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hydrate

hydrate

hydrate Sentence Examples

  • Precipitated aluminium hydrate finds considerable application in dyeing.

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  • The hydrate, B1204.2H20, is also known.

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  • The hydrate, Bi(OH) 3 i is obtained as a white powder by adding potash to a solution of a bismuth salt.

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  • In addition to behaving as a basic oxide, aluminium oxide (or hydrate) behaves as an acid oxide towards the strong bases with the formation of aluminates.

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  • It forms a hydrate of composition H 2 S 7H 2 0.

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  • This indicates the appearance of a new compound, which should exist pure at E, the next maximum, and, led by these considerations, Roozeboom discovered and isolated a previously unknown hydrate, Fe 2 C1 6 7 H 2 0.

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  • The dioxide was obtained as the hydrate, CaO 2.8H,0, by P. Thenard (Ann.

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  • The corresponding hydrate, Pb(OH)2, is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate by adding ammonia to a solution of lead nitrate or acetate.

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  • The corresponding hydrate, Pb(OH)2, is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate by adding ammonia to a solution of lead nitrate or acetate.

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  • The monoxide and its hydrate are more familiarly known as lime (q.v.) and slakedlime.

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  • On the other hand there are certain forms of ferric hydrate containing less water than limonite and approaching to haematite in their red colour and streak: such is the mineral which was called hydrohaematite by A.

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  • If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide.

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  • At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?

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  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).

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  • Ferric hydrate, iron soaps and all insoluble impurities are precipitated.

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  • For the fusion of the dry hydrate nickel vessels cannot be used; in fact, even silver is perceptibly attacked as soon as all the excess of water is away; absolutely pure KHO can be produced only in gold vessels.

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  • As heat is supplied, the hydrate is transformed gradually into the anhydrous salt and water.

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  • The ferric hydrate is also readily deposited from ferruginous waters, often by means of organic agencies.

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  • Uranous hydrate is obtained as reddish-brown flakes by precipitating a uranous solution with alkali.

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  • The chloride readily combines with water to form a crystallizable hydrate SnCl 2.2H 2 O, known as "tin salt" or "tin crystals."

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  • Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphuretted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide.

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  • The view, often repeated, that the saccharum of the ancients is the hydrate of silica, sometimes found in bamboos and known in Arabian medicine as tabashir, is refuted by Yule, Anglo-Indian Glossary, p. 654; see also Not.

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  • LIMONITE, or Brown Iron Ore, a natural ferric hydrate named from the Gr.

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  • With water it forms a hydrate, and ultimately decomposes into lead dioxide and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Titanic oxide separates out as a white hydrate, which, however, is generally contaminated with ferric hydrate and often with tin oxide.

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  • The solution, if boiled, deposits its titanic oxide as a hydrate called metatitanic acid, TiO(OH) 21 because it differs in its properties from orthotitanic acid, Ti(OH) 4, obtained by decomposing a solution of the chloride in cold water with alkalis.

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  • A familiar example is to be found in solutions of sodium sulphate, which may be cooled much below their saturation point and kept in the liquid state till a crystal of the hydrate Na 2 SO 4 IoH 2 O is dropped in, when solidification occurs with a large evolution of latent heat.

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  • A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.

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  • The alkali must be free from carbonate and an excess of it must be avoided, otherwise the hydrate redissolves.

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  • chim., 1906, 2 5, p. 2 53) considers to be a hydrate of sulphur of composition S $ H 2 0), sulphuric acid, traces of trithionic acid, tetraand pentathionic acids and probably hexathionic acid.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 39° C. A chloral hydroxylamine, CC1 3 [[Choh Nhoh]], melting at 98° C. is obtained by allowing a mixture of one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate with two molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and one of sodium carbonate to stand for some time in a desiccator.

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  • Precipitated stannous hydrate dissolves readily in caustic potash; if the solution is evaporated quickly it suffers decomposition, with formation of metal and stannate, 2SnO+2KOH = K2Sn03+Sn+H20.

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  • At that temperature crystals of the anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 appear, and a new fixed equilibrium exists between the four phases - hydrate, anhydrous salt, solution and vapour.

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  • At that temperature crystals of the anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 appear, and a new fixed equilibrium exists between the four phases - hydrate, anhydrous salt, solution and vapour.

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  • Anhydrous calcium chloride, prepared by heating the hydrate to 200° (preferably in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, which prevents the formation of any oxychloride), is very hygroscopic, and is used as a desiccating agent.

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  • The remaining mud of calcium carbonate and hydrate is washed, by decantation, with small instalments of hot water to recover at least part of the alkali diffused throughout it, but this process must not be continued too long or else some of the lime passes into solution.

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  • Taking the point 0 to denote the state of equilibrium between ice, hydrate; saturated solution and vapour, we pass along OA till a new solid phase, that of Na2S04, appears at 32.6°; from this point arise four curves, analogous to those diverging from the point O.

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  • The curve OP represents the varying solubility of the hydrate as the temperature rises from the cryohydric point to 32.6°.

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  • By drying at ordinary temperatures, the hydrate Al(OH) 3 �H 2 0 is obtained; at 300° this yields A10(OH), which on ignition gives alumina, Al 2 O 3.

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  • The remaining mud of calcium carbonate and hydrate is washed, by decantation, with small instalments of hot water to recover at least part of the alkali diffused throughout it, but this process must not be continued too long or else some of the lime passes into solution.

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  • Limonite is a ferric hydrate, conforming typically with the formula Fe 4 0 3 (OH) 6, or 2Fe 2 O 3.3H 2 O.

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  • Water when absolutely pure has no action on lead, but in the presence of air the lead is quickly attacked, with formation of the hydrate, Pb(OH) 2, which is appreciably soluble in water forming an alkaline liquid.

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  • This view was modified by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value.

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  • Where a solution is likely to change in composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, sodium hydrate, &c., it is necessary to check or re-standardize it periodically.

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  • Semioxamazide, H 2 N CO CO-NH NH 2, is prepared by the action of hydrazine hydrate on oxamaethane (W.

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  • When a concentrated solution of auric chloride is treated with caustic potash, a brown precipitate of auric hydrate, Au(OH) 3, is obtained, which, on heating, loses water to form auryl hydrate, AuO(OH), and auric oxide, Au 2 0 3.

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  • It is rapidly acted on by water, especially if means are taken to remove the layer of calcium hydrate formed on the metal; alcohol acts very slowly.

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  • The liquors after a concentration in iron vessels are now evaporated in a silver dish, until the heavy vapour of the hydrate is seen to go off.

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  • On crystallizing a solution, the hydrate KOH 2H 2 0 is deposited; 2KOH 9H 2 0 and 2KOH 5H 2 0 have also been obtained.

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  • Werner, four hydrated chromium chlorides exist, namely the green and violet salts, CrC1 3.6H 2 O, a hydrate, CrC1 3.10H 2 O and one CrC1 3.4H 2 0.

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  • HYDRATE, in chemistry, a compound containing the elements of water in combination; more specifically, a compound containing the monovalent hydroxyl or OH group. The first and more general definition includes substances containing water of crystallization; such salts are said to be hydrated, and when deprived of their water to be dehydrated or anhydrous.

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  • Aluminium hydrate, Al(OH) 3, is obtained as a gelatinous white precipitate, soluble in potassium or sodium hydrate, but insoluble in ammonium chloride, by adding ammonia to a cold solution of an aluminium salt; from boiling solutions the precipitate is opaque.

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  • Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on.

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  • Carbon monoxide takes part in the syntheses of sodium formate from sodium hydrate, or soda lime (at 200 0 -2 20 0), and of sodium acetate and propionate from sodium methylate and sodium ethylate at 160 0 -200°.

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  • Pure potassium is a silvery white metal tinged with blue; but on exposure to air it at once forms a film of oxide, and on prolonged exposure deliquesces into a solution of hydrate and carbonate.

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  • (3) Plumbi Carbonas, white lead, a mixture of the carbonate and the hydrate, a heavy white powder insoluble in water; it is not used internally, but from it is made Unguentum Plumbi Carbonatis, strength 1 in so parts of paraffin ointment.

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  • (3) Plumbi Carbonas, white lead, a mixture of the carbonate and the hydrate, a heavy white powder insoluble in water; it is not used internally, but from it is made Unguentum Plumbi Carbonatis, strength 1 in so parts of paraffin ointment.

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  • Chloraloxime, CC1 3 CH: NOH, is obtained when one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate is warmed with four molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and a little water.

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  • Both these soluble hydrates are readily coagulated by traces of a salt, acid or alkali; Crum's hydrate does not combine with dye-stuffs, neither is it soluble in excess of acid, while Graham's compound readily forms lakes, and readily dissolves when coagulated in acids.

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  • Cailletet and later by P. Villard that when allowed to stand in the presence of water at a low temperature a solid hydrate is formed.

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  • GOTHITE, or Goethite, a mineral composed of an iron hydrate, Fe203.H20, crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with diaspore and manganite.

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  • In a similar way the curve FGH, between 30° and 55°, shows the effect of the hydrate Fe2Cl6.5H20, and the curve HJK that of the hydrate Fe 2 C1 6.4H 2 O, which, when pure, melts at 73.5° - the point J on the diagram.

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  • To ensure this being properly done, the lumps of lime should be broken up small, and enough water to slake them should be added, the lime then being allowed to rest for about forty-eight hours, when the water changes the particles of quicklime to hydrate of lime, and breaks up the hard lumps into a powder.

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  • The alkali must be free from carbonate and an excess of it must be avoided, otherwise the hydrate redissolves.

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  • The word "flocculent" is used of many substances which have a fleecy or "flock"-like appearance, such as a precipitate of ferric hydrate.

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  • Chloral hydrate.

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  • Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigating its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleaching-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypochlorite, with a little calcium hydrate.

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  • The solution is boiled till free from sulphuretted hydrogen and treated with excess of sodium hydrate.

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  • 3.67 Potassium nitrate 3.46 Potassium hydrate.

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  • The former is found, generally mixed with iron, copper and arsenic oxides, in Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall, France (Meymac) and other localities; it also occurs admixed with bismuth carbonate and hydrate.

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  • This compound occurs in nature as bismuth ochre, and may be prepared artificially by oxidizing the metal at a red heat, or by heating the carbonate, nitrate or hydrate.

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  • In a smaller degree these alkaline properties are shared by the less soluble hydrates of the "metals of the alkaline earths," calcium, barium and strontium, and by thallium hydrate.

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  • Acted upon by water it is at once decomposed, yielding acetylene and calcium hydrate.

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  • In the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide and water, all that has to be done is to bring these two compounds into contact, when they mutually react upon each other with the formation of lime and acetylene, while, if there be sufficient water present, the lime combines with it to form calcium hydrate.

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  • Calcium hydrate.

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  • A freshly prepared surface of the metal closely resembles zinc in appearance, but on exposure to the air it rapidly tarnishes, becoming yellowish and ultimately grey or white in colour owing to the formation of a surface layer of calcium hydrate.

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  • Potassium aluminate, K 2 Al 2 0 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving aluminium hydrate in caustic potash; it is also obtained, as crystals containing three molecules of water, by fusing alumina with potash, exhausting with water, and crystallizing the solution in vacuo.

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  • A hydrate, of composition CHC1 3 18H 2 0, has been described (G.

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  • On exposure to meteoric influences pyrites commonly becomes brown, by formation of ferric hydrate or limonite, whence the change is called "limonitization."

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  • When heated with hydrazine hydrate at 150° C. it gives a-naphthyl hydrazine, C 1 oH 7 NH NH 2 Hoffmann, Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2909).

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  • On cooling a saturated solution to - 10°, or by cooling a solution in hot hydrochloric acid, the hydrate NaCI.2H 2 O separates; on further cooling an aqueous solution to - 20° a cryohydrate containing 23.7% of the salt is deposited.

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  • 10-15%, it may hydrate and set after the general setting of the cement, and may give rise to disruptive strains causing the cement to "blow" and fail.

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  • It is the practice in Great Britain to burn pure gypsum at a low temperature so as to convert it into the hydrate 2CaSO 4 H 2 O, to soak the lumps in a solution of alum or of aluminium sulphate, and to recalcine them at about 500° C. On grinding they give Keene's cement.

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  • It decomposes water at a red heat, liberating hydrogen and being itself converted into the hydrate.

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  • It is produced by the exposure of thallous hydrate to carbon dioxide, and therefore is obtained when the moist metal is exposed to the air.

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  • The word " alkali " denotes both soda and potash, but by "alkali manufacture" we understand merely the manufacture of sodium sulphate, carbonate and hydrate.

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  • The term alkali is employed in a technical sense for the carbonate and hydrate (of sodium), but since in the Leblanc process the manufacture of sodium sulphate necessarily precedes that of the carbonate, we include this as well as the manufacture of hydrochloric acid which is inseparable from it.

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  • The first action of the lime is to convert the manganese chloride into manganous hydrate (Mn(OH) 2) and calcium chloride; then more lime is added which greatly promotes and hastens the oxidizing process.

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  • The principal impurities of crude vat-liquor are sodium hydrate and sulphide, the latter of which always leads to the formation of soluble double sulphur salts of sodium and iron.

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  • After from half an hour to a whole hour the conversion of sodium carbonate into sodium hydrate is brought about as far as is practicable.

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  • The washed-out calcium carbonate, which always contains much calcium hydrate and 2 or 3% of soda in various forms, usually goes back to the black-ash furnaces, but it cannot be always used up in this way, and what remains is thrown upon a heap outside the works.

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  • When this takes place in an aqueous solution, the alkaline metal at once reacts with the water, so that a solution of an alkaline hydrate is formed while hydrogen escapes.

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  • If the chlorine and the sodiun hydrate can act upon each other within the liquid, bleach-liquors are formed: 2NaOH+ C12= NaOC1+NaC1+H 2 0.

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  • If, however, the action of the chlorine on the sodium hydrate is prevented, which can be done in various ways, they can both be collected in the isolated state and utilized as has been previously described, viz.

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  • the chlorine can be used for the manufacture of liquid chlorine, bleaching-powder or other bleaching compounds, or chlorates, and the solution of sodium hydrate can be sold as such, or converted into solid caustic soda.

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  • When this percentage has been reached, the cell is rocked to the other side, so that the amalgam flows into one of the outer compartments where the sodium is converted by water into sodium hydrate.

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  • The intermediate layer of the salt solution, floating over the caustic soda solution, plays the part of a diaphragm, by preventing the chlorine evolved in the bell from acting on the sodium hydrate formed outside, and this solution offers much less resistance to the electric current than the ordinary diaphragms. This process therefore consumes less power than most others.

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  • Thorium fluoride, ThF 4, is obtained as a heavy white insoluble powder by dissolving the hydrate in hydrofluoric acid and evaporating.

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  • By precipitating a thorium salt with a fluoride, a gelatinous hydrate, ThF 4.4H 2 O, is obtained.

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  • xH20, by adding an alcoholic solution of potassium hydrate to nickelchloride and hydrogen peroxide at -50°.

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  • It is readily soluble in water, and on boiling the aqueous solution a white hydrate is first deposited which after a time is converted into the trioxide.

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  • Water saturated with chlorine at 0° C. deposits crystals of a hydrate C1 2.8H 2 O, which is readily decomposed at a higher temperature into its constituents.

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  • Chlorine hydrate has an historical importance, as by sealing it up in a bent tube, and heating the end containing the hydrate, whilst the other limb of the tube was enclosed in a freezing mixture, M.

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  • The crystalline hydrate melts at 50° C. The pure acid decomposes slowly on standing, but is stable in dilute aqueous solution.

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  • Copper dioxide, CuO 2 H 2 O, is obtained as a yellowish-brown powder, by treating cupric hydrate with hydrogen peroxide.

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  • Cuprous sulphite, CuS0 3 H 2 O, is obtained as a brownish-red crystalline powder by treating cuprous hydrate with sulphurous acid.

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  • From 1865 onwards he treated this question in several papers, and in particular maintained the dissociation of vapour of chloral hydrate, in opposition to H.

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  • Artificially it may be prepared by heating cetyl alcohol with soda lime to 270° or by fusing oleic acid with potassium hydrate.

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  • The same hydrate can be prepared by dissolving borax in water until the solution has a specific gravity of 1.246 and then allowing the solution to cool.

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  • The bark of the horse-chestnut contains a greenish oil, resin, a yellow body, a tannin, C26 H 24012, existing likewise in the seeds and various parts of the tree, and decomposable into phloroglucin and aesciglyoxalic acid, C 7 H 6 O 3, also aesculetin hydrate, and the crystalline fluorescent compound aesculin, of the formulaC21H24013 (Rochleder and Schwarz), with which occurs a similar substance fraxin, the paviin of Sir G.

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  • a little hydrochloric acid, methylene diresorcin [(HO) 2 C 6 H 3] 2 CH 2, whilst with chloral hydrate, in the presence of potassium bisulphate, it yields the lactone of tetra-oxydiphenyl methane carboxylic acid (J.

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  • A colloidal selenium was obtained by C. Paal and C. Koch (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 526) by reducing selenious acid dissolved in an aqueous solution of sodium protalbate with hydrazine hydrate and hydrochloric acid, the precipitate obtained being then dissolved in sodium carbonate.

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  • It is somewhat soluble in water and forms a hydrate.

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  • The acid crystallizes in hexagonal prisms and melts at 58° C. It dissolves in water and yields a hydrate of composition H 2 SeO 4 H 2 O.

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  • By cooling the aqueous solution, hyacinth-red octahedra of a crystalline hydrate of composition Br 4H 2 O or Br2.8H20 are obtained (Bakhuis Roozeboom, Zeits.

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  • Neither is there any advantage gained by mixing this hydrate with sulphur trioxide; for when such a mixture is concentrated by evaporation, sulphur trioxide is vaporized until the same hydrate is left.

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  • The pure acid, however, may be obtained by strongly cooling this hydrate.

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  • 5°, and on gentle heating evolve sulphur trioxide and again form the same hydrate.

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  • When strong sulphuric acid is mixed with water there is a great development of heat; the heat evolved when four parts of acid are mixed with one of water being sufficient to raise the temperature from o° to 100° C. (Hence the laboratory precaution of always adding the acid to the water and not the water to the acid.) In addition to the heat evolution there is also a diminution in volume, the maximum occurring when the components are present in the ratio H2S04:2H20, thus pointing to the existence of a hydrate H 2 SO 4, 2H20.

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  • A second hydrate, H 2 SO 4, H 2 0, may be obtained as rhombic crystals, which melt at 7° and boil at 205 °, by diluting the strong acid until it has a specific gravity of 1.78, and cooling the mixture; this compound is sometimes known as glacial sulphuric acid.

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  • Ferrous hydrate, Fe(OH)2, when prepared from a pure ferrous salt and caustic soda or potash free from air, is a white powder which may be preserved in an atmosphere of hydrogen.

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  • By heating freshly prepared red ferric hydrate with water under 5000 atmospheres pressure Ruff (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 34 1 7) obtained definite hydrates corresponding to the minerals limonite (30°-42, 5°), gothite (4 2.5°-62, 5°), and hydrohaematite (above 62.5°).

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  • Thomas Graham obtained a soluble hydrate by dissolving the freshly prepared hydrate in ferric chloride and dialysing the solution, the soluble hydrate being left in the dialyser.

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  • Fremy investigated this discovery, made by Stahl in 1702, and showed that the same solution resulted when chlorine is passed into strong potash solution containing ferric hydrate in suspension.

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  • The solution is best prepared by dissolving the hydrate in hydrochloric acid and removing the excess of acid by evaporation, or by passing chlorine into the solution obtained by dissolving the metal in hydrochloric acid and removing the excess of chlorine by a current of carbon dioxide.

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  • Many oxychlorides are known; soluble forms are obtained by dissolving precipitated ferric hydrate in ferric chloride, whilst insoluble compounds result when ferrous chloride is oxidized in air, or by boiling for some time aqueous solutions of ferric chloride.

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  • It closely resembles the chloride in being deliquescent, dissolving ferric hydrate, and in yielding basic salts.

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  • Arsenides, Arsenites, &c. - Several iron arsenides occur as minerals; lolingite, FeAs 2, forms silvery rhombic prisms; mispickel or arsenical pyrites, Fe2AsS2, is an important commercial source of arsenic. A basic ferric arsenite, 4Fe2O3 As2O3.5H 2 O, is obtained as a flocculent brown precipitate by adding an arsenite to ferric acetate, or by shaking freshly prepared ferric hydrate with a solution of arsenious oxide.

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  • The last reaction is the basis of the application of ferric hydrate as an antidote in arsenical poisoning.

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  • The scale preparations of iron, so called because they are dried to form scales, are three in number, the base of all being ferric hydrate: (a) Ferrum tartaratum, dark red scales, soluble in water.

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  • Then, if available, freshly precipitated ferric hydrate must be given, which can be prepared by adding a solution of ammonia to one of iron perchloride.

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  • Ethyl alcohol is taken as a type of the action of methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, ether, acetic ether, paraldehyde, sulphonal, chloroform, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, chloral hydrate, butylchloral hydrate, and almost any number of derivatives from these.

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  • Curtius found that benzoylglycollic acid gavebenzoyl hydrazine with hydrazine hydrate: C 6 H S 000 CH2000H -1-2N2H4 H20 = H20 +C6H 5CONH NH2+ NH2 NH CH2 COOH.

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  • An improved method of preparation was found in the use of hippuric acid, which reacts with hydrazine hydrate to form hippuryl hydrazine, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Conh Nh]] 2, and this substance is converted by nitrous acid into diazo-hippuramide, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Co Nh N 2.0h]], which is hydrolysed by the action of caustic alkalis with the production of salts of hydrazoic acid.

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  • The buffing polish also contains other botanicals to add moisture and hydrate the skin.

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  • The use of such clathrate cages in the formation of solid gas hydrate ices is shown on another page.

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  • chloral hydrate.

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  • He made a very brief examination of Miss X believing, incorrectly, that she had been given chloral hydrate.

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  • clathrate cages in the formation of solid gas hydrate ices is shown on another page.

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  • hydrate the ions, and will therefore become more organized, rather than randomized in the liquid.

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  • hydrate oft-overlooked surrounding areas as well.

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  • hydrate saturation in the well-constrained volume of the velocity model is estimated to be 2.2% .

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  • Testing with hydrate former to identify water with a history of hydrate formation.

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  • hydrate stability zone.

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  • He made a very brief examination of Miss X believing, incorrectly, that she had been given chloral hydrate.

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  • Test drilling in the area revealed evidence of an abundance of methane hydrate just waiting to burst free of its watery confines.

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  • hydrate two - A three movement facial massage is given with a hydrating formula.

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  • methane hydrate just waiting to burst free of its watery confines.

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  • The mean hydrate saturation in the well-constrained volume of the velocity model is estimated to be 2.2% .

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  • Of the hygroscopic substances in common use, phosphoric anhydride, concentrated sulphuric acid, and dry potassium hydrate are almost equal in power; sodium hydrate and calcium chloride are not much behind.

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  • The hydrated salt readily loses water on heating, forming at 100° C. the hydrate CoBr 2.2H 2 O, and at 130° C. passing into the anhydrous form.

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  • The word "flocculent" is used of many substances which have a fleecy or "flock"-like appearance, such as a precipitate of ferric hydrate.

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  • GOTHITE, or Goethite, a mineral composed of an iron hydrate, Fe203.H20, crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with diaspore and manganite.

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  • Chloral hydrate.

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  • chim., 1906, 2 5, p. 2 53) as a hydrate of the formula S 8 H 2 O.

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  • It forms a hydrate of composition H 2 S 7H 2 0.

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  • chim., 1906, 2 5, p. 2 53) considers to be a hydrate of sulphur of composition S $ H 2 0), sulphuric acid, traces of trithionic acid, tetraand pentathionic acids and probably hexathionic acid.

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  • Ferric hydrate, iron soaps and all insoluble impurities are precipitated.

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  • Chem., 1905, (2), 71, p. 452) by reducing ruthenium salts with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of gum-arabic.

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  • Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigating its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleaching-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypochlorite, with a little calcium hydrate.

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  • This view was modified by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value.

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  • Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphuretted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide.

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  • The solution is boiled till free from sulphuretted hydrogen and treated with excess of sodium hydrate.

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  • Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on.

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  • A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.

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  • Where a solution is likely to change in composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, sodium hydrate, &c., it is necessary to check or re-standardize it periodically.

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  • Chloraloxime, CC1 3 CH: NOH, is obtained when one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate is warmed with four molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and a little water.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 39° C. A chloral hydroxylamine, CC1 3 [[Choh Nhoh]], melting at 98° C. is obtained by allowing a mixture of one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate with two molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and one of sodium carbonate to stand for some time in a desiccator.

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  • 3.67 Potassium nitrate 3.46 Potassium hydrate.

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  • If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide.

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  • Water when absolutely pure has no action on lead, but in the presence of air the lead is quickly attacked, with formation of the hydrate, Pb(OH) 2, which is appreciably soluble in water forming an alkaline liquid.

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  • With water it forms a hydrate, and ultimately decomposes into lead dioxide and hydrochloric acid.

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  • Uranous hydrate is obtained as reddish-brown flakes by precipitating a uranous solution with alkali.

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  • Precipitated stannous hydrate dissolves readily in caustic potash; if the solution is evaporated quickly it suffers decomposition, with formation of metal and stannate, 2SnO+2KOH = K2Sn03+Sn+H20.

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  • The chloride readily combines with water to form a crystallizable hydrate SnCl 2.2H 2 O, known as "tin salt" or "tin crystals."

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  • Water, at ordinary or slightly elevated temperatures, is decomposed more or less readily, with evolution of hydrogen gas and formation of a basic hydrate, by (I) potassium (formation of KHO), sodium (NaHO), lithium (LiOH), barium, strontium, calcium (BaH 2 O 2, &c.); (2) magnesium, zinc, manganese (MgO 2 H 2, &c.).

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  • The view, often repeated, that the saccharum of the ancients is the hydrate of silica, sometimes found in bamboos and known in Arabian medicine as tabashir, is refuted by Yule, Anglo-Indian Glossary, p. 654; see also Not.

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  • Titanic oxide separates out as a white hydrate, which, however, is generally contaminated with ferric hydrate and often with tin oxide.

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  • The solution, if boiled, deposits its titanic oxide as a hydrate called metatitanic acid, TiO(OH) 21 because it differs in its properties from orthotitanic acid, Ti(OH) 4, obtained by decomposing a solution of the chloride in cold water with alkalis.

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  • Carbon monoxide takes part in the syntheses of sodium formate from sodium hydrate, or soda lime (at 200 0 -2 20 0), and of sodium acetate and propionate from sodium methylate and sodium ethylate at 160 0 -200°.

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  • Semioxamazide, H 2 N CO CO-NH NH 2, is prepared by the action of hydrazine hydrate on oxamaethane (W.

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  • When a concentrated solution of auric chloride is treated with caustic potash, a brown precipitate of auric hydrate, Au(OH) 3, is obtained, which, on heating, loses water to form auryl hydrate, AuO(OH), and auric oxide, Au 2 0 3.

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  • The former is found, generally mixed with iron, copper and arsenic oxides, in Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall, France (Meymac) and other localities; it also occurs admixed with bismuth carbonate and hydrate.

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  • This compound occurs in nature as bismuth ochre, and may be prepared artificially by oxidizing the metal at a red heat, or by heating the carbonate, nitrate or hydrate.

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  • The hydrate, Bi(OH) 3 i is obtained as a white powder by adding potash to a solution of a bismuth salt.

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  • The hydrate, B1204.2H20, is also known.

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  • In a smaller degree these alkaline properties are shared by the less soluble hydrates of the "metals of the alkaline earths," calcium, barium and strontium, and by thallium hydrate.

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  • Cailletet and later by P. Villard that when allowed to stand in the presence of water at a low temperature a solid hydrate is formed.

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  • Acted upon by water it is at once decomposed, yielding acetylene and calcium hydrate.

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  • In the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide and water, all that has to be done is to bring these two compounds into contact, when they mutually react upon each other with the formation of lime and acetylene, while, if there be sufficient water present, the lime combines with it to form calcium hydrate.

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  • Calcium hydrate.

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  • Chem., 1905 (2), 71, p. 45 2) by reducing osmium compounds with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of gum arabic.

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  • A freshly prepared surface of the metal closely resembles zinc in appearance, but on exposure to the air it rapidly tarnishes, becoming yellowish and ultimately grey or white in colour owing to the formation of a surface layer of calcium hydrate.

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  • It is rapidly acted on by water, especially if means are taken to remove the layer of calcium hydrate formed on the metal; alcohol acts very slowly.

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  • The monoxide and its hydrate are more familiarly known as lime (q.v.) and slakedlime.

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  • The dioxide was obtained as the hydrate, CaO 2.8H,0, by P. Thenard (Ann.

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  • Anhydrous calcium chloride, prepared by heating the hydrate to 200° (preferably in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, which prevents the formation of any oxychloride), is very hygroscopic, and is used as a desiccating agent.

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  • Pure potassium is a silvery white metal tinged with blue; but on exposure to air it at once forms a film of oxide, and on prolonged exposure deliquesces into a solution of hydrate and carbonate.

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  • The liquors after a concentration in iron vessels are now evaporated in a silver dish, until the heavy vapour of the hydrate is seen to go off.

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  • For the fusion of the dry hydrate nickel vessels cannot be used; in fact, even silver is perceptibly attacked as soon as all the excess of water is away; absolutely pure KHO can be produced only in gold vessels.

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  • On crystallizing a solution, the hydrate KOH 2H 2 0 is deposited; 2KOH 9H 2 0 and 2KOH 5H 2 0 have also been obtained.

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  • Werner, four hydrated chromium chlorides exist, namely the green and violet salts, CrC1 3.6H 2 O, a hydrate, CrC1 3.10H 2 O and one CrC1 3.4H 2 0.

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  • HYDRATE, in chemistry, a compound containing the elements of water in combination; more specifically, a compound containing the monovalent hydroxyl or OH group. The first and more general definition includes substances containing water of crystallization; such salts are said to be hydrated, and when deprived of their water to be dehydrated or anhydrous.

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  • Taking the point 0 to denote the state of equilibrium between ice, hydrate; saturated solution and vapour, we pass along OA till a new solid phase, that of Na2S04, appears at 32.6°; from this point arise four curves, analogous to those diverging from the point O.

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  • The curve OP represents the varying solubility of the hydrate as the temperature rises from the cryohydric point to 32.6°.

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  • As heat is supplied, the hydrate is transformed gradually into the anhydrous salt and water.

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  • At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?

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  • This indicates the appearance of a new compound, which should exist pure at E, the next maximum, and, led by these considerations, Roozeboom discovered and isolated a previously unknown hydrate, Fe 2 C1 6 7 H 2 0.

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  • In a similar way the curve FGH, between 30° and 55°, shows the effect of the hydrate Fe2Cl6.5H20, and the curve HJK that of the hydrate Fe 2 C1 6.4H 2 O, which, when pure, melts at 73.5° - the point J on the diagram.

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  • A familiar example is to be found in solutions of sodium sulphate, which may be cooled much below their saturation point and kept in the liquid state till a crystal of the hydrate Na 2 SO 4 IoH 2 O is dropped in, when solidification occurs with a large evolution of latent heat.

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  • LIMONITE, or Brown Iron Ore, a natural ferric hydrate named from the Gr.

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  • Limonite is a ferric hydrate, conforming typically with the formula Fe 4 0 3 (OH) 6, or 2Fe 2 O 3.3H 2 O.

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  • The ferric hydrate is also readily deposited from ferruginous waters, often by means of organic agencies.

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  • On the other hand there are certain forms of ferric hydrate containing less water than limonite and approaching to haematite in their red colour and streak: such is the mineral which was called hydrohaematite by A.

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  • It is a physiological antagonist of chloral hydrate, morphine and physostigmine, and may be given in poisoning by these drugs.

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  • To ensure this being properly done, the lumps of lime should be broken up small, and enough water to slake them should be added, the lime then being allowed to rest for about forty-eight hours, when the water changes the particles of quicklime to hydrate of lime, and breaks up the hard lumps into a powder.

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  • Aluminium hydrate, Al(OH) 3, is obtained as a gelatinous white precipitate, soluble in potassium or sodium hydrate, but insoluble in ammonium chloride, by adding ammonia to a cold solution of an aluminium salt; from boiling solutions the precipitate is opaque.

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  • By drying at ordinary temperatures, the hydrate Al(OH) 3 �H 2 0 is obtained; at 300° this yields A10(OH), which on ignition gives alumina, Al 2 O 3.

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  • Precipitated aluminium hydrate finds considerable application in dyeing.

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  • Both these soluble hydrates are readily coagulated by traces of a salt, acid or alkali; Crum's hydrate does not combine with dye-stuffs, neither is it soluble in excess of acid, while Graham's compound readily forms lakes, and readily dissolves when coagulated in acids.

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  • In addition to behaving as a basic oxide, aluminium oxide (or hydrate) behaves as an acid oxide towards the strong bases with the formation of aluminates.

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  • Potassium aluminate, K 2 Al 2 0 4, is obtained in solution by dissolving aluminium hydrate in caustic potash; it is also obtained, as crystals containing three molecules of water, by fusing alumina with potash, exhausting with water, and crystallizing the solution in vacuo.

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  • A hydrate, of composition CHC1 3 18H 2 0, has been described (G.

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  • On exposure to meteoric influences pyrites commonly becomes brown, by formation of ferric hydrate or limonite, whence the change is called "limonitization."

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  • When heated with hydrazine hydrate at 150° C. it gives a-naphthyl hydrazine, C 1 oH 7 NH NH 2 Hoffmann, Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2909).

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  • H204N -{- OH' -4 On adding the alkaline hydroxide to the solution, this hydrate is supposed to lose water, yielding the syn-diazo hydroxide, which then gives rise to a certain amount of the sodium salt (A.

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  • On cooling a saturated solution to - 10°, or by cooling a solution in hot hydrochloric acid, the hydrate NaCI.2H 2 O separates; on further cooling an aqueous solution to - 20° a cryohydrate containing 23.7% of the salt is deposited.

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  • 10-15%, it may hydrate and set after the general setting of the cement, and may give rise to disruptive strains causing the cement to "blow" and fail.

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  • It is the practice in Great Britain to burn pure gypsum at a low temperature so as to convert it into the hydrate 2CaSO 4 H 2 O, to soak the lumps in a solution of alum or of aluminium sulphate, and to recalcine them at about 500° C. On grinding they give Keene's cement.

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  • It decomposes water at a red heat, liberating hydrogen and being itself converted into the hydrate.

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  • It is produced by the exposure of thallous hydrate to carbon dioxide, and therefore is obtained when the moist metal is exposed to the air.

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  • The word " alkali " denotes both soda and potash, but by "alkali manufacture" we understand merely the manufacture of sodium sulphate, carbonate and hydrate.

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  • The term alkali is employed in a technical sense for the carbonate and hydrate (of sodium), but since in the Leblanc process the manufacture of sodium sulphate necessarily precedes that of the carbonate, we include this as well as the manufacture of hydrochloric acid which is inseparable from it.

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  • The first action of the lime is to convert the manganese chloride into manganous hydrate (Mn(OH) 2) and calcium chloride; then more lime is added which greatly promotes and hastens the oxidizing process.

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  • The principal impurities of crude vat-liquor are sodium hydrate and sulphide, the latter of which always leads to the formation of soluble double sulphur salts of sodium and iron.

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  • After from half an hour to a whole hour the conversion of sodium carbonate into sodium hydrate is brought about as far as is practicable.

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  • The washed-out calcium carbonate, which always contains much calcium hydrate and 2 or 3% of soda in various forms, usually goes back to the black-ash furnaces, but it cannot be always used up in this way, and what remains is thrown upon a heap outside the works.

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  • When this takes place in an aqueous solution, the alkaline metal at once reacts with the water, so that a solution of an alkaline hydrate is formed while hydrogen escapes.

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  • If the chlorine and the sodiun hydrate can act upon each other within the liquid, bleach-liquors are formed: 2NaOH+ C12= NaOC1+NaC1+H 2 0.

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  • If, however, the action of the chlorine on the sodium hydrate is prevented, which can be done in various ways, they can both be collected in the isolated state and utilized as has been previously described, viz.

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  • the chlorine can be used for the manufacture of liquid chlorine, bleaching-powder or other bleaching compounds, or chlorates, and the solution of sodium hydrate can be sold as such, or converted into solid caustic soda.

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  • When this percentage has been reached, the cell is rocked to the other side, so that the amalgam flows into one of the outer compartments where the sodium is converted by water into sodium hydrate.

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  • The intermediate layer of the salt solution, floating over the caustic soda solution, plays the part of a diaphragm, by preventing the chlorine evolved in the bell from acting on the sodium hydrate formed outside, and this solution offers much less resistance to the electric current than the ordinary diaphragms. This process therefore consumes less power than most others.

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  • Thorium fluoride, ThF 4, is obtained as a heavy white insoluble powder by dissolving the hydrate in hydrofluoric acid and evaporating.

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  • By precipitating a thorium salt with a fluoride, a gelatinous hydrate, ThF 4.4H 2 O, is obtained.

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  • xH20, by adding an alcoholic solution of potassium hydrate to nickelchloride and hydrogen peroxide at -50°.

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  • It is readily soluble in water, and on boiling the aqueous solution a white hydrate is first deposited which after a time is converted into the trioxide.

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  • Water saturated with chlorine at 0° C. deposits crystals of a hydrate C1 2.8H 2 O, which is readily decomposed at a higher temperature into its constituents.

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  • Chlorine hydrate has an historical importance, as by sealing it up in a bent tube, and heating the end containing the hydrate, whilst the other limb of the tube was enclosed in a freezing mixture, M.

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  • The crystalline hydrate melts at 50° C. The pure acid decomposes slowly on standing, but is stable in dilute aqueous solution.

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  • Copper dioxide, CuO 2 H 2 O, is obtained as a yellowish-brown powder, by treating cupric hydrate with hydrogen peroxide.

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  • Cuprous sulphite, CuS0 3 H 2 O, is obtained as a brownish-red crystalline powder by treating cuprous hydrate with sulphurous acid.

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  • From 1865 onwards he treated this question in several papers, and in particular maintained the dissociation of vapour of chloral hydrate, in opposition to H.

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  • Artificially it may be prepared by heating cetyl alcohol with soda lime to 270° or by fusing oleic acid with potassium hydrate.

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  • The same hydrate can be prepared by dissolving borax in water until the solution has a specific gravity of 1.246 and then allowing the solution to cool.

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  • The bark of the horse-chestnut contains a greenish oil, resin, a yellow body, a tannin, C26 H 24012, existing likewise in the seeds and various parts of the tree, and decomposable into phloroglucin and aesciglyoxalic acid, C 7 H 6 O 3, also aesculetin hydrate, and the crystalline fluorescent compound aesculin, of the formulaC21H24013 (Rochleder and Schwarz), with which occurs a similar substance fraxin, the paviin of Sir G.

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  • a little hydrochloric acid, methylene diresorcin [(HO) 2 C 6 H 3] 2 CH 2, whilst with chloral hydrate, in the presence of potassium bisulphate, it yields the lactone of tetra-oxydiphenyl methane carboxylic acid (J.

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  • A colloidal selenium was obtained by C. Paal and C. Koch (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 526) by reducing selenious acid dissolved in an aqueous solution of sodium protalbate with hydrazine hydrate and hydrochloric acid, the precipitate obtained being then dissolved in sodium carbonate.

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  • It is somewhat soluble in water and forms a hydrate.

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  • The acid crystallizes in hexagonal prisms and melts at 58° C. It dissolves in water and yields a hydrate of composition H 2 SeO 4 H 2 O.

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  • By cooling the aqueous solution, hyacinth-red octahedra of a crystalline hydrate of composition Br 4H 2 O or Br2.8H20 are obtained (Bakhuis Roozeboom, Zeits.

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  • Neither is there any advantage gained by mixing this hydrate with sulphur trioxide; for when such a mixture is concentrated by evaporation, sulphur trioxide is vaporized until the same hydrate is left.

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  • The pure acid, however, may be obtained by strongly cooling this hydrate.

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  • 5°, and on gentle heating evolve sulphur trioxide and again form the same hydrate.

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  • When strong sulphuric acid is mixed with water there is a great development of heat; the heat evolved when four parts of acid are mixed with one of water being sufficient to raise the temperature from o° to 100° C. (Hence the laboratory precaution of always adding the acid to the water and not the water to the acid.) In addition to the heat evolution there is also a diminution in volume, the maximum occurring when the components are present in the ratio H2S04:2H20, thus pointing to the existence of a hydrate H 2 SO 4, 2H20.

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  • A second hydrate, H 2 SO 4, H 2 0, may be obtained as rhombic crystals, which melt at 7° and boil at 205 °, by diluting the strong acid until it has a specific gravity of 1.78, and cooling the mixture; this compound is sometimes known as glacial sulphuric acid.

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  • Ferrous hydrate, Fe(OH)2, when prepared from a pure ferrous salt and caustic soda or potash free from air, is a white powder which may be preserved in an atmosphere of hydrogen.

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  • By heating freshly prepared red ferric hydrate with water under 5000 atmospheres pressure Ruff (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 34 1 7) obtained definite hydrates corresponding to the minerals limonite (30°-42, 5°), gothite (4 2.5°-62, 5°), and hydrohaematite (above 62.5°).

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  • Thomas Graham obtained a soluble hydrate by dissolving the freshly prepared hydrate in ferric chloride and dialysing the solution, the soluble hydrate being left in the dialyser.

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  • Fremy investigated this discovery, made by Stahl in 1702, and showed that the same solution resulted when chlorine is passed into strong potash solution containing ferric hydrate in suspension.

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  • The solution is best prepared by dissolving the hydrate in hydrochloric acid and removing the excess of acid by evaporation, or by passing chlorine into the solution obtained by dissolving the metal in hydrochloric acid and removing the excess of chlorine by a current of carbon dioxide.

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  • Many oxychlorides are known; soluble forms are obtained by dissolving precipitated ferric hydrate in ferric chloride, whilst insoluble compounds result when ferrous chloride is oxidized in air, or by boiling for some time aqueous solutions of ferric chloride.

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  • It closely resembles the chloride in being deliquescent, dissolving ferric hydrate, and in yielding basic salts.

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  • Arsenides, Arsenites, &c. - Several iron arsenides occur as minerals; lolingite, FeAs 2, forms silvery rhombic prisms; mispickel or arsenical pyrites, Fe2AsS2, is an important commercial source of arsenic. A basic ferric arsenite, 4Fe2O3 As2O3.5H 2 O, is obtained as a flocculent brown precipitate by adding an arsenite to ferric acetate, or by shaking freshly prepared ferric hydrate with a solution of arsenious oxide.

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  • The last reaction is the basis of the application of ferric hydrate as an antidote in arsenical poisoning.

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  • The scale preparations of iron, so called because they are dried to form scales, are three in number, the base of all being ferric hydrate: (a) Ferrum tartaratum, dark red scales, soluble in water.

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  • Then, if available, freshly precipitated ferric hydrate must be given, which can be prepared by adding a solution of ammonia to one of iron perchloride.

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  • (See Sulphonal.) Methyl mercaptan, CH,.SH, is a liquid which boils at 5.8° C. (752 mm.), and forms a crystalline hydrate with water.

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  • Crace-Calvert in 1871 showed that the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere was a factor; and in 1888 Crum Brown published the theory - termed the "carbonic acid theory" - that water and carbon dioxide react with iron to form ferrous carbonate and hydrogen, the ferrous carbonate being subsequently oxidized by moist oxygen to ferric hydrate and regenerating carbon dioxide, which again reacts with more iron.

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  • Ethyl alcohol is taken as a type of the action of methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, ether, acetic ether, paraldehyde, sulphonal, chloroform, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, chloral hydrate, butylchloral hydrate, and almost any number of derivatives from these.

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  • Curtius found that benzoylglycollic acid gavebenzoyl hydrazine with hydrazine hydrate: C 6 H S 000 CH2000H -1-2N2H4 H20 = H20 +C6H 5CONH NH2+ NH2 NH CH2 COOH.

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  • An improved method of preparation was found in the use of hippuric acid, which reacts with hydrazine hydrate to form hippuryl hydrazine, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Conh Nh]] 2, and this substance is converted by nitrous acid into diazo-hippuramide, C 6 H 5 [[Conh Ch 2 Co Nh N 2.0h]], which is hydrolysed by the action of caustic alkalis with the production of salts of hydrazoic acid.

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  • Sports drinks - Chugging down sports drinks will not only hydrate your body, but also replace some of the glucose and other water-soluble nutrients that are flushed out of your system along with the toxins.

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  • With acid based ingredients that capture and fill with moisture, the concept is to over hydrate your lips causing the swelling stout look.

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  • Bio5ive Blend & Hydrate ($12.90) is an invisible alcohol-free priming, blending and hydrating solution that provides a special layer of oil-free moisture for easy cosmetic blending and setting.

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  • However, there are some nice products on the market that can help to illuminate, hydrate and plump up the area around the eye.

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  • Hydrate. A good moisturizer is essential in the wintertime.

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  • Subtle and natural enough for both men and women to wear, its special water formulation allows the skin to breathe and hydrate, continually renewing your complexion.

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  • Like the MAC Pro Eye Makeup remover, Gently Off also features cucumber extract and rose water to refresh and hydrate.

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  • Liparazzi goes on smooth to hydrate, protect, and provide your lips with beautiful color and brilliant shine.

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  • The Associated Press reports that Smith, 39, also had levels of chloral hydrate, a sedative that also contributed to actress Marilyn Monroe's death in 1962.

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  • They need to be soaked in fresh water until they have absorbed the maximum amount of water required to hydrate them.

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  • Drink in moderation, hydrate, and if you simply cannot live without red wine, try some of the cures above.

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  • Guaifenesin and terpin hydrate are the primary ingredients in most over-the-counter expectorants.

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  • Phenothiazines can be used to counter nausea, vomiting, and anxiety, and chloral hydrate or diazepam is useful for sedation or to induce sleep.

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  • Moisture: Designed to hydrate, soften, and replenish moisture in your hair, this line includes shampoo, a daily hair treatment, and a moisture mist.

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  • In addition to a beautiful salon cut and texture service, be sure to pamper your tresses and properly moisturize and hydrate them at home.

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  • If your hair is parched and in dire straights, you may find that switching to a sulfate-free shampoo helps to protect and hydrate your hair effectively.

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  • Leave-in and deep conditioners can also be beneficial for women with black hair as these conditioners protect and hydrate black hair, preventing unnecessary hair loss from breakage.

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  • Hair oil is a popular product among black women as it helps hydrate and protect the scalp and hair.

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  • Super C Immunity contains 1000 mg of vitamin C plus electrolytes designed to help you hydrate and boost immunity when you are sick.

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  • The presentation was actually offered on the topic of alternative energies because Clennell was focused on methane hydrate beds that exist under the ocean as a viable alternative to traditional fuels like natural gas.

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  • Mudslides at the bottom of the ocean can uncover methane hydrate beds.

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  • Thus, a person may simply fail to drink enough water to adequately hydrate the body.

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  • Without drinking enough water and consuming enough fresh fruits that hydrate the intestines, these bulking fibers can actually worsen constipation.

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  • Then, decide what it is you want it to do: hydrate, provide sun protection, or eliminate wrinkles.

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  • They are designed to exfoliate dead skin cells and hydrate baby's delicate skin.

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  • A good moisturizer will soften and hydrate skin without feeling greasy.

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  • The Rejuvenating Serum infuses hylaronic acid to hydrate the skin plus vitamins ACE to help nourish the skin and fortify against damage from the sun and our polluted environment.

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  • Vitamin E is also an antioxidant that is frequently added to moisturizers because of its ability to hydrate your skin.

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  • Foot Soaks: The Foaming Sea Soak and Sea Rocks Soak hydrate, refresh, cleanse and rejuvenate the feet.

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  • Never lay out in the sun for extended periods of time and always be sure to hydrate yourself with plenty of water.

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  • You can make an excellent exfoliant on your own using several kinds of fruit - nearly all of them will not only strip away your dull flakes, but also hydrate your skin, leaving it smooth and silky.

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  • Though aging skin can't be avoided completely, the right essential oils can help slow down the process, hydrate the skin and restore skin tone.

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  • They tout their Simple Daily Ritual (cleanse, hydrate, protect and moisturize) and the foundation for healthy skin.

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  • Nectifirm claims to firm, smooth and hydrate the neck, using such ingredients as lipopeptide, which helps in firming, and tripeptide, which increases collagen production, a crucial aspect of looking young.

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  • First, you can choose from those that cleanse, hydrate, treat or protect.

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  • Hydrate your skin and protect it from harmful ultraviolet rays with this potent moisturizer.

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  • The Lindi Soothing Balm is specially formulated to hydrate and prevent skin from further dryness.

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  • One of the more science-infused anti aging treatments on the market, their Age-Defying Wrinkle Serum uses Whole Marine Collagen molecules to hydrate your skin and restore some of its youthfulness.

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  • Secondly, always hydrate your skin by drinking plenty of water and using a quality moisturizer every morning and night.

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  • Bubble bath soaps are an indulgent way to cleanse, relax and hydrate the skin in just one step.

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  • Cetaphil DailyAdvance Ultra Hydrating Lotion: Formulating to hydrate skin for hours, this lotion is ideal for anyone with sensitive skin.

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  • Always take a few moments to cleanse and rinse and follow up with a night time cream or moisturizer to help hydrate the skin and plump out fine lines and wrinkles.

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  • Today's skin care products are hydrate, smooth and treat acne with a variety of safe ingredients and products.

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  • At the end of your facial, your spa worker will hydrate your skin with oil-free moisturizer.

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  • Pevonia Botanica products help to hydrate and revitalize dry skin.

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  • Age Spot Brightening Day Cream with SPF 30: Hydrate the skin and protect it from dangerous UV rays by using this daily.

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  • The Intense Hydration Mask is made to hydrate and revitalize dry skin.

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  • Dermasycne Wrinkle Arrest is an anti-aging day cream with SPF 18 to hydrate, increase collagen and elastin production and protect skin from the sun's damaging rays.

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  • Therapeutic Hair Repair binds moisture to hydrate the hair and scalp, repairs split ends and neutralizes bacteria.

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  • All Day Moisture is fragrance-free, lightweight, and utilizes fruit acids, vitamin E, and panthenol to exfoliate and hydrate the skin.

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  • Hydrate: At Reader's Digest, Kelly Charron, director of Spa Education & Development at Klinger Advanced Aesthetics, shares a few tips for healing a sunburn.

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