The Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal in 5892, and selected him as Croonian lecturer in the following year, his subject being the position of pathology among the biological sciences; and in 1898 he delivered the second Huxley memorial lecture at Charing Cross Hospital.
Huxley concluded, from descriptions, that" the Deccan tribes are indistinguishable from the Australian races."
Huxley admitted that this contention could not be ruled out as impossible.
Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.
Huxley, the sporosac is the starting-point of an evolution leading up through the various types of gonophores to the free medusa as the culminating point of a phyletic series.
Huxley, therefore, considered a hydroid colony, for example, as a single individual, and each separate polyp or medusa budded from it as having the value of an organ and not of an individual.
Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.
Since Huxley and Sully wrote their masterly essays in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia, the doctrine of evolution has outgrown the trammels of controversy and has been accepted as a fundamental principle.
Huxley, in 1868, divided the carinate birds into Dromaeo-, Schizo-, Desmo-, and Aegithognathae, an arrangement which for many years had a considerable influence upon classification.
Huxley, " On the Classification of Birds and on the Taxonomic Value of the Modifications of certain of the Cranial Bones..."
Mailer introduced the terms Polymyodi and Tracheophones, Huxley that of Oligomyodi; Mailer himself had, moreover, pointed out the more important characters of the mode of insertion, but it was Garrod who invented the corresponding terms of Acro- and Mesomyodi (= Tracheophones+Oligomyodi).
Huxley.° Some of the " regions " have now to be called subregions, e.g.
The New Zealand Subregion, considered by Professors Newton and Huxley and various other zoogeographers as deserving the rank of a region, is, and to all appearance has long been, more isolated than any other portion of the globe.
Huxley has urged with his wonted perspicuity the alliance of these two regions as Notogaea, basing his opinion, besides other weighty evidence, in great measure on the evidence afforded by the two main sections of the Galli, viz.
He also dealt with the condemnation of Pope Honorius, carried on a controversial correspondence with John Stuart Mill, and took a leading part in the discussions of the Metaphysical Society, founded by Mr James Knowles, of which Tennyson, Huxley and Martineau were also prominent members.
Next in numerical importance to the Mongolians are the races which have been called by Professor Huxley Melanochroic and Xanthochroic. The former includes the dark-haired people of southern Europe, and extends over North Africa, Asia Minor, Syria to south-western Asia, and through Arabia and Persia to India.
The Melanochroi are not considered by Huxley to be one of the primitive modifications of mankind, but rather to be the result of the admixture of the Xanthochroi with the Australoid type, next to be mentioned.
Huxley gave it as his opinion that it was sufficient to cover the whole cost of the war indemnity paid by France to Germany in 1870.
Huxley, Tyndall, Cairnes, Mark Pattison, F.
That the palatal structure must be taken into consideration by taxonomers as affording hints of some utility there can no longer be a doubt; but perhaps the characters drawn thence owed more of their worth to the extraordinary perspicuity with which they were presented by Huxley than to their own intrinsic value, and if the same power had been employed to elucidate in the same way other parts of the skeleton - say the bones of the sternal apparatus or even of the pelvic girdle - either set might have been made to appear quite as instructive and perhaps more so.
Huxley regarded the above scheme as nearly representing the affinities of the various Carinate groups - the great difficulty being to determine the relations to the rest of the Coccygomorphae, Psittacomorphae and Aegithognathae, which he indicated " only in the most doubtful and hypothetic fashion."
Sclater published in the Ibis a classification which was mainly a revision of the system of Huxley, modified by the investigations of Garrod and Forbes and by his own large acquaintance with museum specimens.
Newton accepted the three subclasses of Huxley, Saururae, Ratitae and Carinitae, and made a series of cautious but critical observations on the minor divisions of the Carinates.
Huxley (1867), P. L.
Huxley; hence his term Dromaeognathae for the Crypturi.
The structures formerly regarded as pseudohearts have been shown by Huxley to be nephridia; the true heart was described and figured by A.
Huxley, " Pharynx of Scorpion," Quart.
Huxley adopted Latreille's view of the distinctness of the Amphibia, as a class of the Vertebrata, co-ordinate with the Mammalia, A y es, Reptilia and Pisces; and the same arrangement was accepted by Gegenbaur and Haeckel.
In the Hunterian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1863, Huxley divided the Vertebrata into Mammals, Sauroids and Ichthyoids, the latter division containing the Amphibia and Pisces.
Huxley, in the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia, treated of Brongniart's Batrachia, under the designation Amphibia, but this use of the word has not been generally accepted.
Huxley (1825-1895), all of whom individually contributed very greatly by their special discoveries and researches to the increase of exact knowledge.
Huxley adopted in his lectures (1869) a classification which was in many respects similar to both of the foregoing, but embodied improvements of his own.
Many zoologists - prominent among them in Great Britain being Huxley - had been repelled by the airy fancies and assumptions of the " philosophical " morphologists.
Since his time the anthropological researches of Broca, Thurnam and Davis, Huxley, Busk, Beddoe, Virchow, Tubino and others have proved the existence in Europe, from Neolithic times, of a race, small of stature, with long or oval skulls, and accustomed to bury their dead in tombs.
While the organization has succeeded in securing recognition and favour in high places both in England and abroad, it has been seriously criticized at times, notably by Huxley and others in 1890-1891, and more recently by J.
Professor Flinders Petrie, in his Huxley Lecture for 1906 on Migrations (reprinted by the Anthropological Institute), deals with the mutations and movements of races from an anthropological standpoint with profound knowledge and originality.
Learning (1694), has given rise to a literature of its own; see, especially, Tollin's Die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs, &c. (1876); Huxley, in Fortnightly Rev. (February 1878); Tollin's Kritische Bemerkungen fiber Harvey and seine Vorganger (1882).
The Owen Stanley range - its highest summit, named by Huxley in 1850 Mount Owen Stanley, 13,120 ft.
In future the philosophic method of palaeontology must continue to advance step by step with exploration; it would be a reproach to later generations if they did not progress as far beyond the philosophic status of Cuvier, Owen and even of Huxley and Cope, as the new materials represent an advance upon the material opportunities which came to them through exploration.
Huxley's development of the method of palaeontology should be studied in his collected memoirs (Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley, 4 vols., 1898).
Huxley questioned the time value of fossils, but recent research has tended to show that identity of species and of mutations is, on the whole, a guide to synchroneity, though the general range of vertebrate and invertebrate life as well as of plant life is generally necessary for the establishment of approximate synchronism.
The science of zoogeography, founded by Humboldt, Edward Forbes, Huxley, P. L.
It was early perceived by Huxley, Cope and many others that Cuvier's broad belief in a universal progression was erroneous, and there developed the distinction between " persistent primitive types " (Huxley) and " progressive types."
The theoretical existence of primitive or stem forms was clearly perceived by Darwin, but the steps by which the stem form might be restored were first clearly enunciated by Huxley in 1880 (" On the Application of Evolution to the Arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia," Scient.
Thus Huxley, with true prophetic instinct, found that the sum of primitive characters of all the higher placental mammals points to a stem form of a generalized insectivore type, a prophecy which has been fully confirmed by the latest research.
More or less independently, Huxley, Kowalevsky and Cope restored the stem ancestor of the hoofed animals, or ungulates, a restoration which has been nearly fulfilled by the discovery, in 1873, of the generalized type Phenacodus of northern Wyoming.
Huxley in 1880 briefly suggested the arboreal origin, or primordial treehabitat of all the marsupials, a suggestion abundantly confirmed by the detailed studies of Dollo and of Bensley, according to which we may imagine the marsupials to have passed through (r) a former terrestrial phase, followed by (2) a primary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree phalangers - followed by (3) a secondary terrestrial phase - illustrated in the kangaroos and wallabies - followed by (4) a secondary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree kangaroos.
Vertebrate palaeontologists were slow to grasp this principle; while the early speculative phylogenies of the horse of Huxley and Marsh, for example, were mostly displayed monophyletically, or in single lines of descent, it is now recognized that the horses which were placed by Marsh in a single series are really to be ranged in a great number of contemporaneous but separate series, each but partially known, and that the direct phylum which leads to the modern horse has become a matter of far more difficult search.
Huxley's researches, and especially his share in the development of the philosophy of palaeontology, will be found in his essays, The Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley (4 vols., London, 1898-1902).
Zoologists of the standing of Huxley, Claus and Leydig added to our knowledge of the anatomy and to the theory of their relations.