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huxley

huxley

huxley Sentence Examples

  • Thomas Henry Huxley >>

  • The Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal in 5892, and selected him as Croonian lecturer in the following year, his subject being the position of pathology among the biological sciences; and in 1898 he delivered the second Huxley memorial lecture at Charing Cross Hospital.

  • Huxley concluded, from descriptions, that" the Deccan tribes are indistinguishable from the Australian races."

  • Huxley admitted that this contention could not be ruled out as impossible.

  • Huxley's.

  • Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.

  • Huxley, the sporosac is the starting-point of an evolution leading up through the various types of gonophores to the free medusa as the culminating point of a phyletic series.

  • Huxley, therefore, considered a hydroid colony, for example, as a single individual, and each separate polyp or medusa budded from it as having the value of an organ and not of an individual.

  • Hence Huxley's view is not so different from those held by other authors as it seems to be at first sight.

  • In more recent years Woltereck [59] has supported Huxley's view of individuality, at the same time drawing a fine distinction between " individual " and " person."

  • Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.

  • Since Huxley and Sully wrote their masterly essays in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia, the doctrine of evolution has outgrown the trammels of controversy and has been accepted as a fundamental principle.

  • These attempts, however, to perpetuate the usage were finally discredited by Huxley's important Lectures on Comparative Anatomy (1864), in which the term was finally abolished, and the "radiate mob" finally distributed among the Echinodermata, Polyzoa, Vermes (Platyhelminthes), Coelenterata and Protozoa.

  • term which appears to have been introduced by Linnaeus, and was reinvented as a substitute for the cosmography of the middle ages by Professor Huxley.

  • Huxley, in 1868, divided the carinate birds into Dromaeo-, Schizo-, Desmo-, and Aegithognathae, an arrangement which for many years had a considerable influence upon classification.

  • Huxley, " On the Classification of Birds and on the Taxonomic Value of the Modifications of certain of the Cranial Bones..."

  • Mailer introduced the terms Polymyodi and Tracheophones, Huxley that of Oligomyodi; Mailer himself had, moreover, pointed out the more important characters of the mode of insertion, but it was Garrod who invented the corresponding terms of Acro- and Mesomyodi (= Tracheophones+Oligomyodi).

  • The New Zealand Subregion, considered by Professors Newton and Huxley and various other zoogeographers as deserving the rank of a region, is, and to all appearance has long been, more isolated than any other portion of the globe.

  • Huxley has urged with his wonted perspicuity the alliance of these two regions as Notogaea, basing his opinion, besides other weighty evidence, in great measure on the evidence afforded by the two main sections of the Galli, viz.

  • (C) Arctogaea is Huxley's well-chosen term for all the rest of the world (including the Nearctic, Palaearctic, Indian and Ethiopian regions of P. L.

  • He also dealt with the condemnation of Pope Honorius, carried on a controversial correspondence with John Stuart Mill, and took a leading part in the discussions of the Metaphysical Society, founded by Mr James Knowles, of which Tennyson, Huxley and Martineau were also prominent members.

  • Next in numerical importance to the Mongolians are the races which have been called by Professor Huxley Melanochroic and Xanthochroic. The former includes the dark-haired people of southern Europe, and extends over North Africa, Asia Minor, Syria to south-western Asia, and through Arabia and Persia to India.

  • The Melanochroi are not considered by Huxley to be one of the primitive modifications of mankind, but rather to be the result of the admixture of the Xanthochroi with the Australoid type, next to be mentioned.

  • Huxley gave it as his opinion that it was sufficient to cover the whole cost of the war indemnity paid by France to Germany in 1870.

  • Huxley, Tyndall, Cairnes, Mark Pattison, F.

  • Huxley (Anat.

  • Huxley (Trans.

  • That the palatal structure must be taken into consideration by taxonomers as affording hints of some utility there can no longer be a doubt; but perhaps the characters drawn thence owed more of their worth to the extraordinary perspicuity with which they were presented by Huxley than to their own intrinsic value, and if the same power had been employed to elucidate in the same way other parts of the skeleton - say the bones of the sternal apparatus or even of the pelvic girdle - either set might have been made to appear quite as instructive and perhaps more so.

  • Huxley regarded the above scheme as nearly representing the affinities of the various Carinate groups - the great difficulty being to determine the relations to the rest of the Coccygomorphae, Psittacomorphae and Aegithognathae, which he indicated " only in the most doubtful and hypothetic fashion."

  • Sclater published in the Ibis a classification which was mainly a revision of the system of Huxley, modified by the investigations of Garrod and Forbes and by his own large acquaintance with museum specimens.

  • Newton accepted the three subclasses of Huxley, Saururae, Ratitae and Carinitae, and made a series of cautious but critical observations on the minor divisions of the Carinates.

  • This congruity of the miracle with divine truth and grace is the answer to Matthew Arnold's taunt about turning a pen into a pen-wiper or Huxley's about a centaur trotting down Regent Street.

  • Huxley (1867), P. L.

  • Huxley; hence his term Dromaeognathae for the Crypturi.

  • The structures formerly regarded as pseudohearts have been shown by Huxley to be nephridia; the true heart was described and figured by A.

  • Huxley, " Pharynx of Scorpion," Quart.

  • Huxley adopted Latreille's view of the distinctness of the Amphibia, as a class of the Vertebrata, co-ordinate with the Mammalia, A y es, Reptilia and Pisces; and the same arrangement was accepted by Gegenbaur and Haeckel.

  • In the Hunterian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1863, Huxley divided the Vertebrata into Mammals, Sauroids and Ichthyoids, the latter division containing the Amphibia and Pisces.

  • Huxley, in the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia, treated of Brongniart's Batrachia, under the designation Amphibia, but this use of the word has not been generally accepted.

  • After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.

  • Huxley (1825-1895), all of whom individually contributed very greatly by their special discoveries and researches to the increase of exact knowledge.

  • Huxley adopted in his lectures (1869) a classification which was in many respects similar to both of the foregoing, but embodied improvements of his own.

  • Many zoologists - prominent among them in Great Britain being Huxley - had been repelled by the airy fancies and assumptions of the " philosophical " morphologists.

  • Since his time the anthropological researches of Broca, Thurnam and Davis, Huxley, Busk, Beddoe, Virchow, Tubino and others have proved the existence in Europe, from Neolithic times, of a race, small of stature, with long or oval skulls, and accustomed to bury their dead in tombs.

  • Bridges' reply to Mill, The Unity of Comte's Life and Doctrines (1866); Herbert Spencer's essay on the Genesis of Science and pamphlet on The Classification of the Sciences; Huxley's " Scientific Aspects of Positivism," in his Lay Sermons; R.

  • Lewes and Huxley.

  • While the organization has succeeded in securing recognition and favour in high places both in England and abroad, it has been seriously criticized at times, notably by Huxley and others in 1890-1891, and more recently by J.

  • Professor Flinders Petrie, in his Huxley Lecture for 1906 on Migrations (reprinted by the Anthropological Institute), deals with the mutations and movements of races from an anthropological standpoint with profound knowledge and originality.

  • Learning (1694), has given rise to a literature of its own; see, especially, Tollin's Die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs, &c. (1876); Huxley, in Fortnightly Rev. (February 1878); Tollin's Kritische Bemerkungen fiber Harvey and seine Vorganger (1882).

  • The Owen Stanley range - its highest summit, named by Huxley in 1850 Mount Owen Stanley, 13,120 ft.

  • In future the philosophic method of palaeontology must continue to advance step by step with exploration; it would be a reproach to later generations if they did not progress as far beyond the philosophic status of Cuvier, Owen and even of Huxley and Cope, as the new materials represent an advance upon the material opportunities which came to them through exploration.

  • Huxley's development of the method of palaeontology should be studied in his collected memoirs (Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley, 4 vols., 1898).

  • Huxley questioned the time value of fossils, but recent research has tended to show that identity of species and of mutations is, on the whole, a guide to synchroneity, though the general range of vertebrate and invertebrate life as well as of plant life is generally necessary for the establishment of approximate synchronism.

  • The science of zoogeography, founded by Humboldt, Edward Forbes, Huxley, P. L.

  • It was early perceived by Huxley, Cope and many others that Cuvier's broad belief in a universal progression was erroneous, and there developed the distinction between " persistent primitive types " (Huxley) and " progressive types."

  • The theoretical existence of primitive or stem forms was clearly perceived by Darwin, but the steps by which the stem form might be restored were first clearly enunciated by Huxley in 1880 (" On the Application of Evolution to the Arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia," Scient.

  • Thus Huxley, with true prophetic instinct, found that the sum of primitive characters of all the higher placental mammals points to a stem form of a generalized insectivore type, a prophecy which has been fully confirmed by the latest research.

  • On the other hand, Huxley's summation of the primitive characters of all the mammals led him to an amphibian stem type, a prophecy which has proved faulty because based on erroneous analysis and comparison.

  • More or less independently, Huxley, Kowalevsky and Cope restored the stem ancestor of the hoofed animals, or ungulates, a restoration which has been nearly fulfilled by the discovery, in 1873, of the generalized type Phenacodus of northern Wyoming.

  • Huxley in 1880 briefly suggested the arboreal origin, or primordial treehabitat of all the marsupials, a suggestion abundantly confirmed by the detailed studies of Dollo and of Bensley, according to which we may imagine the marsupials to have passed through (r) a former terrestrial phase, followed by (2) a primary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree phalangers - followed by (3) a secondary terrestrial phase - illustrated in the kangaroos and wallabies - followed by (4) a secondary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree kangaroos.

  • Vertebrate palaeontologists were slow to grasp this principle; while the early speculative phylogenies of the horse of Huxley and Marsh, for example, were mostly displayed monophyletically, or in single lines of descent, it is now recognized that the horses which were placed by Marsh in a single series are really to be ranged in a great number of contemporaneous but separate series, each but partially known, and that the direct phylum which leads to the modern horse has become a matter of far more difficult search.

  • Huxley's researches, and especially his share in the development of the philosophy of palaeontology, will be found in his essays, The Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley (4 vols., London, 1898-1902).

  • Zoologists of the standing of Huxley, Claus and Leydig added to our knowledge of the anatomy and to the theory of their relations.

  • Huxley, "Lacinularia socialis," Trans.

  • Huxley (Science and Culture) and Shadworth Hodgson (Metaphysic of Experience and Theory of Practice), must be distinguished from that of the psychophysical parallelism, or the "double aspect theory" according to which both the mental state and the physical phenomena result from a so-called "mind stuff," or single substance, the material or cause of both.

  • Huxley, Critiques and Addresses, pp. 320 seq.; G.

  • In England, Owen's anatomy of the pearly nautilus,14 Huxley's discussion of the general morphology of the Mollusca,17 and Lankester's embryological investigations, 19 have aided in advancing our knowledge of the group. Two remarkable works of a systematic character dealing with the Mollusca deserve mention here - the Manual of the Mollusca, by Dr S.

  • Huxley, " On the Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca," Phil.

  • Huxley (1825-1895) developed views very like those of Spencer, and similarly materialistic without being materialism, because inconsistent.

  • Thus Huxley first reduced consciousness to a product of matter, and then matter to a phenomenon of consciousness.

  • Huxley, it will be remembered, in similar circumstances, answered this question by degrading consciousness to an epiphenomenon, or bye-product of the physical process.

  • It also became the basis of the philosophies of Huxley and of Spencer on their phenomenalistic side.

  • With Darwin and Huxley his name is inseparably connected with the battle which began in the middle of the 19th century for making the new standpoint of modern science part of the accepted philosophy in general life.

  • Huxley.

  • In 1854, after the meeting of the British Association in Liverpool, a memorable visit occurred to the Penrhyn slate quarries, where the question of slaty cleavage arose in his mind, and ultimately led him, with Huxley, to Switzerland to study the phenomena of glaciers.

  • Though not so prominent as Huxley in detailed controversy over theological problems, he played an important part in educating the public mind in the attitude which the development of natural philosophy entailed towards dogma and religious authority.

  • Philosophic (the more important only can be quoted).- Huxley's Hume (a popular reproduction of Hume's views in " English Men of Letters " series); Sir L.

  • MacCosh published a short pamphlet (1884) containing interesting but perhaps not conclusive arguments on the Agnosticism of Hume and Huxley.

  • Huxley in his often-quoted paper in the Zoological Proceedings (1867, pp. 4 2 5, 426) was enabled to place the whole matter in a clear light, urging that the Tinamous formed a very distinct group of birds which;, though not to be removed from the Carinatae, presented so much resemblance to the Ratitae as to indicate them to be the bond of union between those two great divisions.

  • Regarding it as an organism which represented the simplest form of life, Huxley about 1868 named it Bathybius Haeckelii.

  • Huxley preferred to keep them separate as Amphimorphae.

  • Huxley, "Remarks on the Skeleton of the Archaeopteryx and on the relations of the bird to the reptile," Geol.

  • Huxley, Scott's Last Expe- dition (two vols.

  • The cranium, pronounced by Huxley to be the most ape-like yet discovered, was remarkable for its enormous superciliary ridges.

  • The carapace, formerly referred only to the antennar-mandibular segments, may perhaps in fact contain elements from any number of other segments of head and trunk, Huxley, Alcock, Bouvier giving support to this opinion by the sutural or other divisional lines in Potamobius, Nephrops, Thalassina, and various fossil genera.

  • Between the Brachyura and Macrura some authors uphold an order Anomura, though in a much restricted sense, the labours of Huxley, Boas, Alcock and conjointly Alphonse Milne-Edwards and Bouvier, having resulted in restoring the Dromiidea and Raninidae to the Brachyura, among which de Haan long ago placed them.

  • According to Sars, the 1 In Huxley's terminology the first two or three joints of the stem constitute a "protopodite," from which spring the "endopodite" and "exopodite."

  • See Huxley's Man's Place Nature (1863) Robt.

  • In 1863, however, Huxley in his Man's Place in Nature demonstrated that the higher apes might fairly be included in Bimana.

  • How long they remain free is not known; Huxley kept them in a glass vessel in this condition for a week.

  • Natural beds of oysters occur on stony and shelly bottoms at depths varying from 3 to 20 fathoms. In nature the beds are liable to variations, and, although Huxley was somewhat sceptical on this point, it seems that they are easily brought into an unproductive condition by over-dredging.

  • The 1 Even Huxley, the most ardent of all opponents of fishery legislation, while denying that oyster-beds had been permanently annihilated by dredging, practically admitted that a bed may be reduced to such a condition that the oyster will only be able to recover its former state by a long struggle with its enemies and competition - in fact that it must re-establish itself much in the same way as they have acquired possession of new grounds in Jutland, a process which, according to his own statement, occupied thirty years (Lecture at the Royal Institution, May 11th, 1883, printed with additions in the English Illustrated Magazine, i.

  • Huxley has illustrated the futility of "close-time" in his remark that the prohibition of taking oysters from an oyster-bed during four months of the year is not the slightest security against its being stripped clean during the other eight months.

  • Huxley's conclusions as regards the future of the oyster industry in Great Britain are doubtless just as applicable to other countries - that the only hope for the oyster consumer lies in the encouragement of oyster-culture, and in the development of some means of breeding oysters under such conditions that the spat shall be safely deposited.

  • Works by Galton bearing on eugenics are: Hereditary Genius (2nd ed., 1892), Human Faculty (1883), Natural Inheritance (1889), Huxley Lecture of the Anthropol.

  • Huxley placed the family among his Chenomorphae; but this view was contravened in 1876 by A.

  • Dohrn, Ray Lankester and Huxley.

  • Some of the main points it illustrates may be briefly stated here, the reader being referred for further information to Huxley's Essays.

  • Huxley maintained that it has the characteristic structure of a foot with a very movable great toe.

  • This is Huxley's argument, some prominent points of which are the following: As regards the proportion of limbs, the hylobates or gibbon is as much longer in the arms than the gorilla as the gorilla is than the man, while on the other hand, it is as much longer in the legs than the man as the man is than the gorilla.

  • On these grounds Huxley, restoring in principle the Linnean classification, desired to include man in the order of Primates.

  • Huxley acknowledged an immeasurable and practically infinite divergence, ending in the present enormous psychological gulf between ape and man.

  • Among modern tribes of mankind the forehead of the Australian aborigines makes the nearest approach to this type, as was pointed out by Huxley.

  • On the whole, Huxley's division probably approaches more nearly than any other to such a tentative classification as may be accepted in definition of the principal varieties of mankind, regarded from a zoological point of view, though anthropologists may be disposed to erect into separate races several of his widely-differing sub-races.

  • Huxley, Man's Place in Nature (London, 1863); and " Geographical Distribution of Chief Modifications of Mankind," in Journal Ethnological Society for 1870; E.

  • As Regards Protoplasm contains an attempted refutation of the Essay on the Physical Basis of Life by Huxley.

  • Huxley, who took a large share in the process of refuting contemporary abiogenesis, have stated their belief in a primordial archebiosis.

  • It was not till Vaughan Thompson demonstrated, in 1830, their development from a free-swimming and typically Crustacean larva that it came to be recognized that, in Huxley's graphic phrase, "a barnacle may be said to be a Crustacean fixed by its head and kicking the food into its mouth with its legs."

  • Though Huxley only began to use the term "agnostic" in 1869, his opinions had taken shape some time before that date.

  • Hutton, who in 1881 wrote that the word "was suggested by Huxley at a meeting held previous to the formation of the now defunct Metaphysical Society at Mr Knowles's house on Clapham Common in 1869, in my hearing.

  • The name, as Huxley said, "took"; it was constantly used by Hutton in the Spectator and became a fashionable label for contemporary unbelief in Christian dogma.

  • Hutton himself frequently misrepresented the doctrine by describing it as "belief in an unknown and unknowable God"; but agnosticism as defined by Huxley meant not belief, but absence of belief, as much distinct from belief on the one hand as from disbelief on the other; it was the half-way house between the two, where all questions were "open."

  • All that Huxley asked for was evidence, either for or against; but this he believed it impossible to get.

  • This way of solving, or passing over, the ultimate problems of thought has had many followers in cultured circles imbued with the new physical science of the day, and with disgust for the dogmatic creeds of contemporary orthodoxy; and its outspoken and even aggressive vindication by physicists of the eminence of Huxley had a potent influence upon the attitude taken towards metaphysics, and upon the form which subsequent Christian apologetics adopted.

  • Huxley's agnosticism was a natural consequence of the intellectual and philosophical conditions of the 'sixties, when clerical intolerance was trying to excommunicate scientific discovery because it appeared to clash with the book of Genesis.

  • It does not follow that justification by faith must be eliminated in spiritual matters where sight cannot follow, because the physicist's duty and success lie in pinning belief solely on verification by physical phenomena, when they alone are in question; and for mankind generally, though possibly not for an exceptional man like Huxley, an impotent suspension of judgment on such issues as a future life or the Being of God is both unsatisfying and demoralizing.

  • It is impossible here to do more than indicate the path out of the difficulties raised by Huxley in the letter to Kingsley quoted above.

  • Ward in his Gifford lectures for 1896-1898 (Naturalism and Agnosticism, 1899), Huxley's challenge ("I know what I mean when I say I believe in the law of the inverse squares, and I will not rest my life and my hopes upon weaker convictions") is one which a spiritualistic philosophy need not shrink from accepting at the hands of naturalistic agnosticism.

  • If, as Huxley admits, even putting it with unnecessary force against himself,"the immortality of man is not half so wonderful as the conservation of force or the indestructibility of matter," the question then is, how far a critical analysis of our belief in the last-named doctrines will leave us in a position to regard them as the last stage in systematic thinking.

  • Milne-Edwards (1855), and Annulosa by Alexander M ` Leay (1819), who was followed by Huxley (1856).

  • Milne-Edwards and Huxley had satisfied themselves with discussing and establishing, according to the data at their command, the number of somites in the Arthropod head, but had not considered the question of the nature of the prae-oral somites.

  • It was conceived by Huxley, among others, that the same number of cephalic somites would be found to be characteristic of all the diverse classes of Arthropoda, and that the somites, not only of the head but of the various regions of the body, could be closely compared in their numerical sequence in classes so distinct as the Hexapods, Crustaceans and Arachnids.

  • Milne-Edwards, who was followed by Huxley, long ago formulated the conclusion that the eye-stalks of Crustacea are modified appendages, basing his argument on a specimen of Palinurus (figured in Bateson's book (1), in which the eye-stalk of one side is replaced by an antenniform palp. Hofer (6) in 1894 described a similar case in Astacus.

  • Professor Huxley maintained, for example, in a famous lecture that " the ethical progress of society depends not on imitating the cosmic process, still less in running away from it, but in combating it " (Romanes Lecture, ad fin.).

  • Huxley, Evolution and Ethics (1893); W.

  • Huxley (Proc. Zool.

  • The outcome of this positivism is the substitution for revealed religion of a religion of humanity - according to Huxley "Catholicism minus Christianity" - in which God is replaced by Humanity.

  • Huxley afterwards restricted the term.

  • Huxley's Actinozoa comprised the sea-anemones, corals and sea-pens, on the one hand, and the Ctenophora on the other.

  • Later investigations, whilst confirming the general validity of Huxley's conclusions, have slightly altered the limits and definitions of his groups.

  • Towards the extreme west and south, anticlinal and synclinal ridges trend north and south, the most characteristic being the Huxley, Owen, Sedgwick, Franklin and Arthur Ranges.

  • Huxley, in his article on this subject in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, for applying the name Amphibia to those lung-breathing, pentadactyle vertebrates which had been first severed from the Linnaean Amphibia by Alexandre Brongniart, under the name of Batrachia, have not met with universal acceptance.

  • However extraordinary it may appear, especially to those who bring the living forms only into focus, that opposition should still be made to Huxley's primary division of the vertebrates other than mammals into Sauropsida (birds and reptiles) and Ichthyopsida (batrachians and fishes), it is certain that recent discoveries in palaeontology have reduced the gap between batrachians and reptiles to such a minimum as to cause the greatest embarrassment in the attempt to draw a satisfactory line of separation between the two; on the other hand the hiatus between fishes and batrachians remains as wide as it was at the time Huxley's article Amphibia (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed.) was written.

  • The bones which bear the two occipital condyles have given rise to much discussion, and the definition given by Huxley in the previous edition - "two occipital condyles, the basi-occipital region of the skull either very incompletely or not at all ossified" - requires revision.

  • The division of the class Amphibia or Batrachia into four orders, as carried out by Huxley, is maintained, with, however, a change of names: Stegocephalia, for the assemblage of minor groups that cluster round the Labyrinthodonta of R.

  • Huxley's figures of the skull of a caecilian (Ichthyophis glutinosus), fig.

  • Julius Victor Carus taught in the first two years and Thomas Henry Huxley, the famous comparative anatomist in the last two.

  • Sir Julian Huxley, perhaps goaded by his repeated bouts of clinical depression, wrestled with humanism in increasing darkness of thought.

  • Notable evolutionists and denier of divine creation, divine intervention and divine judgment was Aldous Huxley, the grandson of Thomas Huxley.

  • Notable evolutionists and denier of divine creation, divine intervention and divine judgment was Aldous Huxley, the grandson of Thomas Huxley.

  • uniformitarian evolution as the brain child of Thomas Lyell, first of all, followed by Darwin, followed by Huxley.

  • The Spectator, which gradually became a prosperous property, was his pulpit, in which unwearyingly he gave expression to his views, particularly on literary, religious and philosophical subjects, in opposition to the agnostic and rationalistic opinions then current in intellectual circles, as popularized by Huxley.

  • Thomas Henry Huxley >>

  • The Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal in 5892, and selected him as Croonian lecturer in the following year, his subject being the position of pathology among the biological sciences; and in 1898 he delivered the second Huxley memorial lecture at Charing Cross Hospital.

  • Dollo's view that marsupials were originally arboreal, that, on account of their foot-structure, they could not have been the ancestors of placentals, and that they themselves are degenerate placentals, Mr Bensley contrasts this with Huxley's scheme of mammalian evolution.

  • Huxley concluded, from descriptions, that" the Deccan tribes are indistinguishable from the Australian races."

  • We see it in Huxley, and still more in Haeckel, whose materialism (which he chooses to term "monism") is evidently conditioned by ignorance of the history and present position of speculation.

  • Huxley admitted that this contention could not be ruled out as impossible.

  • Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.

  • Huxley, the sporosac is the starting-point of an evolution leading up through the various types of gonophores to the free medusa as the culminating point of a phyletic series.

  • This is the so-called " poly organ " theory, especially con-, nected with the name of Huxley; but it must be borne in mind that Huxley regarded all the forms produced, in any animal, between one egg-generation and the next, as constituting in the lump one single individual.

  • Huxley, therefore, considered a hydroid colony, for example, as a single individual, and each separate polyp or medusa budded from it as having the value of an organ and not of an individual.

  • Hence Huxley's view is not so different from those held by other authors as it seems to be at first sight.

  • In more recent years Woltereck [59] has supported Huxley's view of individuality, at the same time drawing a fine distinction between " individual " and " person."

  • Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.

  • Since Huxley and Sully wrote their masterly essays in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia, the doctrine of evolution has outgrown the trammels of controversy and has been accepted as a fundamental principle.

  • Huxley, following historical custom, devoted one section of his article to the " Evolution of the Individual."

  • These attempts, however, to perpetuate the usage were finally discredited by Huxley's important Lectures on Comparative Anatomy (1864), in which the term was finally abolished, and the "radiate mob" finally distributed among the Echinodermata, Polyzoa, Vermes (Platyhelminthes), Coelenterata and Protozoa.

  • term which appears to have been introduced by Linnaeus, and was reinvented as a substitute for the cosmography of the middle ages by Professor Huxley.

  • Huxley, in 1868, divided the carinate birds into Dromaeo-, Schizo-, Desmo-, and Aegithognathae, an arrangement which for many years had a considerable influence upon classification.

  • Huxley, " On the Classification of Birds and on the Taxonomic Value of the Modifications of certain of the Cranial Bones..."

  • Mailer introduced the terms Polymyodi and Tracheophones, Huxley that of Oligomyodi; Mailer himself had, moreover, pointed out the more important characters of the mode of insertion, but it was Garrod who invented the corresponding terms of Acro- and Mesomyodi (= Tracheophones+Oligomyodi).

  • Huxley, " On the Classification and Distribution of the Alectoromorphae," P.Z.S., 1868, pp. 313-319.

  • The New Zealand Subregion, considered by Professors Newton and Huxley and various other zoogeographers as deserving the rank of a region, is, and to all appearance has long been, more isolated than any other portion of the globe.

  • Huxley has urged with his wonted perspicuity the alliance of these two regions as Notogaea, basing his opinion, besides other weighty evidence, in great measure on the evidence afforded by the two main sections of the Galli, viz.

  • (C) Arctogaea is Huxley's well-chosen term for all the rest of the world (including the Nearctic, Palaearctic, Indian and Ethiopian regions of P. L.

  • He also dealt with the condemnation of Pope Honorius, carried on a controversial correspondence with John Stuart Mill, and took a leading part in the discussions of the Metaphysical Society, founded by Mr James Knowles, of which Tennyson, Huxley and Martineau were also prominent members.

  • Next in numerical importance to the Mongolians are the races which have been called by Professor Huxley Melanochroic and Xanthochroic. The former includes the dark-haired people of southern Europe, and extends over North Africa, Asia Minor, Syria to south-western Asia, and through Arabia and Persia to India.

  • The Melanochroi are not considered by Huxley to be one of the primitive modifications of mankind, but rather to be the result of the admixture of the Xanthochroi with the Australoid type, next to be mentioned.

  • Huxley gave it as his opinion that it was sufficient to cover the whole cost of the war indemnity paid by France to Germany in 1870.

  • Huxley, Tyndall, Cairnes, Mark Pattison, F.

  • Huxley (Anat.

  • Huxley (Trans.

  • Huxley, to the delight of an appreciative audience, delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England a course of lectures on birds, and a few weeks after presented an abstract of his researches to the Zoological Society, in whose Proceedings for the same year it will be found printed (pp. 415-472) as a paper " On the Classification of Birds, and on the taxonomic value of the modifications of certain of the cranial bones observable in that Class."

  • The above abstract shows the general drift of this very remarkable contribution to ornithology, and it has to be added that for by far the greater number of his minor groups Huxley relied solely on the form of the palatal structure, the importance of which Dr Cornay had before urged, though to so little purpose.

  • That the palatal structure must be taken into consideration by taxonomers as affording hints of some utility there can no longer be a doubt; but perhaps the characters drawn thence owed more of their worth to the extraordinary perspicuity with which they were presented by Huxley than to their own intrinsic value, and if the same power had been employed to elucidate in the same way other parts of the skeleton - say the bones of the sternal apparatus or even of the pelvic girdle - either set might have been made to appear quite as instructive and perhaps more so.

  • 2 At the same time it must be stated this selection was not premeditated by Huxley, but forced itself upon him as his investigations proceeded.

  • Huxley regarded the above scheme as nearly representing the affinities of the various Carinate groups - the great difficulty being to determine the relations to the rest of the Coccygomorphae, Psittacomorphae and Aegithognathae, which he indicated " only in the most doubtful and hypothetic fashion."

  • Sclater published in the Ibis a classification which was mainly a revision of the system of Huxley, modified by the investigations of Garrod and Forbes and by his own large acquaintance with museum specimens.

  • Newton accepted the three subclasses of Huxley, Saururae, Ratitae and Carinitae, and made a series of cautious but critical observations on the minor divisions of the Carinates.

  • Huxley expresses himself much more cautiously, as he recognizes that we do not know the continuity of nature so thoroughly as to be able to declare that this or that event is necessarily an interruption of it.

  • This congruity of the miracle with divine truth and grace is the answer to Matthew Arnold's taunt about turning a pen into a pen-wiper or Huxley's about a centaur trotting down Regent Street.

  • Huxley (1867), P. L.

  • Huxley; hence his term Dromaeognathae for the Crypturi.

  • The structures formerly regarded as pseudohearts have been shown by Huxley to be nephridia; the true heart was described and figured by A.

  • The muscles acting on the bulb-like pharynx now set up a pumping action (see Huxley, 26); and the juices - but no solid matter, excepting such as is reduced to powder - are sucked into the scorpion's alimentary canal.

  • Huxley, " Pharynx of Scorpion," Quart.

  • Huxley adopted Latreille's view of the distinctness of the Amphibia, as a class of the Vertebrata, co-ordinate with the Mammalia, A y es, Reptilia and Pisces; and the same arrangement was accepted by Gegenbaur and Haeckel.

  • In the Hunterian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1863, Huxley divided the Vertebrata into Mammals, Sauroids and Ichthyoids, the latter division containing the Amphibia and Pisces.

  • Huxley, in the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia, treated of Brongniart's Batrachia, under the designation Amphibia, but this use of the word has not been generally accepted.

  • After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.

  • Huxley (1825-1895), all of whom individually contributed very greatly by their special discoveries and researches to the increase of exact knowledge.

  • Huxley adopted in his lectures (1869) a classification which was in many respects similar to both of the foregoing, but embodied improvements of his own.

  • Many zoologists - prominent among them in Great Britain being Huxley - had been repelled by the airy fancies and assumptions of the " philosophical " morphologists.

  • Since his time the anthropological researches of Broca, Thurnam and Davis, Huxley, Busk, Beddoe, Virchow, Tubino and others have proved the existence in Europe, from Neolithic times, of a race, small of stature, with long or oval skulls, and accustomed to bury their dead in tombs.

  • Bridges' reply to Mill, The Unity of Comte's Life and Doctrines (1866); Herbert Spencer's essay on the Genesis of Science and pamphlet on The Classification of the Sciences; Huxley's " Scientific Aspects of Positivism," in his Lay Sermons; R.

  • Lewes and Huxley.

  • While the organization has succeeded in securing recognition and favour in high places both in England and abroad, it has been seriously criticized at times, notably by Huxley and others in 1890-1891, and more recently by J.

  • Huxley, "Social Diseases and Worse Remedies" in Collected Essays, vol.

  • Professor Flinders Petrie, in his Huxley Lecture for 1906 on Migrations (reprinted by the Anthropological Institute), deals with the mutations and movements of races from an anthropological standpoint with profound knowledge and originality.

  • Learning (1694), has given rise to a literature of its own; see, especially, Tollin's Die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs, &c. (1876); Huxley, in Fortnightly Rev. (February 1878); Tollin's Kritische Bemerkungen fiber Harvey and seine Vorganger (1882).

  • The Owen Stanley range - its highest summit, named by Huxley in 1850 Mount Owen Stanley, 13,120 ft.

  • Huxley recognized the Psittacomorphae as forming one of the principal groups of Carinate birds, and they are now generally regarded as forming a suborder Psittaci of the Cuculiform birds (see Bird).

  • In future the philosophic method of palaeontology must continue to advance step by step with exploration; it would be a reproach to later generations if they did not progress as far beyond the philosophic status of Cuvier, Owen and even of Huxley and Cope, as the new materials represent an advance upon the material opportunities which came to them through exploration.

  • The impulse which Darwin gave to vertebrate palaeontology was immediate and unbounded, finding expression especially in the writings of Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) in England, of Jean Albert Gaudry (b.

  • Huxley's development of the method of palaeontology should be studied in his collected memoirs (Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley, 4 vols., 1898).

  • Huxley questioned the time value of fossils, but recent research has tended to show that identity of species and of mutations is, on the whole, a guide to synchroneity, though the general range of vertebrate and invertebrate life as well as of plant life is generally necessary for the establishment of approximate synchronism.

  • The science of zoogeography, founded by Humboldt, Edward Forbes, Huxley, P. L.

  • It was early perceived by Huxley, Cope and many others that Cuvier's broad belief in a universal progression was erroneous, and there developed the distinction between " persistent primitive types " (Huxley) and " progressive types."

  • The theoretical existence of primitive or stem forms was clearly perceived by Darwin, but the steps by which the stem form might be restored were first clearly enunciated by Huxley in 1880 (" On the Application of Evolution to the Arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia," Scient.

  • Thus Huxley, with true prophetic instinct, found that the sum of primitive characters of all the higher placental mammals points to a stem form of a generalized insectivore type, a prophecy which has been fully confirmed by the latest research.

  • On the other hand, Huxley's summation of the primitive characters of all the mammals led him to an amphibian stem type, a prophecy which has proved faulty because based on erroneous analysis and comparison.

  • More or less independently, Huxley, Kowalevsky and Cope restored the stem ancestor of the hoofed animals, or ungulates, a restoration which has been nearly fulfilled by the discovery, in 1873, of the generalized type Phenacodus of northern Wyoming.

  • Huxley in 1880 briefly suggested the arboreal origin, or primordial treehabitat of all the marsupials, a suggestion abundantly confirmed by the detailed studies of Dollo and of Bensley, according to which we may imagine the marsupials to have passed through (r) a former terrestrial phase, followed by (2) a primary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree phalangers - followed by (3) a secondary terrestrial phase - illustrated in the kangaroos and wallabies - followed by (4) a secondary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree kangaroos.

  • Vertebrate palaeontologists were slow to grasp this principle; while the early speculative phylogenies of the horse of Huxley and Marsh, for example, were mostly displayed monophyletically, or in single lines of descent, it is now recognized that the horses which were placed by Marsh in a single series are really to be ranged in a great number of contemporaneous but separate series, each but partially known, and that the direct phylum which leads to the modern horse has become a matter of far more difficult search.

  • Huxley's researches, and especially his share in the development of the philosophy of palaeontology, will be found in his essays, The Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley (4 vols., London, 1898-1902).

  • Huxley viewed them as equivalent to and on a level with the larvae of Echinoderms, and of such other trocho phore larvae as resem-???,, ally adopted.

  • Zoologists of the standing of Huxley, Claus and Leydig added to our knowledge of the anatomy and to the theory of their relations.

  • Huxley, "Lacinularia socialis," Trans.

  • Huxley (Science and Culture) and Shadworth Hodgson (Metaphysic of Experience and Theory of Practice), must be distinguished from that of the psychophysical parallelism, or the "double aspect theory" according to which both the mental state and the physical phenomena result from a so-called "mind stuff," or single substance, the material or cause of both.

  • Huxley, Critiques and Addresses, pp. 320 seq.; G.

  • In England, Owen's anatomy of the pearly nautilus,14 Huxley's discussion of the general morphology of the Mollusca,17 and Lankester's embryological investigations, 19 have aided in advancing our knowledge of the group. Two remarkable works of a systematic character dealing with the Mollusca deserve mention here - the Manual of the Mollusca, by Dr S.

  • Huxley, " On the Morphology of the Cephalous Mollusca," Phil.

  • Huxley (1825-1895) developed views very like those of Spencer, and similarly materialistic without being materialism, because inconsistent.

  • Thus Huxley first reduced consciousness to a product of matter, and then matter to a phenomenon of consciousness.

  • Huxley, it will be remembered, in similar circumstances, answered this question by degrading consciousness to an epiphenomenon, or bye-product of the physical process.

  • It also became the basis of the philosophies of Huxley and of Spencer on their phenomenalistic side.

  • With Darwin and Huxley his name is inseparably connected with the battle which began in the middle of the 19th century for making the new standpoint of modern science part of the accepted philosophy in general life.

  • In 1854, after the meeting of the British Association in Liverpool, a memorable visit occurred to the Penrhyn slate quarries, where the question of slaty cleavage arose in his mind, and ultimately led him, with Huxley, to Switzerland to study the phenomena of glaciers.

  • Though not so prominent as Huxley in detailed controversy over theological problems, he played an important part in educating the public mind in the attitude which the development of natural philosophy entailed towards dogma and religious authority.

  • Philosophic (the more important only can be quoted).- Huxley's Hume (a popular reproduction of Hume's views in " English Men of Letters " series); Sir L.

  • MacCosh published a short pamphlet (1884) containing interesting but perhaps not conclusive arguments on the Agnosticism of Hume and Huxley.

  • Huxley in his often-quoted paper in the Zoological Proceedings (1867, pp. 4 2 5, 426) was enabled to place the whole matter in a clear light, urging that the Tinamous formed a very distinct group of birds which;, though not to be removed from the Carinatae, presented so much resemblance to the Ratitae as to indicate them to be the bond of union between those two great divisions.

  • Regarding it as an organism which represented the simplest form of life, Huxley about 1868 named it Bathybius Haeckelii.

  • But investigations carried out in connexion with the "Challenger" expedition indicated that it was an artificial product, composed of a flocculent precipitate of gypsum thrown down from seawater by alcohol, and the hypothesis of its organic character was abandoned by most biologists, Huxley included.

  • Huxley pointed out in his essay on the reception of the Origin of Species in the second volume of Darwin's Life and Letters, " The suggestion that new species may result from the selective action of external conditions upon the variations from their specific type which individuals present - and which we call ` spontaneous ' because we are ignorant of their causation - is as wholly unknown to the historian of scientific ideas as it was to biological specialists before 1858.

  • Huxley preferred to keep them separate as Amphimorphae.

  • Huxley, "Remarks on the Skeleton of the Archaeopteryx and on the relations of the bird to the reptile," Geol.

  • Huxley, Scott's Last Expe- dition (two vols.

  • The cranium, pronounced by Huxley to be the most ape-like yet discovered, was remarkable for its enormous superciliary ridges.

  • The carapace, formerly referred only to the antennar-mandibular segments, may perhaps in fact contain elements from any number of other segments of head and trunk, Huxley, Alcock, Bouvier giving support to this opinion by the sutural or other divisional lines in Potamobius, Nephrops, Thalassina, and various fossil genera.

  • Between the Brachyura and Macrura some authors uphold an order Anomura, though in a much restricted sense, the labours of Huxley, Boas, Alcock and conjointly Alphonse Milne-Edwards and Bouvier, having resulted in restoring the Dromiidea and Raninidae to the Brachyura, among which de Haan long ago placed them.

  • According to Sars, the 1 In Huxley's terminology the first two or three joints of the stem constitute a "protopodite," from which spring the "endopodite" and "exopodite."

  • See Huxley's Man's Place Nature (1863) Robt.

  • In 1863, however, Huxley in his Man's Place in Nature demonstrated that the higher apes might fairly be included in Bimana.

  • How long they remain free is not known; Huxley kept them in a glass vessel in this condition for a week.

  • Natural beds of oysters occur on stony and shelly bottoms at depths varying from 3 to 20 fathoms. In nature the beds are liable to variations, and, although Huxley was somewhat sceptical on this point, it seems that they are easily brought into an unproductive condition by over-dredging.

  • The 1 Even Huxley, the most ardent of all opponents of fishery legislation, while denying that oyster-beds had been permanently annihilated by dredging, practically admitted that a bed may be reduced to such a condition that the oyster will only be able to recover its former state by a long struggle with its enemies and competition - in fact that it must re-establish itself much in the same way as they have acquired possession of new grounds in Jutland, a process which, according to his own statement, occupied thirty years (Lecture at the Royal Institution, May 11th, 1883, printed with additions in the English Illustrated Magazine, i.

  • Huxley has illustrated the futility of "close-time" in his remark that the prohibition of taking oysters from an oyster-bed during four months of the year is not the slightest security against its being stripped clean during the other eight months.

  • Huxley's conclusions as regards the future of the oyster industry in Great Britain are doubtless just as applicable to other countries - that the only hope for the oyster consumer lies in the encouragement of oyster-culture, and in the development of some means of breeding oysters under such conditions that the spat shall be safely deposited.

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