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hydraulic

hydraulic

hydraulic Sentence Examples

  • With Fowler's hydraulic arrangement 2000 tons are raised 600 yds.

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  • With Fowler's hydraulic arrangement 2000 tons are raised 600 yds.

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  • 12 shows an ordinary hydraulic dock-side jib crane.

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  • This second method forms the basis of the lifting gear in all hydraulic cranes.

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  • The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).

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  • applied by him to the invention of the hydraulic press.

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  • applied by him to the invention of the hydraulic press.

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  • The different kinds of motive power used to actuate cranes - manual, steam, hydraulic, electric - give a further classification.

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  • Cranes fitted with rotating hydraulic engines may be considered as coming under the third category.

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  • This decrease was largely caused by the practical suspension for many years of the hydraulic mining operations, in preparation for which millions of dollars had been expended in deep tunnels, flumes, &c., and the active continuance of which might have been expected to yield some £2,000,000 of gold annually.

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  • The toggle-joint attachment, which is an extremely ingenious way of attaining the same end as the hydraulic attachments, is open to the same objections.

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  • This interruption, due to the practical prohibition of the industry by the United States courts, on the ground that it was injuring, through the deposit of tailings, agricultural lands and navigable streams, was lessened, though not entirely removed, by compromises and regulations which permit, under certain restrictions, the renewed exploitation of the ancient river-beds by the hydraulic method.

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  • In this form a large number, after being cooked or stoved in moist heat for about twenty-four hours, are piled between plates in an hydraulic press, and subjected to great pressure for a month or six weeks, during which time a slow fermentation takes place, and a considerable exudation of juice results from the severe pressure.

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  • The Mad river is made to furnish good water-power by means of a hydraulic canal which takes its water through the city, and Dayton's manufactures are extensive and varied, the establishments of the National Cash Register Company employing in 1907 about 4000 wage-earners.

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  • The chief mineral product is the asphalt of the mines of Seyssel on the eastern frontier, besides which potter's clay, building stone, hydraulic lime and cement are produced in the department.

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  • Brick, tile, sewer-pipe, and hydraulic cement are manufactured, and there are railway repair shops.

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  • Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of perfection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial competition created and maintained by sugar bounties.

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  • The extraordinary architectural skill, the sanitary and hydraulic science revealed in details of the building, bring us at the same time face to face with the power of mechanical invention with which Daedalus was credited.

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  • Before 1405 the mortar used in Venice was made of lime from Istria, which possessed no hydraulic qualities and was consequently very perishable, a fact which to a large extent accounts for the fall of the Campanile of San Marco.

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  • This is a suspension bridge with a central portion, between two lofty and massive stone towers, consisting of bascules which can be raised by hydraulic machinery to admit the passage of vessels.

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  • But hydraulic presses have now been abandoned, for the juice is universally obtained by diffusion, and the small slicers have gone out of use, because the large amount of pulp they produced in proportion to slices is not suitable for the diffusion process, in which evenly cut slices are required, which present a much greater surface with far less resistance to the diffusion water.

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  • But hydraulic presses have now been abandoned, for the juice is universally obtained by diffusion, and the small slicers have gone out of use, because the large amount of pulp they produced in proportion to slices is not suitable for the diffusion process, in which evenly cut slices are required, which present a much greater surface with far less resistance to the diffusion water.

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  • ih shows also a modern form of the hydraulic press, applied to the operation of covering an electric cable with a lead coating.

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  • Modern methods of hydraulic mining have been introduced to work the auriferous banks of Poto; elsewhere antiquated methods only are employed.

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  • In first cost the hydraulic crane has the advantage, but the power mains are much less expensive and more convenient to arrange in the electric crane.

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  • Hydraulic pumping engines, while not differing essentially from steam pumps, must have specially designed valves in the power cylinder on account of the incompressibility of water.

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  • - This method is employed to extract gold from both alluvial and reef deposits: in the first case it is combined with " hydraulic mining," i.e.

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  • Down to the closing decades of the 19th century hydraulic power was practically the only system available for working cranes from a power station.

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  • In the Greek school at Alexandria, which flourished under the auspices of the Ptolemies, the first attempts were made at the construction of hydraulic machinery, and about 120 B.C. the fountain of compression, the siphon, and the forcing-pump were invented by Ctesibius and Hero.

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  • An excellent brake for very large cranes is Matthew's hydraulic brake, in which water is passed from end to end of cylinders fitted with reciprocating pistons, cooling jackets being provided.

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  • This drawback can be corrected to a slight extent by furnishing the hydraulic crane with more than one cylinder, and thus compounding it, but the arrangement does not give the same economical range of load "as in an electric crane.

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  • The hydraulic crane has a great advantage in possessing an almost ideal brake, for by simply throttling the exhaust from the lifting cylinder the speed of descent can be regulated within very wide limits and with perfect safety.

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  • The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate.

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  • A considerable number of men are engaged in the various states on alluvial fields, in hydraulic sluicing, and dredging is now adopted for the winning of gold in river deposits.

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  • The mineral wealth of the department is considerable, including coal as well as manganese and bituminous schist; plaster, building stone and hydraulic lime are also produced.

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  • Soon afterwards he designed a hydraulic crane, which contained the germ of all the hydraulic machinery for which he and Elswick were subsequently to become famous.

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  • All attempts to dispense with a lead and line and to measure the depth by determining the pressure at the bottom have hitherto failed when applied to depths greater than 200 fathoms; a new hydraulic manometer has been tried on board the German surveying ship " Planet."

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  • Hydraulic mining has for the most part been confined to the country of its invention, California, and the western territories of America, where the conditions favourable for its use are more fully developed than elsewhere - notably the presence of thick banks of gravel that cannot be utilized by other methods, and abundance of water, even though considerable work may be required at times to make it available.

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  • By an hydraulic press a pressure of 100,000 kilos was made to act upon the disks, when the metal was seen to "flow" out of the hole like a viscid liquid.

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  • By an hydraulic press a pressure of 100,000 kilos was made to act upon the disks, when the metal was seen to "flow" out of the hole like a viscid liquid.

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  • Large baling presses are worked by hydraulic power; the operation needs no special description.

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  • Francis (Lowell Hydraulic Experiments, Boston, Mass., 1855) led him to propose variations in the accepted formulae for the discharge over weirs, and a generation later a very complete investigation of this subject was carried out by H.

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  • These attachments, first invented by Jeremiah Howard, and described in the United States Patent Journal in 1858, are simply hydraulic rams fitted into the side or top caps of the mill, and pressing against the side or top brasses in such a manner as to allow the side or top roll to move away from the other rolls, while an accumulator, weighted to any desired extent, keeps a constant pressure on each of the rams. An objection to the top cap arrangement is, that if the volume or feed is large enough to lift the top roll from the cane roll, it will simultaneously lift it from the megass roll, so that the megass will not be as well pressed as it ought to be;' and an objection to the side cap arrangement on the megass roll as well as to the top cap arrangement is, that in case more canes are fed in at one end of the rolls than at the other, the roll will be pushed out farther at one end than at the other; and though it may thus avoid a breakdown of the rolls, it is apt, in so doing, to break the ends off the teeth of the crown wheels by putting them out of line with one another.

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  • Eight hydraulic hoists, of the most up-to-date pattern, are capable of shipping 5,600 tons of coal per hour.

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  • The alluvial deposits are almost invariably worked opencast, those of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago chiefly by Chinese labour: in a few instances hydraulic mining has been resorted to, and in other cases true underground mining is carried on; but the latter is both exceptional and difficult.

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  • Such machines were good enough when the juice was expelled from the small and, so to speak, chopped slices and pulp by means of hydraulic presses.

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  • Such machines were good enough when the juice was expelled from the small and, so to speak, chopped slices and pulp by means of hydraulic presses.

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  • in an hydraulic press, by which they are moulded into Tobacco solid cakes.

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  • A hydraulic canal provides the city with good water power, and in 1905, in the value of its factory products ($13,992,574, being 31.3% more than in 1900), Hamilton ranked tenth among the cities of the state.

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  • In addition to the Adige embankment, other hydraulic works have been either completed or undertaken.

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  • Tests of the comparative efficiencies of hydraulic and electric cranes tend to show that, although they do not vary to any very considerable extent with full load, yet the efficiency of the hydraulic crane falls away very much more rapidly than that of the electric crane when working on smaller loads.

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  • Where electric or hydraulic cranes are worked from a central station the speed is greater, and may be roughly represented by V =5 +30o/T; e.g.

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  • The hydraulic lifting cylinders are placed inside the revolving steel mast or post, and the cabin for the driver FIG.

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  • Sometimes a strip of felt is interposed between the chair and the sleeper, and sometimes a serrated surface is prepared on the sleeper for the chair which is forced into its seat by hydraulic pressure.

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  • But when Venice took possession of the mainland her builders were able to employ a strong hydraulic dark lime from Albettone, which formed a durable cement, capable of resisting salt water and the corrosive sea air.

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  • Among other important articles of domestic industry are tobacco and cigars (manufactured mainly in bond, within the free harbour precincts), hydraulic machinery, electro-technical machinery, chemical products (including artificial manures), oils, soaps, india-rubber, ivory and celluloid articles and the manufacture of leather.

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  • Hence, when in 1850 a hydraulic installation was required for a new ferry station at New Holland, on the Humber estuary, the absence of water mains of any kind, coupled with the prohibitive cost of a special reservoir owing to the character of the soil, impelled him to invent a fresh piece of apparatus, the "accumulator," which consists of a large cylinder containing a piston that can be loaded to give any desired pressure, the water being pumped in below it by a steam-engine or other prime mover.

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  • The hydraulic crane is rapid in action, very smooth and silent in working, easy to handle, and not excessive in cost or upkeep, - advantages which have secured its adoption in every part of the world.

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  • When hydraulic pressure to the amount of 2000 to 3000 lb per square inch is applied, the saving is unquestioned, since less time is required to dry the pressed retort, its life in the furnaces is longer, its absorption of zinc is less, and the loss of zinc by passage through its walls in the form of vapour is reduced.

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  • The arrangement is, in fact, a modification of the plug and feather system used in stone quarrying for obtaining large blocks, but with the substitution of the powerful rending force of the hydraulic press for handpower in driving up the wedges.

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  • An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.

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  • There are three Li ting - typical methods: (I) A direct pull may be applied to the hook, either by screws, or by a cylinder fitted with is piston and rod and actuated by direct hydraulic or other pressure, as shown diagrammatically in fig.

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  • The subjection of the core to a hydraulic pressure of four tons to the square inch and an electric pressure of 5000 volts from an alternating-current transformer has been adopted, by one manufacturer at least, to secure the detection of masked faults which might develop themselves after submergence.

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  • It consists of a small hydraulic press, which forces a set of expanding bits or wedges into a bore-hole previously bored by a long screw augur or drill, worked by hand, the action of the press being continued until a sufficient strain is obtained to bring down the coal.

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  • The invention of the hydraulic press in 1795 by Joseph Bramah (Eng.

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  • Gold dredging is treated by Captain C. C. Longridge in Gold Dredging, and hydraulic mining is discussed by the same author in his Hydraulic Mining.

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  • This simple device may be looked upon as the crown of the hydraulic system, since by its various modifications the installation of hydraulic power became possible in almost any situation.

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  • The Elswick works were originally founded for the manufacture of this hydraulic machinery, but it was not long before they became the birthplace of a revolution in gunmaking; indeed, could nothing more be placed to Armstrong's credit than their establishment, his name would still be worthy of remembrance.

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  • They are worked by hydraulic machinery.

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  • As no scaffolding could be used for the centre spans, the girders were built on shore, floated out and raised by hydraulic presses.

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  • At Sunderland, the bridge is first lifted by a hydraulic press so as to clear the roadway behind, and is then rolled back.

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  • at the centre of are rotated by pinions driven by hydraulic engines working in steel sectors 42 ft.

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  • Concrete in a shell is a name which might be applied to all the methods of founding a pier which depend on the very valuable property which strong hydraulic concrete possesses of setting into a solid mass under water.

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  • (2) The Britannia and Conway bridges were built on staging on shore, lifted by pontoons, floated out to their position between the piers, and lastly lifted into place by hydraulic presses.

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  • Geneva is well supplied with charitable institutions, hospitals, &c. Among other remarkable sights of the city may be mentioned the great hydraulic establishment (built 1882-1899) of the Forces Motrices du Rhone (turbines), the singular monument set up to the memory of the late duke of Brunswick who left his fortune to the city in 1873, and the tie Jean-Jacques Rousseau now connected with the Pont des Bergues.

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  • From the Falls, which gave the city its first importance as a stopping place for tourists, valuable electric and hydraulic power is derived (by a tunnel 29 ft.

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  • The Maryland building stone, of which there is an abundance of good quality, consists chiefly of granites, limestones, slate, marble and sandstones, the greater part of which is quarried in the east section of the Piedmont Plateau especially in Cecil county, though some limestones, including those from which hydraulic cement is manufactured, and some sandstones are obtained from the western part of the Piedmont Plateau and the east section of the Appalachian region; the value of stone quarried in the state in 1907 was $1,439,355, of which $1,183,753 was the value of granite, $142,825 that of limestone, $98,918 that of marble, and $13,859 that of sandstone.

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  • In spite of its high cost, the drum weir furnishes a valuable hydraulic contrivance for situations where it is very important to be able to close a weir of moderate height against a strong current and to regulate with ease and precision the discharge past a weir.

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  • Railway and tramway connexions are provided and both electric and hydraulic power are available.

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  • In tropical countries drought is the commonest cause of a failure in the harvest, and where great droughts are not uncommon - as in parts of India and Australia - the hydraulic engineer comes to the rescue by devising systems of water-storage and irrigation.

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  • On account of its refractory nature, it is employed in the manufacture of crucibles, furnace linings, &c. It is also used in making hydraulic cements.

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  • They are constructed of granite, and no expense has been spared in equipping them with hydraulic cranes, warehouses, &c.

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  • To be of service the lime should be what is known as "hydraulic," that is, not pure or "fat," but containing some argillaceous matter, and should be carefully slaked with water before being mixed with the aggregate.

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  • Even though the best hydraulic lime be used it is wise to confine it to places where it is not exposed to the air, or to running water, and indeed for important structures the use of lime should be avoided.

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  • The electricity is partly furnished by hydraulic works at Paderno, 24 m.

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  • The whole internal harbour system is furnished with powerful hydraulic cranes and lines of railway running alongside the quays.

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  • The crushed mass is then placed in hempen cloths and pressed in a screw or hydraulic press.

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  • N, Hydraulic cylinder for tilting.

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  • The furnace, resting on the rollers M, is tilted by the hydraulic cylinder N.

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  • That for the thin-walled water mains must combine strength with the fluidity needed to enable it to run freely into its narrow moulds; that for most machinery must be soft enough to be cut easily to an exact shape; that for hydraulic cylinders must combine strength with density lest the water leak through; and that for car-wheels must be intensely hard in its wearing parts, but in its other parts it must have that shock-resisting power which can be had only along with great softness.

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  • First, if the skeleton which it forms is continuous, then its planes of junction with the metallic matrix offer a path of low resistance to the passage of liquids or gases, or in short they make the metal so porous as to unfit it for objects like the cylinders of hydraulic presses, which ought to be gas-tight and water-tight.

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  • Castings which, like hydraulic press cylinders and steam radiators, must be dense and hence must have but little graphite lest their contents leak through their walls, should not have more than 1.75% of silicon and may have even as little as 1% if impenetrability is so important that softness and consequent ease of machining must be sacrificed to it.

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  • The first cost of a hammer of moderate size is much less than that of a hydraulic press of like capacity, as is readily understood when we stop to reflect what powerful pressure, if gradually applied, would be needed to drive the nail which a light blow from our hand hammer forces easily into the woodwork.

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  • Moreover, the effect of the sharp blow of the hammer is relatively superficial, and does not penetrate to the interior of a large piece as the slowly applied pressure of the hydraulic press does.

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  • Because of these facts the great hammers have given place to enormous forging presses, the 125-ton Bethlehem hammer, for instance, to a 14,000-ton hydraulic press, moved by water under a pressure of FIG.

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  • The subject of hydraulic transmission of power is treated generally under Power Transmission (Hydraulic), and the present article is confined to water motors.

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  • It becomes, therefore, necessary to balance in some way the varying displacement of the ram if economy is to be secured in the working: this is often done by the use of counter-weights attached to chains travelling over head sheaves, but this largely destroys the simplicity and safety of the direct-acting lift, and hence some form of hydraulic balancing is more satisfactory and more certain.

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  • I, the lift cylinder is in hydraulic connexion with a pair of short cylinders placed one above the other, the pistons working in them being connected together by a common rod.

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  • In another system of hydraulic balance (fig.

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  • 2) the ram A has an annular area so proportioned that when it is connected with the water in an elevated tank (usually placed somewhere in the roof of the building), the hydraulic pressure upon it just balances the weight of the ram and cage.

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  • Since the introduction of deep-level electric railways in London and elsewhere, hydraulic passenger lifts on a large scale have been brought into use for conveying passengers up and down from the street level to the underground stations.

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  • - Hydraulic high-pressure water supplied in large towns.

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  • - Hydraulic Balancing.

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  • of 70% has been obtained, and when a dynamo is driven directly by them about 66% of the hydraulic energy has been converted into electric energy.

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  • Professor Thurston has published the results of a test 1 This and some of the other drawings have been taken from Blaine's Hydraulic Machinery.

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  • p. 410, " Hydraulic Works at Niagara "; vol.

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  • - Wood, Theory of Turbines; Bovey, Hydraulics; BjOrling, Hydraulic Motors; Blaine, Hydraulic Machinery; Bodmer, Hydraulic Motors; Unwin, " Water Motors " (Lectures on Hydro-Mechanics, Inst.

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  • The canal system of northern India is the most perfect the world has yet seen, and contains works of hydraulic engineering which can be equalled in no other country.

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  • is on hydraulic engineering, and the preface on theories of the ancients.

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  • were hydraulic; it was also known that this property could be conferred on ordinary lime by admixture of silicious materials such as pozzuolana or t.ufa.

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  • We have here the two classes into which hydraulic cements are divided.

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  • This potential energy becomes kinetic when the slag is brought into contact with lime in the presence of water, and causes the formation of a true hydraulic silicate of lime.

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  • In fact, ordinary pozzuolanic cement made on the spot where it is to be used may be regarded as a better kind of common mortar having hydraulic qualities.

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  • Good hydraulic mortars may be made from lime mixed with furnace ashes or burnt clay as the pozzuolanic constituent.

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  • The earliest forms of cements of the Portland class were the hydraulic limes.

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  • Although hydraulic limes have been in use from the most ancient times, their true nature and the reason of their resistance to water have only become known since 1791.

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  • Next in antiquity to hydraulic lime is Roman cement, prepared by heating an indurated marl occurring naturally in nodules.

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  • With the growth of engineering in the early part of the 19th century arose a great demand for hydraulic cement.

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  • Although Portland cement is later in date than either Roman cement or hydraulic lime, yet on account of its greater industrial importance, and of the fact that, being an artificial product, it is of approximately uniform composition and properties, it may conveniently be treated of first.

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  • Hydraulic Lime is a cement of the Portland as distinct from the pozzuolanic class.

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  • The most typical hydraulic lime is that known as Chaux du Theil, made from a limestone found at Ardeche in France.

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  • English hydraulic limes are of a different class; they contain a good deal of alumina and ferric oxide, and in composition resemble somewhat irregular Portland cement.

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  • Analyses of the two classes of hydraulic lime are as follows: Hydraulic lime contains a good deal of uncombined lime, and has to be slaked before it is used as a cement.

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  • In English practice hydraulic lime is slaked by the user.

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  • A case in point is the employment of hydraulic lime in place of Portland cement as grouting outside the cast-iron tubes used for lining tunnels made by the shield system.

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  • The chief use of hydraulic cements, whether of the pozzuolanic or Portland class, is to act as an adhesive material in work which is to be exposed to water.

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  • On this observation rests the whole of the present enormous employment of hydraulic cements.

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  • It might be supposed that hydraulic cements from their nature would be indifferent to the action of water, but this is only true if the structures of which they form part are sufficiently compact.

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  • Lewis, "Manufacture of Hydraulic Cements in the United States," The Mineral Industry (New York, 1898); W.

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  • " The Testing of Hydraulic Cements," Journ.

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  • in length, worked by hydraulic power.

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  • Even hard steel is treated in this way to form tubes for the highest hydraulic and steam pressures.

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  • A floor can be most satisfactorily operated by hydraulic means, a platform cannot be so well worked in this way.

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  • South Bethlehem is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. The Bethlehem Steel Company manufactures here iron and steel, including Bessemer steels, armour plate, steel rails, government ordnance, drop forgings, iron and steel castings, stationary engines, gas engines, hydraulic pumps, projectiles, steel shaft and pig iron; zinc is smelted and refined; and there are large hosiery and knitting mills, and silk mills and cigar factories.

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  • over the sill at high water of spring tides; the construction of new jetties at the entrance to the tidal basin and at the north wall; the establishment of a coal wharf with hydraulic appliances; a torpedo range in the harbour; the erection of various buildings such as torpedo and gun-mounting stores, electrical shops and numerous subsidiary works; and extensive dredging of the harbour to increase the berthing accommodation for the fleet.

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  • First the " rocker," then the " torn," the " flume," and the hydraulic stream were the tools of the miner.

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  • The hydraulic stream came into use as early as 1852 (or 1853) when prospecting of the higher ground made it certain that the " deep " or " high " gravels - i.e.

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  • The hydraulic process received an immense development through successive improvements of method and machinery.

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  • Hydraulic mining is no longer practised on the scale of early days.

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  • by the detritus wash of the hydraulic mines, and that of Sleepy Hollow Creek 136 ft.

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  • Permits for hydraulic mining are granted by the commission only when all gravel is satisfactorily impounded and no harm is done to the streams; and the improvement of these, which was impossible so long as limits were not set to hydraulic mining, can now be effectively advanced.

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  • The leading features of political life and of legislation after 1876 were a strong labour agitation, the struggle for the exclusion of the Chinese, for the control of hydraulic mining, irrigation, and the advancement by state-aid of the fruit interests; the last three of which have already been referred to above.

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  • Applications: Hydraulic Press: Pneumatic Power-Transmitter.In the hydraulic press the vessel consists of two cylinders, viz, the pump-barrel and the press-barrel, each having its piston, and of a passage connecting them having a valve opening towards the press-barrel.

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  • When the pressure and temperature of the air can be maintained constant, this machine fulfils equation (2), like the hydraulic press.

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  • In this scheme large turbines were placed at the bottom of hydraulic fall tubes 150 ft.

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  • The jute is carefully sorted into different qualities, and then each lot is subjected to an enormous hydraulic pressure from which it emerges in the shape of the well-known bales, each weighing 400 lb.

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  • The "streaks" 1 or "heads" of jute as they come from the bale are in a hard condition in consequence of having been subjected to a high hydraulic pressure during baling; it is therefore necessary to soften them before any further process is entered.

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  • Often it is necessary to repeat the dipping, and for the second coat hydraulic lime may be employed.

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  • in extent, equipped with travelling cranes, hydraulic and steam cranes, lighted by electric light and connected with the Great Northern railway by a branch line.

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  • The massive iron bridges across the dock entrances are opened and closed by hydraulic power, which is likewise applied to the cranes, coal-hoists, warehouse-lifts and other machinery about.

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  • The boot and shoe trade is prosperous, and there are extensive engineering and hydraulic machinery works.

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  • These jetties are provided with hydraulic cranes, &c., and railways connect them with the main line, so that goods can be sent direct from the jetties to every part of South Africa.

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  • John M`Gregor, who gives an interesting description of them in his Rob Roy on the Jordan, affirmed that as a work of hydraulic engineering, the system and construction of the canals, by which the Abana and Pharpar were used for irrigation, might be considered as one of the most complete and extensive in the world.

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  • It possesses a floating dock capable of lifting a vessel of 850o tons, a floating workshop, a patent slip for small craft, hydraulic cranes, &c. The minimum depth alongside the quays at low water is 23 ft., increased at places to over 30 ft.

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  • Two miles up the river is the Hen Island dam, which, with the Mishawaka hydraulic dam nearer the city, is the source of much of the power used by the city's manufactories.

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  • There is a coaling jetty and camber for the storage of both sea-borne and land-borne coal, with hydraulic appliances for handling it.

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  • But Leonardo's chief practical employments were evidently on the continuation of his great hydraulic and irrigation works in Lombardy.

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  • Mines of coal, iron, lead and zinc are worked, and the quarries furnish hydraulic lime (Le Teil) and other products.

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  • The latter's uncle, George Leather, was engineer of the Great Aire and Calder Navigation Company, of the Goole Docks, and other similar works, and Fowler passed occasionally into his employment, in which he acquired a thorough knowledge of hydraulic engineering.

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  • It has been shown that the best hydraulic lime, or volcanic puzzuolana and lime, if properly ground while slaking, and otherwise treated in the best-known manner, as well as some of the so-called natural (calcareous) cements, will yield results certainly not inferior to those obtained from Portland cement.

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  • This, if the dam had been thoroughly well constructed, either with hydraulic lime or Portland cement mortar, would have been easily borne.

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  • Nothing but long observation and experience can help the hydraulic engineer to judge of the configuration of the ground favourable to such phenomena.

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  • The university is well-equipped with laboratories, the psychological laboratory, the laboratories of Sibley college and the hydraulic laboratory of the college of civil engineering being especially noteworthy; the last is on Fall Creek, where a curved concrete masonry dam has been built, forming Beebe Lake.

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  • There are marbles in Osage and other counties, shell marble in Montgomery county, white limestone in Chase county, a valuable bandera flagstone and hydraulic cement rock near Fort Scott, &c. The limestones produced in 1908 were valued at $403,176 and the sandstones at $67,950.

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  • There is a considerable industry in the building of flat boats to convey salt to Liverpool, the river Weaver being navigable, and connected by a hydraulic lift, 1 m.

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  • The extensive wharves are amply served by hydraulic machinery and railways.

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  • Now, however, only the smaller gas works adhere to this system, and this work is done by machinery driven by either compressed air, hydraulic or electric power.

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  • For the purpose of discharging the coke from the retort either compressed air or hydraulic machinery is employed, a rake being made to enter the retort and withdraw the coke on returning.

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  • With this method it is necessary that the rake should enter and discharge several times before the retort is clear, and thus the use of a telescopic ram worked by hydraulic power, which pushes the coke before it and discharges it at the other end, is an advantage.

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  • From the retort the gas passes by the ascension pipe to the hydraulic main (fig.

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  • Condensation takes place in the ascension pipe, in the arch piece leading to the hydraulic main, and to a still greater extent in the hydraulic main itself where the gas has to pass through water.

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  • The most soluble of the constituents of crude coal gas is ammonia, 780 volumes of which are soluble in one volume of water at normal temperature and pressure, and the water in the hydraulic main absorbs a considerable quantity of this compound from the gas and helps to form the ammoniacal liquor, whilst, although the liquor is well agitated by the gas bubbling through it, a partial separation of tar from liquor is effected by gravitation.

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  • The liquor is run off at a constant rate from the hydraulic main to the store tank, and the gas passes from the top of the hydraulic main to the foul main.

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  • The gas as it leaves the hydraulic main is still at a temperature of from 130° to 150° F., and should now be reduced as nearly as - possible to the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere.

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  • The tar and liquor when condensed have a dissolving action on various valuable light-giving constituents of the gas, which in the ordinary way would not be deposited by the lowering of temperature, and for this reason the heavy tar, and especially that produced in the hydraulic main, should come in contact with the gas as little as possible, and condensation should take place slowly.

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  • The exhauster is practicall y a rotary gas pump which serves the purpose of drawing the gas from the hydraulic main through the condensers, and then forcing it through the purifying vessels to the holder.

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  • - Hydraulic Main.

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  • II), forming what is known as the hydraulic cup. Under these conditions the cup will necessarily be filled with water, and a seal will be formed, preventing the escape of gas.

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  • i is a hydraulic box with water seal; j, a coke-scrubber; k, a filter; 1, a sawdust-scrubber; m, inlet of gas-holder; n, gasholder; o, outlet of same; p, a valve with weighted lever to regulate the admission of steam to the gas-producer; q, the weight which actuates the lever automatically by the rise or fall of the bell of the gas-holder.

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  • For this purpose hydraulic mechanism of Bessemer's design was arranged under the control of an attendant, whose duty it was to keep watch on a spirit-level, and counteract by proper manipulation of the apparatus any deviation from the horizontal that might manifest itself on the floor of the saloon owing to the rolling of the vessel.

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  • The apparatus was then gradually improved, and thus were evolved the modern forms of the screw press, next the Dutch or stamper press, and finally the hydraulic press.

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  • This press has had to yield place to the hydraulic press, although in some old-fashioned establishments in Holland the stamper press could still be seen at work in the 'eighties of the 19th century.

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  • Since then the hydraulic press has practically completely superseded all other appliances used for expression, and in consequence of this epoch-making invention, assisted as it was later on by the accumulator - invented by William George (later Lord) Armstrong in 1843 - the seed-crushing industry reached a perfection of mechanical detail which soon secured its supremacy for England.

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  • For the preparation of edible oils and fats the meal is expressed in the cold, after having been packed into bags and placed in hydraulic presses under a pressure of three hundred atmospheres or even more.

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  • The warm meal is then delivered through measuring boxes into closed pressbags ("scourtins" of the "Marseilles" press), or through measuring boxes, combined with an automatic moulding machine, into cloths open at two sides (Anglo-American press), so that the preliminarily pressed cakes can be put at once into the hydraulic press.

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  • Numerous forms of hydraulic presses have been devised.

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  • A hydraulic ram then forces the table carrying the cakes against a press-head, and the exuding oil flows down the sides into a tank below.

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  • The packing of the press requires more manual labour than in the case of the Anglo-American press; moreover, the Marseilles press offers inconvenience in keeping the bags straight, and the pressure cannot be raised to the same height as in the more modern hydraulic presses.

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  • Hence, in modern installations, the first expression of those seeds is carried out in so-called cage (clodding) presses, consisting of hydraulic presses provided with circular boxes or cages, into which the meal is filled.

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  • The pressure was regulated by means of a weight loaded hydraulic accumulator, which could also store a certain amount f energy.

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  • The wave-induced motion of these joints is resisted by hydraulic rams, which pump high-pressure oil through hydraulic motors via smoothing accumulators.

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  • Engine All the boats come with a 4 cylinder Isuzu 55 engine with PRM hydraulic gearbox and twin alternators.

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  • Barriers with a low hydraulic conductivity can be produced by adding bentonite to a locally available soil.

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  • For installation on a truck, the truck engine is used to drive the chipper hydraulic system including the fan blower and loading crane.

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  • The Caponord's ABS system uses BH DOT hydraulic hoses in flexible metal braid with PTFE inner tubing.

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  • In addition, the hydraulic brake on the fork has been modified.

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  • It was hard work, even for a hydraulic breaker on a JCB!

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  • breeches of the guns ran back under cover to be loaded using hydraulic machinery.

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  • The door should be hung on three 100 mm steel butt hinges and be fitted with an overhead hydraulic self-closing device of approved specification.

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  • The hydraulic clutch is a lovely piece of engineering, with the bleed nipple atop it.

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  • Hydraulic couplings operate as clutches, but without the wear problems encountered with friction clutches.

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  • This is caused by dirty hydraulic components or a fault in the sliding member (cone clutch ).

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  • Void filling should obviously link with changes in the soil's hydraulic conductivity.

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  • counterbalance valve in the hydraulic system.

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  • Assume all four engines to be running idle with their hydraulic couplings empty.

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  • The bag of goods was delivered by hydraulic crane.

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  • The Immobilizer Series III CANNOT BE BOLT CROPPED BY HAND or with the portable hydraulic croppers pictured.

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  • hydraulic Pressure Gage Set The pressure gage shows the actual system pressure and therefore the force of the connected hydraulic cylinder.

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  • Their solution was the fitting of one of their hydraulic dampers; model HB 28 to every trap door.

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  • disc brakee two forward and one reverse speed and rear hydraulic disk brake.

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  • A 2316VM resonance free vibro hammer and a Dawson HPH2400 hydraulic drop hammer were mobilized to site.

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  • When the first hydraulic excavators appeared they were relatively puny affairs with small buckets and a short reach.

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  • extricated by fire personnel using hydraulic cutting equipment.

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  • extricated by fire personnel using hydraulic cutting equipment.

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  • A ten meter long 30cm wide and 30cm high glass walled recirculating hydraulic flume.

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  • Its compliant 27mm hydraulic front fork provides responsive control and a smoothly assured ride in virtually all riding situations.

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  • For one-dimensional flow, constant flow rate implies constant hydraulic gradient.

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  • With new studs in the superheater header it is prepared for the hydraulic boiler test.

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  • The risk assessment must take into account all factors that may influence the safe use of a hydraulic hoist.

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  • Without unfastening the hydraulic hose, pull the caliper upwards to clear the disk.

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  • hydraulic lime.

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  • hydraulic ram.

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  • hydraulic conductivity.

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  • The motion of the sections activates hydraulic rams which charge hydraulic accumulators.

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  • hydraulic dampers; model HB 28 to every trap door.

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  • hydraulic monoshock that provides the damping for the swingarm is also adjustable in spring preload.

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  • For softer bricks and stone, solid wall construction and conservation masonry, Limetec feebly hydraulic lime mortar is also available.

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  • From what I've read, the moderately hydraulic lime mortars would need 3 to 4 weeks to cure sufficiently to resist frost.

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  • Limetec eminently hydraulic lime mortar is an ideal solution where a higher level of durability is required.

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  • I would prefer the use of a traditional lime render or perhaps a naturally hydraulic lime render.

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  • Thankfully, the fully hydraulic brakes are well up to the task.

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  • There are also hydraulic dredge fisheries for razor fish and dredge fisheries for scallops.

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  • Firefighters removed a casualty from one vehicle using hydraulic cutting equipment on a spine board.

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  • The motion at the joints produced by the wave is resisted by hydraulic rams, which pumps high-pressure oil through hydraulic motors.

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  • Capable of lifting six meters into the hull, the fin takes 8 minutes to deploy using a single hydraulic ram.

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  • The motion of the sections activates hydraulic rams which charge hydraulic accumulators.

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  • The machine has a hydraulic ram (with a stroke of 3 ft) for putting materials under stress.

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  • A smaller hydraulic ram ejected the blocks from the molds, after which they were placed on a barrow and wheeled away.

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  • Coupling of hydraulic hysteresis and stress-strain behavior in unsaturated soils.

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  • A hydraulic system uses a liquid because its near incompressibility makes the action instantaneous as long as the system is full of liquid.

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  • A closed hydraulic system circulates fluid around a circuit and actuates the pressure intensifier.

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  • I use a laboratory jack for vertical movement having toyed with a small car hydraulic jack.

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  • I use a laboratory jack for vertical movement having toyed with a small car hydraulic jack.

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  • The new Hinge clamp range uses revolutionary kinematics to offer double-acting, low-cost hydraulic clamping with numerous mounting and connection options.

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  • Disable visitors will have full access to the vehicle through a hydraulic lift located at the rear staircase.

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  • Both hydraulic and non-hydraulic limes must be kept slightly damp but at the same time air must be allowed to circulate.

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  • hydraulic lime on the other hand will set in the absence of air, even underwater.

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  • WATER WHEELS In the late 18th and early 19th Century hydraulic machinery was extensively used in mines.

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  • metaphor for the mind became to a large extent hydraulic.

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  • hydraulic lime mortars should be used within a few hours of mixing.

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  • We sit as the hydraulic motors hum and whine on our mount.

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  • At that point, a flight control system hydraulic line the left nacelle ruptured under pressure.

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  • The recirculation system had to be modified to prevent pigmentation being carried over by adding a hydraulic needle valve.

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  • I bought a hydraulic cable oiler from MPS for 10.99.

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  • petrolring is electro-hydraulic (hydraulic for the 1.6-litre gasoline ), with a distinct and controlled steering feel.

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  • hydraulic pistons assist with the folding of the treadmill.

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  • The fire service were alerted to the blaze at 4.45pm and three pumps attended along with the services hydraulic platform and an ambulance.

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  • propeller turbines for converting the hydraulic head in the reservoir into electricity.

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  • NOTE: The power cylinder check is primarily a flow capacity check of the hydraulic pump.

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  • When the first hydraulic excavators appeared they were relatively puny affairs with small buckets and a short reach.

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  • Capable of lifting six meters into the hull, the fin takes 8 minutes to deploy using a single hydraulic ram.

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  • The secondary hydraulic pump supplies the push bar lock and winch, and provides for faster cylinder retraction.

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  • Simba double press and a Variocast 8 electronic seeder with hydraulic fans.

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  • Spring - Both Midland Railroad Trust power cars have hydraulic fluid self-contained in the torque convertor.

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  • At the rear the new Vespa LX has a dual effect hydraulic single shock absorber.

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  • slaked lime putty, or expensive sacks of hydraulic lime.

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  • The applicant must be able to carry out the following tasks: - Design hydraulic control valves of various configurations, including solenoid operated.

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  • Low maintenance requirements are met by the incorporation of hydraulic tappets, automatic timing belt tensioners and longlife spark plugs.

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  • The temporary hydraulic jacks which had been used to keep the piles rigid were replaced by steel stanchions.

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  • And not just stand-up comedy things, either, but also the hovercraft, the hydraulic sleeve valve and determinism.

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  • The force exerted by the stirrup on the oval window is converted into hydraulic pressure waves.

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  • Alternatively there is a hydraulic reset version for extremely stony conditions.

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  • The pump suction line takes oil from the hydraulic oil tank which is sized to provide adequate cooling.

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  • Self adjusting hydraulic tappets made quiet trouble free running for thousands of miles.

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  • There were probs with the 2002 to 2004 Calis which had some problems with the hydraulic tappets.

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  • telescopic hydraulic fork with 35 mm shafts.

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  • Rigid, mechanical or hydraulic folding units with a choice of 7mm or 8mm tines are available.

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  • The hydraulic torque converter is an extension of the principle employed in a hydraulic coupling.

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  • All models can be supplied with hydraulic front gang angling in place of the manual turnbuckle for ease of operation.

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  • Which required 8 firemen and a hydraulic winch to reopen.

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  • The tail gates and tail gate paddles of this lock and Lock 2w are hydraulic and operated by windlass.

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  • The suspension is fully independent with coil springs, double wishbones and 6 hydraulic dampers.

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  • The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).

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  • A considerable number of men are engaged in the various states on alluvial fields, in hydraulic sluicing, and dredging is now adopted for the winning of gold in river deposits.

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  • The different kinds of motive power used to actuate cranes - manual, steam, hydraulic, electric - give a further classification.

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  • Down to the closing decades of the 19th century hydraulic power was practically the only system available for working cranes from a power station.

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  • The hydraulic crane is rapid in action, very smooth and silent in working, easy to handle, and not excessive in cost or upkeep, - advantages which have secured its adoption in every part of the world.

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  • There are three Li ting - typical methods: (I) A direct pull may be applied to the hook, either by screws, or by a cylinder fitted with is piston and rod and actuated by direct hydraulic or other pressure, as shown diagrammatically in fig.

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  • This second method forms the basis of the lifting gear in all hydraulic cranes.

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  • All the methods in this third category require a rotating lifting or barrel shaft, and this is the important difference between them and the hydraulic cranes mentioned above.

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  • Cranes fitted with rotating hydraulic engines may be considered as coming under the third category.

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  • The hydraulic crane has a great advantage in possessing an almost ideal brake, for by simply throttling the exhaust from the lifting cylinder the speed of descent can be regulated within very wide limits and with perfect safety.

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  • An excellent brake for very large cranes is Matthew's hydraulic brake, in which water is passed from end to end of cylinders fitted with reciprocating pistons, cooling jackets being provided.

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  • Tests of the comparative efficiencies of hydraulic and electric cranes tend to show that, although they do not vary to any very considerable extent with full load, yet the efficiency of the hydraulic crane falls away very much more rapidly than that of the electric crane when working on smaller loads.

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  • This drawback can be corrected to a slight extent by furnishing the hydraulic crane with more than one cylinder, and thus compounding it, but the arrangement does not give the same economical range of load "as in an electric crane.

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  • In first cost the hydraulic crane has the advantage, but the power mains are much less expensive and more convenient to arrange in the electric crane.

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  • Where electric or hydraulic cranes are worked from a central station the speed is greater, and may be roughly represented by V =5 +30o/T; e.g.

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  • 12 shows an ordinary hydraulic dock-side jib crane.

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  • The hydraulic lifting cylinders are placed inside the revolving steel mast or post, and the cabin for the driver FIG.

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  • The subjection of the core to a hydraulic pressure of four tons to the square inch and an electric pressure of 5000 volts from an alternating-current transformer has been adopted, by one manufacturer at least, to secure the detection of masked faults which might develop themselves after submergence.

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  • The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate.

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  • The chief mineral product is the asphalt of the mines of Seyssel on the eastern frontier, besides which potter's clay, building stone, hydraulic lime and cement are produced in the department.

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  • Sometimes a strip of felt is interposed between the chair and the sleeper, and sometimes a serrated surface is prepared on the sleeper for the chair which is forced into its seat by hydraulic pressure.

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  • The extraordinary architectural skill, the sanitary and hydraulic science revealed in details of the building, bring us at the same time face to face with the power of mechanical invention with which Daedalus was credited.

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  • At the foot of the slope on this side, forming the eastern boundary of the palace, are massive supporting walls and a bastion with descending flights of steps, and a waterchannel devised with extraordinary hydraulic science (Evans, " Palace of Knossos," " Reports of Excavations 1900-1905," in Annual of British School at Athens, vi.

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  • Brick, tile, sewer-pipe, and hydraulic cement are manufactured, and there are railway repair shops.

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  • Before 1405 the mortar used in Venice was made of lime from Istria, which possessed no hydraulic qualities and was consequently very perishable, a fact which to a large extent accounts for the fall of the Campanile of San Marco.

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  • But when Venice took possession of the mainland her builders were able to employ a strong hydraulic dark lime from Albettone, which formed a durable cement, capable of resisting salt water and the corrosive sea air.

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  • Large baling presses are worked by hydraulic power; the operation needs no special description.

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  • Belzoni was desirous of laying before Mehemet Ali a hydraulic machine of his own invention for raising the waters of the Nile.

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  • The mineral wealth of the department is considerable, including coal as well as manganese and bituminous schist; plaster, building stone and hydraulic lime are also produced.

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  • Among other important articles of domestic industry are tobacco and cigars (manufactured mainly in bond, within the free harbour precincts), hydraulic machinery, electro-technical machinery, chemical products (including artificial manures), oils, soaps, india-rubber, ivory and celluloid articles and the manufacture of leather.

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  • long and equipped with electric light, stationary and travelling hydraulic cranes, machinery for meat freezing, and large sheds for storing corn and wool.

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  • The alluvial deposits are almost invariably worked opencast, those of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago chiefly by Chinese labour: in a few instances hydraulic mining has been resorted to, and in other cases true underground mining is carried on; but the latter is both exceptional and difficult.

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  • This is a suspension bridge with a central portion, between two lofty and massive stone towers, consisting of bascules which can be raised by hydraulic machinery to admit the passage of vessels.

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  • Hydraulic pumping engines, while not differing essentially from steam pumps, must have specially designed valves in the power cylinder on account of the incompressibility of water.

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  • In the Greek school at Alexandria, which flourished under the auspices of the Ptolemies, the first attempts were made at the construction of hydraulic machinery, and about 120 B.C. the fountain of compression, the siphon, and the forcing-pump were invented by Ctesibius and Hero.

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  • Francis (Lowell Hydraulic Experiments, Boston, Mass., 1855) led him to propose variations in the accepted formulae for the discharge over weirs, and a generation later a very complete investigation of this subject was carried out by H.

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  • ih shows also a modern form of the hydraulic press, applied to the operation of covering an electric cable with a lead coating.

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  • With a view of safeguarding themselves from breakdowns caused by the inequality of feeding, or by the action of malicious persons introducing foreign substances, such as crowbars, bolts, &c., among the canes, and so into the mills, many planters have adopted socalled hydraulic attachments, applied either to the megass roll or the top roll bearings.

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  • These attachments, first invented by Jeremiah Howard, and described in the United States Patent Journal in 1858, are simply hydraulic rams fitted into the side or top caps of the mill, and pressing against the side or top brasses in such a manner as to allow the side or top roll to move away from the other rolls, while an accumulator, weighted to any desired extent, keeps a constant pressure on each of the rams. An objection to the top cap arrangement is, that if the volume or feed is large enough to lift the top roll from the cane roll, it will simultaneously lift it from the megass roll, so that the megass will not be as well pressed as it ought to be;' and an objection to the side cap arrangement on the megass roll as well as to the top cap arrangement is, that in case more canes are fed in at one end of the rolls than at the other, the roll will be pushed out farther at one end than at the other; and though it may thus avoid a breakdown of the rolls, it is apt, in so doing, to break the ends off the teeth of the crown wheels by putting them out of line with one another.

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  • The toggle-joint attachment, which is an extremely ingenious way of attaining the same end as the hydraulic attachments, is open to the same objections.

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  • Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of perfection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial competition created and maintained by sugar bounties.

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  • In this form a large number, after being cooked or stoved in moist heat for about twenty-four hours, are piled between plates in an hydraulic press, and subjected to great pressure for a month or six weeks, during which time a slow fermentation takes place, and a considerable exudation of juice results from the severe pressure.

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  • in an hydraulic press, by which they are moulded into Tobacco solid cakes.

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  • When hydraulic pressure to the amount of 2000 to 3000 lb per square inch is applied, the saving is unquestioned, since less time is required to dry the pressed retort, its life in the furnaces is longer, its absorption of zinc is less, and the loss of zinc by passage through its walls in the form of vapour is reduced.

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  • Modern methods of hydraulic mining have been introduced to work the auriferous banks of Poto; elsewhere antiquated methods only are employed.

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  • A hydraulic canal provides the city with good water power, and in 1905, in the value of its factory products ($13,992,574, being 31.3% more than in 1900), Hamilton ranked tenth among the cities of the state.

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  • In addition to the Adige embankment, other hydraulic works have been either completed or undertaken.

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  • Eight hydraulic hoists, of the most up-to-date pattern, are capable of shipping 5,600 tons of coal per hour.

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  • The Mad river is made to furnish good water-power by means of a hydraulic canal which takes its water through the city, and Dayton's manufactures are extensive and varied, the establishments of the National Cash Register Company employing in 1907 about 4000 wage-earners.

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  • This decrease was largely caused by the practical suspension for many years of the hydraulic mining operations, in preparation for which millions of dollars had been expended in deep tunnels, flumes, &c., and the active continuance of which might have been expected to yield some £2,000,000 of gold annually.

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  • This interruption, due to the practical prohibition of the industry by the United States courts, on the ground that it was injuring, through the deposit of tailings, agricultural lands and navigable streams, was lessened, though not entirely removed, by compromises and regulations which permit, under certain restrictions, the renewed exploitation of the ancient river-beds by the hydraulic method.

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  • - This method is employed to extract gold from both alluvial and reef deposits: in the first case it is combined with " hydraulic mining," i.e.

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  • Hydraulic mining has for the most part been confined to the country of its invention, California, and the western territories of America, where the conditions favourable for its use are more fully developed than elsewhere - notably the presence of thick banks of gravel that cannot be utilized by other methods, and abundance of water, even though considerable work may be required at times to make it available.

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  • Gold dredging is treated by Captain C. C. Longridge in Gold Dredging, and hydraulic mining is discussed by the same author in his Hydraulic Mining.

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  • All attempts to dispense with a lead and line and to measure the depth by determining the pressure at the bottom have hitherto failed when applied to depths greater than 200 fathoms; a new hydraulic manometer has been tried on board the German surveying ship " Planet."

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  • It consists of a small hydraulic press, which forces a set of expanding bits or wedges into a bore-hole previously bored by a long screw augur or drill, worked by hand, the action of the press being continued until a sufficient strain is obtained to bring down the coal.

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  • The arrangement is, in fact, a modification of the plug and feather system used in stone quarrying for obtaining large blocks, but with the substitution of the powerful rending force of the hydraulic press for handpower in driving up the wedges.

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  • An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.

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  • Soon afterwards he designed a hydraulic crane, which contained the germ of all the hydraulic machinery for which he and Elswick were subsequently to become famous.

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  • Hence, when in 1850 a hydraulic installation was required for a new ferry station at New Holland, on the Humber estuary, the absence of water mains of any kind, coupled with the prohibitive cost of a special reservoir owing to the character of the soil, impelled him to invent a fresh piece of apparatus, the "accumulator," which consists of a large cylinder containing a piston that can be loaded to give any desired pressure, the water being pumped in below it by a steam-engine or other prime mover.

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  • This simple device may be looked upon as the crown of the hydraulic system, since by its various modifications the installation of hydraulic power became possible in almost any situation.

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  • The Elswick works were originally founded for the manufacture of this hydraulic machinery, but it was not long before they became the birthplace of a revolution in gunmaking; indeed, could nothing more be placed to Armstrong's credit than their establishment, his name would still be worthy of remembrance.

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  • They are worked by hydraulic machinery.

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  • As no scaffolding could be used for the centre spans, the girders were built on shore, floated out and raised by hydraulic presses.

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  • At Sunderland, the bridge is first lifted by a hydraulic press so as to clear the roadway behind, and is then rolled back.

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  • The bridge is worked by hydraulic power, an accumulator with a load of 34 tons supplying pressure water at 630 lb per sq.

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  • at the centre of are rotated by pinions driven by hydraulic engines working in steel sectors 42 ft.

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  • Concrete in a shell is a name which might be applied to all the methods of founding a pier which depend on the very valuable property which strong hydraulic concrete possesses of setting into a solid mass under water.

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  • (2) The Britannia and Conway bridges were built on staging on shore, lifted by pontoons, floated out to their position between the piers, and lastly lifted into place by hydraulic presses.

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  • Geneva is well supplied with charitable institutions, hospitals, &c. Among other remarkable sights of the city may be mentioned the great hydraulic establishment (built 1882-1899) of the Forces Motrices du Rhone (turbines), the singular monument set up to the memory of the late duke of Brunswick who left his fortune to the city in 1873, and the tie Jean-Jacques Rousseau now connected with the Pont des Bergues.

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  • From the Falls, which gave the city its first importance as a stopping place for tourists, valuable electric and hydraulic power is derived (by a tunnel 29 ft.

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  • The Maryland building stone, of which there is an abundance of good quality, consists chiefly of granites, limestones, slate, marble and sandstones, the greater part of which is quarried in the east section of the Piedmont Plateau especially in Cecil county, though some limestones, including those from which hydraulic cement is manufactured, and some sandstones are obtained from the western part of the Piedmont Plateau and the east section of the Appalachian region; the value of stone quarried in the state in 1907 was $1,439,355, of which $1,183,753 was the value of granite, $142,825 that of limestone, $98,918 that of marble, and $13,859 that of sandstone.

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  • The washing of the high or Tertiary gravels by the hydraulic process and the working of mines in the solid rock did not, on the Gold and whole, compensate for the diminished yield of the Silver ordinary placer and river diggings, so that the product of gold in California continued to fall off, and by 1860

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  • In spite of its high cost, the drum weir furnishes a valuable hydraulic contrivance for situations where it is very important to be able to close a weir of moderate height against a strong current and to regulate with ease and precision the discharge past a weir.

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  • Railway and tramway connexions are provided and both electric and hydraulic power are available.

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  • In tropical countries drought is the commonest cause of a failure in the harvest, and where great droughts are not uncommon - as in parts of India and Australia - the hydraulic engineer comes to the rescue by devising systems of water-storage and irrigation.

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  • On account of its refractory nature, it is employed in the manufacture of crucibles, furnace linings, &c. It is also used in making hydraulic cements.

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  • They are constructed of granite, and no expense has been spared in equipping them with hydraulic cranes, warehouses, &c.

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  • To be of service the lime should be what is known as "hydraulic," that is, not pure or "fat," but containing some argillaceous matter, and should be carefully slaked with water before being mixed with the aggregate.

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  • Even though the best hydraulic lime be used it is wise to confine it to places where it is not exposed to the air, or to running water, and indeed for important structures the use of lime should be avoided.

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  • The electricity is partly furnished by hydraulic works at Paderno, 24 m.

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  • The whole internal harbour system is furnished with powerful hydraulic cranes and lines of railway running alongside the quays.

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  • The crushed mass is then placed in hempen cloths and pressed in a screw or hydraulic press.

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  • N, Hydraulic cylinder for tilting.

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  • The furnace, resting on the rollers M, is tilted by the hydraulic cylinder N.

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  • That for the thin-walled water mains must combine strength with the fluidity needed to enable it to run freely into its narrow moulds; that for most machinery must be soft enough to be cut easily to an exact shape; that for hydraulic cylinders must combine strength with density lest the water leak through; and that for car-wheels must be intensely hard in its wearing parts, but in its other parts it must have that shock-resisting power which can be had only along with great softness.

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  • First, if the skeleton which it forms is continuous, then its planes of junction with the metallic matrix offer a path of low resistance to the passage of liquids or gases, or in short they make the metal so porous as to unfit it for objects like the cylinders of hydraulic presses, which ought to be gas-tight and water-tight.

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  • Castings which, like hydraulic press cylinders and steam radiators, must be dense and hence must have but little graphite lest their contents leak through their walls, should not have more than 1.75% of silicon and may have even as little as 1% if impenetrability is so important that softness and consequent ease of machining must be sacrificed to it.

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  • The first cost of a hammer of moderate size is much less than that of a hydraulic press of like capacity, as is readily understood when we stop to reflect what powerful pressure, if gradually applied, would be needed to drive the nail which a light blow from our hand hammer forces easily into the woodwork.

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  • Moreover, the effect of the sharp blow of the hammer is relatively superficial, and does not penetrate to the interior of a large piece as the slowly applied pressure of the hydraulic press does.

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  • Because of these facts the great hammers have given place to enormous forging presses, the 125-ton Bethlehem hammer, for instance, to a 14,000-ton hydraulic press, moved by water under a pressure of FIG.

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  • The subject of hydraulic transmission of power is treated generally under Power Transmission (Hydraulic), and the present article is confined to water motors.

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  • It becomes, therefore, necessary to balance in some way the varying displacement of the ram if economy is to be secured in the working: this is often done by the use of counter-weights attached to chains travelling over head sheaves, but this largely destroys the simplicity and safety of the direct-acting lift, and hence some form of hydraulic balancing is more satisfactory and more certain.

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  • I, the lift cylinder is in hydraulic connexion with a pair of short cylinders placed one above the other, the pistons working in them being connected together by a common rod.

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  • In another system of hydraulic balance (fig.

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  • 2) the ram A has an annular area so proportioned that when it is connected with the water in an elevated tank (usually placed somewhere in the roof of the building), the hydraulic pressure upon it just balances the weight of the ram and cage.

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  • Since the introduction of deep-level electric railways in London and elsewhere, hydraulic passenger lifts on a large scale have been brought into use for conveying passengers up and down from the street level to the underground stations.

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  • - Hydraulic high-pressure water supplied in large towns.

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  • - Hydraulic Balancing.

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  • of 70% has been obtained, and when a dynamo is driven directly by them about 66% of the hydraulic energy has been converted into electric energy.

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  • Professor Thurston has published the results of a test 1 This and some of the other drawings have been taken from Blaine's Hydraulic Machinery.

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  • p. 182, " Hydraulic Canal Lifts "; vol.

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  • p. 410, " Hydraulic Works at Niagara "; vol.

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  • - Wood, Theory of Turbines; Bovey, Hydraulics; BjOrling, Hydraulic Motors; Blaine, Hydraulic Machinery; Bodmer, Hydraulic Motors; Unwin, " Water Motors " (Lectures on Hydro-Mechanics, Inst.

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  • The canal system of northern India is the most perfect the world has yet seen, and contains works of hydraulic engineering which can be equalled in no other country.

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  • is on hydraulic engineering, and the preface on theories of the ancients.

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  • The term is often applied to adhesive mixtures employed to unite objects or parts of objects (see below), but in engineering, when used without qualification, it means Portland cement, its modifications and congeners; these are all hydraulic cements, i.e.

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  • were hydraulic; it was also known that this property could be conferred on ordinary lime by admixture of silicious materials such as pozzuolana or t.ufa.

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  • We have here the two classes into which hydraulic cements are divided.

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  • This potential energy becomes kinetic when the slag is brought into contact with lime in the presence of water, and causes the formation of a true hydraulic silicate of lime.

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  • In fact, ordinary pozzuolanic cement made on the spot where it is to be used may be regarded as a better kind of common mortar having hydraulic qualities.

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  • Good hydraulic mortars may be made from lime mixed with furnace ashes or burnt clay as the pozzuolanic constituent.

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  • The earliest forms of cements of the Portland class were the hydraulic limes.

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  • Although hydraulic limes have been in use from the most ancient times, their true nature and the reason of their resistance to water have only become known since 1791.

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  • Next in antiquity to hydraulic lime is Roman cement, prepared by heating an indurated marl occurring naturally in nodules.

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  • With the growth of engineering in the early part of the 19th century arose a great demand for hydraulic cement.

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  • Although Portland cement is later in date than either Roman cement or hydraulic lime, yet on account of its greater industrial importance, and of the fact that, being an artificial product, it is of approximately uniform composition and properties, it may conveniently be treated of first.

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  • Hydraulic Lime is a cement of the Portland as distinct from the pozzuolanic class.

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  • The most typical hydraulic lime is that known as Chaux du Theil, made from a limestone found at Ardeche in France.

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  • English hydraulic limes are of a different class; they contain a good deal of alumina and ferric oxide, and in composition resemble somewhat irregular Portland cement.

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  • Analyses of the two classes of hydraulic lime are as follows: Hydraulic lime contains a good deal of uncombined lime, and has to be slaked before it is used as a cement.

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  • In English practice hydraulic lime is slaked by the user.

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  • A case in point is the employment of hydraulic lime in place of Portland cement as grouting outside the cast-iron tubes used for lining tunnels made by the shield system.

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  • The chief use of hydraulic cements, whether of the pozzuolanic or Portland class, is to act as an adhesive material in work which is to be exposed to water.

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  • On this observation rests the whole of the present enormous employment of hydraulic cements.

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  • It was a natural transition to utilize these cements not merely for jointing masonry but also for making concrete, and the only reason why hydraulic cements, as distinct from cements which are not hydraulic (e.g.

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  • (See also Concrete.) Good hydraulic cements are highly permanent materials provided certain conditions be observed.

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  • It might be supposed that hydraulic cements from their nature would be indifferent to the action of water, but this is only true if the structures of which they form part are sufficiently compact.

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  • Lewis, "Manufacture of Hydraulic Cements in the United States," The Mineral Industry (New York, 1898); W.

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  • " The Testing of Hydraulic Cements," Journ.

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  • in length, worked by hydraulic power.

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  • Even hard steel is treated in this way to form tubes for the highest hydraulic and steam pressures.

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  • A floor can be most satisfactorily operated by hydraulic means, a platform cannot be so well worked in this way.

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  • Trans.,1897, P. 381) Determined The Mechanical Equivalent Of The Mean Thermal Unit Between O° And Ioo° C., On A Very Large Scale, With A Froude Reynolds Hydraulic Brake And A Steam Engine Of Ioo H.P. This Brake Is Practically A Joule Calorimeter, Ingeniously Designed To Churn The Water In Such A Manner As To Develop The Greatest Possible Resistance.

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  • South Bethlehem is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. The Bethlehem Steel Company manufactures here iron and steel, including Bessemer steels, armour plate, steel rails, government ordnance, drop forgings, iron and steel castings, stationary engines, gas engines, hydraulic pumps, projectiles, steel shaft and pig iron; zinc is smelted and refined; and there are large hosiery and knitting mills, and silk mills and cigar factories.

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  • over the sill at high water of spring tides; the construction of new jetties at the entrance to the tidal basin and at the north wall; the establishment of a coal wharf with hydraulic appliances; a torpedo range in the harbour; the erection of various buildings such as torpedo and gun-mounting stores, electrical shops and numerous subsidiary works; and extensive dredging of the harbour to increase the berthing accommodation for the fleet.

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  • First the " rocker," then the " torn," the " flume," and the hydraulic stream were the tools of the miner.

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  • The hydraulic stream came into use as early as 1852 (or 1853) when prospecting of the higher ground made it certain that the " deep " or " high " gravels - i.e.

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  • The hydraulic process received an immense development through successive improvements of method and machinery.

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  • Hydraulic mining is no longer practised on the scale of early days.

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  • by the detritus wash of the hydraulic mines, and that of Sleepy Hollow Creek 136 ft.

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  • Permits for hydraulic mining are granted by the commission only when all gravel is satisfactorily impounded and no harm is done to the streams; and the improvement of these, which was impossible so long as limits were not set to hydraulic mining, can now be effectively advanced.

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  • The leading features of political life and of legislation after 1876 were a strong labour agitation, the struggle for the exclusion of the Chinese, for the control of hydraulic mining, irrigation, and the advancement by state-aid of the fruit interests; the last three of which have already been referred to above.

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  • Applications: Hydraulic Press: Pneumatic Power-Transmitter.In the hydraulic press the vessel consists of two cylinders, viz, the pump-barrel and the press-barrel, each having its piston, and of a passage connecting them having a valve opening towards the press-barrel.

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  • When the pressure and temperature of the air can be maintained constant, this machine fulfils equation (2), like the hydraulic press.

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  • In this scheme large turbines were placed at the bottom of hydraulic fall tubes 150 ft.

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  • There was much in favour of this system, because a good firm impression could be obtained, and the " nutmeg-grater " effect on the reverse, when the impression was too heavy, could, after the sheets were dry, be removed by cold-pressing in a hydraulic press.

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  • The jute is carefully sorted into different qualities, and then each lot is subjected to an enormous hydraulic pressure from which it emerges in the shape of the well-known bales, each weighing 400 lb.

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  • The "streaks" 1 or "heads" of jute as they come from the bale are in a hard condition in consequence of having been subjected to a high hydraulic pressure during baling; it is therefore necessary to soften them before any further process is entered.

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  • Often it is necessary to repeat the dipping, and for the second coat hydraulic lime may be employed.

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  • in extent, equipped with travelling cranes, hydraulic and steam cranes, lighted by electric light and connected with the Great Northern railway by a branch line.

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  • The massive iron bridges across the dock entrances are opened and closed by hydraulic power, which is likewise applied to the cranes, coal-hoists, warehouse-lifts and other machinery about.

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  • The boot and shoe trade is prosperous, and there are extensive engineering and hydraulic machinery works.

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  • These jetties are provided with hydraulic cranes, &c., and railways connect them with the main line, so that goods can be sent direct from the jetties to every part of South Africa.

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  • John M`Gregor, who gives an interesting description of them in his Rob Roy on the Jordan, affirmed that as a work of hydraulic engineering, the system and construction of the canals, by which the Abana and Pharpar were used for irrigation, might be considered as one of the most complete and extensive in the world.

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  • It possesses a floating dock capable of lifting a vessel of 850o tons, a floating workshop, a patent slip for small craft, hydraulic cranes, &c. The minimum depth alongside the quays at low water is 23 ft., increased at places to over 30 ft.

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  • Two miles up the river is the Hen Island dam, which, with the Mishawaka hydraulic dam nearer the city, is the source of much of the power used by the city's manufactories.

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  • There is a coaling jetty and camber for the storage of both sea-borne and land-borne coal, with hydraulic appliances for handling it.

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  • But Leonardo's chief practical employments were evidently on the continuation of his great hydraulic and irrigation works in Lombardy.

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  • Mines of coal, iron, lead and zinc are worked, and the quarries furnish hydraulic lime (Le Teil) and other products.

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  • The latter's uncle, George Leather, was engineer of the Great Aire and Calder Navigation Company, of the Goole Docks, and other similar works, and Fowler passed occasionally into his employment, in which he acquired a thorough knowledge of hydraulic engineering.

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  • It has been shown that the best hydraulic lime, or volcanic puzzuolana and lime, if properly ground while slaking, and otherwise treated in the best-known manner, as well as some of the so-called natural (calcareous) cements, will yield results certainly not inferior to those obtained from Portland cement.

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  • This, if the dam had been thoroughly well constructed, either with hydraulic lime or Portland cement mortar, would have been easily borne.

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  • Nothing but long observation and experience can help the hydraulic engineer to judge of the configuration of the ground favourable to such phenomena.

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  • The university is well-equipped with laboratories, the psychological laboratory, the laboratories of Sibley college and the hydraulic laboratory of the college of civil engineering being especially noteworthy; the last is on Fall Creek, where a curved concrete masonry dam has been built, forming Beebe Lake.

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  • There are marbles in Osage and other counties, shell marble in Montgomery county, white limestone in Chase county, a valuable bandera flagstone and hydraulic cement rock near Fort Scott, &c. The limestones produced in 1908 were valued at $403,176 and the sandstones at $67,950.

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  • There is a considerable industry in the building of flat boats to convey salt to Liverpool, the river Weaver being navigable, and connected by a hydraulic lift, 1 m.

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  • The extensive wharves are amply served by hydraulic machinery and railways.

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  • Now, however, only the smaller gas works adhere to this system, and this work is done by machinery driven by either compressed air, hydraulic or electric power.

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  • For the purpose of discharging the coke from the retort either compressed air or hydraulic machinery is employed, a rake being made to enter the retort and withdraw the coke on returning.

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  • With this method it is necessary that the rake should enter and discharge several times before the retort is clear, and thus the use of a telescopic ram worked by hydraulic power, which pushes the coke before it and discharges it at the other end, is an advantage.

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  • From the retort the gas passes by the ascension pipe to the hydraulic main (fig.

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  • Condensation takes place in the ascension pipe, in the arch piece leading to the hydraulic main, and to a still greater extent in the hydraulic main itself where the gas has to pass through water.

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  • The most soluble of the constituents of crude coal gas is ammonia, 780 volumes of which are soluble in one volume of water at normal temperature and pressure, and the water in the hydraulic main absorbs a considerable quantity of this compound from the gas and helps to form the ammoniacal liquor, whilst, although the liquor is well agitated by the gas bubbling through it, a partial separation of tar from liquor is effected by gravitation.

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  • The liquor is run off at a constant rate from the hydraulic main to the store tank, and the gas passes from the top of the hydraulic main to the foul main.

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  • The gas as it leaves the hydraulic main is still at a temperature of from 130° to 150° F., and should now be reduced as nearly as - possible to the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere.

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  • The tar and liquor when condensed have a dissolving action on various valuable light-giving constituents of the gas, which in the ordinary way would not be deposited by the lowering of temperature, and for this reason the heavy tar, and especially that produced in the hydraulic main, should come in contact with the gas as little as possible, and condensation should take place slowly.

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  • The exhauster is practicall y a rotary gas pump which serves the purpose of drawing the gas from the hydraulic main through the condensers, and then forcing it through the purifying vessels to the holder.

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  • - Hydraulic Main.

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  • II), forming what is known as the hydraulic cup. Under these conditions the cup will necessarily be filled with water, and a seal will be formed, preventing the escape of gas.

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  • i is a hydraulic box with water seal; j, a coke-scrubber; k, a filter; 1, a sawdust-scrubber; m, inlet of gas-holder; n, gasholder; o, outlet of same; p, a valve with weighted lever to regulate the admission of steam to the gas-producer; q, the weight which actuates the lever automatically by the rise or fall of the bell of the gas-holder.

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  • For this purpose hydraulic mechanism of Bessemer's design was arranged under the control of an attendant, whose duty it was to keep watch on a spirit-level, and counteract by proper manipulation of the apparatus any deviation from the horizontal that might manifest itself on the floor of the saloon owing to the rolling of the vessel.

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  • The greaves are placed Vegetable Oils Animal Fats in hair or woollen bags and submitted to hydraulic pressure, by which a further portion of oil or fat is obtained (cf.

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  • The apparatus was then gradually improved, and thus were evolved the modern forms of the screw press, next the Dutch or stamper press, and finally the hydraulic press.

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  • This press has had to yield place to the hydraulic press, although in some old-fashioned establishments in Holland the stamper press could still be seen at work in the 'eighties of the 19th century.

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  • The invention of the hydraulic press in 1795 by Joseph Bramah (Eng.

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  • Since then the hydraulic press has practically completely superseded all other appliances used for expression, and in consequence of this epoch-making invention, assisted as it was later on by the accumulator - invented by William George (later Lord) Armstrong in 1843 - the seed-crushing industry reached a perfection of mechanical detail which soon secured its supremacy for England.

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  • For the preparation of edible oils and fats the meal is expressed in the cold, after having been packed into bags and placed in hydraulic presses under a pressure of three hundred atmospheres or even more.

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  • The warm meal is then delivered through measuring boxes into closed pressbags ("scourtins" of the "Marseilles" press), or through measuring boxes, combined with an automatic moulding machine, into cloths open at two sides (Anglo-American press), so that the preliminarily pressed cakes can be put at once into the hydraulic press.

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  • Numerous forms of hydraulic presses have been devised.

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  • A hydraulic ram then forces the table carrying the cakes against a press-head, and the exuding oil flows down the sides into a tank below.

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  • The packing of the press requires more manual labour than in the case of the Anglo-American press; moreover, the Marseilles press offers inconvenience in keeping the bags straight, and the pressure cannot be raised to the same height as in the more modern hydraulic presses.

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  • Hence, in modern installations, the first expression of those seeds is carried out in so-called cage (clodding) presses, consisting of hydraulic presses provided with circular boxes or cages, into which the meal is filled.

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  • NOTE: The power cylinder check is primarily a flow capacity check of the hydraulic pump.

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  • The secondary hydraulic pump supplies the push bar lock and winch, and provides for faster cylinder retraction.

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  • Simba double press and a Variocast 8 electronic seeder with hydraulic fans.

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  • Spring - Both Midland Railroad Trust power cars have hydraulic fluid self-contained in the torque convertor.

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  • At the rear the new Vespa LX has a dual effect hydraulic single shock absorber.

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  • No need for expensive tubs of slaked lime putty, or expensive sacks of hydraulic lime.

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  • The applicant must be able to carry out the following tasks: - Design hydraulic control valves of various configurations, including solenoid operated.

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  • Low maintenance requirements are met by the incorporation of hydraulic tappets, automatic timing belt tensioners and longlife spark plugs.

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  • Double chamber hydraulic shock absorber with 5 positions for spring preload.

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  • The temporary hydraulic jacks which had been used to keep the piles rigid were replaced by steel stanchions.

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  • And not just stand-up comedy things, either, but also the hovercraft, the hydraulic sleeve valve and determinism.

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  • The force exerted by the stirrup on the oval window is converted into hydraulic pressure waves.

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  • Alternatively there is a hydraulic reset version for extremely stony conditions.

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  • The pump suction line takes oil from the hydraulic oil tank which is sized to provide adequate cooling.

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  • Self adjusting hydraulic tappets made quiet trouble free running for thousands of miles.

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  • There were probs with the 2002 to 2004 Calis which had some problems with the hydraulic tappets.

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  • The frame is linked in front to a telescopic hydraulic fork with 35 mm shafts.

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  • Rigid, mechanical or hydraulic folding units with a choice of 7mm or 8mm tines are available.

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  • The hydraulic torque converter is an extension of the principle employed in a hydraulic coupling.

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  • All models can be supplied with hydraulic front gang angling in place of the manual turnbuckle for ease of operation.

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  • Which required 8 firemen and a hydraulic winch to reopen.

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  • The tail gates and tail gate paddles of this lock and Lock 2w are hydraulic and operated by windlass.

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  • The suspension is fully independent with coil springs, double wishbones and 6 hydraulic dampers.

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  • Almost-new furniture often comes with a limited warranty too, taking the guesswork out of buying that hydraulic office chair which may or may not be a bargain.

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  • They convert the tools to run using a diesel powered hydraulic pump or a belt drive system.

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