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hydriodic

hydriodic Sentence Examples

  • Sodium amalgam or zinc and hydrochloric acid reduce it to lactic acid, whilst hydriodic acid gives propionic acid.

  • Boron and iodine do not combine directly, but gaseous hydriodic acid reacts with amorphous boron to form the iodide, BI 31 which can also be obtained by passing boron chloride and hydriodic acid through a red-hot porcelain tube.

  • Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexaand octo-hydro derivatives.

  • They are not decomposed by boiling alkalis, but on heating with hydriodic acid they split into their components.

  • When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 200° C. it yields a hexahydride.

  • Michaels (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1383) by distilling thebenol over zinc dust in a stream of hydrogen, or by the action of hydriodic acid and phosphorus at 220° C. on thebenol.

  • expresses that under certain conditions the intrinsic energy of hydriodic acid is greater than the intrinsic energy of its component elements by 12200 cal., i.e.

  • that hydriodic acid is formed from its elements with absorption of this amount of heat.

  • Thus by transposition we may write the last equation as follows 2HI =H2+12+12200 cal., and thus express that hydriodic acid when decomposed into its elements evolves 12200 cal.

  • Amongst endothermic compounds may be noted hydriodic acid, HI, acetylene, C 2 H 2, nitrous oxide, N 2 O, nitric oxide, NO, azoimide, N 3 H, nitrogen trichloride, NC1 3.

  • The following table gives the heats of neutralization of the commoner strong monobasic acids with soda: - Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydriodic acid Nitric acid Chloric acid Bromic acid Within the error of experiment these numbers are identical.

  • OH, whilst a strong reducing agent like hydriodic acid converts it into xanthene, the group >CO becoming > CH.

  • Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.

  • Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.

  • Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.

  • Hydrobromic and hydriodic acids were investigated by Gay Lussac and Balard, while hydrofluoric acid received considerable attention at the hands of Gay Lussac, Thenard and Berzelius.

  • Hydriodic acid at high temperature reduces pyrrol to pyrrolidine (tetra-hydropyrrol), C 4 H 8 NH.

  • It is a very stable compound, chlorine, concentrated nitric acid and hydriodic acid having no action upon it.

  • When heated to 250° C. with red phosphorus and hydriodic acid it gives a hydride It is nitrated by nitric acid and sulphonated by sulphuric acid.

  • When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus it forms phenylacetic acid; whilst concentrated hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid at moderate temperatures convert it into phenylbromand phenylchlor-acetic acids.

  • In contact with hydriodic acid gas at o° C., it forms ethyl iodide (R.

  • Hydriodic acid reduces it to glycerin and nitric oxide.

  • Silicon iodoform, SiHI 3, is formed by the action of hydriodic acid on silicon, the product, which contains silicon tetraiodide, being separated by fractionation.

  • It is also obtained by the action of hydriodic acid on silicon nitrogen hydride suspended in carbon bisulphide, or by the action of a benzene solution of hydriodic acid on trianilino-silicon hydride (0.

  • Hydriodic acid reduces it to hexamethylene" (cyclo-hexane or hexa-hydro-benzene); chlorine and bromine form substitution and addition products, but the action is slow unless some carrier such as iodine, molybdenum chloride or ferric chloride for chlorine, and aluminium bromide for bromine, be present.

  • Our knowledge of the chemical structure of the monosaccharoses may be regarded as dating from 1880, when Zincke suspected some to be ketone alcohols, for it was known that glucose and fructose, for example, yielded penta-acetates, and on reduction gave hexahydric alcohols, which, when reduced by hydriodic acid, gave normal and secondary hexyliodide.

  • Reduction with hydriodic acid gives dibenzyl, and heating with sulphur gives tetraphenylthiophene or thionessal.

  • By the action of sodium amalgam on an alcoholic solution of anthracene, an anthracene dihydride, C14H12, is obtained, whilst by the use of stronger reducing agents, such as hydriodic acid and amorphous phosphorus, hydrides of composition C14H16 and C14H24 are produced.

  • Potassium bichromate oxidizes it to malonic acid; nitric acid oxidizes it to oxalic acid; and hydriodic acid reduces it to succinic acid.

  • Sodium and boiling amyl alcohol reduce it to a tetrahydroretene, - t whilst if it be heated with phosphorus and hydriodic acid to 260° C. a dodecahydride is formed.

  • C (OH): C 6 H 4; and with hydriodic acid at i so C. or on distillation with zinc dust, the hydrocarbon anthracene, C 14 H 10.

  • Zirconium iodide, Zr14, was obtained as a yellow, microcrystalline solid by acting with hydriodic acid on heated zirconium (Wedekind, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1135).

  • Ammonium iodide, NH 4 I, can be prepared by the action of hydriodic acid on ammonia.

  • As unsaturated compounds they can combine with two monovalent atoms. Hydrogen is absorbed readily at ordinary temperature in the presence of platinum black, and paraffins are formed; the halogens (chlorine and bromine) combine directly with them, giving dihalogen substituted compounds; the halogen halides to form monohalogen derivatives (hydriodic acid reacts most readily, hydrochloric acid, least); and it is to be noted that the haloid acids attach themselves in such a manner that the halogen atom unites itself to the carbon atom which is in combination with the fewest hydrogen atoms (W.

  • Sulphuric acid is now added to the liquid, and any alkaline sulphides and sulphites present are decomposed, while iodides and bromides are converted into sulphates, and hydriodic and hydrobromic acids are liberated and remain dissolved in the solution.

  • It rarely substitutes directly, because the hydriodic acid produced reverses the reaction; this can be avoided by the presence of precipitated mercuric oxide or iodic acid, which react with the hydriodic acid as fast as it is formed, and consequently remove it from the reacting system.

  • Hydriodic acid, HI, is formed by the direct union of its components in the presence of a catalytic agent; for this purpose platinum black is used, and the hydrogen and iodine vapour are passed over the heated substance.

  • On shaking up iodine with a solution of sulphuretted hydrogen in water, a solution of hydriodic acid is obtained, sulphur being at the same time precipitated.

  • It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c. It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.

  • The iodides can be prepared either by direct union of iodine with a metal, from hydriodic acid and a metal, oxide, hydroxide or carbonate, or by action of iodine on some metallic hydroxides or carbonates (such as those of potassium, sodium, barium, &c.; other products, however, are formed at the same time).

  • Hydriodic acid and the iodides may be estimated by conversion into silver iodide.

  • It is readily reduced, with separation of iodine, by sulphur dioxide, hydriodic acid or sulphuretted hydrogen, thus: HIO 3 +5HI =3H 2 0 +31 2; 2H103+5502+4H20 =5H2S04+12; 2HIO 3 +5H 2 S =1 2 -1-5S +6H20.

  • They are more easily reduced than the corresponding chlorates; an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid giving free iodine and a metallic oxide, whilst aqueous hydrochloric acid gives iodine trichloride, chlorine, water and a chloride.

  • Aeuer (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 2 53 6; Ann., 1904, 337, p. 362), who converted pure ethyl iodide into hydriodic acid and subsequently into silver iodide, which they then analysed, obtained the value 126.026 (H =1); a discussion of this and other values gave as a mean 126.97 (0=16).

  • The anhydrous acid combines with hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids to form crystalline addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of the corresponding ammonium salt and formic acid.

  • The bromide and iodide are formed in a similar manner by heating the metal in gaseous hydrobromic or hydriodic acids.

  • With hydriodic acid it gives only (3-iodobutyric acid.

  • Numerous hydrides are known; heated with red phosphorus and hydriodic acid the hydrocarbon yields mixtures of hydrides of composition C10H10 to C10H20.

  • Hypochlorous acid and its salts, together with the corresponding bromine and iodine compounds, liberate oxygen violently from hydrogen peroxide, giving hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids (S.

  • Reduction by means of hydriodic acid and phosphorus at 140° C. gives toluene, whilst on distillation with alcoholic potash, toluene and benzoic acid are formed.

  • This compound is hydrolysed by hydriodic acid and alizarin is obtained.

  • On oxidation it gives triphenylcarbinol, (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH, and reduction with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus gives benzene and toluene.

  • Davy on his side seems to have felt that the French chemist was competing with him, not altogether fairly, in trying to appropriate the honour of discovering the character of the substance and of its compound, hydriodic acid.

  • Hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids are without action; hydriodic acid only reacts slowly.

  • Synthetically it may ba obtained by reducing malic or tartaric acids with hydriodic acid (R.

  • Hydriodic acid and phosphorus reduce it to maleic acid and finally to succinic acid.

  • Similar phenomena are exhibited in the electrolysis of solutions of antimony tribromide and tri-iodide, the product obtained from the tribromide having a specific gravity of 5.4, and containing 18-20% of antimony tribromide, whilst that from the tri-iodide has a specific gravity of 5.2-5.8 and contains about 22% of hydriodic acid and antimony tri-iodide.

  • It may be prepared by distilling diphenylene ketone over zinc dust, or by heating it with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 150-160° C.; and also by passing the vapour of diphenyl methane through a red hot tube.

  • It crystallizes in colourless plates, possessing a violet fluorescence, melting at 112-113° and boiling at 293-295° C. By oxidation with chromic acid in glacial acetic acid solution, it is converted into diphenylene ketone (C8H4)2 CO; whilst on heating with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 250-260° C. it gives a hydro derivative of composition C13H22.

  • It is reduced by sodium amalgam to benzhydrol or diphenyl carbinol C 6 H 5 [[Choh C 6 H]] 5; a stronger reducing agent, such as hydriodic acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus converts it into diphenylmethane (C6H5)2.

  • If a solution of sodium thiosulphate (hyposulphite) is added to this solution, hydriodic acid, sodium iodide and tetrathionate are formed; and if a little starch solution has been added, the end of the reaction is indicated by the disappearance of the blue colour, due to the iodide of starch.

  • Hydrochloric acid forms a surface film of silver chloride; hydriodic acid readily dissolves it, while hydrofluoric acid is without action.

  • It is obtained as a light yellow powder by dissolving the metal in hydriodic acid, or by precipitating a silver salt with a soluble iodide.

  • When heated with fuming hydriodic acid to 300° C. it yields normal pentane and ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide oxidizes it to glutarimide and to a piperidinium oxide or oxime (R.

  • Hydriodic acid reduces both oleic and elaidic acids to stearic acid.

  • Fischer (Berichte, 1897, 30, p. 2238) by heating 2.6.8-trichlorpurin with 10 times its weight of ammonia for six hours at 100° C.; by this means 6-amino-2.8-dichlorpurin is obtained, which on reduction by means of hydriodic acid and phosphonium iodide is converted into adenine.

  • It is decomposed by hydriodic acid with liberation of selenium and iodine, and by ammonia with formation of selenium and nitrogen.

  • It results in the alkaline fusion of many resins, and may be prepared by fusing ortho-phenolsulphonic acid, o-chlorphenol, o-bromphenol, and o-phenoldisulphonic acid with potash, or, better, by heating its methyl ether, guaiacol, C 6 H 4 (OH) (OCH 3), a constituent of beechwood tar, with hydriodic acid.

  • Hydrobromic acid converts it into a-brompropionic acid, and hydriodic acid into propionic acid.

  • It is also prepared by the action of iodine on gaseous phosphine, or by heating amorphous phosphorus with concentrated hydriodic acid solution to 160° C. It crystallizes in large cubes and sublimes readily.

  • Water and the caustic alkalis readily decompose it with liberation of phosphine and the formation of iodides or hydriodic acid.

  • This substance when heated with hydriodic acid to 300° C. is converted into a-propyl piperidine, which can also be obtained by the reduction of a-allyl pyridine (formed from a-methyl pyridine and paraldehyde).

  • Bamberger, Ber., 94, 7, 1955), C,H 5 CH: CH CH: NOH --4[C 6 H 5 CH: CH NH COH] -*C,H,N; by the action of hydriodic acid on the oxydichlorisoquinoline formed when phosphorus pentachloride reacts with hippuric acid; by the distillation of homophthalimide over zinc dust (M.

  • Le Blanc, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2299), or by treatment with phosphorus oxychloride followed by the reduction of the resulting dichlorisoquinoline with hydriodic acid (S.

  • Hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric and many other acids are manufactured by the action of sulphuric acid on their salts; the alkali and chlorine industries, and also the manufacture of bromine and iodine, employ immense quantities of this acid.

  • Hydriodic acid converts it into n-propyl iodide.

  • hydriodic acid and red phosphorus on benzene, and considered to be hexahydrobenzene, is obtained synthetically by the action of sodium on 1.5 dibromhexane; and by the action of magnesium on acetylbutyl iodide (N.

  • Baeyer by removing the elements of hydriodic acid from iodocyclo-hexane on boiling it with quinoline.

  • The d-form is found as a methyl ether in pirate (from the juice of Pinus lambertina, and of caoutchouc from Mateza roritina of Madagascar), from which it may be obtained by heating with hydriodic acid.

  • When heated with hydriodic acid to 230° C. it gives methylhexamethylene.

  • Methyl granatoline on treatment with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus, followed by caustic potash, yields methyl granatinine, C 9 H 15 N, which when heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 240° C. is converted into methyl granatanine, C 8 H 14 NCH 31 and granatanine, C 8 H 14 NH.

  • The halogens give ferrous and ferric haloids and carbon monoxide; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids have no action, but hydriodic decomposes it.

  • Alcohols may be readily prepared from the corresponding alkyl haloid by the action of moist silver oxide (which behaves as silver hydroxide); by the saponification of their esters; or b the reduction of of h dric alcohols by P Y Y with hydriodic acid, and the subsequent conversion of the resulting alkyl iodide into the alcohol by moist silver oxide.

  • The tri-iodide, AsI3 prepared by subliming arsenic and iodine together in a retort, by leading arsine into an alcoholic iodine solution, or by boiling powdered arsenic and iodine with water, filtering and evaporating, forms brick-red hexagonal tables, of specific gravity 4.39, soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene, and in a large excess of water; in the presence of a small quantity of water, it is decomposed with formation of hydriodic acid and an insoluble basic salt of the composition 4AsOI.

  • GLUTARIC ACID, Or [[Normal Pyrotartaric Acid, Ho 2 C Ch 2 Ch 2 Ch 2 Co 2 H]], an organic acid prepared by the reduction of a-oxyglutaric acid with hydriodic acid, by reducing glutaconic acid, HO 2 C CH 2 CH: CH.

  • It is not reduced by hydriodic acid and phosphorus, but sodium in the presence of amyl alcohol reduces it to tetrahydrodiphenyl C12H14.

  • When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus, it yields n-valeric acid; and with iodine and caustic soda solution it gives iodoform, even in the cold.

  • It is reduced by sodium amalgam to glycouril C 4 H 6 N 4 O 2, whilst with hydriodic acid it yields urea and hydantoin C 3 H 4 N 2 O 2.

  • When heated with hydriodic acid (specific gravity 1.96) it forms amino-acetic acid, and with tin and hydrochloric acid it yields ethylene diamine.

  • Sodium amalgam or zinc and hydrochloric acid reduce it to lactic acid, whilst hydriodic acid gives propionic acid.

  • Boron and iodine do not combine directly, but gaseous hydriodic acid reacts with amorphous boron to form the iodide, BI 31 which can also be obtained by passing boron chloride and hydriodic acid through a red-hot porcelain tube.

  • Hydriodic acid and phosphorus at high temperature give a dihydro-compound, whilst sodium and alcohol give hexaand octo-hydro derivatives.

  • They are not decomposed by boiling alkalis, but on heating with hydriodic acid they split into their components.

  • When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 200° C. it yields a hexahydride.

  • Michaels (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1383) by distilling thebenol over zinc dust in a stream of hydrogen, or by the action of hydriodic acid and phosphorus at 220° C. on thebenol.

  • expresses that under certain conditions the intrinsic energy of hydriodic acid is greater than the intrinsic energy of its component elements by 12200 cal., i.e.

  • that hydriodic acid is formed from its elements with absorption of this amount of heat.

  • Thus by transposition we may write the last equation as follows 2HI =H2+12+12200 cal., and thus express that hydriodic acid when decomposed into its elements evolves 12200 cal.

  • Amongst endothermic compounds may be noted hydriodic acid, HI, acetylene, C 2 H 2, nitrous oxide, N 2 O, nitric oxide, NO, azoimide, N 3 H, nitrogen trichloride, NC1 3.

  • The following table gives the heats of neutralization of the commoner strong monobasic acids with soda: - Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydriodic acid Nitric acid Chloric acid Bromic acid Within the error of experiment these numbers are identical.

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