Hutcheson sentence example
His first publication, however, dealt with a question of philosophical method suggested by the reading of Hutcheson.
The most eminent of these were the two brothers John and Charles Wesley, John Byrom the poet, George Cheyne the physician and Archibald Hutcheson, M.P. for Hastings.
Hutcheson's theory of universal benevolence and Smith's idea of sympathy he combines under the law of society.
From these results we see that Shaftesbury, opposed to Hobbes and Locke, is in close agreement with Hutcheson, and that he is ultimately a deeply religious thinker, inasmuch as he discards the moral sanction of public opinion, the terrors of future punishment, the authority' of the civil authority, as the main incentives to goodness, and substitutes the voice of conscience and the love of God.
His ethical system was reproduced, though in a more precise and philosophical form, by Hutcheson, and from him descended, with certain variations, to Hume and Adam Smith.Advertisement
He was sent in 1737 to the university of Glasgow, where he attended the lectures of Dr Hutcheson; and in 1740 he went to Balliol College, Oxford, as exhibitioner on Snell's foundation.
About this time began his acquaintance with David Hume, which afterwards ripened into friendship. In 1751 he was elected professor of logic at Glasgow, and in 1752 was transferred to the chair of moral philosophy, which had become vacant by the death of Thomas Craigie, the successor of Hutcheson.
The work is professedly a refutation of Hutcheson, but is rather constructive than polemical.
To his great mortification, however, he found out, as he thought, that Hutcheson and Leechman, with whom he had been on terms of friendly correspondence, were giving the weight of their opinion against his election.
The further development of theological utilitarianism was conditioned by opposition to the Moral Sense doctrine of Shaftesbury and Hutcheson.Advertisement
His suggestions were developed by Hutcheson into one of the most elaborate systems of moral philosophy which we possess; through Hutcheson, if not directly, they influenced Hume's speculations, and are thus connected with later utilitarianism.
The argument in Butler's dissertation was probably directed chiefly against Hutcheson, who in his Inquiry Hutcheson.
The identification is slightly qualified in Hutcheson's posthumously published System of Moral Philosophy (1755), in which the general view of Shaftesbury is more fully developed, with several new psychological distinctions, including Butler's, separation of " calm " benevolence - as well as, after Butler, " calm self-love " - from the " turbulent " passions, selfish or social.
Hutcheson follows Butler again in laying stress on the regulating and controlling function of the moral sense; but he still regards " kind affections " as the'principal objects of moral approbation - the " calm" and " extensive " affections being preferred to the turbulent and narrow - together with the desire and love of moral excellence which is ranked with universal benevolence, the two being equally worthy and necessarily harmonious.
Calm self-love Hutcheson regards as morally indifferent; though he enters into a careful analysis of the elements of happiness,' in order to show that a true regard for private interest always coincides with the moral sense and with benevolence.Advertisement
While thus maintaining Shaftesbury's "harmony" between public and private good, Hutcheson is still more careful to establish the strict disinterestedness of benevolent affections.
To this Hutcheson replies that no doubt the exquisite delight of the emotion of love is a motive to sustain and develop it; but this pleasure cannot be directly obtained, any more than other pleasures, by merely desiring it; it can be sought only by the indirect method of cultivating and indulging the disinterested desire for others' good, which is thus obviously distinct from the desire for the pleasure of benevolence.
In answering this question, Hutcheson avails himself of the scholastic distinction between " material " and " formal " goodness.
On the pivot of this distinction Hutcheson turns round from the point of view of Shaftesbury to that of later utilitarianism.
It is this last position that constitutes the fundamental difference between Hutcheson's ethical doctrine and Hume's.'Advertisement
The binding force of moral rules becomes evanescent if we admit, with Hutcheson, that the " sense " of them may properly vary from man to man as the palate does; and it seems only another way of putting Hume's doctrine, that reason is not concerned with the ends of action, to say that the mere existence of a moral sentiment is in itself no reason for obeying it.
It was obvious, too, that this reaction might take place in either of the two lines of thought, which, having been peacefully allied in Clarke and Cumberland, had become distinctly opposed to each other in Butler and Hutcheson.
This Paley and Bentham (after Locke) interpreted as merely the effect on the will of the pleasures or pains attached to the observance or violation of moral rules, combining with this the doctrine of Hutcheson that " general good " or " happiness " is the final end and standard of these rules; while they eliminated all vagueness from the notion of general happiness by defining it to consist in " excess of pleasure over pain " - pleasures and pains being regarded as " differing in nothing but continuance or intensity."
Some years earlier, Gay,' admitting Hutcheson's proof of the actual disinterestedness of moral and benevolent impulses, had maintained that these (like the desires of knowledge or fame, the delight of reading, hunting and planting, &c.) were derived from self-love by " the power of association."
In 1826 he wrote a preface to a translation of the Moral Philosophy of Stewart, demonstrating the possibility of a scientific statement of the laws of consciousness; in 1828 he began a translation of the works of Reid, and in his preface estimated the influence of Scottish criticism upon philosophy, giving a biographical account of the movement from Hutcheson onwards.Advertisement
Arguing that ethical judgment is an act of discrimination, he endeavours to invalidate the doctrine of the moral sense (see Shaftesbury and Hutcheson).
Justice, veracity, fidelity to compacts and to governments, are all co 1 It is worth noticing that Hutcheson's express definition of the object of self-love includes " perfection " as well as " happiness "; but in the working out of his system he considers private good exclusively as happiness or pleasure.
In class (2) he includes, besides the Benevolence of Shaftesbury and Hutcheson, the useful virtues, Justice, Veracity and Fidelity to compacts; as well as such immediately agreeable qualities as politeness, wit, modesty and even cleanliness.
Gordon Ramsay has been married to Tana Hutcheson since 1996.
Hutcheson's father, Chris, handles the day-to-day business operations for all of Ramsay's restaurants.