Hydriodic-acid Sentence Examples
Sodium amalgam or zinc and hydrochloric acid reduce it to lactic acid, whilst hydriodic acid gives propionic acid.
Boron and iodine do not combine directly, but gaseous hydriodic acid reacts with amorphous boron to form the iodide, BI 31 which can also be obtained by passing boron chloride and hydriodic acid through a red-hot porcelain tube.
They are not decomposed by boiling alkalis, but on heating with hydriodic acid they split into their components.
Thus by transposition we may write the last equation as follows 2HI =H2+12+12200 cal., and thus express that hydriodic acid when decomposed into its elements evolves 12200 cal.
Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.
Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.
Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.
It is a very stable compound, chlorine, concentrated nitric acid and hydriodic acid having no action upon it.
When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus it forms phenylacetic acid; whilst concentrated hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid at moderate temperatures convert it into phenylbromand phenylchlor-acetic acids.
Silicon iodoform, SiHI 3, is formed by the action of hydriodic acid on silicon, the product, which contains silicon tetraiodide, being separated by fractionation.Advertisement
Reduction with hydriodic acid gives dibenzyl, and heating with sulphur gives tetraphenylthiophene or thionessal.
By the action of sodium amalgam on an alcoholic solution of anthracene, an anthracene dihydride, C14H12, is obtained, whilst by the use of stronger reducing agents, such as hydriodic acid and amorphous phosphorus, hydrides of composition C14H16 and C14H24 are produced.
Potassium bichromate oxidizes it to malonic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid; and hydriodic acid reduces it to succinic acid.
Zirconium iodide, Zr14, was obtained as a yellow, microcrystalline solid by acting with hydriodic acid on heated zirconium (Wedekind, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1135).
Ammonium iodide, NH 4 I, can be prepared by the action of hydriodic acid on ammonia.Advertisement
It rarely substitutes directly, because the hydriodic acid produced reverses the reaction; this can be avoided by the presence of precipitated mercuric oxide or iodic acid, which react with the hydriodic acid as fast as it is formed, and consequently remove it from the reacting system.
On shaking up iodine with a solution of sulphuretted hydrogen in water, a solution of hydriodic acid is obtained, sulphur being at the same time precipitated.
The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).
They are more easily reduced than the corresponding chlorates; an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid giving free iodine and a metallic oxide, whilst aqueous hydrochloric acid gives iodine trichloride, chlorine, water and a chloride.
Aeuer (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 2 53 6; Ann., 1904, 337, p. 362), who converted pure ethyl iodide into hydriodic acid and subsequently into silver iodide, which they then analysed, obtained the value 126.026 (H =1); a discussion of this and other values gave as a mean 126.97 (0=16).Advertisement
Numerous hydrides are known; heated with red phosphorus and hydriodic acid the hydrocarbon yields mixtures of hydrides of composition C10H10 to C10H20.
This compound is hydrolysed by hydriodic acid and alizarin is obtained.
On oxidation it gives triphenylcarbinol, (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH, and reduction with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus gives benzene and toluene.
Davy on his side seems to have felt that the French chemist was competing with him, not altogether fairly, in trying to appropriate the honour of discovering the character of the substance and of its compound, hydriodic acid.
Hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids are without action; hydriodic acid only reacts slowly.Advertisement
Similar phenomena are exhibited in the electrolysis of solutions of antimony tribromide and tri-iodide, the product obtained from the tribromide having a specific gravity of 5.4, and containing 18-20% of antimony tribromide, whilst that from the tri-iodide has a specific gravity of 5.2-5.8 and contains about 22% of hydriodic acid and antimony tri-iodide.
It is reduced by sodium amalgam to benzhydrol or diphenyl carbinol C 6 H 5 [[Choh C 6 H]] 5; a stronger reducing agent, such as hydriodic acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus converts it into diphenylmethane (C6H5)2.
Hydrochloric acid forms a surface film of silver chloride; hydriodic acid readily dissolves it, while hydrofluoric acid is without action.
It is decomposed by hydriodic acid with liberation of selenium and iodine, and by ammonia with formation of selenium and nitrogen.
It results in the alkaline fusion of many resins, and may be prepared by fusing ortho-phenolsulphonic acid, o-chlorphenol, o-bromphenol, and o-phenoldisulphonic acid with potash, or, better, by heating its methyl ether, guaiacol, C 6 H 4 (OH) (OCH 3), a constituent of beechwood tar, with hydriodic acid.
Hydrobromic acid converts it into a-brompropionic acid, and hydriodic acid into propionic acid.
Water and the caustic alkalis readily decompose it with liberation of phosphine and the formation of iodides or hydriodic acid.
Le Blanc, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2299), or by treatment with phosphorus oxychloride followed by the reduction of the resulting dichlorisoquinoline with hydriodic acid (S.
Baeyer by removing the elements of hydriodic acid from iodocyclo-hexane on boiling it with quinoline.
The d-form is found as a methyl ether in pirate (from the juice of Pinus lambertina, and of caoutchouc from Mateza roritina of Madagascar), from which it may be obtained by heating with hydriodic acid.
The tri-iodide, AsI3 prepared by subliming arsenic and iodine together in a retort, by leading arsine into an alcoholic iodine solution, or by boiling powdered arsenic and iodine with water, filtering and evaporating, forms brick-red hexagonal tables, of specific gravity 4.39, soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene, and in a large excess of water; in the presence of a small quantity of water, it is decomposed with formation of hydriodic acid and an insoluble basic salt of the composition 4AsOI.
It is not reduced by hydriodic acid and phosphorus, but sodium in the presence of amyl alcohol reduces it to tetrahydrodiphenyl C12H14.
When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus, it yields n-valeric acid; and with iodine and caustic soda solution it gives iodoform, even in the cold.
It is reduced by sodium amalgam to glycouril C 4 H 6 N 4 O 2, whilst with hydriodic acid it yields urea and hydantoin C 3 H 4 N 2 O 2.
When heated with hydriodic acid (specific gravity 1.96) it forms amino-acetic acid, and with tin and hydrochloric acid it yields ethylene diamine.
Kulisch, Monats., 1894, 15, p. 276); by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on hydrocarbostyril (the inner anhydride of ortho-aminohydrocinnamic acid), the chlorinated compound first formed being then reduced by hydriodic acid (A.