Hussites Sentence Examples
Podébrad, who had gained the throne of Bohemia with the aid of the Hussites and Utraquists, had long been in ill odour at Rome, and in 1465 Pope Paul II.
By way of reprisals for the Hussite outrages in Prague, the miners of Kuttenberg seized on any Hussites they could find, and burned, beheaded or threw them alive into the shafts of disused mines.
Lauban was founded in the 10th and fortified in the 13th century; in 1427 and 1431 it was devastated by the Hussites, and in 1640 by the Swedes.
The Hussites, it was said, would think that the Church was afraid to face them; the laity would accuse the clergy of shirking reform; in short, this failure of the councils would produce disastrous effects.
The fathers continued to devote themselves to the subjugation of the Hussites; they also intervened, in rivalry with the pope, in the negotiations between France and England which led only to the treaty of Arras, concluded by Charles VII.Advertisement
During the 15th century the town suffered greatly from the Hussites, and it was captured by the imperial troops during the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and again in the Thirty Years' War.
Almost from the first the Hussites were divided into two sections, though many minor divisions also arose among them.
This doctrine became the watchword of the moderate Hussites who were known as the Utraquists or Calixtines (calix, the chalice), in Bohemian, podoboji; while the more advanced Hussites were soon known as the Taborites, from the city of Tabor that became their centre.
A certain number of Hussites lead by Nicolas of Hus - no relation of John Huss - left Prague.
In spite of the departure of many prominent Hussites the troubles at Prague continued.Advertisement
In Prague, in November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom Queen Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and regent after the death of her husband) had hurriedly collected.
Unable to maintain himself there he marched to southern Bohemia, and after defeating the Romanists at Sudomef - the first pitched battle of the Hussite wars - he arrived at Usti, one of the earliest meeting-places of the Hussites.
Not considering its situation sufficiently strong, he moved to the neighbouring new settlement of the Hussites, to which the biblical name of Tabor was given.
Tabor soon became the centre of the advanced Hussites, who differed from the Utraquists by recognizing only two sacraments - Baptism and Communion - and by rejecting most of the ceremonial of the Roman Church.
The united Hussites formulated their demands in a statement known as the "articles of Prague."Advertisement
Shortly afterwards a new crusade against the Hussites was undertaken.
Free for a time from foreign aggression, the Hussites invaded Moravia, where a large part of the population favoured their creed; but, again paralysed by dissensions, soon returned to Bohemia.
After several military successes gained by Zizka (q.v.) in 1423 and the following year, a treaty of peace between the Hussites was concluded on the 13th of September 1424 at Liben, a village near Prague, now part of that city.
In 1426 the Hussites were again attacked by foreign enemies.
After this great victory, and another at Tachau in 1427, the Hussites repeatedly invaded Germany, though they made no attempt to occupy permanently any part of the country.Advertisement
The almost uninterrupted series of victories of the Hussites now rendered vain all hope of subduing them by force of arms. Moreover, the conspicuously democratic character of the Hussite movement caused the German princes, who were afraid that such views might extend to their own countries, to desire peace.
Many Hussites, particularly the Utraquist clergy, were also in favour of peace.
Before definitely giving its consent to peace negotiations, the Roman Church determined on making a last effort to reduce the Hussites to subjection.
On the 15th of October the members of the council, who had already assembled at Basel, issued a formal invitation to the Hussites to take part in its deliberations.
Hence the council of Constance to depose three rival popes; hence the council of Basel to pacify the Hussites, and promote another anti-Moslem league.Advertisement
Brave enough personally, as soldiers they were distinctly inferior both to the Janissaries and the Hussites, with both of whom Matthias had constantly to contend.
An annual festival, with a procession of children, which is still held, is referred to an apocryphal siege of the town by the Hussites in 1432, but is probably connected with an incident in the brothers' war (1447-51), between the elector Frederick II.
The danger to Germany from the Hussites induced Frederick to ally himself with the German and Bohemian king Sigismund; and he took a leading part in the war against them, during the earlier years of which he met with considerable success.
Thus spurred to renewed efforts against the Hussites, the elector was endeavouring to rouse the German princes to aid him in prosecuting this war when the Saxon army was almost annihilated at Aussig on the 16th of August 1426.
Dlugosz refused the archbishopric of Prague because of his strong dislike of the land of the Hussites; but seven years later he accepted the archbishopric of Lemberg.
He took part in the war against the Hussites, but became estranged from Sigismund when in 1423 the king invested Frederick of Wettin, margrave of Meissen, with the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg.
Lenfant's Histoire de la guerre des Hussites (1731) and the same writer's Histoire du concile de Constance (1714) should be consulted.
In the 15th century it successfully withstood sieges by the Hussites (1429 and 1432), by the Poles (1450) and by the duke of Sagan (1477).
Already there were scattered bodies of Waldenses in Germany who had influenced, and afterwards joined, the Hussites and the Bohemian Brethren.
He died in 1428, just before his lands were ravaged by the Hussites in 1429 and 1430.
At Iglau, on the 5th of July 1436, the treaty was made with the Hussites, by which the emperor Sigismund was acknowledged king of Bohemia.
In Germany the Reformers called themselves usually evangelici, and avoided special designations for their communities, which they conceived only as part of the true Catholic Church; "Calvinists," "Lutherans," "Zwinglians" were, in the main, terms of abuse intended to stamp them as followers of one or other heretical leader, like Arians or Hussites.
In Bohemia, the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren represents a spiritual and historical continuity with the old Hussites.
At the beginning of the war both the empire and the pope were against him, but he neutralized their hostility by allying himself with George of Podvebrad, 'whom the Hussites had placed on the throne of Bohemia.
After passing some time at the court of the emperor Sigismund, he took part in the war against the Hussites, and afterwards distinguished himself whilst assisting the German king, Albert II., against the Poles.
He assisted the German king, Sigismund, in his campaigns against the Hussites, and in 1422 married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sigismund, who designated him as his successor.
This act greatly incensed the Bohemians, who broke into revolt in 1419, and a new and fiercer outbui-st occurred in 1420 when Sigismund, who had succeeded his brother Wenceslaus as king of Bohemia in the preceding August, announced his intention of crushing the Hussites.
The continual poverty which hindered the successful prosecution of the war against the Hussites, and which at times placer Sigismund in the undignified position of having to force himsel, as an unwelcome guest upon princes and cities, had, however, one good result.
In 1426 it was besieged by the Hussites, who on the 16th of June, though only 25,000 strong, defeated a German army of 70,000, which had been sent to its relief, with great slaughter.
Pisek was one of the chief centres of the Hussites.
Anxious to secure his aid for the crusade against the Hussites, Pope Martin again offered him a cardinal's hat, which Beaufort accepted.
During the Hussite wars it was the centre of Catholic resistance to the Hussites; it was three times unsuccessfully besieged by Prokop the Great, and it took part in the league of the Romanist lords against King George of Podebrad.
Burned by the Hussites in 1428, the town was soon afterwards rebuilt, and in 1595 it was again fortified by Joachim Frederick, duke of Brieg.
In 1421 the Hussites were defeated here by King Sigismund and the Saxons, and in 1426 besieged the town in vain.
It was in the same place that the Hussites gained in 1431 one of their greatest victories against a German army of crusaders, and another similar German army was vanquished here by George of Podebrad.
The Hussites, led by John Zizka, stormed the town-hall and threw the magistrates from its windows.
After his departure, civil war between the moderate Hussites (Calixtines or Utraquists) and the advanced Taborite party broke out for the first time, though there had previously been isolated disturbances between them.
Shortly afterwards Korybutovic, who had taken part in this great victory, incurred the dislike of the extreme Hussites, and was obliged to leave Bohemia.
In 1427 several German princes undertook a new crusade against the Hussites.
The crusaders were seized by a sudden panic, both at Mies (Stfibro) and at Tachau, as soon as they approached the Hussites, and they fled hurriedly across the mountains into Bavaria.
The impossibility of conquering Bohemia had now become obvious, and it was resolved that a council should meet at Basel to examine the demands of the Hussites.
In the course of the same year negotiations began at Basel, the Hussites being represented by a numerous embassy under the leadership of Prokop the Great.
The more aristocratic Hussites raised an armed force which was known as " the army of the nobles."
Serious riots took place at Prague, and the more advanced Hussites stormed the three town halls of the city.
Of French works Professor Ernest Denis's Jean Hus, et la guerre des Hussites (Paris, 1878), Fin de l'independance boheme (2 vols., 1890), and La Boheme depuis la Montagne Blanche (2 vols., 1903), give a continuous account of Bohemian history from the beginning of the 15th century.
Of the writings of the more moderate Hussites, known as the Calixtines or Utraquists, some have been preserved.
Hushi is said to have been founded in the 15th century by a colony of Hussites, from whom its name is derived.
After 1421 Chrudim was held by the Hussites, and though Ferdinand I.
It was twice devastated by the Hussites, and in 1631 and 1642 it was occupied by the Swedes.
Most of the buildings are of comparatively modern date, the city having suffered severely from the Hussites in 1430 and from a conflagration in 1621.
The feeling of security vanished, the towns banded themselves together for defensive purposes, the rights of the margrave were again pledged to provide money, and in 1432 the land was ravaged by the Hussites.
Cesarini devoted all his energies to the war against the Hussites, until the disaster of Taus forced him hastily to evacuate Bohemia.
In vain did the pope explain his reasons and yield certain points; the fathers would listen to nothing, and, relying on the decrees of the council of Constance, which amid the troubles of the schism had proclaimed the superiority, in certain cases, of the council over the pope, they insisted upon their right of remaining assembled, hastily beat up the laggards, held sessions, promulgated decrees, interfered in the government of the papal countship of Venaissin, treated with the Hussites, and, as representatives of the universal Church, presumed to impose laws upon the sovereign pontiff himself.
Sigismund attempted to relieve the fortress, but was decisively defeated by the Hussites on the ist of November near the village of Pankrac. The castles of Vysehrad and Hradcany now capitulated, and shortly afterwards almost all Bohemia fell into the hands of the Hussites.
In spite of the endeavours of their rulers, the Sla y s of Poland and Lithuania did not wish to attack the kindred Bohemians; the Germans were prevented by internal discord from taking joint action against the Hussites; and the king of Denmark, who had landed in Germany with a large force intending to take part in the crusade, soon returned to his own country.
The Roman see reluctantly consented to the presence of heretics at this council, but indignantly rejected the suggestion of the Hussites that members of the Greek Church, and representatives of all Christian creeds, should also be present.
The king appointed as government officials at Prague men of that section of the Utraquist party that was nearest to Rome, while a severe persecution of the extreme Hussites known as the Bohemian Brethren took place (see HussITEs).