Behind him walked his host and hostess.
The original host goes mad.
I remember my own host day.
With it came a host of nightmares.
If its host died, it would be forced out.
Then the host caught her off guard when the conversation segued to the Psychic Tipster.
"Jacob, bring a bottle!" shouted the host, a tall, handsome fellow who stood in the midst of the group, without a coat, and with his fine linen shirt unfastened in front.
Then Henry Ford came along, followed by a host of others, and cars got better and better while getting less and less expensive.
The other guests, embarrassed to see their host so humiliated and wanting no part of a Dawkins brawl, murmured excuses and toddled off to bed.
The presence of these parasites seems at times to have little effect on the host, and men in whose system it is calculated there are some 40-50 million larvae have shown no signs of disease.
It is evil and would destroy us if it could, but in a host who is pure, it can do no harm.
According to Allan Goodman, president and CEO of the Institute of International Education, The United States continues to host more international students than any other country in the world.
Yet he fought a fresh action at Gross-Scheueren on the 6th of August, and contrived to bring off the fragments of his host to Temesvar, to aid the hardly-pressed Dembinski.
You.ll find our chefs the best in the world, the host said, ignoring Katie to address her sister.
If we're going to host ice climbers, we ought to know something about their sport.
Following a host of we-should-have-known-better's, the Deans realized there was a silver lining in Pumpkin's hasty departure.
"Just need some soup to go," Katie told the host, who snapped his fingers at a servant.
The advantages it can offer to its host are, however, infinitesimal when compared with the injury it does it.
Nowadays the host does not admit you to his hearth, but has got the mason to build one for yourself somewhere in his alley, and hospitality is the art of keeping you at the greatest distance.
An attempt to hold a public procession of the Host in connexion with the Eucharistic Congress at Westminster in 1908, however, was the signal for the outburst of a considerable amount of opposition, and was eventually abandoned owing to the personal intervention of the prime minister.
But the end of hunger also will be hastened by a host of Internet technologies that will dramatically change agriculture.
Numerous wild hypotheses as to changes in the constitution of the host-plant, leading to supposed vulnerability previously non-existent, would probably never have seen the light had the full significance of the truth been grasped that an epidemic results when the external laciors favor a parasite somewhat more than they do the host.
He was the perfect host for the demon: strong, confident, intelligent.
The orchestra fell silent, and somewhere someone --possibly the host --called for the generators to be turned on.
He hadn't spoken to Edith Shipton since her husband's accident and felt, as the host of Bird Song, he owed the woman some sort of condolence.
He was a guest on a show, and the ratings were so high, they nudged out the original host and put him in there.
No matter where you live, if you have access to an Internet connection, you can host an online store and sell to the entire world.
"The creature in your father will need to take a new host soon," she said.
The Nematoda which are parasitic during their whole life may similarly be divided into two classes - those which undergo their development in a single host, and those which undergo their development in the bodies of two distinct hosts.
By taking this "Absolutely no GMOs" stance they completely remove themselves from the debate and as such have no voice in the discussion about what direction to take GM: what are safe testing practices, what factors will we optimize for, and the whole host of questions that face us on this, the eve of a momentous leap forward.
A Bohemian priest, sceptical of the doctrine of transubstantiation, was convinced of its truth by the appearance of drops of blood on the host he was consecrating.
No host has ever survived.
Hannah looked again to the host, who pretended not to hear despite being less than two feet away.
Weller took another bite of his sandwich, waved Dean to a seat as if he were the host, and continued with his discourse.
The advantages thus obtained by the guest were, the right of hospitality when travelling and, above all, the protection of his host (representing him as his patron) in a court of law.
Although some attain their full development in the body of a single host - in this respect differing from all other Entozoa - the majority do not become sexually mature until after their transference from an "intermediate" to a "definitive" host.
The procession of the Host on Corpus Christi day became, as it were, a public demonstration of Catholic orthodoxy against Protestantism and later against religious Liberalism.
No. The demon takes over their bodies until a new host is chosen.
Some days, this is not much, as the weakness of my forefathers has made it powerful enough to choose its next host and seize control of my body.
His temptation was removed by the Host beginning to bleed, the blood soaking through the corporal into the marble of the altar.
The host also followed Natasha with his eyes and asked the count which was his daughter.
He will become the demon's host, and will use the demon's power to defeat our enemies.
Pope Clement V.; and the procession of the Host in connexion with the festival was instituted, if the accounts we possess are trustworthy, by Pope John XXII.
Alpatych, without answering or looking at his host, sorted his packages and asked how much he owed.
When the guest parted from his host he was often presented with gifts (EEvta), and sometimes a die (avr pay aXos) was broken between them.
It may be that in particular cases particular modes of cultivation disfavour the host; or that the soil, climate or seasons do so; but overwhelming evidence exists to show that the principal causes of epidemics reside in circumstances which favor the spread, nutrition and reproduction of the pest, and the lesson to be learnt is, that precautions against the establishment of such favoring conditions must be sought.
host, she did not wish her people to suffer the afflictions of so many other kingdoms.
It feared what Memon planned - -one host for both of them.
Although several species belonging to the second class occasionally enter the bodies of water snails and other animals before reaching their definitive host, they undergo no alteration of form in this intermediate host; the case is different, however, in Filaria medinensis and other forms, in which a free larval is followed by a parasitic existence in two distinct hosts, all the changes being accompanied by a metamorphosis.
Alexander came within sight of the Persian host without having met with any opposition since he quitted Tyre.
(I) In the former class the eggs are extruded with the faeces, and the young become fully formed within the egg, and when accidentally swallowed by their host are liberated by the solvent action of the gastric juice and complete their development.
"Why, this is a palace!" she said to her husband, looking around with the expression with which people compliment their host at a ball.
He was going to dine that evening at Speranski's, "with only a few friends," as the host had said when inviting him.
Several battalions of soldiers, in their shirt sleeves despite the cold wind, swarmed in these earthworks like a host of white ants; spadefuls of red clay were continually being thrown up from behind the bank by unseen hands.
The host followed with Marya Antonovna Naryshkina; then came ambassadors, ministers, and various generals, whom Peronskaya diligently named.
The majority of the species belong to the family Pulicidae, of which P. irritans maybe taken as the type; but the order also includes the Sarcopsyllidae, the females of which fix themselves firmly to their host, and the Ceratopsyllidae, or bat-fleas.
About 280 a host of Gauls under Cerethrius defeated the Getae and Triballi (Justin xxv.
A huge car drawn by oxen, bearing the standard of the burgh, and carrying an altar with the host, this carroccio, like the ark of the Israelites, formed a rallying point in battle, and reminded the armed artisans that they had a city and a church to fight for.
The parasite effects a lodgment in the host either by invading it as a free-swimming planula, or, apparently, in other cases, as a spore-embryo which is captured and swallowed as food by the host.
A vast variety of trinketsin coral, glass, lava, &c.is exported from Italy, or carried away by the annual host of tourists.
Bonnier has drawn attention to the fact that the mistletoe in its turn, remaining green in the winter, contributes food material to its host when the latter has lost its leaves.
Mr. O'Connor has been the perfect host.
Before we follow this host into Asia, we may pause to inquire into the various factors which would determine its course, or condition its activity.
each with its own host.
As the patches extend in size by the growth of the fungus they at length become confluent, and so the leaves are destroyed and an end is put to one of the chief vital functions of the host plant.
Unlike the warlords of Tiyan, my kingdom isn't going to host evil.
The children in the host school then reciprocate the same.
Try your hand at outdoor chess, table tennis, or a host of other free games.
He may offer an alternative solution such as sipping the sacramental wine instead of taking the host.
Fortunately, there are a host of alternatives to support your gluten-free lifestyle.
New Madison Patent Small Velvet: Similarly priced as the Gramercy wallet, this look also comes in a host of unusual and attention getting shades with leather green and gold just the tip of the fashionable iceberg.
The bar is very popular with its host of regular customers, and is particularly crowded on weekends.
Many companies and people host their events in this hotel, from birthdays, anniversaries, corporate parties and weddings.
The hotel has a banquet facility to host business events as well as parties and weddings, and also offers catering services.
Bradenton offers a host of outdoor recreational activities, such as kayaking, hiking, snorkeling, camping and bird watching.
They have been celebrated as the birthplace of King Arthur, or as the stronghold of King Mark, in a host of medieval romances, and in the poems of Tennyson and Swinburne.
When he came, a host of new difficulties arose.
After a longer or shorter period it enters the alimentary canal of its proper host with drinking-water, or it bores through the skin and reaches the bloodvessels, and is so conveyed through the body, in which it becomes sexually mature.
Sirian's knowledge of what happened when two demons possessed one host was not one he would dare share.
The doctrine of transubstantiation was defined by the Lateran Council in 1215, and shortly afterwards the elevation and adoration of the Host were formally enjoined.
Having no way to refuse, she followed him to the campfire of their host.
"Not so loud," Hannah replied with an apologetic look at the host.
Though the weight of sadness from the past few days was still in evidence, she was obviously brightened by Fred O'Connor, the perfect host.
After several seasons and seventeen children, we discovered the right age for a host.
My son nears the age where my uncle says the demon must claim him as a host.
She had enough strength to control the demon; maybe she could prevent it from escaping to a new host.
Memon was more than willing to become its host.
Two demons cannot live in one host.
It must die with its host.
But now, the she-demon needs a host.
Find her a host!
The maxillae are not piercing organs, and their function is to protect the mandibles and labrum and separate the hairs or feathers of the host.
Though querulous because of his non-preferment, De Quincey tells us that "his lordship was a joyous, jovial, and cordial host."
The parasitic actinula is found attached to the proboscis of the medusa; it thrusts its greatly elongated hypostome into the mouth of the medusa and nourishes itself upon the food in the digestive cavity of its host.
Numerous Fungi, though conspicuous as parasites, cannot be said to do much individual injury to the host.
In his seventieth year, as lieutenant-general of the North, he led the English host on the great day of Flodden, earning a patent of the dukedom of Norfolk, dated 1 February 1513/4, and that strange patent which granted to him and his heirs that they should bear in the midst of the silver bend of their Howard shield a demi-lion stricken in the mouth with an arrow, in the right colours of the arms of the king of Scotland.
All that do not happen to attach themselves to a bee of the genus Anthophora perish, but those that succeed in reaching the right host are carried to the nest, and as the bee lays an egg in the cell the triungulin slips off her body on to the egg, which floats on the surface of the honey.
The female is a segmented, wormlike creature, spending her whole life within the body of the bee, wasp or bug on which she is parasitic. One end of her body protrudes from between two of the abdominal segments of the host; it has been a subject of dispute whether this protruded end is the head or the tail, but there can be little doubt that it is the latter.
The little triungulins escape on to the body of the bee or wasp; then those that are to survive must leave their host for a non-parasitized insect.
The presence of a Stylops causes derangement in the body of its host, and can be recognized by various external signs.
While the ark carried with Israel's host symbolized His presence in their midst, He was also known to be present in the cloud which hovered before the host and in the lightning ('esh Yahweh or " fire of Yahweh ") and the thunder (kol Yahweh or " voice of Yahweh ") which played around Mount Sinai.
This is true not only of the major planets Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; it is also true of the host of more than five hundred minor planets.
"He saw that they increased in size, divided, and became full of filiform spores, then ruptured and poured out their multitudinous progeny into the bodycavity of their insect host.
Thus we get a complete scientific demonstration of the causation of malaria in three stages: (1) the discovery of the parasite by Laveran; (2) its life-history in the human host and connexion with the fever demonstrated by the Italian observers; (3) its life-history in the alternate host, and the identification of the latter with a particular species of mosquito by Ross and Manson.
In the case of oxen the alternate host of the parasite is a special tick (Smith and Kilborne).
That designation may mean " head of the (infantry) host " as opposed to his subordinate, the magister equitum, who was " head of the cavalry."
For example, a minute species (Solenopsis fugax) lives in a compound nest with various species of Formica, forming narrow galleries which open into the larger galleries of its host.
1-22), and of the host which came to him at Hebron to turn over to him Saul's kingdom (xii.
In 907 they fortified Chester, and in 909 and 910 either Ã†thelflaed or her husband must have led the Mercian host at the battles of Tettenhall and Wednesfield (or Tettenhall-Wednesfield, if these battles are one and the same).
The order Diptera contains a host of serious pests.
Other flies act as diseasecarriers, including the mosquitoes (Anopheles), which not only carry malarial germs, but also form a secondary host for these parasites.
But these conclusions, after all, suggest more difficulties than they remove, for they show that our inquiry, instead of presenting certain well-marked features which can be readily dealt with, has to be split up into a number of highly specialized studies: the investigation of rates of wages, prices and the standard of comfort in different localities, bye-industries, regularity of employment, the organization of particular trades, the economic functions of local authorities, apprenticeship and a host of other subjects.
These with a host of lesser dignities built up the imperial hierarchy and enabled the court quickly to develop on the lines of the old monarchy, so far as rules of etiquette and self-conscious efforts could reproduce the courtly graces of the ancien regime.
At Dresden he held court for a few days in May 1812 with Marie Louise: the emperor Francis, the king of Prussia and a host of lesser dignitaries were present - a sign of the power of the modern Charlemagne.
These terms, it should be noted, would have kept Napoleon's empire intact except in Illyria; while the peace would have enabled him to reorganize his army and recover a host of French prisoners from Russia.
In receiving it the communicant must not touch the host with his finger; otherwise it loses its virtue.
Thus a mass or chain of embryos is produced, lying in a common cyst, and developing as their larval host develops.
Nothing now prevented Charles from turning his victorious arms against the tsar; and on the 13th of August' 1707, he evacuated Saxony at the head of the largest host he ever commanded, consisting of 24,000 horse and 20,000 foot.
The very elements now began to fight against the perishing but still unconquered host.
It is not too much to say that his imperturbable equanimity, his serene bonhomie kept the host together.
as to the Boo chapels on wheels in the nomadic host), are based on fact.
He is the leader of a host of monkeys who aid in these supernatural deeds.
These are expelled along with mucus by the sneezing of the host.
If they fall on pasture land or fodder of any kind and are eaten by any herbivorous animal, such as a hare, rabbit, horse, sheep or ox, the active embryos or larvae are set free in the alimentary canal of the new host.
In the event of the host escaping being killed and eaten it is believed that some of these larvae wander about or ultimately make their way to the exterior, possibly through the bronchi; nevertheless it seems to be certain that they can only reach sexual maturity in the nasal passages of some carnivorous animal, and the chance of attaining this environment is afforded when the viscera of the host are devoured by some flesh-eating mammal.
Siegfried is then persuaded to transform himself by his magic Tarnhelm into the likeness of his host, Gutrune's brother Gunther, in order to bring Briinnhilde (whose name is now quite new to him) from her fire-encircled rock, so that Gunther may have her for his bride and Siegfried may wed Gutrune.
The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged in horizontal rows, and it is by means of these hooks that the animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host.
Food is imbibed through the skin from the digestive juices of the host in which the Acanthocephala live.
The embryo thus passes from the body of the female into the alimentary canal of the host and leaves this with the faeces.
In the stomach it casts its membranes and becomes mobile, bores through the stomach walls and encysts usually in the bodycavity of its first and invertebrate host.
By this time the embryo has all the organs of the adult perfected save only the reproductive; these develop only when the first host is swallowed by the second or final host, in which case the parasite attaches itself to the wall of the alimentary canal and becomes adult.
polymorphus, larval host the crayfish, adult host the duck: E.
moniliformis has for its larval host the larvae of the beetle Blaps mucronata, for its final host certain mice, if introduced into man it lives well: E.
Gigantorhynchus gigas lives normally in the pig, but is not uncommon in man in South Russia, its larval host is the grub of Melolontha vulgaris, Cetonis auratus, and in America probably of Lachnosterna arcuata: G.
Under each of these great heads of departments was a host of lower officials, those, for instance, who held to the province a relation analogous to that of the head of the department of the realm.
From the 14th century to the middle of the 16th, Ubertin of Casale (in his Arbor Vitae crucifixae), Bartholomew of Pisa (author of the Liber Conformitatum), the Calabrian hermit Telesphorus, John of La Rochetaillade, Seraphin of Fermo, Johannes Annius of Viterbo, Coelius Pannonius, and a host of other writers, repeated or complicated ad infinitum the exegesis of Abbot Joachim.
In 1767 he was appointed to succeed Shakelton as principal painter to the king; and so fully employed was he on the royal portraits which the king was in the habit of presenting to ambassadors and colonial governors, that he was forced to take advantage of the services of a host of assistants - of whom David Martin and Philip Reinagle are the best known.
From the latter's time onward a host of liturgists took up the theme, arguing from the form, the material, the colour and the fashion of wearing the various garments to symbolical interpretations almost as numerous as the interpreters themselves.
And much more of the same kind, which, as Gilbert says, had come down " even to [his] own day through the writings of a host of men, who, to fill out their volumes to a proper bulk, write and copy out pages upon pages on this, that and the other subject, of which they know almost nothing for certain of their own experience."
We have remarked above that the Jewish apocrypha - especially the apocalyptic section and the host of Christian apocryphsbecame the ordinary religious literature of the early Christians.
Nor could the prophet so far forget himself in his allegory as to speak of a victorious host as entering the conquered city like a thief (ii.
Whatever doubt hangs over the details of the story, it seems clear that the earl made a promise to support the claims of his host upon the English succession.
His grave was surrounded by a large crowd of mourners, among whom were Gladstone, Bright, Milner Gibson, Charles Villiers and a host besides from all parts of the country.
In the spring of 1526 came the tidings that Sultan Suleiman had quitted Constantinople, at the head of a countless host, to conquer Hungary.
By the heiress of the Tonis he left at his death in 1315 a son Earl Thomas, who distinguished himself at Crecy and Poitiers, was marshal of the English host, and, with his brother John, one of the founders of the order of the Garter.
Under the influence of the touchstone of strict inquiry set on foot by the Royal Society, the marvels of witchcraft, sympathetic powders and other relics of medieval superstition disappeared like a mist before the sun, whilst accurate observations and demonstrations of a host of new wonders accumulated, amongst which were numerous contributions to the anatomy of animals, and none perhaps more noteworthy than the observations, made by the aid of microscopes constructed by himself, of Leeuwenhoek, the Dutch naturalist (1683), some of whose instruments were presented by him to the society.
monstrare, to show), a vessel used in the Roman Church for the exhibition of the Host at Benediction and also when carried in processions.
The exhibition of the Host dates from the institution of the Festival of Corpus Christi by Urban IV.
In the Creation tablet, the heavens personified collectively were indicated by this term An-sar, " host of heaven," in contradistinction to the earth= Ki-sar, " host of earth."
The parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous membrane, draw their nourishment from the blood-vessels of their host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body after death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the consequent dropsies and other cachectic symptoms are easily explained.
Their investigations on cancers found in the lower animals, and the successful transplantation of such growths into a new host of the same species (mice and rats), have greatly advanced our knowledge of the etiology of this disease.
They are direct lineal descendants of the cells introduced, and are in no way formed from the tissue cells of the host in which they are placed and grow.
It was shortly after this revolution, in 317, that Agathocles with a body of mercenaries from Campania and a host of exiles from the Greek cities, backed up by the Carthaginian Hamilcar, who was in friendly relations with the Syracusan oligarchy, became a tyrant or despot of the city, assuming subsequently, on the strength of his successes against Carthage, the title of king.
Before the end of the 19th century this discovery of the blood parasite of malaria was crowned by the hypothesis of Patrick Manson, proved by Ronald Ross, that malaria is propagated by a certain genus of gnat, which acts as an intermediate host of the parasite.
Afterwards, as the banks became parcelled out among a host of petty princelings, each of whom arrogated the right of laying a tax on passing vessels, the imposts became so prejudicial as seriously to hamper the development of the shipping.
These are not the only ports on the river; a large trade is also done at Kehl, Maxau (for Karlsruhe), Ludwigshafen, Mainz, Bonn, Rotterdam and a host of smaller places.
Monro arrived and recommended evacuation of the peninsula, the Ottoman host gathered about the Dardanelles was already decidedly stronger in point of numbers than was the army which was clinging to patches of littoral without a sheltered base.
The mildew is in its turn attacked by a fungus of the same tribe, Cicinnobolus Cesatii, which lives parasitically within the hyphae of its host, and at times even succeeds in destroying it.
The worst sacrilege of all, defiling the Host, is mentioned frequently, and generally brought the death penalty accompanied by the cruellest and most ignominious tortures.
the penalty for stealing the Host was the stake; that for other crimes was graded accordingly.
The embryo is provided with ten hooks, and appears to select Lamellibranchs (Mactra) for its intermediate host.
Archigetes and Caryophyllaeus are the only Cestodes that become fully differentiated in an invertebrate host.
is said to produce fully developed gonads, and if kept in aquaria with Tubifex, the number of infected worms steadily increases, a fact pointing to the whole cycle being passed through, without the intermediation of a vertebrate host.
It becomes fully developed in its invertebrate host, but apparently cannot produce eggs until transferred into the intestine of a fish.
It bears adhesive organs that are either suckers or hooks, and may develop into the most varied outgrowths in order to give increased firmness of attachment to its host.
The egg gives rise in the uterus to a six-hooked embryo, which reaches the first host in a variety of ways.
In other cases the infection of the first host is brought about by the ingestion FIG.
(A and B from Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv., C original.) of proglottides or of eggs which are disseminated along with the faeces of the final host and subsequently eaten by herbivorous or omnivorous mammals, insects, worms, molluscs or fish.
The transition of the larva from the intermediate to the final host is accomplished by the habits of carnivorous animals.
Arrived in the intestine of the intermediate host, the hooked embryo is set free and works its way to some distant site.
Such is the general history of Cestodes whose intermediate host is an Invertebrate.
By feeding in their host.
The loss of substance represented by this growth is probably only of serious account when the host is a young growing animal that needs all available nourishment.
Injection of the fluid-extract of such worms into the blood or coelom of their host causes grave disturbance.
But the evidence in favour of the view that tapeworms normally excrete toxin into the body of their host in such amount as to occasion disease is not generally accepted as conclusive.
This species therefore undergoes no change of host.
In many instances the existence of a tapeworm may not cause any inconvenience to its host, and its presence may be only made.
The bacteria, which are present in almost all soils, enter the root-hairs of their host plants and ultimately stimulate the production of an excrescent nodule, in which they live.
The nodules increase in size, and analysis shows that they are exceedingly rich in nitrogen up to the time of flowering of the host plant.
The Genesis fragments have less of the heroic tone, except in the splendid passage describing the rebellion of Satan and his host.
In 907, with a host made up of all the subject tribes, Slavonic and Finnic, he sailed against the Greeks in a fleet consisting, according to the lyetopis, of 2000 vessels, each of which held 40 men; but this estimate is plainly an exaggeration.
The names of these ambassadors are preserved and they point to the Scandinavian origin of Oleg's host; there is not a Slavonic name among them.
The chief peculiarities that distinguish Trematodes from their free-living allies, the Turbellaria, are the development of adhering organs for attachment to the tissues of the host; the replacement of the primitively ciliated epidermis by a thick cuticular layer and deeply sunk cells to ensure protection against the solvent action of the host; and (in one large order) a prolonged and peculiar life-history.
Speaking generally each species of parasite has a particular host, upon the blood of which it nourishes itself and matures its reproductive organs.
the common liverfluke (Distomum hepaticum) - mature equally well in the bile-ducts of a man as in those of a sheep or rabbit, others and in fact the majority are restricted apparently to one host.
It must, however, be borne in mind that a Trematode may develop in an "aberrant" manner in one host and "normally" in another; and unless we knew the initial stock, the two forms would be regarded as distinct species,.
The position of the Trematode on its host is of far-reaching importance.
The latter are almost invariably swallowed by their host in an immature state with its food, and from the stomach or intestine they work their way into the lungs, liver, body-cavity or blood vessels.
The rapid multiplication that takes place in the larval stage of nearly all endoparasitic forms affects the tissues of the "intermediate" host in which they live.
These organisms live in cockles, oysters and other lamellibranchs and they so affect the gonads of these molluscs as to castrate and sterilize their host.
The eggs are comparatively few, and development is direct, the embryo after reaching its host remaining attached to it for life.
They ingest the mucus and, to some extent, the blood of their host by the aid of a sucking pharynx through which the food passes into the bifurcated alimentary sac and its branched caeca.
In most cases the eggs are attached to the host, but in Polystomum the eggs are laid in water.
In the former position the suckers are developed and growth proceeds for 8 to Io weeks until the metamorphosis of its host.
These Polystomum deposit their eggs in the branchial chamber and die at the metamorphosis of their host.
This enters a temporary host.
The larvae usually live in Molluscs, the mature worm in vertebrates, and the immature but metamorphosed Trematode in either host and also in pelagic and littoral marine and fresh-water invertebrates.
It has been shown that this parasite feeds upon the blood, not the bile of its host, though it occurs mainly in the bile ducts.
with the faeces of the host the larva hatches out and swims freely for a time.
In dry localities or in the absence of the intermediate host (usually a mollusc) this larva soon dies.
If, however, it encounters the host the larva bores its way in, and attacks the liver, mouth or gonad in which it comes to rest.
The latter structures are only employed for an interval before the final host is entered.
The cercaria swims freely for a time and either encysts directly on grass or weeds or it enters a second host which may be another mollusc, an insect, crustacean or fish, and then encysts.
The further development of the cercaria is dependent on the weed or animal in which it lies being eaten by the final host which is usually a predaceous fish or one of the higher vertebrates.
When that occurs, the cyst is dissolved and the minute fluke works its way down the alimentary canal into some part of which it inserts its suckers and commences to feed on the blood of its host.
The attention of birds is speedily attracted to the snail by this appearance and by the peculiar movements which the worm executes, and the passage of the parasite into its final host is advantageously effected.
The ciliated larva escapes from the egg into the water and enters an intermediate host (leech, mollusc, arthropod, batrachian or fish) where it undergoes a metamorphosis into a second stage in which most of the adult organs are present.
In this condition they remain encysted as immature flukes until eaten by their final host.
Of the latter the number has tended to diminish in the light of modern scholarship. The fashion during the 19th century set strongly in the other direction, and the " degraded gods " theory was applied not only to such conspicuous heroes as Siegfried, Dietrich and Beowulf, but to a host of minor characters, such as the good marquis Rudeger of the Nibelungenlied and our own Robin Hood (both identified with Woden Hruodperaht).
were led by Savonarola carrying the host, which he reverently deposited on an altar prepared in his portion of the loggia.
The Franciscans began to urge fantastic' objections, and, when Savonarola insisted that his champion should bear the host, they cried out against the sacrilege of exposing the Redeemer's body to the flames.
The Franciscans slipped away unobserved, but Savonarola raising the host attempted to lead.
He won a brilliant victory over the forces of Saladin at Arsuf (1191), and twice led the Christian host within a few miles of Jerusalem.
Between the Halys and the Iris the mountain rim is comparatively low and broken, but east of the Iris it is a continuous lofty ridge (called by the ancients Paryadres and Scydises), whose rugged northern slopes are furrowed by torrent beds, down which a host of small streams (among them the Thermodon, famed in Amazon story) tumble to the sea.
His influence, always great, was increased by his genial and unaffected manners as a host.
The Roman people were of Aryan stock, a section of a host of invaders from the north, who overran and settled in the Italian peninsula.
The question then arose whither the host should go next.
5), the name Amphitryon has come to be used in the sense of a generous entertainer, a good host.
And of our own Christianity, Robertson Smith remarks as follows: "The host in the Mass is artistically as much inferior to the Venus of Milo as a Semitic Masseba was, but no one will say that medieval Christianity is a lower form of religion than Aphrodite worship."
It was in Bela's reign that the emperor Frederick I., in the spring of 1189, traversed Hungary with ioo,000 crusaders, on which occasion the country was so well policed that no harm was done to it and the inhabitants profited largely from their commerce with the German host.
His retreat from Jaroslau to Warsaw, with the fragments of his host, amidst three converging armies, in a marshy forest region, intersected in every direction by well-guarded rivers, was one of his most brilliant achievements.
arrived at Haderslev (Hadersleben) in South Jutland, when it was estimated that in a couple of days the ice of the Little Belt would be firm enough to bear even the passage of a mail-clad host.
Each foot is provided with a single strong claw which, opposed to a process on the shin, serves to grasp a hair of the host, all the lice being parasites on different mammals.
and Alexander of Macedon were confronted by a confederate host from central Greece and Peloponnese under the leadership of Thebes and Athens, which here made the last stand on behalf of Greek liberty.
His rapid rise to power made him a host of enemies, who looked upon him as but a second Concini.
Johnson, whose chief asset was the MS. tragedy of Irene, was at first the host of his former pupil, who, however, before the end of the year took up his residence at Rochester with John Colson (afterwards Lucasian professor at Cambridge).
In addition, the great majority have also another method of reproduction, for increasing the number of the parasites in any individual host; this is distinguished as multiplicative or endogenous reproduction, from the propagative or exogenous method (by means of the resistant spores), which serves for the infection of fresh hosts and secures the dissemination and survival of the species.
In 1075 he again took the field, leading with Bishop Odo a vast host against the rebel earl of Norfolk, whose stronghold at Norwich they besieged and captured.
On Easter Sunday the queen ventured to display her personal preference for the Protestant conception of the eucharist by forbidding the celebrant in her chapel to elevate the host.
So, too, the angels are styled " holy ones," 2 and " watchers," 3 and are spoken of as the " host of heaven " 4 or of " Yahweh."
The Saxon nobles refused to join the host until their grievances were redressed, and in 1073 a league was formed at Wormesleben.
According to the Roman use the stole is now only worn at mass, in administering the sacraments and sacramentalia, when touching the Host, &c., but not e.g.
Even the Hebrew historian ascribes to this act the effect of rousing divine indignation against the invading host of Israel; it would not, therefore, be surprising if under the miseries brought on Palestine by the westward march of the Assyrian power, the idea of the sacrifice of one's own son, as the most powerful of atoning rites, should have taken hold of those kings of Judah (Ahaz and Manasseh, 2 Kings xvi.
The external features of the medieval churches were retained; but the minor altars, the tabernacula to contain the Host, and the light permanently burning before the altar, were done away with.
But these measures proved inadequate, and in 1533 the lord marcher, Ostafi Daszkiewicz, the hero of Kaniev, which he had successfully defended against a countless host of Turks and Tatars, was consulted by the diet as to the best way of defending the Ukraine permanently against such inroads.
For Chmielnicki and his host these splendid cavaliers expressed the utmost contempt.
Chmielnicki's conditions of peace were so extravagant that the Polish commissioners durst not accept them, and in 1649 he again invaded Poland with a countless host of Cossacks and Tatars.
Metternich, though he had not yet completely established his position, acted as chief Austrian representative, and he was naturally in his capacity as host the president of the congress.
Gathered there also were a host of publicists, secretaries and courtiers, and never before had Europe witnessed such a collection of rank and talent.
Both Absalon and Valdemar narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of their treacherous host on this occasion, but at length escaped to Jutland, whither Sweyn followed them, but was defeated and slain at the battle of Grathe Heath.
Caesar at once marched to meet them, and, on the pre text that they had violated a truce, seized their leaders who had come to parley with him, and then surprised and practically destroyed their host.
A medusa with a remarkable habit of life is Mnestra parasites, which is parasitic on the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attaching itself to the host by its subumbral surface; its tentacles, no longer required for obtaining food, have become rudimentary.
The novice is classified according as his destination is the priesthood or lay brotherhood, while a third class of "indifferents" receives such as are reserved for further inquiry before a decision of this kind a strict retreat, practically in solitary confinement, during which he receives from a director, yet relying on Thine infinite kindness and mercy and impelled by the desire of serving Thee, before the Most Holy Virgin Mary and all Thy heavenly host, I, N., vow to Thy divine Majesty Poverty, Chastity and Perpetual Obedience to the Society of Jesus, and promise that I will enter the same Society to live in it perpetually, understanding all things according to the Constitutions of the Society.
The formula of the famous Jesuit vow is as follows: "I, N., promise to Almighty God, before His Virgin Mother and the whole heavenly host, and to all standing by; and to thee, Reverend Father General of the Society of Jesus, holding the place of God, and to thy successors (or to thee, Reverend Father M.
Eversible trophi of the forcipate or virgate type, which can be used for nibbling, are common in Ploima, notably Rattulidae, and are used for attachment to the host in the parasitic Seisonaceae, &c. In Asplanchnaceae also, From H.
In the year of his succession a large Danish force landed in East Anglia, and in the year 868 !Ethelred and his brother Alfred went to help Burgred, or Burhred, of Mercia, against this host, but the Mercians soon made peace with their foes.
He gathered a fine Norman army (perhaps the finest division in the crusading host), at the head of which he crossed the Adriatic, and penetrated to Constantinople along the route he had tried to follow in 1082-1084.
Data with regard to the frequency with which individual species occur, in any kind of host, are as yet somewhat scanty; in one or two cases the parasites are fairly common, T.
In dealing with disease-causing forms, the more narrowly the original source of the parasite concerned is defined, the closer do we get to the true vertebrate host or hosts.
The capybara, again, is most probably the native host of T.
it is a true alternate host, one i.e.
Nevertheless, the fact, commented upon by several observers, that even here an infected fly is only infectious for a comparatively short period suggests that this species of fly, at any rate, is not the true alternate host in which the life-cycle of that particular Trypanosome is completed.
Schaudinn had fully described the relations of certain avian Trypanosomes to their invertebrate host, Culex pipiens (females).
The life of the parasites while in the insect is characterized by an alternation of active periods, during which multiplication goes on, with resting-periods, when the Trypanosomes become attached to the epithelial cells of the host.
Considering them first in a tolerant host, the trend of observation is to show that they are never abundant, but on the contrary usually somewhat scarce.
Probably most forms possess a resting, attached phase at some period or other, in the invertebrate, if not in the vertebrate host.
A peculiar feature in the behaviour of the parasites, which is most probably caused by unfavourable biological conditions -in the host, is that known as agglomeration.
In addition, a Trypanosome whose vertebrate host is yet unknown (T.
Moreover, it is very probable that conjugation occurs soon after the arrival of the parasites in their specific invertebrate host; and this act may perhaps give rise to an aflagellar copula, which is gregariniform and comparable to an ookinete.
Vertebrate host, Athene noctua, Little Owl; invertebrate host, Culex pipiens.
Probably this is not a haemal parasite, and lacks an alternate host.
Nothing definite is yet known with regard to the transmission of the parasites by an alternate invertebrate host, although there is presumptive evidence in favour of this supposition.2 A word or two must be said in conclusion with reference to the supposed connexion of the Spirochaetae with the n Trypanosomes.
27, 2907) has brought forward evidence to show that the bed-bug (Cimex macrocephalus) is the invertebrate host.
Side by side with the doctrine of separable souls with which we have so far been concerned, exists the belief in a great host of unattached spirits; these are not immanent souls which have become detached from their abodes, but have every appearance of independent spirits.
He drew the horoscopes of the emperor and Wallenstein, as well as of a host of lesser magnates; but, though keenly alive to the unworthy character of such a trade, he made necessity his excuse for a compromise with superstition.
When the enrolment was completed the whole host (exercitus) was the best organized and most representative gathering that Rome could show.
A series of municipal laws gives us a detailed knowledge of the constitution imposed, with slight variations, on all the municipia; and a host of private inscriptions gives particulars of their social life.
He speaks of the dominical host (hostia), and takes the verb to do in Paul's letter in the sense of to sacrifice.
His fame collected round him a host of followers, emulous of his sanctity.
When the pope rode in procession to the station an acolyte, on foot, preceded him, bearing the holy chrism; and at the church seven regionary acolytes with candles went before him in the procession to the altar, while two others, bearing the vessel that contained a pre-consecrated Host, presented it for his adoration.
In Germany there has been a host of commentaries, among which we may mention the Organon edited (1844-1846) by F.
The legs are stout and spiny, and well adapted for clinging to the hair or feathers of the host animal.
4) which never leave the host and perish themselves soon after its death.
He threw himself upon the Mahratta host, and, carrying out a bold manoeuvre under an intense fire, ultimately gained a complete victory, though with the loss of 2500 men out of a total probably not much exceeding 7000.
The deliberations at once raised a host.
In America, where the more typical kinds are known as white-footed, or deer, mice, the cricetines absolutely swarm, and include a host of genera, the majority of which are North American, although others are peculiar to Central and South America.
Then followed the negotiations with the emperor Valens, the general adhesion of the Visigoths under Frithigern to Arian Christianity, the crossing of the Danube by himself and a host of his followers, and the troubles which culminated in the battle of Adrianople and the death of Valens (378).
The second and much more serious host of warriors, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, he conducted also into Asia, promising to supply them with provisions in return for an oath of homage, and by their victories recovered for the Empire a number of important cities and islands - Nicaea, Chios, Rhodes, Smyrna, Ephesus, Philadelphia, Sardis, and in fact most of Asia Minor (1097-1099).
The earliest Babylonian monarch of whose presence in Mesopotamia there is positive evidence is Lugalzaggisi (before 2500 s.c.), who claims, with the help of En-lil, to have led his countless host victorious to the Mediterranean.
Ezekiel says that Nebuchadrezzar and his host had no reward for their heavy service against Tyre, and the presumption is that the city capitulated on favourable terms; for Ithobal's reign ends with the close of the siege, and the royal family is subsequently found in Babylon.
What the exact contingent was which bannerets were expected to supply to the royal host is doubtful.'
The host of small craft dispersed for their various tasks.
Here he found that a host of suitors, taking advantage of the youth of his son Telemachus, were wasting his property and trying to force Penelope to marry one of them.
A widespread disease known as pocket-plums or bladderplums is due to an ascomycetous fungus, Exoascus pruni, the mycelium of which lives parasitically in the tissues of the host plant, passes into the ovary of the flower and causes the characteristic malformation of the fruit which becomes a deformed, sometimes curved or flattened, wrinkled dry structure, with a hollow occupying the place of the stone; the bladder plums are yellow at first, subsequently dingy red.
He has a fivefold wergild, summons the nobles and clergy for purposes of deliberation, calls out the host, administers justice and regulates finance.
Many parasitic hyphae put out minute lateral branches, which pierce the cell-wall of the host and form a peg-like (Trichosphaeria), sessile (Cystopus), or stalked (Hemileia), knot-like, or_a B FIG.
Appressoria are also formed by some parasitic fungi, as a minute flattening of the tip of a very short branch (Erysiphe), or the swollen end of any hypha which comes in contact with the surface of the host (Piptocephalis, Syncephalis), haustoria piercing in each case the cell-wall below.
In Arthrobotrys side-branches of the mycelium sling themselves around the host (Tylenchus) much as tendrils round a support.
When the free ends of the hyphae emerge again into the air they swell up into spherical bodies which may either fall off and behave as conidia, each putting out a germ-tube and infecting the host; or the germ-tube itself swells up into a zoosporangium which develops a number of zoospores.
to a zoosporangium, but may form directly a germ tube which infects the host.
Any one of these soon comes to rest on a host-cell, and either pierces it and empties its contents into its cavity, where the further development occurs (Olpidium), or merely sends in delicate protoplasmic filaments (Rhizophydium) or a short hyphal tube of, at most, two or three cells, which acts as a haustorium, the further development taking place outside the cell-wall of the host (Chytridium).
In some cases resting spores are formed inside the host (Chytridium), and give rise to zoosporangia on germination.
They are remarkable for their dark spores developed in gall-like excrescences on the leaves, stems, &c., or in the fruits of the host.
In all cases of heteroecism the sporidia infect one host leading to the production of aecidiospores and spermatia (if present), while the aecidiospores are only able to infect another B /., f.
host on which the uredospores (if present) and the teleutospores are developed.
Nectria, Dasyscypha, &c.), or the enfeeblement of the tissues of the host, or invigoration of the fungus, the mycelium of which then becomes strong enough to overcome the host's resistance (Botrytis).
Such obligate parasites may be epiphytic (Erysipheae), the mycelium remaining on the outside and at most merely sending haustoria into the epidermal cells, or endophytic (Uredineae, Ustilagineae, &c.), when the mycelium is entirely inside the organs of the host.
No sharp lines can be drawn, however, since many mycelia are intercellular at first and subsequently become intracellular (Ustilagineae), and the various stages doubtless depend on the degrees of resistance which the host tissues are able to offer.
Similar gradations are observed in the direct effect of the parasite on the host, which may be local (Hemileia) when the mycelium never extends far from the point of infection, or general (Phytophthora) when it runs throughout the plant.
Destructive parasites rapidly ruin the whole plant-body (Pythium), whereas restrained parasites only tax the host slightly, and ill effects may not be visible for a long time, or only when the fungus is epidemic (Rhytisma).
Dematophora necatrix on roots, Calyptospora Goeppertiana on stems, Ustilago Scabiosae in anthers, Claviceps purpurea in ovaries, &c. Associated with these relations are the specializations which parasites show in regard to the age of the host.
Many parasites can enter a seedling, but are unable to attack the same host when older - e.g.
Section through union between parasite and host.
c, stem of host.
The priest merely places the Sacrament on the altar, censes it, elevates and breaks the host, and communicates, the prayers and responses interspersed being peculiar to the day.
But the French would not give battle, and though John marched from Calais right through Champagne, Burgundy and Auvergne, it was with disastrous results; only a shattered remnant of the host reached Bordeaux.
The "fox who would rob his host's hen-roost," as the old king called Louis, repaid his protector by attempting to sow discord in the ducal family of Burgundy, and then retired to the castle of Genappe in Brabant.
Room was found for the daughter of Mrs Desmoulins, and for another destitute damsel, who was generally addressed as Miss Carmichael, but whom her generous host called Polly.
His subjects vied with each other in hurrying soldiers to his standard, and in a few weeks the great Turkish host was in full retreat.
On his return he was driven by contrary winds to Britain, and so came to Iona, where he related his experiences to his host, the abbot Adamnan (679-704).
In 409, at the head of a vast mercenary host, he sailed to Sicily, attacked Selinus (q.v.), and stormed the town after a murderous assault of nine days.
In the host of Maniaces were men of all races - Normans, who had already begun to show themselves in south Italy, and the Varangian guard, the best soldiers of the empire, among whom Harold Hardrada himself is said to have held a place.
Under the New Empire, when Egypt was almost a military stte, the army was a more specialized institution, the art of war in siege and strategy had developed, divisions were formed with special standards, there were regiments armed with battle-axes and scimitars, and chariots formed an essential part of the host.
A number of chapters contained in the later recensions are already found on the sarcophagi of the Middle Kingdom, together with a host of funereal texts not usually reckoned as belonging to the Book of the Dead; these have been published by Lepsius and Lacau.
A few months after his death, 525 B.C., the invading host of the Persians led by Cambyses reached Egypt and dethroned his son Psammetichus III.
Aided by an Athenian force, Inaros slew the satrap Achaemenes at the battle of Papremis and destroyed his army; but the garrison of Memphis held out, and a fresh host from Persia raised the siege and in turn besieged the Greek and Egyptian forces on the island of Papremis.
By a timely sortie, preceded by the administration of bribes to various officers in the Carmathian host, Jauhar succeeded in inflicting a severe defeat on the besiegers, who were compelled to evacuate Egypt and part of Syria.
Yahweh then causes a strong east wind to blow all that night, which drives back the waters from the shallows, and so renders it possible for the host of Israel to cross over.
The inhabitants of the district they administered had to provide for their subsistence, and at times they led the host to battle.
The elevation of the host, as at present practised, was first enjoined by Pope Honorius III.
Furius Camillus as suddenly appearing with an avenging army at the moment when the gold was being weighed, and defeating Brennus and all his host.
After the Augsburg 2 He read the usual service, but omitted everything that taught a propitiatory sacrifice; he did not elevate the Host, and he gave both the bread and the cup into the hands of every communicant.
Without money, and without anything like an adequate regular force, he called out the clansmen of Atholl, Perth and other nobles, and quartered " the Highland host " on the disturbed districts.
Besides a host of minor writings on ecclesiastical subjects, and an active collaboration in the great Kirchenlexicon of Wetzer and Welte,Alzog was also the author of Grundriss der Patrologie (Freiburg, 1866, 4th ed.
The possession of an extraordinary relic, a bloody Host, or the like, was everywhere considered a sufficient claim for the privileges of indulgences; and wherever this privilege existed, there the pilgrims were gathered together.
We are familiar enough in the West with similar classifications, summed up in such expressions as the Seven Deadly Sins, the Ten Commandments, the Thirty-nine Articles, the Four Cardinal Virtues, the Seven Sacraments and a host of others.
another story about Cyaxares and a Scythian host in Herod.
10, it is said that the little horn "waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground."
"The Beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit" and, surrounded by a mighty host of nations, slays the "two witnesses" in Jerusalem, is the entirely superhuman Jewish conception of Antichrist.
In 428 or 429 he led a great host of Vandals from Spain into Roman Africa, and took possession of Mauretania.
voi, host, army; voiditi, to lead), and so applied at various periods and in various eastern European countries to rulers, governors or officials of varying degree.
The insect, which may have become an imago with the Gordian larva still in it, is then eaten by a carnivorous insect or by a fish, and the contained Gordian larva becomes elongate and mature in its second host.
2, 7 seq., must be viewed as having his local manifestation at the headquarters of the host of Israel, is still found at Gilgal and not at Shiloh.
Magnificent works in silver, such as shrines, altar crosses and church vessels of all kinds, were produced in Spain from the 14th to the 16th century - especially a number of sumptuous tabernacles (custodia) for the host, magnificent examples of which still exist in the cathedrals of Toledo and Seville.
a few cases, the parasitic bee grub devours not only the food-supply, but also the larva of its host.
Friese, the relations between the host and the inquiline are quite friendly, and the insects if they meet in the nestgalleries courteously get out of each other's way.
Sharp, in commenting on this strange behaviour, points out that the host can have no idea why the inquiline haunts her nest.
At Athens, the centre of the intellectual life of Greece, there was soon to be found a host of sophists; some of them strangers, others citizens; some of them bred under Protagoras and Prodicus, others self-taught.
In addition to the British officials employed in these services, there is a host of natives of India holding superior or subordinate appointments in the government service.
His father was by some said to have been descended from Attius Tullius, the Volscian host of Coriolanus, while spiteful persons declared him to have been a fuller; in any case he was a Roman knight with property at Arpinum and a house in Rome.
4 He sought to make the whole nation a great host of God; the Arabs were to be soldiers and nothing else.
z The Arabic word for "shedder of blood," as-Safah, which by that speech became a name of the caliph, designates the liberal host who slaughters his camels for his guests.
Finally it must not be forgotten that the host of writers who were in reaction against Hegelianism tended to take refuge in some formula of correlation, as a half-way ho-use between that and formalism or psychologism or both, without reference to, and often perhaps without cdnsciousness of, the way in which historically it had taken shape to meet the problem held to have been left unresolved by Kant.
His strategy in dealing with the great host from Gaul was of the Fabian kind.
9) that only five men out of the barbaric host of 30,000 escaped, and only eighty out of the Roman 18,000 perished.
The report also considers it proved that the bacillus pestis multiplies in the stomach of a flea and may remain a considerable time within its host.
His appeal to musicians was made in a threefold capacity, and we have, therefore, to deal with Liszt the unrivalled pianoforte virtuoso (1830 - r848); Liszt the conductor of the "music of the future " at Weimar, the teacher of Tausig, Billow and a host of lesser pianists, the eloquent writer on music and musicians, the champion of Berlioz and Wagner (1848-1861); and Liszt the prolific composer, who for some five-and-thirty years continued to put forth pianoforte pieces, songs, symphonic orchestral pieces, cantatas, masses, psalms and oratorios (1847-1882).
In it is the masterpiece of the sculptor, Adam Krafft, consisting of a ciborium, or receptacle for the host, in the form of a florid Gothic spire 65 ft.
At the age of twenty-five he held several rich livings, had been notary and protonotary to the Curia, and was first secretary to the pope, in which capacity he conducted the correspondence with the nuncios (among them Pier Paolo Bergerio in Germany) and a host of other duties.
In ecclesiastical usage it is the sacred vase or tabernacle in which the Host is reserved.
The constitutional conflict, gave rise to a host of books and pamphlets in various languages.
Thereupon the host marched southwards by two routes, the Cimbri moving on the left towards the passes of the Eastern Alps, while the newly arrived Teutoni and their allies made for the western gates of Italy.
He refused to crown Elizabeth because she would not have the coronation service accompanied with the elevation of the Host; and ecclesiastical ceremonies and doctrine could not, in Heath's view, be altered or abrogated by any mere national authority.
It embraced everything, and directed the movement of things, by which there grew up a host of shapes and differences.
His host belonged to the Collegiants or Rhijnsburgers, a religious society which had sprung up among the proscribed Arminians of Holland.
Early in 1661 Spinoza's host removed to Rhijnsburg near Leiden, the headquarters of the Collegiant brotherhood, and Spinoza removed with him.
But the timely caution of his host prevented his issuing forth to almost certain death.
Many scholars connect the origin of the deity with the popular German and Swedish belief in a raging host (in Germany called das wiitende Heer or Wutes Heer, but in Sweden Odens Jagt), which passes through the forests on stormy nights.
The war between Russia and Sweden for the possession of Esthonia and Livonia (1571-77) had been uninterruptedly disastrous to the latter, and, in the beginning of 1577, a countless Russian host sat down before Reval, Sweden's last stronghold in those parts.
Then come a host of other tales of old-world heroes; as the Glorious One (Ind.
The gorgeous cult of the gods of civilization (especially of Babylon), with their host of temples, images and festivals, exercised a corresponding influence on the mother-country.
For at the side of the great god Ahuramazda there stands a host of subordinate divine beings who execute his willamong these the deified heroes of legend, to whose circle the king is now admitted, since on him Ahuramazda has bestowed victory and might.
So the rival faction brought out another .Arsacid, resident among the Scythian nomads, Artabanus II., who easily expelled Vononesonly to create a host of enemies by his brutal cruelty, and to call forth fresh disorders.
village-lords and the knights (aswar); who, as among the Parthians, tool th~ felrl in heavy scalp-armo,ir To an even e-reat-er extent thar under the Arsacids the empire was subdivided into a host of small provinces, at the head of each being a Marzban (boundary-lord, lord of the marches).
When he saw that all hope was gone he, with only three followers, fought his way through the Kajar host and escaped to Bam-Narmashir, the most eastern district of the province of Kerman on the borders of Seistan.
1434; 838 A.H.), and in the Gulzr, or Rose-bower, of HairatI (murdered 1554; 961 A.H.); the latter in MuIn-uddIn Juwainis Nigdristan, or Picture-gallery (1335; 735 A.H.) and Jamis Baharistan, or Spring-garden (1487; 892 A.H.); whereas an innumerable host of purely SUiIc compositions followed in the wake of Sanais, Attars and Jelal ud-din RumIs mathnawis.
In practice, however, it is usual to have only one lamp lighted before the tabernacle in which the Host is reserved.
The same symbolism is intended by the lighted tapers which must accompany the Host whenever it is carried in procession, or to the sick and dying.
The best-known disease of potatoes is caused by the growth of a fungus named Phytophihora infestans, within the tissues of the host plant, and this fungus has the peculiar property of piercing and breaking up the cellular tissues and setting up putrescence in the course of its growth.
The parasite, which has a somewhat restricted range of host plants, chiefly invades the potato, Solanum tuberosum; the bittersweet, S.
In 1337 a wholesale massacre of the Jews, who were accused of having thrown the sacred host of the church of the Holy Sepulchre into a well, took place in the town; and it is probably from about this date that the pilgrimage above mentioned came into vogue.
4 The same overmastering feeling which constrained Tacitus (Agric. 2, 3), when the time of long endurance and silence was over, to recall the " memory of the 3 Pliny's remarks on the vulgarity as well as the ostentation of his host imply that he regarded such behaviour as exceptional, at least in the circle in which he himself lived (Ep. ii.
The wide diffusion of Stoic phraseology and Stoic modes of thought may be seen on all hands - in the language of the New Testament writers, in the compendious " histories of philosophy " industriously circulated by a host of writers about this time (ccf.
Again, the Germani themselves first appear in the Celtic host destroyed by Marcellus at Clastidium in 225 B.C. All the true Celtae or Galatae in France had come across the Rhine; the Belgic tribes in northern France were Cimbri, who also had crossed the Rhine: in Caesar's day the Germans were still constantly crossing that river, and so-called Gauls who lived near the Germans, e.g.
About 280 B.C. the Celts gathered a great host at the head of the Adriatic, and accompanied by the Illyrian tribe of Autariatae, they overthrew the Macedonians, overran Thessaly, and invaded Phocis in order to sack Delphi, but they were finally repulsed, chiefly by the efforts of the Aetolians (279 B.C.).
The questions as to the causes and nature of the changes in the bacillus and in the host, as to the extent of immunity enjoyed by the latter, &c., are of the greatest interest and importance.
In the cells of the nodule the bacteria multiply and develop, drawing material from their host.
The nitrogen of the air is absorbed by the nodules, being built up into the bacterial cell and later handed on to the host plant.
The region of his rule is matter of conjecture, though Galloway seems the most probable suggestion, in which case he probably led a piratic host against the Picts.
When Wodan awoke at sunrise he saw the host of the Winnili and said, "Qui sunt isti Longibarbi ?"
- In 568 Alboin, king of the Langobards, with the women and children of the tribe and all their possessions, with Saxon allies, with the subject tribe of the Gepidae and a mixed host of other barbarians, descended into Italy by the great plain at the head of the Adriatic. The war which had ended in the downfall of the Goths had exhausted Italy; it was followed by famine and pestilence; and the government at Constantinople made but faint efforts to retain the province which Belisarius and Narses had recovered for it.
Authari, "the Longhaired," with his Roman title of Flavius, marks the change from the war king of an invading host to the permanent representative of the unity and law of the nation, and the increased power of the crown, by the possession of a great domain, to enforce its will.
"The fashion of Greek fire was such that it came to us as great as a tun of verjuice, and the fiery tail of it was as big as a mighty lance; it made such noise in the coming that it seemed like the thunder from heaven, and looked like a dragon flying through the air; so great a light did it throw that throughout the host men saw as though it were day for the light it threw."
The Goths were now again, if not a wandering people, yet an armed host, no longer the protectors but the enemies of the Roman people of Italy.
During his ten years' tenure of the finance ministry he nearly doubled the revenues of the empire, but at the same time he made for himself, by his policy and his personal characteristics, host of enemies.
A motley host, made up out of the tribes bordering on the Black Sea and the Caspian, hovered round his small army, but failed to hinder him from laying siege to the town.
21 he is named as the angel who destroyed the host of Sennacherib; and in similar writings of a still later period he is spoken of as the spirit who presides over fire, thunder, the ripening of the fruits of the earth and similar processes.
He was young, gallant, pious and virtuous, one of the few who interpreted and observed his crusading vows strictly; the most popular leader in the host.
Some species, such as Myzostoma cirriferum, move about on the host; others, such as M.
The dorsal surface is smooth; ventrally there are five pairs of parapodia, armed with supporting and hooked setae, by means of which the worm adheres to its host.
The genital papilla of the female acquires a great development during the breeding season and becomes produced into a tube nearly as long as the fish itself; this acts as an ovipositor by means of which the comparatively few and large eggs (3 millimetres in diameter) are introduced through the gaping valves between the branchiae of pond mussels (Unio and Anodonta), where, after being inseminated, they undergo their development, the fry leaving their host about a month later.
In Italian, collections of dialogues, on the model of;Plato, have been composed by Torquato Tasso (1 586), by Galileo (1632), by Galiani (1770), by Leopardi (1825), and by a host of lesser writers.
hospes, a guest or host; hospes being probably from an original hostipes, one who feeds a stranger or enemy, from hostis and the root of pascere), one who receives another into his house and provides him with lodging and entertainment, especially one who does this in return for payment.
Against these were arrayed six thousand trained soldiers and a vast host of undisciplined rabble.
Where the host is carried in procession it is covered always by a canopy, and accompanied by lights.
This work called forth a host of imitators, and a number of their writings, together with the groundwork, were edited as a Book of Methuselah, i.e.
But, although the union of the Roses ought to have extinguished controversy, a host of debatable questions and plausible pretexts for rebellion remained.
A simultaneous invasion of Walachia by a large Turkish and Tatar host was successfully defeated; victorious sultan from massacring the prisoners and adding to the tribute a yearly contribution of 3000 javelins and 4000 shields.
He is said to have feasted amongst his impaled victims. When the sultan Mahomet, infuriated at the impalement of his envoy, the pasha of Vidin, who had been charged with Vlad's deposition, invaded Walachia in person with an immense host, he is said to have found at one spot a forest of pales on which were the bodies of men, women and children.
The voivode Stephen withdrew into the interior at the approach of this overwhelming host, but on the 17th, of 'January 1475, turned to bay at Rahova (Podul malt, near Vaslui) and gained a complete victory over the Turks.
But the long Turkish terrorism had done its work, and at the approach of a Turkish and Tatar host the greater part of the Moldavians deserted their voivode.
The name of Baal (so LXX.; remnant implies a date after Josiah's reforms) and of the idolatrous priests will be cut off, together with them that worship the " host of heaven " (condemned later than 620 in Jer.
No longer does Yahweh contend for recognition with Baal and the " host of heaven " (i.
Callimachus, made keeper of the library, Theocritus, and a host of lesser poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family.
Since then exploring expeditions have made known a host of new genera, often exhibiting unfamiliar types of structure.
236 sqq.) give instances of the insults they had to put up with at the hands of both host and guests.
These rites are found all over the world, and in his monumental work, The Golden Bough, Dr Frazer has traced a host of extant beliefs and practices to this source.
It is by means of the hypostome that ticks pierce the integument and firmly adhere to the host whose blood they suck for food.
For a longer or shorter period of their lives ticks are parasitic upon vertebrate animals of various kinds; but although the belief that the bite of certain tropical species is poisonous has long been held by the natives of the countries they infest and has been recorded with corroborative evidence by European authors in books of travel, it is only of recent years that accurate information has been acquired of the part played by these Arachnids in transmitting from one host to another protozoal blood-parasites which cause serious or fatal diseases to man and other animals.
With one or two possible exceptions, like Argas vespertilonis, which has only been obtained from European bats, no species of tick is known to be confined to a particular host.
Mature males and females are found together upon the same host.
The gorged and fertilized female quits her hold of the host, and falling to the ground, proceeds after a short delay to lay her eggs in some sheltered spot.
The adult secures a host in the same way as the young.
From the foregoing epitome which applies to many species, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus for example, it is evident that every individual tick has to find a host on three occasions, namely, as larva, nymph and adult.
transforms the larva into the nymph takes place on the host, and in Margaropus annulatus the transformation of larva into nymph and nymph into adult is effected without the temporary sojourn on the ground.
For though Wessex had its full share of Danish attacks it met them with a vigour that was not seen in the other realms. The defence was often, if not always, successful; and once at least (at Aclea in 851) -~lthelwu1f exterminated a whole Danish army with the greatest slaughter among the heathen host that had been heard of down to that day, as the Anglo-Saxon chronicler is careful to record.
King Guthrum settled down as a Christian sovereign in East Anglia, with the bulk of the host that had capitulated at Chippenham.
The native Normans were but a third part of his host, and he himself commanded rather as director of a great joint-stock venture than as the feudal chief of his own duchy.
On the I3th of October his host was arrayed on the hill of Senlac, ~ miles from the dukes camp at Hastings.
Next morning (October 14) William marched out from Hastings and attacked the English host, which stood at bay in a solid mass of spear and axemen behind a slight breastwork on the hillside.
Canute had become an Englishman, had accepted all the old institutions of the nation, had dismissed his host of vikings, and had ruled like a native king and for the most part with native ministers.
At first the English landowners who had not actually served in Harolds host were permitted to buy back their lands, by paying a heavy fine to the new king and doing him homage.
But his friends raised a considerable host, which marched linder his son Simon the Younger and the earl of Oxford, to fall on the rear of the royalists.
beaten off with heavy loss, the English host recoiled in disorder and broke upthe king, who had kept in the rear all day, was one of the first to move off.
Next day he surrendered, with the wreck Execution of his host.
out the king of France against him, with a mighty host, before which Edward retreated northward, apparently intending to retire to Flanders.
earl of Shrewsbury and the greater part of his Anglo-Gascon host were Battle of cut to pieces at the hard-fought battle of Castillon.
host beat Warwick at the second battle of St Albans (Feb.
And we are touched to think of the simple-minded guest secretly praying, in the solitude of his room in the fine house at Beaconsfield, that the way of his anxious and overburdened host might be guided by a divine hand.
Perhaps, however, the most illuminating example of the difference between traditions as recorded in J or E and traditions as given by P is found in the very first passage that occurs after the first long section of P describing the order of march of the several tribes and the position of the ark in the very centre of the host, both when encamped and on the march.
The rust fungus, Puccinia graminis, is a Uredine belonging to the heteroecious group, that is, one that passes from one host to another at different stages of its life-history.