 H 2, first obtained by Le Verrier (loc. cit.), is formed by the action of phosphorus trichloride on gaseous phosphine (Besson, Comptes rendus, 111, p. 972); by the action of water on phosphorus di-iodide and by the decomposition of calcium phosphide with hot concentrated hydrochloric acid.

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  • It fumes strongly in moist air, giving hydrochloric acid and phosphoryl chloride, POC13; with water it gives phosphoric and hydrochloric acids.

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  • Nitrogen Compounds.-Phosphorus pentachloride combines directly with ammonia, and the compound when heated to redness loses ammonium chloride and hydrochloric acid and gives phospham, PN 2 H 4, a substance first described by Davy in 1811.

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  • Reduction by means of tin and hydrochloric acid gives a tetrahydro derivative.

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  • This, for instance, holds good of the acid employed in the manufacture of sulphate of soda and hydrochloric acid from common salt, and in the manufacture of superphosphates.

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  • These isomers may frequently be distinguished by the facts that the cis-acids yield anhydrides more readily than the trans-acids, and are generally converted into the trans-acids on heating with hydrochloric acid.

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  • The sulphochloride of the acid on reduction with tin and hydrochloric acid gives hexahydrothiophenol,.

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  • The trans A 4 acid is formed by heating the cis-acid with hydrochloric acid under pressure.

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  • Carbon monoxide is absorbed by a solution of cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid or, better, in ammonia.

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  • Ferrous chloride, FeC1 21 is obtained as shining scales by passing chlorine, or, better, hydrochloric acid gas, over red-hot iron, or by reducing ferric chloride in a current of hydrogen.

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  • Ferric chloride, FeCl31 known in its aqueous solution to Glauber as oleum martis, may be obtained anhydrous by the action of dry chlorine on the metal at a moderate red-heat, or by passing hydrochloric acid gas over heated ferric oxide.

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  • The solution is best prepared by dissolving the hydrate in hydrochloric acid and removing the excess of acid by evaporation, or by passing chlorine into the solution obtained by dissolving the metal in hydrochloric acid and removing the excess of chlorine by a current of carbon dioxide.

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  • Ferrous chloride dissolved in strong hydrochloric acid absorbs two molecules of the gas (Kohlschiitter and Kutscheroff, Ber., 1907, 40, p. 873).

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  • Fe3P occurs as crystals in the product of fusing iron with phosphorus; it dissolves in strong hydrochloric acid.

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  • It readily dissolves in hydrochloric acid.

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  • If iron be given in excess, or if the hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice be deficient, iron acts directly as an astringent upon the mucous membrane of the stomach wall.

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  • It dissolves slowly in hydrofluoric acid and in nitric acid, the solution turning blue; it is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.

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  • It is soluble in hot concentrated sulphuric acid and in concentrated hydrochloric acid.

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  • In the Marsh test the solution containing the arsenious compounds is mixed with pure hydrochloric acid and placed in an apparatus in which hydrogen is generated from pure zinc and pure sulphuric acid.

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  • Orpiment (auri pigmentum) occurs native in pale yellow rhombic prisms, and can be obtained in the amorphous form by passing a current of sulphuretted hydrogen gas through a solution of arsenious oxide or an arsenite, previously acidified with dilute hydrochloric acid.

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  • In addition to dyestuffs, it is a starting-product for the manufacture of many drugs, such as antipyrine, antifebrin, &c. Aniline is manufactured by reducing nitrobenzene with iron and hydrochloric acid and steam-distilling the product.

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  • In the process of bleaching by means of chlorine either bleaching powder or bichromates and hydrochloric acid are used.

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  • The mucilage must be acidulated with hydrochloric acid before dialysing, to set free the gummic acid.

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  • Adding an acid such as hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid to the sodium carboxylate would free the carboxylic acid.

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  • Cupric chloride Obtained either by dissolving cupric chloride Obtained either by dissolving cupric oxide in hydrochloric acid or by the action of chlorine on copper.

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  • For example, it would react with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce sodium chloride solution.

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  • The stomach contains hydrochloric acid which helps to digest your food.

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  • The curve will be exactly the same as when you add hydrochloric acid to sodium hydroxide.

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  • Thus 5 parts by weight of soda, 7 of potash and 3.5 of quicklime will each neutralize 4.56 parts of hydrochloric acid or 7.875 of nitric or 6.125 parts of sulphuric acid; these weights, in fact, are mutually equivalent to one another.

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  • Berglund (Berichte, 18 74, 7, p. 469), in aqueous solution, by dissolving ammonium cobaltocobaltisulphite (NH4)2C02 [(S03) 6 'C02] 14H 2 O in dilute hydrochloric or nitric acids, or by decomposition of its silver salt with hydrochloric acid.

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  • From its aqueous solution, concentrated hydrochloric acid precipitates hydrocobalticyanic acid, H 3 Co(CN) 61 as a colourless solid which is very deliquescent, and is not attacked by concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids.

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  • When heated with hydriodic acid (specific gravity 1.96) it forms amino-acetic acid, and with tin and hydrochloric acid it yields ethylene diamine.

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  • So far back as 1850 he also suggested a view which, in a modified form, is of fundamental importance in the modern theory of ionic dissociation, for, in a paper on the theory of the formation of ether, he urged that in an aggregate of molecules of any compound there is an exchange constantly going on between the elements which are contained in it; for instance, in hydrochloric acid each atom of hydrogen does not remain quietly in juxtaposition with the atom of chlorine with which it first united, but changes places with other atoms of hydrogen.

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  • Thus, hydrochloric acid is represented by the formula HC1, that is to say, it is a compound of an atom of hydrogen with an atom of chlorine, or of i part by weight of hydrogen with 35'5 parts by weight of chlorine; again, sulphuric acid is represented by the formula H 2 SO 4, which is a statement that it consists of 2 atoms of hydrogen, 1 of sulphur, and 4 of oxygen, and consequently of certain relative weights of these elements.

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  • The free acid, which crystallizes in brilliant scales, is best prepared by decomposing the silver salt with an ethereal solution of hydrochloric acid.

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  • Pure d-glucose, which may be obtained synthetically (see Sugar) or by adding crystallized cane sugar to a mixture of 80% alcohol and 115 volume of fuming hydrochloric acid so long as it dissolves on shaking, crystallizes from water or alcohol at ordinary temperatures in nodular masses, composed of minute six-sided plates, and containing one molecule of water of crystallization.

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  • A great proportion of the food constituents which can be extracted by strong hydrochloric acid are not in a condition to be taken up by the roots of plants; they are present, but in a " dormant " state, although by tillage and weathering processes they may in time become " available " to plants.

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  • The electrolyte is gold chloride (2.5-3 parts of pure gold per loo of solution) mixed with from 2 to 6% of the strongest hydrochloric acid to render the gold anodes readily soluble, which they are not in the neutral chloride solution.

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  • Owing to this, it is practically impossible to condense the gaseous hydrochloric acid into the commercial acid, although this acid may be obtained sufficiently strong to be worked up in the Weldon chlorine process (see below, 3).

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  • This produces a mixed current of pure hydrochloric acid gas and air, which is carried into a Deacon decomposer where it acts in the usual manner.

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  • Soc. 18 9 3, 63, p. 469); and by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a mixture of aromatic aldehydes and their cyanhydrins (E.

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  • When digested with fuming hydrochloric acid for some time it is converted into ad furfurane dicarboxylic acid (see Furfurane); while on heating with barium sulphide it is transformed into a - thiophene carboxylic acid (see Thiophene).

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  • If, however, one of the para positions in the hydrazo compound is substituted, then either diphenyl derivatives or azo compounds are formed, or what is known as the semidine change takes place (P. Jacobson, Berichte, 1892, 2 5, p. 99 2; 1893, 26, p. 681; 1896, 29, p. 2680; Annalen, 1895, 287, p. 97; 1898, 3 0 3, p. 290) A para mono substituted hydrazo compound in the presence of a hydrochloric acid solution of stannous chloride gives either a para diphenyl derivative (the substituent group being eliminated), an ortho-semidine, a para-semidine, or a diphenyl base, whilst a decomposition with the formation of amines may also take place.

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  • With chlorine it gives phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " chlorides, the action being accompanied with a greenish flame; bromine gives phosphorus pentabromide and pentoxide which interact to give phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " bromides; iodine gives phosphorus di-iodide, P 2 I 4, and pentoxide, P 2 0 5; whilst hydrochloric acid gives phosphorus trichloride and phosphorous acid, which interact to form free phosphorus, phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid.

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  • On the addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of the salt, red crystals of chromium trioxide, Cr03, separate (see Chromium), whilst when warmed with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little water, potassium chlorochromate is produced.

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  • Other helpful alternative approaches include identifying and eliminating food allergens from the diet, enhancing the function of the liver, augmenting the hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and completing a detoxification program.

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