Hydrocarbon sentence example

hydrocarbon
  • It thus possesses the same composition as the hydrocarbon of gutta-percha and as that of oil of turpentine and other terpenes which are the chief components of essential oils.
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  • The relation between the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon and its heat of formation may be readily seen from the following example.
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  • The hydrocarbon of gutta-percha yields similar results and is therefore closely related to caoutchouc.
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  • Paschen proved that the emission spectra of water vapour as observed in an oxyhydrogen flame, and of carbon dioxide as observed in a hydrocarbon flame may be obtained by heating aqueous vapour and carbon dioxide respectively to a few hundred degrees above the freezing point.
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  • Starting with a solid hydrocarbon of definite composition, it would be theoretically possible to decompose it entirely into carbon, hydrogen, ethylene and methane, and, by rapidly removing these from the heating zone before any secondary actions took place, to prevent formation of tar.
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  • Deferring the detailed discussion of cyclic or ringed hydrocarbons, a correlation of the various types or classes of compounds which may be derived from hydrocarbon nuclei will now be given.
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  • It will be seen that each type depends upon a specific radical or atom, and the copulation of this character with any hydrocarbon radical (open or cyclic) gives origin to a compound of the same class.
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  • The readiness with which ethylene is acted on in comparison with other types of hydrocarbon, for example, is in harmony, he considers, with the circumstance that the greatest distortion must be involved in its formation, as if deflected into parallelism each valency will be drawn out of its position through 2.109° 28'.
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  • Everybody agrees that carbon is necessary for its appearance, but some believe it to be due to a hydrocarbon, others to carbon monoxide, and others to volatilized carbon.
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  • Pararosaniline was reduced to the corresponding leuco compound (paraleucaniline), from which by diazotization and boiling with alcohol, the parent hydrocarbon was obtained (H 2 N C 5 H 4) 2 C:C 6 H 4 :NH 2 Cl - HC(C6H4NH2 HCl)3 - >HC(C6H4N2C13) Pararosaniline hydrochloride.
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  • But its chief technical application depends upon the formation of sulphonic acids when it reacts with aromatic hydrocarbon residues; these compounds being important either as a step towards the preparation of hydroxy-compounds, e.g.
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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.
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  • The hydrocarbon methane, CH 4, when completely burned to carbon dioxide and water, generates 213800 cal.
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  • This is the general equation for calculating the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon.
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  • Aliphatic monobasic acids are further divided according to the nature of the parent hydrocarbon.
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  • In carburetting such a gas by injecting mineral oil into the retort, many of the products of the decomposition of the oil being vapours, it would be wasteful to do so for the first two hours, as a rich gas is being given off which has not the power of carrying in suspension a much larger quantity of hydrocarbon vapours without being supersaturated with them.
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  • Mixing the coal gas with water gas, which has been highly carburetted by passing it with the vapours of various hydrocarbons through superheaters in order to give permanency to the hydrocarbon gases.
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  • The genesis and formulation of these types may be readily understood by considering the relation which exists between the alcohols and the parent hydrocarbon.
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  • Acenaphthalene, C12 H8, a hydrocarbon crystallizing in yellow tables and obtained by passing the vapour of acenaphthene over heated litharge.
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  • H that hydrocarbon molecules can be cracked to form smaller molecules including alkenes.
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  • A hydrocarbon that possesses one double bond belongs to the next homologous series called alkenes.
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  • Recent studies have focused on wireline interpretation and early diagenesis in hydrocarbon reservoirs from the Middle East, particularly Cretaceous ramp systems.
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  • Many licenses for hydrocarbon exploration were awarded under the 17th licensing round in new offshore areas.
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  • The present emphasis lies in hydrocarbon production-related research including both geoscience and engineering oriented topics, and ore mineralization.
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  • The influence of chemical kinetics on hydrocarbon exhaust emissions is considerable but is difficult to model.
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  • It is hoped that the availability of this data set will assist the industry in maximizing future hydrocarbon recovery.
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  • External chillers Air cooled chillers utilizing hydrocarbon refrigerants are available from Swedish manufacturers such as ABB Stal and Bonus.
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  • The instrument was then tested on core samples from a hydrocarbon reservoir in the North Sea.
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  • Since the heat of combustion of a hydrocarbon is equal to the heat of combustion of the carbon and hydrogen it contains minus its heat of formation, those hydrocarbons with positive heat of formation generate less heat on burning than the elements from which they were formed, whilst those with a negative heat of formation generate more.
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  • The hydrocarbon C20H42, for example, might be resolved into C5H12+C15H30, or CEH14+C14H28, or C7H16 +C13H26, &c., the general equation of the decomposition being C„1-1 27, ± 2 (paraffin) =G_rH2(, - P)+2 (paraffin)+C P H 2 n (olefine).
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  • The readiness with which ethylene is acted on in comparison with other types of hydrocarbon, for example, is in harmony, he considers, with the circumstance that the greatest distortion must be involved in its formation, as if deflected into parallelism each valency will be drawn out of its position through 2.109° 28'.
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  • If a be the heat evolved by each carbon atom, and # that by each hydrogen atom, the thermal effect may be expressed as H =na+2m/ - A, where A is the heat required to break the molecule into itsconstituent atoms. If the hydrocarbon be saturated, i.e.
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  • Two monosulphonic acids (a and 0) result by acting with sulphuric acid on the hydrocarbon, the a-acid predominating at low temperatures (80° C. and under) and the 0-acid at higher temperatures (170°-200° C.).
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  • Nutmeg butter yields on distillation with water a volatile oil to the extent of about 6%, consisting almost entirely of a hydrocarbon called myristicene, CioHis, boiling at 165° C. It is accompanied by a small quantity of an oxygenated oil, myristicol, isomeric with carvol, but differing from it in not forming a crystalline compound with hydrosulphuric acid.
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  • Hofmann (Berichte, 1881, 1 4, pp. 494, 6 59) is converted into the hydrocarbon conylene C 8 H 14, a compound that can also be obtained by heating nitrosoconine with phosphoric anhydride to 80-90° C. On heating conine with concentrated hydriodic acid and phosphorus it is decomposed into ammonia and normal octane CsH18.
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  • The hydrocarbon occurs in wood-tar and in petroleum, and is prepared commercially by fractional distillation of the light oil fraction of the coal-tar distillate (see Coal Tar).
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  • Explain what is meant by an unsaturated hydrocarbon 18.
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  • I've seen those listed as aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon, petroleum and mineral oil.
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  • The most common type of wax used in making candles is paraffin wax, a hydrocarbon that is a byproduct of the refinement process of crude oil.
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  • That chamber is then flooded with hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases at a precise combination of temperature, pressure, and chemical formula that will induce a unique "rain" of carbon to fall onto the chip.
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  • A large number of arrangements for carrying out the cracking process have been proposed and patented, probably the earliest directly bearing on the subject being that of James Young, who in 1865 patented his " Improvements in treating hydrocarbon oils."
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  • Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
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  • Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion of a radical R CO - (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c., generally according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result; by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl group by the group. SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group - NH NH2, acid-hydrazides.
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  • It is necessary clearly to distinguish such compounds as the amino- (or amido-) acids and acid-amides; in the first case the amino group is substituted in the hydrocarbon residue, in the second it is substituted in the carboxyl group.
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  • Other hydrocarbon nuclei generally classed as aromatic in character result from the union of two or more benzene nuclei joined by one or two valencies with polymethylene or oxidized polymethylene rings; instances of such nuclei are indene, hydrindene, fluorene, and fluoranthene.
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  • Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.
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  • It was found that the results were capable of expression by the empirical relation CaH2b= 104.3b+49'09m+105.47n, where C a H 2b denotes the formula of the hydrocarbon, m the number of single carbon linkings and n the number of double linkings, m and n being calculated on the Kekule formulae.
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  • It follows therefore that two hydrocarbon radicals are bound to the carbon monoxide residue with the same strength as they combine to form a paraffin.
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  • The properties of caoutchouc clearly show, however, that its actual molecular structure is considerably more complex than is represented by the empirical formula, and that it is to be regarded as the polymer of a terpene or similar hydrocarbon and composed of a cluster of at least ten or twenty molecules of the formula C5H8.
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  • It was based on an accidental observation of the action of metallic aluminium on amyl chloride, and consists in bringing together a hydrocarbon and an organic chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, when the residues of the two compounds unite to form a more complex body.
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  • It is convenient to distinguish between aliphatic and aromatic acids; the first named being derived from open-chain hydrocarbons, the second from ringed hydrocarbon nuclei.
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  • The graphite veins in the older crystalline rocks are probably akin to metalliferous veins and the material derived from deep-seated sources; the decomposition of metallic carbides by water and the reduction of hydrocarbon vapours have been suggested as possible modes of origin.
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  • In this method of preparation it is found that the secondary alcohols decompose more readily that the primary alcohols of the series, and when sulphuric acid is used, two phases are present in the reaction, the first being the building up of an intermediate sulphuric acid ester, which then decomposes into sulphuric acid and hydrocarbon: C2H 5 OH->C 2 H 5 HSO 4 ->C 2 H 4 +-H 2 SO 4.
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  • There seem to be characteristic bands, however, of any one series of radicals between woo and about i roo, which would indicate what may be called the central hydrocarbon group, to which other radicals may be bonded.
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  • Two monosulphonic acids (a and 0) result by acting with sulphuric acid on the hydrocarbon, the a-acid predominating at low temperatures (80° C. and under) and the 0-acid at higher temperatures (170°-200° C.).
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  • Jochem (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337), who arrived at the conclusion that the normal decomposition of diazonium salts by alcohols results in the formation of phenolic ethers, but that an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol, or the accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus, diminishes the yield of the ether and increases the amount of the hydrocarbon formed.
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  • Hantzsch, Ber., This assumption also shows the relationship of the diazonium hydroxides to other quaternary ammonium compounds, for most of the quaternary ammonium hydroxides (except such as have the nitrogen atom attached to four saturated hydrocarbon radicals) are unstable, and readily pass over into compounds in which the hydroxyl group is no longer attached to the amine nitrogen; thus the syn-diazo hydroxides are to be regarded as pseudo-diazonium derivatives.
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  • Nutmeg butter yields on distillation with water a volatile oil to the extent of about 6%, consisting almost entirely of a hydrocarbon called myristicene, CioHis, boiling at 165° C. It is accompanied by a small quantity of an oxygenated oil, myristicol, isomeric with carvol, but differing from it in not forming a crystalline compound with hydrosulphuric acid.
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  • They may be regarded as the anhydrides of the alcohols, being formed by elimination of one molecule of water from two molecules of the alcohols; those in which the two hydrocarbon radicals are similar are known as simple ethers, and those in which they are dissimilar as mixed ethers.
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  • The last reaction is most important, for it established the connexion between this hydrocarbon and the rosanilines.
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  • It is readily soluble in hydrocarbon solvents, in chloroform and in alcohol.
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  • Dewar and Jones suggest that in the latter reaction it is the metallic nickel which is probably the reducing agent effecting the change, since it is only dissolved in any quantity when the anthracene hydrocarbon is produced.
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  • When mesitylene is used, the reaction does not proceed beyond the aldehyde stage since hydrocarbon formation is prevented by the presence of a methyl group in the ortho-position to the -CHO group. Acids and alkalis are in general without action on nickel carbonyl.
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  • Cyclo-octane, C 8 H, 6 is obtained by the reduction of the above unsaturated hydrocarbon by the Sabatier and Senderens's method.
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  • The solubility of naphthalene by various oils has led some engineers to put in naphthalene washers, in which gas is brought into contact with a heavy tar oil or certain fractions distilled from it, the latter being previously mixed with some volatile hydrocarbon to replace in the gas those illuminating vapours which the oil dissolves out; and by fractional distillation of the washing oil the naphthalene and volatile hydrocarbons are afterwards recovered.
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  • Consider now the combustion of a hydrocarbon of the general formula CH 2m.
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  • When this volatile liquid hydrocarbon (isoprene) is allowed ro stand for some time in a closed bottle, it gradually passes into a substance having the principal properties of natural caoutchouc. The same change of isoprene into caoutchouc may also be effected by the action of certain chemical agents.
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  • Numerous hydrides are known; heated with red phosphorus and hydriodic acid the hydrocarbon yields mixtures of hydrides of composition C10H10 to C10H20.
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