Hormone sentence examples

hormone
  • All right, men are hormone driven fools.

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  • The pituitary also produces ACTH and growth hormone, which have significant metabolic effects.

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  • The excess secretion of the hormone aldosterone into the blood is from an abnormal adrenal gland or glands.

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  • Table 2: Treatments for other features of polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS feature Available treatment Comments raised androgen (male sex hormone) level.

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  • However, there is a difference in the way that the male hormone androgen is metabolized (processed) between the sexes.

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  • potentiate the release of some anabolic hormones, such as growth hormone.

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  • The second most sensitive in detecting the pregnancy hormone is E.P.T. at 40 mIUs.

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  • A false negative test result means that you are pregnant but the test was unable to detect the hormone.

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  • If you wait a couple days and test again, you may get a positive test because your pregnancy hormone has increased enough for the test to detect it.

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  • apical dominance to make the formation of new crowns hormone driven.

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  • ovulate once during each menstrual cycle and this is trigged by a release of Luteinising Hormone (LH surge ).

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  • This is a urine test, which detects the surge of luteinising hormone, which stimulates ovulation.

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  • A hormone called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH ), which normally triggers ovulation, also goes into overdrive in an attempt to stimulate ovulation.

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  • polypeptide hormone that travels around the bloodstream.

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  • Other tests can determine thyroid function and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.

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  • Radioactive iodine is often prescribed to damage cells that make thyroid hormone.

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  • If delivery cannot be delayed, the mother may be given a steroid hormone, similar to a natural substance produced in the body, which crosses the barrier of the placenta and helps the fetal lungs to produce surfactant.

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  • Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which the body is not able to correctly process glucose for cell energy due to either an insufficient amount of the hormone insulin or a physical resistance to the insulin the body does produce.

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  • Many doctors believe that instead of focusing on a particular fad diet, those who have hypothyroidism should concentrate on avoiding foods and supplements that could affect the positive affects of their hormone medication.

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  • The amygdala then stimulates the hypothalamus to produce corticotropin-releasing hormone.

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  • hypothalamus glands, which help your body release its sequestered stores of growth hormone.

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  • hypothalamus hormone, is integrally involved in appetite control, weight maintenance, and lowering the levels of CYP450.

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  • A lack of thyroid hormone in the body is called hypothyroidism.

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  • Use of hormone replacement therapy following hysterectomy: a general practice audit pilot study.

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  • iatrogenic infections with growth hormone have appeared after an average period of 13 years.

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  • There should be no more stigma attached to them than aspirin - you are just treating a brain hormone imbalance.

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  • Although the exact reasons for these changes is unknown, the hormone believed to be responsible for altering the immune system is estrogen.

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  • impaired due to the fluctuations in hormone levels.

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  • These natural approaches can help normalize hormone levels, diminish hot flushes, and relieve the insomnia and anxiety that many women experience.

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  • Insulin lispro is closely related to human insulin lispro is closely related to human insulin which is a natural hormone made by the pancreas.

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  • The body cannot control the sugar in the blood due to the lack of the hormone insulin... .

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  • Jill jab ' which is a hormone injection.

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  • A study of peptide hormone elimination kinetics in humans.

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  • Giant mud loach was produced by linking the mud loach growth hormone with its actin promoter.

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  • Where necessary, treatments that include mammograms, cervical smears, hormone tests, bone density scans, are available.

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  • EPO is a hormone naturally secreted by the kidneys which stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells.

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  • Erythropoietin is a genetically engineered preparation of the human hormone that promotes maturation of red cells in the bone marrow.

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  • The primary hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla is epinephrine.

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  • A hormone released by the adrenal medulla, located close to the kidneys.

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  • It releases the hormone melatonin which acts on the ovaries to inhibit the estrus cycle.

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  • All of these contain the amino acid tryptophan which helps your body produce the sleep hormone melatonin.

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  • menstrual migraine ", hormone treatment with estrogen may help.

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  • Effect on the hormone system The endocrine system produces chemical messengers or hormones which have an effect on almost every organ in the body.

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  • For " menstrual migraine ", hormone treatment with estrogen may help.

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  • mimic the female hormone estrogen, abnormal levels of which are linked to the growth of cancer.

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  • murine cell line that has been modified by the addition of the gene for pituitary growth hormone.

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  • oestrogens mimic the female hormone estrogen, abnormal levels of which are linked to the growth of cancer.

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  • oestrogenls respond to the female hormone estrogen, just like the lining of the uterus does each month.

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  • oestrogenN ACTIVITY Hormonal activity of the female steroid hormone estrogen or its analogs.

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  • She required hormone injections to initiate oestrus and was given the choice of mates (using an old-fashioned breeding technique ).

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  • oophorectomy had never received hormone replacement therapy.

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  • Abstract In a survey in 1989 Spector observed that 70% of women who had had bilateral oophorectomy had never received hormone replacement therapy.

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  • Depressed people interested in considering this hormone precursor should consult a doctor.

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  • Back to top The progesterone-only pill the'mini pill ' This pill contains the hormone progesterone.

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  • Both these jabs contain a type of hormone called a ' progestogen ' -- which has similar effects to the natural female hormone progesterone.

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  • The 55 were also more likely to have lower levels of the hormone progesterone.

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  • progestin called DMPA and an implant of the male sex hormone testosterone.

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  • Of all the pituitary endocrine cell types the cells which produce the hormone prolactin are the most highly plastic cell population.

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  • Bromocriptine and cabergoline Bromocriptine (eg Parlodel) and cabergoline (Dostinex) reduce the output from the brain of a hormone called prolactin.

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  • prolactin concentrations in the blood, stimulated by excess thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

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  • Advantages Hormone therapy shrinks the prostate gland and can be used to reduce the size of the gland before brachytherapy.

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  • Researchers in the US found evidence to suggest that hormone disruptors are linked to the lower age of female puberty.

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  • pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone is the best strategy to induce fertility.

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  • reductase inhibitors carry out their work by blocking the production of the main hormone responsible for prostate enlargement.

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  • Even tho this hormone therapy appears to be safe and effective, talk to your doctor before including relaxin as part of your regimen.

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  • What is the role of the ovarian hormone relaxin (RLX) in non-pregnant women?

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  • Also, during pregnancy the hormone relaxin softens the muscles of the pelvic floor ready for the birth.

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  • The kidneys also help produce a hormone called renin that is vital for regulating blood pressure.

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  • In the blood vessels of the kidney, are cells which secrete the hormone renin.

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  • The big question most women have is whether HRT - hormone replacement therapy - could help.

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  • The key, he believes, is insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas gland.

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  • Some people claim that a hormone called secretin can help with the symptoms of autism.

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  • secretion of glucagon, a hormone which boosts plasma sugar levels.

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  • secretion of the hormone melatonin follow the daily cycle.

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  • secretion of the hormone cortisol.

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  • These produce slow burning carbohydrates that encourage the body to produce serotonin, the happy hormone.

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  • It triggers an increase in the production of the antidepressant hormone serotonin which accounts for why we get that lift.

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  • sex hormone produced by the ovaries.

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  • Hormone Therapy Hormone therapy treats prostate cancer by depriving the body of testosterone, the male sex hormone.

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  • sex hormone testosterone.

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  • sex hormone estrogen are found most commonly in soy beans and other high-fibre foods.

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  • sex hormone replacement reduces the risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in both men and women.

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  • somatostatin analog octreotide may help control hormone secretion and stabilize tumor growth.

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  • A hormone is a chemical substance that is produced in a special tissue within a gland.

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  • Hormone treatment Doctors have been looking at the hormone treatment tamoxifen to treat advanced ovarian cancer.

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  • They are similar to and include the male hormone testosterone.

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  • Hormone treatments aim to stop you from making testosterone or to block the effect of testosterone on prostate cancer cells.

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  • Women also have the hormone testosterone in their bodies.

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  • Hormone therapy Cancer of the prostate depends on the male hormone testosterone its growth.

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  • For example, male athletics tend to gain muscle faster then female due to the (anabolic) sex hormone testosterone.

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  • thyroid hormone are not very obvious.

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  • Abnormal thyroid tissue within these nodules produces too much thyroid hormone.

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  • Canine hypothyroidism due to lymphocytic thyroiditis can often be controlled well with thyroid hormone replacement therapy Myasthenia gravis - prognosis is guarded.

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  • When there are increased levels of thyroid hormone in the blood the patient is said to have thyrotoxicosis.

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  • This effect is direct and not mediated by pituitary thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone ).

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  • thyrotropin receptor and hormone.

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  • Thyroid gland This gland in the neck produces the hormone thyroxine, which helps to regulate the body's energy levels.

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  • These thyroid glands no longer produce adequate amounts of a hormone called thyroxine.

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  • Many were given the thyroid hormone thyroxine purely on the basis that they had symptoms suggestive of thyroid disease.

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  • Injecting the hormone often caused muscle tremors in the animals.

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  • Formula 4 Feet contains the amino acid tyrosine and the element iodine, which when combined, form thyroxine, the thyroid hormone.

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  • The hormone insulin, secreted by the pancreas gland within the abdomen, controls this action of cell glucose uptake.

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  • This hormone is also known as vasopressin or arginine vasopressin (AVP ).

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  • The scientists plan to study the hormone vasopressin which is known to control aggressive behavior in male rats.

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  • wasp larvae Squeeze a hormone trigger, Bringing into play A sequence of events.

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  • Thus an acid in the duodenum causes it to secrete a hormone to which the name of "secretin" has been given.

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  • The use of pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone is the best strategy to induce fertility.

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  • The second group, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors carry out their work by blocking the production of the main hormone responsible for prostate enlargement.

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  • Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine, which is the master regulator of metabolism.

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  • It also suppresses secretion of glucagon, a hormone which boosts plasma sugar levels.

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  • Body temperature and the secretion of the hormone melatonin follow the daily cycle.

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  • Cushing 's Syndrome results from an excess secretion of the hormone cortisol.

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  • Estrogen is the principal female sex hormone produced by the ovaries.

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  • These plant hormones similar to the female sex hormone estrogen are found most commonly in soy beans and other high-fibre foods.

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  • In the longer term sex hormone replacement reduces the risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in both men and women.

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  • The somatostatin analog octreotide may help control hormone secretion and stabilize tumor growth.

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  • A synthetic form of this hormone is also available as a supplement in tablet, capsule, liquid, and sublingual form.

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  • Lust is the craving for sex, and is driven by the hormone testosterone in both men and women.

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  • This effect is direct and not mediated by pituitary thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone).

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  • Modeling and study of the structures of the wild-type human thyrotropin receptor and hormone.

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  • Thyroid gland This gland in the neck produces the hormone thyroxine, which helps to regulate the body 's energy levels.

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  • Anterior pituitary hormone deficiency: renders results meaningless as, in particular, steroid and thyroxine deficiencies impair excretion of a free water load.

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  • Once hatched, the wasp larvae Squeeze a hormone trigger, Bringing into play A sequence of events.

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  • If you have a scheduled induction, you will be started on a synthetic hormone, such as pitocin, to stimulate your contractions.

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  • Clomid-This substance is a fertility hormone given to women to stimulate egg production and growth.

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  • They first initiated multiple measurements of a luteinizing hormone (LH) within the patient's urine.

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  • Special diets, medication and hormone therapy can slow the disease down to prolong the cat's life.

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  • It sounds like this cat has been traumatized by the multiple births so close together and she may have some hormone issues going on.

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  • The hormone swing cats experience during a heat cycle makes their behavior even more unpredictable.

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  • Spaying will eliminate the up and down hormone cycle, and it usually makes most cats calmer.

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  • Are there male hormone cycles which could cause this?

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  • She has been checked by the vet and has previously used hormone tablets, steroids and has been treated for fleas and wormed.

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  • Orijen uses hormone and antibiotic-free meat and poultry in their products, and the poultry used is grain-fed.

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  • Other possible side effects have been noticed in those with hormone sensitivity.

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  • Herbal hormone replacement is seen by many women as a more natural way to ease the symptoms of menopause.

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  • While many herbs may be associated with hormone replacement there are a few that seem to consistently work well for a majority of women.

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  • Some facial skins also change their composition with hormone changes or humidity.

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  • Positively effects homeostasis: Homeostasis is a fancy way of describing the ideal state the different systems in our body should have, and this in turn, is closely tied to one's hormone regulation.

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  • Acute or chronic illness can affect hormone levels and prevent the body from dealing with stress.

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  • In addition, high levels of cortisol, a stress hormone, interfere with sleep.

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  • This stress hormone increases the heart rate and blood pressure and has other effects on the brain and nervous system.

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  • Typically prescribed for the treatment of heart conditions and high blood pressure, beta blockers stop the effects of the stress hormone, norepinephrine.

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  • Testosterone is the male hormone released into the bloodstream from the testes that causes the male secondary sex characteristics to develop during puberty.

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  • For girls, the hormone estrogen substantially increases, leading to breast development, a curvier figure, and menarche, which is the first period.

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  • In boys, testosterone is the primary hormone responsible for the physical changes of puberty.

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  • One type of these hormones, the lutenizing hormone or "LH" for short, causes body growth.

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  • The other type of hormone, follicle stimulating hormone or "FSH", affects the growth of hair follicles.

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  • The pituitary gland found in the brain increases a follicle stimulating hormone known as FSH.

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  • The FSH hormone begins the process of sperm production in boys, and activates the ovaries and estrogen production in girls.

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  • As the growing body adapts to this hormone change, both physical and sexual maturation occurs, known as puberty.

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  • Your brain is releasing a hormone that travels to the pituitary gland where more hormones release.

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  • Those hormones tell the ovaries to release yet another hormone called estrogen, and then your body fully enters puberty.

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  • These changes are the result of hormone secretions, which is also why this is an emotionally-charged time, loaded with mood swings.

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  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is released by the hypothalamus in the brain, where it moves to the pituitary gland.

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  • This gland is responsible for releasing other important hormones that are also involved with puberty: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

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  • Hormone changes may lead to an overproduction of oil from the sebaceous glands, which can lead to acne.

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  • Melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone created in the brain of most animals, including humans.

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  • It can also be plant-based, as several forms of algae and other plant life generate the hormone in smaller amounts.

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  • This hormone is widely believed to regulate sleep patterns in the brain, telling us when it's time to go to sleep, and also when to wake.

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  • Although hormone levels can provide the physical trigger for postpartum depression, lifestyle changes can aggravate the condition.

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  • She also had oher non-prescription drugs in her system including vitamin B12 and a human growth hormone at the time of her death.

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  • The reasons for this aren't completely understood, but hormone levels have a lot to do with it.

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  • The cycle is the result of a hormone fluctuation that signals the ovaries to release eggs for fertilization.

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  • Couple this with the regular hormone cycle disruption experienced during a false pregnancy, and it can make a dog appear pregnant when she really isn't.

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  • Chicken, lamb and turkey that are hormone and antibiotic free.

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  • Magnetic pads are installed in dog beds to increase blood flow and increase the production of the hormone melatonin to relieve pain in the problem areas of an animal's body.

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  • A series of progesterone tests can be used to track the rise of the hormone progesterone in the bloodstream and determine when ovulation has begun.

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  • When progesterone levels rise, so does the pituitary gland's production of lutenizing hormone, and this triggers ovulation during which the eggs are released for fertilization.

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  • Dip the cut end in a commercially prepared rooting hormone and place in water, sterile medium, or even directly into the soil to encourage root growth.

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  • As an alternative to prepared rooting hormone, place the cut end of your vine in a vase with a few cut young willow shoots.

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  • The best way to be assured that meat is really hormone free is to buy from a local farmer with whom you have experience.

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  • If you wish to limit your family's intake of hormone fattened meats, you should look for USDA certified organic meats.

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  • This can cause hormone issues, for example.

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  • As with the "no growth hormone" label, you should view products labeled as such with some skepticism and not equate them with organic.

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  • The effects which some hormone replacement drugs may have.

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  • With ongoing research, new brands of hormone replacement therapy are being discovered and made available all the time.

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  • For example, the hormone DHT (dihydrotestosterone) forms from the natural enzyme 5-Alpha Reductase.

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  • Menopause is described as the transition period in a woman's life when her ovaries cease production of eggs and her hormone levels decline.

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  • The symptoms of menopause are directly related to the hormone changes, which occur when the ovaries become less functional.

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  • Some woman's bodies are more resilient, adjusting to hormone levels that occur slowly.

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  • Consider hormone replacement therapies, or HRT, which may help ease hot flashes, vaginal dryness and night sweats.

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  • Hot flashes associated with menopause result from decreased levels of the hormone estrogen.

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  • It's a time of change as the body's hormone levels adjust, and patterns for monthly periods change or stop.

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  • Some women prefer to try a more natural approach to relief, while others turn to their doctors for hormone replacement therapy.

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  • Melatonin: One option is melatonin, a hormone your body produces which helps to regulate the circadian rhythms, or your sleep cycle.

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  • Melatonin is a hormone naturally produced in your brain.

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  • Melatonin is a naturally-produced hormone within the body.

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  • The hormone runs through the blood to help encourage you to go to bed.

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  • It is a hormone regulated by the SCN and is only produced when it gets dark outside.

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  • It is the only hormone available without a prescription within the United States.

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  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the production or control the hormone's production like it does other drugs.

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  • It was discovered that most people who have narcolepsy also have this hormone deficiency, although the same assumption may not be reliable with animal subjects.

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  • This hormone is a neurotransmitter that improves a person's overall sense of wellbeing.

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  • In addition, insomnia may occur occasionally because of hormone fluctuations, stress or medications.

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  • In women, insomnia may result from hormone fluctuations.

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  • Melatonin is a hormone that is produced in the body to maintain the circadian rhythms.

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  • Light prevents the release of the sleep hormone, melatonin.

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  • Hypothyroidism-A disorder in which the thyroid gland produces too little thyroid hormone causing a decrease in the rate of metabolism with associated effects on the reproductive system.

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  • Without the hormone prolactin, lactation would not occur.

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  • During pregnancy prolactin helps to increase breast mass but does not cause lactation because it is inhibited by the hormone progesterone, which is made by the placenta.

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  • After milk "comes in" or rapidly increases in volume, lactation is no longer driven by the hormone prolactin.

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  • In response to suckling, the hormone oxytocin causes the milk ejection reflex or "let-down" reflex to occur.

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  • Bromocriptine-Also known as Parlodel, it is a dopamine receptor agonist used to treat galactorrhea by reducing levels of the hormone prolactin and is also used to treat Parkinson's disease.

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  • Progesterone-The hormone produced by the ovary after ovulation that prepares the uterine lining for a fertilized egg.

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  • Prolactin-A hormone that helps the breast prepare for milk production during pregnancy.

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  • The major types of treatment are: surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, and bone-marrow transplantation.

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  • Hormone therapy is standard treatment for cancers that are hormone-dependent and grow faster in the presence of specific hormones, such as cancer of the prostate, breast, and uterus.

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  • Hormone therapy blocks the production or action of these hormones, slowing growth of the tumor and extending survival for months or years.

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  • The oncologist is a physician who specializes in cancer care and usually coordinates the treatment plan, directing chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and any treatment that does not involve radiation or surgery.

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  • Hormone therapy-Treating cancers by changing the hormone balance of the body, instead of by using cell-killing drugs.

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  • Oxytocin-A hormone that stimulates the uterus to contract during child birth and the breasts to release milk.

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  • A mole's color and shape do not usually change; however, changes in hormone levels that occur during puberty and pregnancy can make moles larger and darker.

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  • Adolescents with Tourette syndrome often experience unpredictable and more severe than usual symptoms, which may be related to fluctuating hormone levels and decreased compliance in taking medications.

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  • A hormone called progesterone, released by the first egg to be produced, prevents any other egg from maturing during that cycle.

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  • This was followed by the development of two natural hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotrophin (Pergonal) to produce multiple eggs ovulation.

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  • During a woman's monthly menstrual cycle, which lasts 24 to 35 days, hormone levels change.

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  • The hormone estrogen gradually rises during the first half of a woman's cycle, the preovulatory phase, and falls dramatically at ovulation.

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  • For more severe cases and for PMDD, treatments available include antidepressant drugs, hormone treatment, or (only in extreme cases) surgery to remove the ovaries.

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  • Hormone treatment usually involves oral contraceptives.

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  • Some studies in the early 2000s, however, indicate that hormone treatment has little effect over placebo.

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  • There are alternative treatments that can both affect serotonin and hormone responses, as well as affect some of the physical symptoms of PMS.

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  • The most important way to alter hormone levels may be by eating more phytoestrogens.

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  • Estrogen-Female hormone produced mainly by the ovaries and released by the follicles as they mature.

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  • After menopause, the production of the hormone gradually stops.

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  • Congenital hypothyroidism: a disorder that results from decreased thyroid hormone production.

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  • Growth hormone tests measure the levels of specific hormones that regulate human growth.

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  • These hormone levels are measured in blood serum samples obtained by venipuncture.

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  • To study growth hormone function under specific conditions, certain medications may be administered before blood is taken and hormone levels are measured.

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  • Human growth hormone (hGH) (somatotropin) is produced by somatotropes in the anterior pituitary gland.

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  • The major human growth hormone is a protein made up of 191 amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

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  • All of these growth factors may be evaluated in order to understand hormone deficiencies or gland dysfunction when growth deficiencies are suspected.

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  • The hGH stimulation test, also called hGH provocation test, insulin tolerance, or arginine test, is performed to test the body's ability to produce human growth hormone and to confirm suspected hGH deficiency.

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  • Growth hormone deficiency is also suspected when x-ray determination of bone age indicates retarded growth in comparison to chronological age.

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  • Taking certain drugs such as amphetamines, dopamine, corticosteroids, and phenothiazines may increase or decrease growth hormone secretion.

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  • A pediatrician may discontinue certain medications prior to the performance of growth hormone tests.

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  • Growth hormone tests should not be done within a week after any radioactive scan such as an x ray, MRI, or CT scan.

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  • Growth hormone stimulation testing requires intravenous administration of arginine and/or insulin.

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  • Growth hormone suppression testing requires two fasting blood samples, one before the test and another two hours after the child is given a glucose solution by mouth.

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  • Usually there will be no effects from hormone testing and normal activities can be resumed.

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  • The child should be observed closely after the more extensive growth hormone stimulation test and growth hormone suppression test.

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  • Growth hormone tests do not have significant risks.

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  • Minor discomfort may be experienced during and after the growth hormone stimulation test because of the intravenous line for delivery of insulin.

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  • Growth hormone suppression tests can cause some children to feel nauseous after the administration of glucose.

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  • Regarding growth hormone suppression, normally, glucose suppresses hGH to levels ranging from undetectable to 3 ng/ml within 30 minutes to two hours.

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  • Acromegaly-A rare disease resulting from excessive growth hormone caused by a benign tumor.

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  • Gigantism-Excessive growth, especially in height, resulting from overproduction of growth hormone during childhood or adolescence by a pituitary tumor.

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  • Czernichow, P., et al. Growth and Metabolic Disorders in Chronic Pediatric Diseases: Cambridge December 2001 Hormone Research.

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  • DeGroot, Leslie, et al. Hormone Action, Pituitary Growth, and Maturation, Immunology, Nutrition, Diabetes Mellitus.

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  • The hypothalamus and pituitary may fail to produce enough hormone to stimulate the ovaries to produce their hormones.

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  • To rule out specific causes of amenorrhea, the doctor may order a pregnancy test in sexually active young women as well as blood tests to check the level of thyroid hormone.

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  • Because osteoporosis can begin as early as adolescence, hormone replacement therapy is sometimes recommended for teenagers with chronic amenorrhea.

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  • If a hormonal imbalance is revealed by laboratory testing, hormone replacements that are more natural for the body (including tri-estrogen and natural progesterone) are recommended.

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  • The anterior pituitary produces six hormones: growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin (corticotropin), thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin), prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone, and lutenizing hormone.

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  • The posterior pituitary gland only produces two hormones: antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin.

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  • When the hypothalamus releases growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), the anterior pituitary is stimulated to release growth hormone (GH).

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  • Growth hormone then acts on the liver and other tissues and stimulates them to secrete insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).

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  • A common form of pituitary dwarfism is due to deficiencies in the production of growth hormone (GH).

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  • A child with a growth hormone deficiency is often small with an immature face and chubby body build.

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  • Growth hormone deficiency is present at birth, but since the primary symptoms of pituitary dwarfism are height and growth at a reduced rate, the condition is not diagnosed until later in childhood.

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  • The levels of growth hormone and IGF-1 may also be measured with blood tests.

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  • Growth hormone replacement therapy can be administered if the child is lacking growth hormone.

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  • Until 1985, growth hormone was obtained from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

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  • Now, the only growth hormone used for treatment is that which is made in a laboratory.

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  • If growth hormone is not the only hormone deficiency, the doctor must prescribe ways to raise the levels of the other deficient hormones, if these options are available.

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  • Dwarfism due only to growth hormone deficiency has a much better prognosis if treated early with replacement GH.

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  • Following this first year, the response to the hormone replacement therapy is less pronounced.

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  • Long-term use is considered successful if the individual grows at least 0.75 in. (2 cm) per year more than he or she would without the hormone.

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  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-Also called adrenocorticotropin or corticotropin, this hormone is produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate the adrenal cortex to release various corticosteroid hormones.

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  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-Also called vasopressin, a hormone that acts on the kidneys to regulate water balance.

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  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-A pituitary hormone that in females stimulates the ovary to mature egg capsules (follicles) and in males stimulates sperm production.

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  • Growth hormone-A hormone that eventually stimulates growth.

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  • Luteinizing hormone-A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that regulates the menstrual cycle and triggers ovulation in females.

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  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-A hormone produce by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce the hormones that regulate metabolism.

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  • "Message to Parents: Hold Off on Growth Hormone for Short Kids."

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  • In some cases, adult transsexuals (both male and female) have their primary and secondary sexual characteristics altered through a sex change operation, consisting of surgery followed by hormone treatments.

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  • If the baby is male, the internal sex organs mature and begin to produce the male hormone testosterone.

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  • This may occur if the mother takes the hormone progesterone to prevent a miscarriage, but more often it is caused by an overproduction of certain hormones.

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  • Treatment may then include reconstructive surgery followed by hormone therapy.

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  • Other triggers include sudden changes in sleep patterns and changes in hormone levels.

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  • In thyroid disease, the thyroid gland (located in the neck) may produce too much or too little thyroid hormone.

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  • Abnormal levels of this hormone can affect fertility and/or cause problems with the pregnancy and possibly affect the health of the baby.

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  • As long as the level of thyroid hormone is controlled throughout pregnancy, there should be no problems for mother or baby.

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  • Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach.

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  • Type 1 diabetes occurs when the beta cells of the pancreas are damaged and stop producing the hormone insulin.

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  • Glucagon-A hormone produced in the pancreas that changes glycogen, a carbohydrate stored in muscles and the liver, into glucose.

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  • Insulin-A hormone or chemical produced by the pancreas that is needed by cells of the body in order to use glucose (sugar), a major source of energy for the human body.

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  • It is a chronic disease characterized by the inability of the body to produce or respond properly to insulin, a hormone required by the body to convert glucose to energy.

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  • In some cases, adult transsexuals (both male and female) have their primary and secondary sexual characteristics altered through a sex change operation, consisting of surgery and hormone treatments.

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  • Testosterone-Male hormone produced by the testes and (in small amounts) in the ovaries.

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  • It also is sometimes given as part of hormone replacement therapy to women whose ovaries have been removed.

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  • Pitocin-A synthetic hormone that produces uterine contractions.

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  • Pituitary dwarfism is a result of growth hormone deficiency.

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  • In 2004, more than 20,000 children in United States were receiving supplemental growth hormone (GH) therapy.

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  • Probably the best known of these conditions is growth hormone deficiency, which is associated with the pituitary and hypothalamus glands.

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  • Adults in whom growth hormone deficiency has not been treated attain a height of only about 2.5 feet (76 cm).

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  • Since growth problems are so varied, there is a wide variety of treatments for them, including nutritional changes, medications to treat underlying conditions, and, where appropriate, hormone replacement therapy.

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  • More than 150,000 children in the United States receive growth hormone therapy to remedy growth retardation caused by endocrine deficiencies.

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  • Growth hormone for therapeutic purposes was originally derived from the pituitary glands of deceased persons.

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  • However, natural growth hormone, aside from being prohibitively expensive, posed health hazards due to contamination.

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  • In the 1980s, men who had received growth hormone therapy in childhood were found to have developed Kreuzfeldt-Jakob disease, a fatal neurological disorder.

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  • Since then, natural growth hormone has been replaced by a biosynthetic hormone that received FDA approval in 1985.

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  • Administration of human growth hormone may increase their adult height although they are unlikely to attain normal height.

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  • "Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone resistance or insensitivity): the personal experience 1958-2003."

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  • "Rational use of the laboratory for childhood and adult growth hormone deficiency."

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  • Toxic levels of iodine inhibit the secretion of thyroid hormone, resulting in lower levels of thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.

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  • The increasing level of estrogen leads to ovulation halfway through the cycle, and then the hormone progesterone takes over in the second half of the cycle, stimulating the formation of the milk glands.

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  • In the early 2000s medical research has found that many children who wet the bed may have a deficiency of an important hormone known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

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  • Because stress pumps large amounts of adrenalin, a hormone, into the body, the immune system is overstimulated and reacts by triggering flare ups of the disease.

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  • Adrenaline-Another name for epinephrine, the hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to stress.

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  • It is the principal blood-pressure raising hormone and a bronchial and intestinal smooth muscles relaxant.

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  • Older girls, who tend to develop symptoms more frequently than boys owing to hormonal fluctuations, may find ovulation-inhibiting hormone therapy to be helpful.

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  • Ghrelin-A peptide hormone secreted by cells in the lining of the stomach.

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  • Leptin-A protein hormone that affects feeding behavior and hunger in humans.

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  • Demeclocycline is effective for the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIDAH), although it is not officially approved for this purpose.

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  • These tests may include a complete blood analysis, liver function tests, kidney function tests, hormone tests, and a lumbar puncture to determine abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid.

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  • Birth control pills: The hormone (estrogen) in birth control pills can increase the risk of heart attack in women over forty who smoke.

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  • Hyperthyroid myopathy occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine, leading to muscle weakness, some muscle wasting in hips and shoulders, and, sometimes, problems with eye muscles.

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  • The hypothyroid type of myopathy occurs when too little hormone is produced, leading to stiffness, cramps, and weakness of arm and leg muscles.

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  • In boys a major change incurred during puberty is the increased production of testosterone, a male sex hormone, while girls experience increased production of the female hormone estrogen.

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  • In both sexes, a rise in growth hormone produces the adolescent growth spurt, the pronounced increase in height and weight that marks the first half of puberty.

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  • For example, in disorders where there is faulty adrenal function, replacement adrenal hormone therapy is used.

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  • If it does, transfusions or hormone treatments to stimulate red blood cell production may be given.

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  • Biochemical tests on hormone levels of estriol and human placental lactogen provide minimal information.

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  • For example, tamoxifen is used to treat breast cancers whose growth depends on the hormone estrogen.

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  • Research published in 2003 revealed that taking melatonin, a natural hormone substance, may help improve chemotherapy's effectiveness and reduce the toxic effects of the drugs.

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  • Glucagon is a hormone manufactured by the pancreas that triggers the release of blood glucose by the liver.

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  • The synthetic version of the hormone is used to rapidly raise blood glucose levels in people with diabetes experiencing a severe low.

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  • Sometimes the failure is due to problems that occur during pregnancy with the tissues as they are developing or with hormone levels in the developing fetus.

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  • Presence of undescended testes is differentiated from absence of testicles by measuring the amount of gonadotropin hormone in the blood.

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  • Hormone therapy is a possible treatment but does not have a very high success rate.

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  • Epinephrine-A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla.

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  • At the beginning and end of a woman's reproductive life, some of these hormone messages may not be synchronized, resulting in menstrual irregularities.

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  • Male hormones are produced in small quantities by all women, but in women with PCOS, levels of male hormone (androgens) are slightly higher than in other women.

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  • To rule out specific causes of oligomenorrhea, the doctor may also order a pregnancy test in sexually active women and blood tests to check the level of thyroid hormone.

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  • As of 2003, more sensitive monoclonal assays had been developed for measuring hormone levels in the blood serum of women with PCOS, thus allowing earlier and more accurate diagnosis.

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  • If a hormonal imbalance is revealed by laboratory testing, hormone replacements that are more "natural" for the body (including tri-estrogen and natural progesterone) are recommended.

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  • Most individuals with Turner syndrome require female hormone therapy to promote development of secondary sexual characteristics and menstruation.

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  • Hypothryoidism can be easily treated with thyroid hormone supplements.

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  • Final adult height in individuals with Turner syndrome can be increased if growth hormone (GH) treatment is given relatively early in childhood.

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  • X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia can occur in combination with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, producing short stature and delayed puberty, primarily in boys but also occurring in girls.

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  • Precocious Puberty Causes and Symptoms Puberty begins when the brain secretes a hormone that triggers the pituitary gland to release gonadotropins, which in turn stimulate the ovaries or testes to produce sex hormones.

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  • It may not be possible to treat the underlying condition; for this reason, treatment is usually aimed at adjusting hormone levels.

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  • As darkness approaches, the hormone melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland and signals the brain that it is time to sleep.

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  • When a girl reaches puberty, the ovaries respond to a rise in follicle-stimulating hormone and cause one of the eggs to mature.

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  • About halfway through the menstrual cycle, a surge of luteinizing hormone takes place, and the egg is released.

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  • Both the male reproductive hormone testosterone and female hormone estrogen are present in children of both sexes.

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  • Stage One (approximately between the ages of eight and eleven): The ovaries enlarge and hormone production starts, but external development is not yet visible.

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  • Excess hormone stimulation is the cause for early puberty.

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  • Brain overproduction of factors promoting sex hormone production can also be the result of brain infections or injury.

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  • Likewise, delayed puberty is due to insufficient hormone.

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  • There are several congenital disorders called polyglandular deficiency syndromes that include failure of hormone output.

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  • Finally, there are in females abnormalities in hormone production that produce male characteristics, so called virilizing syndromes.

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  • In early puberty, the offending gland or tumor may require surgical attention, although there are several drugs as of 2004 that counteract hormone effects.

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  • Virilizing syndromes-Abnormalities in female hormone production that produce male characteristics.

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  • Acromegaly is a disease in which an abnormality in the pituitary gland leads to an oversecretion of growth hormone.

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  • This chemical released from the pituitary gland is called growth hormone (GH).

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  • For example, the hypothalamus produces growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), which directs the pituitary to release GH.

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  • In the liver, GH causes production of a hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which is responsible for growth throughout the body.

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  • These tumors can secrete hormones or cause changes in hormone production in nearby glands.

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  • Low thyroid hormone levels can alter weight, appetite, sleep patterns, body temperature, and a variety of other physical, mental, and emotional characteristics.

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  • Less often, hypothyroidism develops when the pituitary gland fails and does not release enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the thyroid to produce and secrete normal amounts of T4 and T3.

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  • Infections that depress thyroid hormone production usually cause permanent hypothyroidism.

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  • Alternative treatments are primarily aimed at strengthening the thyroid but will not eliminate the need for thyroid hormone medications.

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  • Some foods, including cabbage, rutabagas, radishes, peanuts, peaches, soybeans, and spinach, can interfere with thyroid hormone production.

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  • Thyroid hormone replacement therapy generally maintains normal thyroid hormone levels unless treatment is interrupted or discontinued.

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  • Thyroxine (T4)-The thyroid hormone that regulates many essential body processes.

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  • Triiodothyronine (T3)-A thyroid hormone similar to thyroxine but more powerful.

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  • The decreased testosterone also causes an increase in two other hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

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  • The term hyperthyroidism covers any disease which results in overabundance of thyroid hormone.

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  • In turn, the production of these hormones is controlled by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is produced by the pituitary gland.

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  • Hyperthyroidism is often associated with the body's production of autoantibodies in the blood which causes the thyroid to grow and secrete excess thyroid hormone.

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  • A simple blood test can be performed to determine the amount of thyroid hormone in the patient's blood.

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  • The diagnosis is usually straightforward with this combination of clinical history, physical examination, and routine blood hormone tests.

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  • The cells need iodine to make the hormone, so they absorb any iodine found in the body.

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  • The patient may take an iodine capsule daily for several weeks, resulting in the eventual shrinkage of the thyroid, reduced hormone production, and a return to normal blood levels.

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  • Iodine is needed to make thyroid hormone, which has a variety of roles in human embryo development.

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  • As women age, reductions in the hormone estrogen can affect the rate of calcium loss.

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  • Morning sickness is a consequence of pregnancy-related hormone changes.

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  • It appears that in pregnancy, hormone changes in the mother may cause these glands to produce too much oil.

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  • During puberty, there are increased levels of the male hormone androgen.

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  • An increase in the male hormone androgen during puberty (seen in both males and females) causes the sebaceous glands to overproduce androgen.

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  • Certain types of oral contraceptives (for example, Ortho-Tri-Cyclen) and female sex hormones (estrogens) reduce hormone activity in the ovaries.

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  • Other drugs (for example, spironolactone and corticosteroids) reduce hormone activity in the adrenal glands.

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  • Acne is caused by the overproduction of sebum during puberty when high levels of the male hormone androgen cause excess sebum to form.

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  • Giantism: This condition is characterized by excessive bone growth and is caused by too much growth hormone being produced before puberty (hyperpituitarism).

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  • Hypopituitarism: Caused by insufficient production of growth hormone, this condition leads to growth failure and delayed skeletal maturation.

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  • It can be treated (if diagnosed at an early enough age) with hormone replacement therapy.

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  • In some cases long-bone growth may be accelerated by growth hormone administration if given by age nine, without speeding the timing of completion of long-bone growth.

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  • Cortisol-A steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that is important for maintenance of body fluids, electrolytes, and blood sugar levels.

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  • Norepinephrine-A hormone secreted by certain nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system, and by the medulla (center) of the adrenal glands.

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  • If they produce too little sex hormone, then either the growth of the sexual organs or their function is impaired.

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  • During each stage, inadequate hormone stimulation will prevent normal development.

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  • After each stage, a decrease in hormone stimulation will result in failed function and perhaps some shrinkage.

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  • The most common problems with too little hormone happen during menopause, which is normal hypogonadism.

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  • A number of adverse events can damage the gonads and result in decreased hormone levels.

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  • Besides the tissue changes generated by hormone stimulation, the only other symptoms relate to sexual desire and function.

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  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) occurs when the body does not produce enough of two important hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

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  • Other tests may include a thyroid level; sperm count; prolactin level (milk hormone); blood tests for anemia, chemistries, and iron; and genetic analysis.

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  • It is strongly recommended that the other female hormone, progesterone, be taken by women who have an intact uterus as well, because doing so prevents overgrowth of uterine lining and uterine cancer.

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  • Turning to the right or left is strongly correlated with turning toward the side of the brain that has less dopamine, an important brain hormone.

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  • The level of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), a hormone that works with insulin to lower blood glucose levels, is low in individuals who are insulin resistant.

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  • Diabetic adolescents are especially susceptible to hyperglycemia, since hormone levels are in flux and many adolescents exhibit erratic eating and sleeping patterns.

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  • The multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are three related inherited disorders affecting the thyroid and other hormone producing (endocrine) glands of the body.

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  • The most frequent symptom of MEN 1 is hyperparathyroidism, which is excessive growth of the parathyroid gland and excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone.

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  • Excessive secretion of gastrin (a hormone secreted into the stomach to aid in digestion) by these tumors can cause upper gastrointestinal ulcers.

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  • In the past, classical diagnosis of MEN was based on clinical features and on testing for elevated hormone levels.

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  • For MEN 1, the relevant hormone was parathyroid hormone.

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  • MTC can be detected by measuring levels of the thyroid hormone, calcitonin.

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  • Numerous other hormone levels can be measured to assess the involvement of the various other endocrine glands.

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  • However, MEN 2A shows no distinct physical features and must be identified by measuring hormone levels or by finding endocrine tumors.

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  • After thyroidectomy, the patient receives normal levels of thyroid hormone by mouth or by injection.