A boiler with horizontal sections is shown in fig.
It has the horizontal racking motion mentioned FIG.
In the second class there are, in addition to the lifting motion, two horizontal movements at right angles to one another.
like a stone from a horizontal sling.
In most cases, owing to the mountainous character of the country, horizontal galleries are possible.
In the last case the mother-cell divides by a number of horizontal walls.
THOLOS (06Xos), the term given in Greek architecture to a circular building, with or without a peristyle; the earliest examples are those of the beehive tombs at Mycenae and in other parts of Greece, which were covered by domes built in horizontal courses of masonry.
The " roods " themselves were not The simplest form is the " flat roof " consisting of horizontal wood joists laid from wall to wall as in floor construction.
There is again a floor of folded Archean rocks overlaid by nearly horizontal strata of Lower Palaeozoic age; but these are followed by marine beds belonging to the Carboniferous period.
This horizontal movement of the lower end of the back leg allows the whole arrangement to assume the position shown in fig.
The molar teeth are six in number on each side, increasing in size from before backwards, and, as in the elephants, with a horizontal succession, the anterior teeth being lost before the full development of the posterior ones, which gradually move forward, taking the place of those that are destroyed by wear.
3) have besides others, a maxillo-palatine process directed inwards in a transverse horizontal direction.
The gradient or grade of a line is the rate at which it rises or falls, above or below the horizontal, and is expressed by stating either the horizontal distance in which the change of level amounts to r ft., or the amount of change that would occur in some selected distance, such as roo ft., r000 ft.
In the earliest telephone switchboards the lines were connected to vertical conducting strips, across which were placed a series of similar horizontal strips in such a manner that any horizontal could be connected to any line strip by the insertion of a plug into holes provided in the strips for the purpose.
The former bears a general resemblance to the Cherub log, but the dial plate is horizontal and the faces turn upwards.
Her father looks in at us morning and evening as he goes to and from his office, and sees her contentedly stringing her beads or making horizontal lines on her sewing-card, and exclaims, "How quiet she is!"
It results that besides a horizontal distribution of plants, there is also an altitudinal: a fact of cardinal importance, the first observation of which has been attributed to Tournefort.
The restoring force exerted by gravity acts in a vertical line from the centre of gravity; and the length of its lever arm is the horizontal distance between this vertical line and the outer rail.
The living tissues at the surface are cut off from the underlying dead portions by horizontal partitions termed tabulae, which are formed successively as the coenosteum increases in age and size.
It roared on the tin roof and plunged off the eves, where the wind caught it and drove it across the yard in horizontal sheets.
When a key is depressed, slightly raising one of the pins, the horizontal arm will pass over it and in doing so will momentarily join the battery to the line.
Machines used for lifting only are not called cranes, but winches, lifts or hoists, while the term elevator or conveyor is commonly given to appliances which continuously, not in separate loads, move materials like grain or coal in a vertical, horizontal or diagonal direction.
Here the jib, superstructure and post are all united in one piece, which revolves in a foundation well, being supported at the bottom by a toe-step and near the ground level by horizontal FIG.
If therefore the outer rail is laid at a level above that of the inner rail at the curve, overturning will be resisted more than would be the case if both rails were in the same horizontal plane, since the tilting of the vehicle due to this " superelevation " diminishes the overturning moment, and also increases the restoring moment, by shortening in the one case and lengthening in the other the lever arms at which the respective forces act.
The Alleghany Plateau consists of nearly horizontal beds of limestone, sandstone and shales, including important seams of coal; inclines slightly toward the north-west, and is intricately dissected by extensively branching streams into a maze of narrow canyons and steep-sided hills.
He showed that if an antenna were constructed with a short part of its length vertical and the greater part horizontal, the lower end of the vertical part being earthed, and if oscillations were created in it, electric waves were sent out most powerfully in the plane of the antenna and in the direction opposite to that in which the free end pointed.
It is not possible to do anything better with two-cylinder locomotives unless bobweights be added, but with four-cylinder four-crank engines complete balance is possible both in the vertical and in the horizontal directions.
Any two lines could be connected together by connecting both to the same horizontal strip.
Also he showed that if such an antenna had its horizontal part swivelled round into various directions the current created in a distant receiver antenna varied with the azimuth, and when plotted out in the form of a polar curve gave a curve of a peculiar figure-of-8 shape.
Lind's anemometer, which consists simply of a U tube containing liquid with one end bent into a horizontal direction to face the wind, is perhaps the original form from which the tube class of instrument has sprung.
When the four cranks are placed with two pairs at 180°, the pairs being at 90°, the forces are balanced without the introduction of a hammer-blow, but there remain large unbalanced couples, which if balanced by means of revolving weights in the wheels again reintroduce the hammerblow, and if left unbalanced tend to make the engine oscillate in a horizontal plane at high speed.
The frame is crossed by four metal horizontal rods passing through holes large enough to allow them to rattle when the sistrum is shaken, the rods being prevented from slipping out altogether by little metal stops in the shape of a leaf; sometimes metal rings are threaded over the rods to increase the jingling.
apart in a horizontal line 15 ft.
It consists of four hemispherical cups, mounted one on each end of a pair of horizontal arms, which lie at right angles to each other and form a cross.
A second engine, the West Point, also built at West Point Foundry for the South Carolina railroad, differed from the Best Friend in having a horizontal boiler with 6 or 8 tubes, though in other respects it was similar.
For the slender twiggy sorts the fan form is to be preferred, while for strong growers the half-fan or the horizontal is more suitable.
The Titan was the first type of large portable crane in which full use was made of a truly horizontal movement of the load; for the purpose for which the type is designed, viz.
A horizontal arm fixed to a vertical shaft in gear with the mechanism sweeps over these pins at the rate of about two revolutions per second.
The Lombardy poplar is valuable chiefly as an ornamental tree, its timber being of very inferior quality; its tall, erect growth renders it useful to the landscape-gardener as a relief to the rounded forms of other trees, or in contrast to the horizontal lines of the lake or river-bank where it delights to grow.
If the continuous, unbroken, horizontal extent of land in a continent is termed its trunk,' and the portions cut up by inlets or channels of the sea into islands and peninsulas the limbs, it is possible to compare the continents in an instructive manner.
Simple roofs in general use with a double slope are the " coupled rafter roofs," the rafters meeting at the highest point upon a horizontal ridge-piece which stiffens the framework and gives a level ridge-line.
The difference between the horizontal distance and the distance measured along the rail is so small that it is negligible in all practical calculations.
A notable feature of modern boiler construction is the mode of building the apparatus of cast iron in either horizontal or vertical sections.
The cable is carefully coiled into the tanks in horizontal flakes, each of which is begun at the outside of the tank and coiled towards the centre.
Here the place of the jib is taken by two inclined legs joined together at the top and pivoted at the bottom; a third back-leg is connected at the top to the other two, and at the bottom is coupled to a nut which runs on a long horizontal screw.
9) consists of a steel braced tower, on which revolves a large horizontal double cantilever; the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the lifting crab, and the jib is extended backwards in order to form a support for the machinery and counter-balance.
Above the level plain of absolutely smooth surface, devoid of houses or vegetation, the equipotential surfaces under normal conditions would be strictly horizontal, and if we could determine the potential at one metre above the ground we should have a definite measure of the potential gradient at the earth's surface.
This shaft, which carries a set of " wipers " connected to the incoming circuit, is susceptible of a vertical and a rotational movement, so that the wipers may be brought, first opposite any particular horizontal series of contacts, and then into actual contact with any particular set in the series.
One diaphragm gives the mirror a movement in a vertical direction while the other gives it a horizontal motion.
In the Ader transmitter as many as twelve carbon pencils were employed, arranged in a series of two groups with six pencils in parallel in each group. These were supported at their ends in parallel carbon bars, which were carried by a nearly horizontal wooden diaphragm.
The Indian flying-squirrel (P. oral) leaps with its parachute extended from the higher branches of a tree, and descends first directly and then more and more obliquely, until the flight, gradually becoming slower, assumes a horizontal direction, and finally terminates in an ascent to the branch or trunk of the tree to which it was directed.
On the side of the telescope opposite to the horizontal axis is attached a graduated circle g, and, turning concentrically with this circle, is a framework h, to which the readers and verniers of the circle are fixed.
We note that the tensions have now the same horizontal projection (represented by the dotted line in fig.
The horizontal Xvii.
Horizontal section of the same.
There are also stage kilns of the Dietzsch type, which consist of two vertical shafts, one above the other, but not in the same vertical line, connected by a horizontal channel.
There are other forms of shaft kiln, such as the Schneider, in which there is a burning zone, a heating and cooling zone as in the Dietzsch, but no horizontal stage, the whole shaft being in the same vertical plane.
The cylinders are made of steel plate, lined with refractory bricks, are carried on rollers at a slight angle with the horizontal, and are rotated by power.
In the case of a horizontal line the azimuth is its deviation from the north or south direction.
The horizontal stratification of some of these masses gives them a curiously architectural aspect, further increased by the effect of the numerous vertical joints by which the rock is cleft into buttresses and recesses along the fronts of the precipices and into pinnacles and finials along the summits.
Where lava has been piled up in successive nearly horizontal sheets, with occasional layers of tuff or other softer rock between them, it offers conditions peculiarly favourable for the formation of escarpments, as in the wide basalt plateaus of the Inner Hebrides.
They rise into prominent pyramidal mountains, which, as the stratification is usually almost horizontal, present in their terraced sides a singular contrast to the neighbouring heights, composed of highly plicated crystalline schists.
The quartzites themselves have also been subjected to extraordinary horizontal displacement, amounting in places to not less than Io m.
These plateaus are composed of nearly horizontal sheets of basalt - columnar, amorphous or amygdaloidal - which, in Ben More, in Mull, attain a thickness of more than 3000 ft.
The blocks are often not quite rectangular, and the courses sometimes change; but the general tendency is horizontal and the walls are not of remote antiquity, the irregularities in them being rather due to the hardness of the material employed, the rock of the hill itself.
being differentiated from the long, horizontal and spatulate incisors; in form they are sub-erect and pointed.
In the lower jaw the three incisors are long, spatulate and horizontal, with the outer one the smallest.
X is the mirror rotating about the point E, and placed so that (if EB is the horizontal direction in which the rays are to be reflected) (I) the normal CE to the mirror is jointed to BC at C and is equal in length to BE, (2) the rod DBC passes through a slot in a rod ED fixed to, and in the plane of, the mirror.
One of the most important applications of the heliostat is as an adjunct to the newer forms of ' horizontal telescopes (q.v.) and in conjunction with spectroscopic telescopes in observations of eclipses.
It is composed of horizontal strata of limestone, forming groups of hills intersected by a network of small and fertile valleys.
They consist of a horizontal pan, 17 ft.
Originally the absorption of the Deacon chlorine took place in a set of chambers, constructed of large slabs of stone, containing a great many horizontal shelves superposed over one another.
Hasenclever, consisting of four horizontal cast-iron cylinders with internal stirring-gear.
These furnaces possess a large cylindrical shell (e), lined with fire-bricks, and made to revolve round its horizontal axis by means of a toothed wheel fixed on its exterior; (if) are tire-seats holding tires (gg), which work in friction rollers (h).
Many, therefore, prefer mechanical stirring by means of paddles, fixed either to a vertical or to a horizontal shaft, and inject only sufficient steam to keep the mass at the proper temperature.
This is a tall iron erection, built up from superposed cylinders, which are separated from one another by perforated horizontal diaphragms, con this recovery is carried out in the most efficient manner, the process cannot possibly pay; but so much progress has been made in this direction that the loss of ammonia is very slight indeed, merely a fraction per cent.
Both these reactions are carried out in tall cylindrical columns or " stills," consisting of a number of superposed cylinders, having perforated horizontal partitions, and provided with a steam-heating arrangement in the enlarged bottom portion.
Thus, when the declination axis is horizontal the telescope moves in the plane of the meridian by rotation on the declination axis only.
If we now attach to the polar axis a graduated circle D D, called the" hour circle,"of which the microscope or vernier R reads o h when the declination axis is horizontal, we can obviously read off the hour angle from the meridian of any star to which the telescope may be directed at the instant of observation.
The difficulty is that the automatic motion of a single mirror capable of reflecting the rays of any star continuously along the axis of a fixed horizontal telescope, requires a rather complex mechanism owing to the variation of the angle of reflexion with the diurnal motion.
The largest refracting telescope yet made, viz., that constructed by Gautier for the Paris exhibition of 1900, was arranged on this plan (type F), the stars' rays being reflected along the horizontal axis re rac or of a telescope provided with visual and with photo graphic object-glasses of 49-in.
There are farther inconveniences in the use of such a telescope, viz., that the image undergoes a diurnal rotation about the axis of the horizontal telescope, so that, unless the sensitive plate is also rotated by clockwork, it is impossible to obtain sharp photographs with any but instantaneous exposures.
The mirror C D is set at such an angle as to reflect rays from the star S in the direction of the polar axis to the mirror R and thence to the horizontal telescope T.
The mirrors of Lindemann's equatorial coude reflecting light downwards upon the mirror R would furnish an ideal siderostat for stellar spectroscopy in conjunction with a fixed horizontal telescope.
The sleeve carries a crosspiece on its upper extremity to which the bearings of the horizontal axis c are attached.
The telescope is now turned on the horizontal axis till the levels read near the centres of these scales and the telescope is clamped to the arm f.
The almucantar was therefore used only to observe the vertical transits of stars in different azimuths over fixed horizontal webs, without touching the telescope.
4) the paddles were revolved by hand at such a speed as to produce a constant torque on the calorimeter h, which was supported on a float w in a vessel of water v, but was kept at rest by the couple due to a pair of equal weights k suspended from fine strings passing round the circumference of a horizontal wheel attached to the calorimeter.
If the roof be not horizontal, we may obtain in this way any form of conic section.
Erosion buttes and mesas occasionally rise as picturesque monuments above the general level of the plains, and in the vicinity of the mountains the plains strata, elsewhere nearly horizontal, are bent sharply upward and carved by erosion into " hogback " ridges.
abscissus, cut off), in the Cartesian system of co-ordinates, the distance of a point from the axis of y measured parallel to the horizontal axis (axis of x).
The Tertiary beds generally lie nearly horizontal and form the lower hills, but in the Madi plateau and the Schwaner range they rise to a height of several thousand feet.
A magnetograph is an instrument for continuously recording the values of the magnetic elements, the three universally chosen being the declination, the horizontal component and the vertical component.
These images would be short lines of light; but a plano-cylindrical lens is placed with its axis horizontal just in front of the recording surface.
The recording surface is a sheet of photographic paper wrapped round a drum which is rotated at a constant speed by clockwork about a horizontal axis.
The variation of the horizontal force is obtained by the motion of a magnet which is carried either by a bifilar suspension or by a fairly stiff metal wire or quartz fibre.
In this position the magnet is in equilibrium under the action of the torsion of the suspension and the couple exerted by the horizontal component, H, of the earth's field, this couple depending on the product of H into the magnetic moment, M, of the magnet.
To record the variations of the vertical component use is made of a magnet mounted on knife edges so that it can turn freely about a horizontal axis at right angles to its 1 Report British Association, Bristol, 18 9 8, P. 741.
The magnet is so weighted that its axis is approximately horizontal, and any change in the inclination of the axis is observed by means of an attached mirror, a second mirror fixed to the stand serving to give a base line for the records, which are obtained in the same way as in the case of the declination.
Mag., 1904 [6 ], 7, 393) designed a form of vertical force balance in which the magnet with its mirror is attached to the mid point of a horizontal stretched quartz fibre.
The temperature compensation is obtained by attaching a small weight to the magnet, and then bringing it back to the horizontal position by twisting the fibre.
The scale values of the records given by the horizontal and vertical force magnetographs are determined by deflecting the respective needles, either by means of a magnet placed at a known distance or by passing an electric current through circular coils of large diameter surrounding the instruments.
In the later pattern a third mirror is added of which the plane is inclined at about 30° to the horizontal.
The effects of temperature being so marked on the readings of the horizontal and vertical force magnetographs, it is usual to place the instruments either in an underground room or in a room which, by means of double walls and similar devices, is protected as much as possible from temperature changes.
Wimmer supports his thesis with great learning and ingenuity, and when allowance is made for the fact that a script to be written upon wood, as the runes were, of necessity avoids horizontal lines which run along the fibres of the wood, and would therefore be indistinct, most of the runic signs thus receive a plausible explanation.
(a) letters made as upright as possible, and with few exceptions equal in height; (b) the majority of the letters constructed of vertical lines, with appendages attached mostly at the foot, occasionally at the foot and at the top, or (rarely) in the middle, but never at the top alone; (c) at the tops of the characters the ends of vertical lines, less frequently straight horizontal lines, still more rarely curves or the points of angles opening downwards, and quite exceptionally, in the symbol ma, two lines rising upwards.
==Geology== The central plateau of Asia Minor consists of nearly horizontal strata, while the surrounding mountain chains form a complex system, in which the beds are intensely folded.
In western Mysia they are much disturbed, but in eastern Mysia they are nearly horizontal.
The lower part of the façade is adorned with three fine portals and with reliefs of a fantastic kind in sandstone, arranged in horizontal bands, and has arcading under the gable.
The remains of the stockade round the margin were of vertical piles mortised into horizontal bars, and secured by pegs in the mortised holes.
in diameter, and had a double row of piles, bound by horizontal stretchers with square mortise-holes, enclosing an area 60 ft.
The crannog of Cloonfinlough in Connaught had a triple stockade of oak piles, connected by horizontal stretchers and enclosing an area 130 ft., in diameter, laid with trunks of oak trees.
and at equal horizontal intervals, the vertices of the funicular will lie on a parabola whose axis is vertical.
The theorem that any coplanar system of forces can be reduced to a force acting through any assigned point, together with a couple, has an important illustration in the theory of the distribution of shearing stress and bending moment in a horizontal beam, or other structure, subject to vertical extraneous forces.
3(can easily be adjusted so that the closing line shall be horizontal and the figure then becomes identical with the bending-momeni diagram of 4.
be the weights of a system of particles, whose depths below a fixed horizontal plane of reference are z~, 12,..
where p, p are the radii of curvature of the two curves at J, 4~ is the inclination of the common tangent at J to the horizontal, and h is the height of G above J.
If the body be supposed to roll - (say to the right) until the curves touch at J, and if JJ=bs, the angle through which the u,pper figure rotates is Is/p +Is/p, and the horizontal displace- V ment, of G is equal to the product of this expression into h.
If this displace ~ ment be less than the horizontal projection of JJ, viz.
Let i/i denote the inclination to the horizontal, and was the weight of an element t5s.
The former equation expresses that the horizontal tension is constant.
the length of a portion of the chain whose weight would equal the horizontal tension, this becomes s=atan~.
If the axes of x and y be taken horizontal and vertical (upwards), we derive x =a log (sec #+tan ~), y= a sec ~.
The horizontal line through 0 is called the direckix.
If weights be suspended from various points of a hang ing chain, the intervening por tions will form arcs of equal ~ catenaries, since the horizontal tension (wa) is the same for all.
The snow started shortly after they left and the wind blew it horizontal.
The presence, however, of apparatus or observers upsets the conditions, while above uneven ground or near a tree or a building the equipotential surfaces cease to be horizontal.
If V be the potential, p the density of free electricity at a point in the atmosphere, at a distance r from the earth's centre, then assuming statical conditions and neglecting variation of V in horizontal directions, we have r2 (d/dr) (r 2 dV/dr) - - 4.rp = o.
In the western region, on the other hand, all the Mesozoic beds are involved in a later system of folds; but here also the Tertiary beds lie nearly horizontal.
The mode most commonly adopted of training wall pear-trees is the horizontal.
The summer pruning of established wall or espalier-rail trees consists chiefly in the timely displacing, shortening back, or rubbing off of the superfluous shoots, so that the winter pruning, in horizontal training, is little more than adjusting the leading shoots and thinning out the spurs, which should be kept close to the wall and allowed to retain but two or at most three buds.
When horizontal trees have fallen into disorder, the branches may be cut back to within 9 in.
and in more regular whorls than those of the Norway spruce; and, though the lower ones become bent to a horizontal position, they do not droop, so that the tree has a much less elegant appearance.
pectinate), may be taken as the type, - a lofty tree, rivalling the Norway spruce in size, with large spreading horizontal boughs curving upward toward the extremities.
In the more southern parts of the island it often reaches a height of 90 ft., and specimens exist considerably above that size; but the young shoots are apt to be injured in severe winters, and the tree on light soils is also hurt by long droughts, so that it usually presents a ragged appearance; though, in the distance, the lofty top and horizontal boughs sometimes stand out in most picturesque relief above the rounded summits of the neighbouring trees.
The latest type of tomb is a flatly vaulted chamber approached by a horizontal or slightly inclined way, whose sides converge above.
It is impossible to reproduce here Fiirbringer's elaborate details and phylogenetic trees with their various horizontal sections, but the following tables give the main outlines: Classis AvEs I.
Be that as it may, the snare in many instances, as in that of the Agalenidae (Tegenaria, Agalena), a family closely allied to the Lycosidae, is a horizontal sheet of webbing, upon which the spider runs, continuous with the lower half of the aperture of the tube, of which it is simply an extension.
A very similar sheet is spun by a species of Linyphia, one of the Argyopidae, but in this case there is no tube connected with the web and the spider hangs suspended beneath the horizontal netting.
They need not be horizontal, and sometimes have a dip of a few feet per mile, as in the case of the Ohio and Indiana oil fields, where the amount varies from one to ten feet.
These at first consisted of an ordinary truck on which were placed two wooden tub-like tanks, each holding about 2000 gallons; they were replaced in 1871 by the modern type of tank-car, constructed with a horizontal cylindrical tank of boiler plate.
In the United States a horizontal cylindrical still is usually employed in the distillation of the spirit and kerosene, but what is known as the " cheese-box " still has also been largely used.
The modern practice is to employ horizontal cylindrical wrought-iron or steel stills, and to introduce steam into the oil.
The trousers are short and of a peculiar cut and material, being coloured many hues in parallel horizontal lines.
In this case the central court is roofed over, and has an octagon lantern in the centre; the recesses are covered with horizontal ceilings carried on great beams, the whole being elaborately carved, coloured and gilded; the tomb is covered with the later type of dome, built in stone, and elaborately carved outside with delicate conventional patterns in relief.
They, however, had no confidence in the arch, which, as the Hindu says, "never sleeps but is always tending to its own destruction," so that the pointed arch, which had almost become the emblem of the Mahommedan religion, had to be dispensed with for the covered aisles which surrounded the great court, and in the triple entrance gateway the form of an arch only was retained, as it was constructed with horizontal courses of masonry for the haunches, and with long slabs of stone resting one against the other at the top. A similar construction was employed in the great mosque at Ajmere, built A.D.1200-1211at the same time as the Delhi mosque.
But this also in India is built in horizontal courses, so that the form only and not the construction of the Cairene domes is followed.
Coplanar substitution in four hydrogen atoms would involve the pushing apart of the iodine atoms in four horizontal directions.
If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.
If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the horizontal parameters.
The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged in horizontal rows, and it is by means of these hooks that the animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host.
Thus Horsell, who was the first to introduce tints the ground, however, was made until towards the close of the 18th century, when horizontal contours and hachures regulated according to the angle of inclination of all slopes, were adopted.
Leuzinger and other able cartographers, however admirable as works of art, do not, from the point of utility, supersede the combination of horizontal contours with shaded slopes, such as have been long in use.
It is obvious that the area of a group of mountains projected on a horizontal plane, such as is presented by a map, must differ widely from the area of the superficies or physical surface of those mountains exposed to the air.
The object, however, can be fully attained only if the scale of the map is sufficiently large, if the horizontal and vertical scales are identical, so that there shall be no exaggeration of the heights, and if regard is had, eventually, to the curvature of the earth's surface.
The horizontal lines are parallels, depending upon the altitude of the pole star, the Calves of the Little Bear and the Barrow of the Great Bear above the horizon.
None of these charts is graduated, and the horizontal and vertical lines which cross many of them represent neither parallels nor meridians.
Lehmann (1783) who based his method of hill-shading or hachuring upon these horizontal contours.
- (I) Flower of Borage; (2) same in vertical section enlarged; (3) horizontal plan of flower; (4) flower of Comfrey after removal of corolla, showing unripe fruit; (I) and (4) natural size.
1, Fruit slightly reduced; 2, horizontal plan of arrangement of flower.
The galleries are not the way of access to the cemeteries, but are themselves the cemeteries, the dead being buried in long low horizontal recesses, excavated in the vertical walls of the passages, rising tier above tier like the berths in a ship, from a few inches above the floor to the springing of the arched ceiling, to the number of five, six or even sometimes twelve ranges.
In each case the arched tomb was formed by an oblong chest, either hollowed out of the rock, or built of masonry, and closed with a horizontal slab.
As regards the development of the form of the pastoral staff, there are four principal types: (I) staves with a simple crook, the oldest form, which survived in Ireland until the 12th century; (2) staves with a ball or knob at the top, a rare form which did not long survive as a pastoral staff; (3) staves with a horizontal crook, so-called Tau-staves, used especially by abbots and surviving until the 13th century; (4) staves with crook bent inwards.
The remarkably level character of the Red River district is due to horizontal deposits in the bottom of this lake, which have been little dissected by river erosion.
2, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower in Barbarea.
A modern blast-furnace is oblong in horizontal section and about 24 ft.
The principal folding took place at the close of the Carboniferous period, and was contemporaneous with that of the old Hercynian chain of Belgium, &c. The Permian and later beds lie unconformably upon the denuded folds, and in the space between the Montagne Noire and the Cevennes proper the folded belt is buried beneath the horizontal Jurassic strata of the Causses.
Floral diagram of Viola, showing arrangement of parts in horizontal plan.
Upon one of these is based the principle of the mariner's compass, which is said to have been known to the Chinese as early as I ioo B.C., though it was not introduced into Europe until more than 2000 years later; a magnet supported so that its axis is free to turn in a horizontal plane will come to rest with its poles pointing approximately north and south.
If a magnetized needle were supported so that it could move freely'about its centre of gravity it would not generally settle with its axis in a horizontal position, but would come to rest with its north-seeking pole either higher or lower than its centre.
For the practical observation of this phenomenon it is usual to employ a needle which can turn freely in the plane of the magnetic meridian upon a horizontal axis passing through the centre of gravity of the needle.
The angle which the magnetic axis makes with the plane of the horizon is called the inclination or Along an irregular line encircling the earth in the neighbourhood of the geographical equator the needle takes up a horizontal position, and the dip is zero.
It is by the horizontal component of the earth's total force that the compass-needle is directed.
A magnet attached to a cork and [[[Terminology And Principles]] floated upon water will set itself with its axis in the magnetic meridian, but it will be drawn neither northward nor southward; the forces acting upon the two poles have therefore no horizontal resultant.
Gauss, which gives the value not only of M, but also that of H, the horizontal component of the earth's force.
If two magnets having moments M, M' are arranged at right angles to each other upon a horizontal support which is free to rotate, their resultant R will set itself in the magnetic meridian.
] or horizontal intensity of the earth's force.
The suspended needle is, in the absence of disturbing causes, directed solely by the horizontal component of the earth's field of magnetic force H E, and therefore sets itself approximately north and south.
The angle B is indicated by the position of the spot of light upon the scale, and the horizontal intensity of the earth's field H E is known; thus we can at once determine the value of H P, from which the magnetization I of the body under test may be calculated.
(I) The rod is set in a horizontal position level with the suspended needle, its axis being in a line which is perpendicular to the magnetic meridian, and which passes through the centre of suspension of the needle.
Denoting the distance AM by d 1, BM by d2, and AB by 1, we have for the force at M due to the magnetism of the rod H P =d 12 - horizontal component (dla - d 2 3).
On the other hand, a vertically placed rod is subject to the inconvenience that it is influenced by the earth's magnetic field, which is not the case when the rod is horizontal and at right angles to the magnetic meridian.
The effect of the ends of the wire is, as Ewing remarks, to shear the diagram in the horizontal direction through the angle which the sloping line makes with the vertical.
The sample, arranged as a bundle of rectangular strips, is caused to rotate about a central horizontal axis between the poles of an upright C-shaped magnet, which is supported near 'its middle upon knife-edges in such a manner that it can oscillate about an axis in a line with that about which the specimen rotates; the lower side of the magnet is weighted, to give it some stability.
The curve thus constructed should be a straight line inclined to the horizontal axis at an angle 0, the tangent of which is 1.6.
Rowland, believing that the curve would continue to fall in a straight line meeting the horizontal axis, inferred that the induction corresponding to the point B-about 17,500-was the highest I Phil.
The celluloid sheet is laid upon the squared paper, and in plotting a curve horizontal distances are reckoned from the proper demagnetization line instead of from the vertical axis.
An iron bar shaped like an inverted L projects upwards from each of the yokes, the horizontal portions of the bars being parallel to the rods, and nearly meeting at a height of about 8 in.
24 was converted into an almost perfectly straight line passing through the origin, and lying below the horizontal axis; while the permeability of the metal was greatly diminished by the operation.
When the curve after its steep descent has almost reached the axis, it bends aside sharply and becomes a nearly horizontal straight line; the authors suggest that the critical temperature should be defined as that corresponding to the point of maximum curvature.
Only the central and horizontal parts of this structure correspond precisely to the entosternite of Limulus: the right and left anterior processes(marked ap in figs.
In Scorpio the completion of the horizontal plate by oblique flaps, so as to form an actual diaphragm shutting off the cavity of the prosoma from the rest of the body, possibly gives to the organs contained in the anterior chamber a physiological advantage in respect of the supply of arterial blood and its separation from the venous blood of the mesosoma.
Appendages of 2nd pair folding in a horizontal plane, completely chelate, the claw immovably united to the sixth segment.
Appendages of 2nd pair folding in a horizontal plane; their basal segments n From Lankester, Q.
- The plane of the articulation of the appendages of the 1st pair to the prosoma horizontal, the basal segment projecting ver tically downwards, at least at its proximal end, the distal segment II III IV V VI? ?.I?!1?1UII!119N; / I II III IV V VI 2 3 4 II FIG.
The tribe Ophiopogonoideae, with its tendency to an inferior ovary, suggests an affinity with the Amaryllidaceae which resemble Liliaceae in habit and in the horizontal plan of the flower, but have an inferior ovary.
These chapadas and elevations, which are usually described as mountain ranges, are capped by horizontal strata of sandstone and show the original surface, which has been worn away by the rivers, leaving here and there broad flat-topped ridges between river basins and narrower ranges of hills between river courses.
A considerable part of it has been excavated by these rivers to a level which gives their valleys the elevation and character of lowlands, though isolated hills and ranges with the characteristic overlying horizontal sandstone strata of the ancient plateau show that it was once a highland region.
Devonian beds also lie upon the older rocks in the Matto Grosso and other provinces in the interior of Brazil, where they generally form plateaux of nearly horizontal strata.
Horizontal plan of arrange 3.
In the direction (suppose horizontal) for which n=o, /f=sin 0, the phases of the secondary waves range over a complete period when sin 0 =X/a, and, since all parts of the horizontal aperture are equally effective, there is in this direction a complete compensation and consequent absence of illumination.
If the image of the line be =o, the intensity at any point E, n of the diffraction pattern may be represented by ?2a2t2 S A2f2 the same law as obtains for a luminous point when horizontal directions are alone considered.
such that the projection of the horizontal aperture upon this direction is one wave-length.
We conclude that a double line cannot be fairly resolved unless its components subtend an angle exceeding that subtended by the wave-length of light at a distance equal to the horizontal aperture.
If the angle subtended by the components of a double line be twice that subtended by the wave-length at a distance equal to the horizontal aperture, the central bands are just clear of one another, and there is a line of absolute blackness in the middle of the combined images.
Theory and experiment alike prove that a double line, of which the components are equally strong, is better resolved when, for example, one-sixth of the horizontal aperture is blocked off by a central screen; or the rays quite at the centre may be allowed to pass, while others a little farther removed are blocked off.
A horizontal pencil of sunlight was admitted by a vertical slit, and then allowed to fall on a column of water supplied by a jet of about th of an inch in diameter.
It is sometimes smooth; but sometimes it is a shaggy skin (or woollen) skirt with horizontal rows of vertically furrowed stuff.
The i-Eir)os was worn in a variety of colours and often decorated with bands of ornament, both horizontal and vertical; Homer uses the epithets KpoK61ren-Aos and Kvav01r€7rXos, which show that yellow and dark blue 7r41rAot were worn, and speaks of embroidered 717rXoc (roctcLRoc).
When the deposit is vertical or steeply inclined, horizontal or inclined bore-holes will be necessary.
A drift or entry is a horizontal passageway starting from the outcrop and following the deposit.
When the deposit lying below the surface is horizontal, or nearly so, or when the outcrop of an inclined deposit is not accessible, a vertical shaft will be necessary.
i and 2 illustrate the development of a metal-vein by two adits, two inclined shafts in the lode, and by a deep vertical shaft connected with the lode by horizontal cross cuts.
of inclined shafts, from which long horizontal rooms branch off right and left.
In the working of thick deposits the block of ground between two levels is divided into horizontal sections or floors which are worked either from above downward or from of Thick the bottom upward; in the first case the separate floors are worked by one of the caving systems; in the second, generally with the aid of filling.
Instead of mining in horizontal floors the filling method permits the ore to be mined in vertical chambers or slices which extend from one level to the next above and from one wall of the deposit to the other.
This method of mining and filling can be used when the work is done in horizontal floors or in transverse chambers.
The " Passglas," another popular drinking-glass, is cylindrical in form and marked with horizontal rings of glass, placed at regular intervals, to indicate the quantity of liquor to be taken at a draught.
He considered the horizontal strata of this hyperboloid as always in motion, while the remainder of the water was in a state of rest, and imagined that there was a kind of cataract in the middle of the fluid.
He supposed that the surface of the fluid, contained in a vessel which is emptying itself by an orifice, remains always horizontal; and, if the fluid mass is conceived to be divided into an infinite number of horizontal strata of the same bulk, that these strata remain contiguous to each other, and that all their points descend vertically, with velocities inversely proportional to their breadth, or to the horizontal sections of the reservoir.
- In a fluid at rest under gravity the pressure is the same at any two points in the same horizontal plane; in other words, a surface of equal pressure is a horizontal plane.
As gravity and the fluid pressure on the sides of the prism act at right angles to AB, the equilibrium requires the equality of thrust on the ends A and B; and as the areas are equal, the pressure must be equal at A and B; and so the pressure is the same at all points in the same horizontal plane.
If the fluid is a liquid, it can have a free surface without diffusing itself, as a gas would; and this free surface, being a surface of zero pressure, or more generally of uniform atmospheric pressure, will also be a surface of equal pressure, and therefore a horizontal plane.
- The free surface of a liquid at rest under gravity is a horizontal plane.
The land has hills and valleys, but the surface of water at rest is a horizontal plane; and if disturbed the surface moves in waves.
The resultant horizontal thrust in any direction is obtained by drawing parallel horizontal lines round the boundary, and intersecting a plane perpendicular to their direction in a plane curve; and then investigating the thrust on this plane area, which will be the same as on the curved surface.
As the molten metal is run in, the upward thrust on the outside mould, when the level has reached PP', is the weight of metal in the volume generated by the revolution of APQ; and this, by a theorem of Archimedes, has the same volume as the cone ORR', or rya, where y is the depth of metal, the horizontal sections being equal so long as y is less than the radius of the outside FIG.
Thus the C.P. of a rectangle or parallelogram with a side in the surface is at a of the depth of the lower side; of a triangle with a vertex in the surface and base horizontal is 4 of the depth of the base; but if the base is in the surface, the C.P. is at half the depth of the vertex; as on the faces of a tetrahedron, with one edge in the surface.
Consider a submarine boat or airship moving freely with the direction of the resultant momentum horizontal, and the axis at a slight inclination 0.
The longer inscriptions are disposed in horizontal zones or panels, divided by lines, and, it seems, they were to be read boustrophedon, not only as regards the lines (which begin right to left) but also the words, which are written in columnar fashion, syllable below syllable, and read downwards and upwards alternately.
The young shoots from these buds are to be gently brought to a horizontal position, by bending them a little at a time.
The hot liquor is conducted downwards in a continuous steady stream by a central pipe to eight horizontal branches, from which it issues into the separator at the level of the junction of the cylindrical and conical portions of the vessel.
long, on which the scale has already been loosened by the aid of boiling with dilute muriatic acid or a weak solution of caustic soda in water, than it is to clean either the inside or the outside of horizontal tubes more than double the length.
The crystallizers are long, horizontal, cylindrical or semi-cylindrical vessels, fitted with a strong horizontal shaft running from end to end, which is kept slowly revolving.
They are weighed and then dumped into a washing machine, consisting of a large horizontal cage, submerged in water, in which revolves a horizontal shaft carrying arms. The arms are set in a spiral form, so that in revolving they not only stir the roots, causing them to rub against each other, but also force them forward from the receiving end,of the cage to the other end.
deep were then sunk, and the chalk taken from horizontal tunnels was brought to the surface and spread on the land at the rate of about 60 loads per acre.
Some fortysix or more retorts, arranged in parallel horizontal rows, are heated in one furnace.
With gas-firing the retorts can be arranged in four horizontal rows, all within reach of a man on the furnace-room floor.
apart, still bear their horizontal lintel.
Horizontal channels were cut on opposite walls, through which the carbon poles or electrodes were passed into the upper part of the cavity.
V with a horizontal line above it was used for 5000.
Numerous lateral ramifying branches spread out from the main trunk in a horizontal direction, tier upon tier, covering a compass of ground the diameter of which is often greater than the height of the tree.
and had a horizontal expanse of 96 ft.
a lady's hand glass) behind the lens and inclined at an angle of 45° to the horizon so as to reflect Mirror the rays of light vertically downwards, we can produce >» on a horizontal sheet of Image with Mirror paper an unperverted image FIG.
It consists of a number of tubes mounted vertically on a horizontal circular disk which rotates about a vertical axis in a cylindrical vessel.
For immiscible liquids the vapour pressure curve is the horizontal line ab, described so that aP = QB and bQ=AP. For partially miscible liquids the curve is Pa i b i Q.
The horizontal line a l b 1 corresponds to the two layers of liquid, and the inclined lines Pa l Qb1 to solutions of B in A and of A in B.
In its more complete form a still has in addition the following fittings: - The dome is provided with openings to admit (I) the axis of the stirring gear (in some stills the stirring gear rotates on a horizontal axis which traverses the side and not the head of the still), (2) the inlet and outlet tubes of a closed steam coil, (3) a tube reaching to nearly the bottom of the still to carry live steam, (4) a tube to carry a thermometer, (5) one or more manholes for charging purposes, (6) sight-holes through which the operation can be watched, and (7) a safety valve.
For dry distillations the retorts are generally horizontal cylinders, the bottom or lower surface being sometimes flattened.
Horizontal air-cooling arrangements are also employed.
It consists of a vertical column divided into a number of sections by horizontal plates, which are perforated so that the ascending vapours have to traverse a layer of liquid.
I I consists of a cylindrical vessel having in its lower half a horizontal copper coil connected to the steam supply.
1, Flower cut open; 2, pistil; 3, horizontal plan of flower.
Then, again, the shape of the eye, as modelled by the lids, shows a striking peculiarity, For whereas the open eye is almost invariably horizontal in the European, it is often oblique in the Japanese on account of the higher level of the upper corner.
A very important feature of the faade is the portico or porch-way, which covers the principal steps and is generally formed by producing the central portion of the main roof over the steps and supporting such projection upon isolated wooden pillars braced together near the top with horizontal ties, carved, moulded and otherwise fantastically decorated.
The interior arrangement of wall columns, horizontal beams and cornice bracketing corresponds with that on the outside.
It consists of two thick trunks placed upright, their upper ends mortised into a horizontal log which projects beyond them at either side.
This flying machine consisted of a light frame covered with strong canvas and provided with two large oars or wings moving on a horizontal axis, and so arranged that the upstroke met with no resistance while the downstroke provided the lifting power.
The quadrate is indirectly articulated with the skull, first by the horizontal, movable squamosal, secondly by the columella auris.
Not a few, however, lead a nocturnal life, and many of them have, accordingly, their pupil contracted into a vertical or more rarely a horizontal slit.
Maxillary horizontal; pterygoid reaching quadrate or mandible.
Maxillary horizontal; pterygoid not reaching quadrate or mandible: Amblycephalidae.
the maxillaries are typically horizontal, not separately movable, with a series of teeth.
- Maxillaries horizontal and forming the greater portion of the upper jaw, which is toothed like the lower jaw; coronoid of mandible absent.
The features by which the treesnakes are distinguished are still more developed in the whip-snakes (Dryophis), whose excessively slender body has been compared to the cord of a whip. Although arboreal, like the former, they are nocturnal in their habits, having a horizontal instead of a round pupil of the eye.
All mixtures whose temperature lies above the line ACB are wholly liquid, hence this line is often called the "liquidus "; all mixtures at temperatures below that of the horizontal line through C are wholly solid, hence this line is sometimes called the " solidus," but in more complex cases the solidus is often curved.
The horizontal line through the I.
The former still grows thickly, especially in the valley of the Kadisha; the horizontal is the prevailing variety.
Take any horizontal line and divide it into small elements of length each representing dq, and draw vertical lines representing the potentials v, v', &c., and after each dose.
(2) Heating or cooling at constant pressure, represented by horizontal lines such as NA, called Isopiestics, in which the external work done is the product of the pressure p and the expansion v" - v'.
In the Knox and Boss mills, which are also employed for the amalgamation of silver ores, the grinding is effected between flat horizontal surfaces instead of conical or curved surfaces as in the previously described forms.
Horizontal cylindrical retorts, holding from 200 to 1200 tb of amalgam, are used in the larger Californian mills, pot retorts being used in the smaller mills.
The hills west of the town consist of horizontal strata of sandstone covered with irregular pieces of basalt and the top of the hill on which the observatory stood was made level by taking away the basalt.
It is deposited from water, which bubbles up from a number of springs in the form of horizontal layers, which at first are thin crusts and can easily be broken, but gradually solidify and harden into blocks with a thickness of 7 to 8 in.
side of the hill on which stands the village schoolhouse, from which one looks across the indentation to the Apollo temple, several vertical shafts in the limestone stratum were found, and underneath it in horizontal passages were bodies surrounded with vases.
2) differ from the corresponding organs of allied species in great breadth of the crown as compared with the length, the narrowness and crowding or close approximation of the ridges, the thinness of the enamel, and its straightness, parallelism and absence of " crimping," as seen on the worn surface or in a horizontal section of the tooth.
I, Flower reduced; 2, Same in vertical section; 3, Flattened branch much reduced; 4, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower.
It appears at a glance that the Assyrian written character consists of groups of horizontal, vertical or oblique strokes.
Let u represent the volume of air in the cup before the body was inserted, v the volume of the body, a the area of the horizontal FIG.
Cannel coals are generally variable in quality, being liable to change into shales or black-band ironstones within very short horizontal limits.
For this purpose a horizontal bar Shaft armed with vertical cutting chisels is used, which cuts boring.
In the working of thick seams inclined at a high angle, such as those in the south of France, and in the lignite mines of Styria and Bohemia, the method of working in horizontal slices, about i 2 or r 5 ft.
In France and Germany the method of filling the space left by the removal of the coal with waste rock, quarried underground or sent down from the surface, which was originally used in connexion with the working of thick inclined seams by the method of horizontal slices, is now largely extended to long-wall workings on thin seams, and in Westphalia is made compulsory where workings extend below surface buildings, and safety pillars of unwrought coal are found to be insufficient.
The most successful of the first class, or pick machines, that of William Firth of Sheffield, consists essentially of a horizontal pick with two cutting arms placed one slightly in advance of the other, which is swung backwards and forwards by a pair of bell crank levers actuated by a horizontal cylinder engine mounted on a railway truck.
by numerous guide blades, dividing it up into a series of rectangular tubes of diminishing section, attached to a horizontal axle by cast iron bosses and wrought iron arms. The tubes at their smallest part are connected to a cast iron ring, io ft.
The cage is guided by shoes of wrought iron, a few inches long and bellmouthed at the ends, attached to the horizontal bars of the framing, which pass loosely over the guides on three sides, but in most new pits rail guides of heavy section are used.
The engines used for winding or hoisting in collieries are usually direct-acting with a pair of horizontal cylinders coupled directly to the drum shaft.
In a later example at the Bargold pit of the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Company a mixed arrangement is adopted with horizontal high-pressure and vertical low-pressure cylinders.
The tub when brought to the surface, after passing over a weigh-bridge where it is weighed and tallied by a weigher specially appointed for the purpose by the men and the owner jointly, is run into a " tippler," a cage turning about a horizontal axis which discharges the load in the first half of the rotation and brings the tub back to the original position in the second.
One of the scarps or steps is the result of a great fault or displacement of the earth's crust, and is known as the Balcones fault scarp; others are due to erosion and weatherin g of alternate layers of hard and soft rocks lying almost horizontal.
BEAVER,' the largest European aquatic representative of the mammalian order Rodentia, easily recognized by its large trowel-like, scaly tail, which is expanded in the horizontal direction.
4 that if the gun and target are on the same horizontal plane the axis can be equally well directed by inclining it to the horizontal through the requisite number of degrees.
i.): " Raise the sight, and if it keeps in line with a plumb bob, it can be as confidently relied upon as the line of metal, if the trunnions are horizontal.
By means of a cross-level the frame can be so adjusted that the cross axis on which the telescope is mounted is always truly horizontal.
-- of elevation Horizontal -__Target line of sight Horizontal line of sigkkt v Angle of elevation Angle of sight --------- Target Horizontal line Scott's sight.
16) is that the tangent sight has a steel horizontal bar which can slide through the head of the tangent scale for deflection, and is graduated for 3° left and 1 ° right deflection.
At night this mark is replaced by a lamp installed in rear sight has a fixed horizontal bar slotted and graduated similarly to the slotted portion of the tangent sight.
Fore-sights are made right and left; tangent sights are interchangeable, the graduations are cut on the horizontal edges above and below, so that the sight can be changed from right to left or vice versa by removing and reversing the bar.
In coast defence artillery, owing to the fact that the guns are on fixed mountings at a constant height (except for rise and fall of tide) above the horizontal plane on which their targets move, and that consequently the angle of sight and quadrant elevation for every range can be calculated, developments in sights, in a measure, gave way to improved means of giving quadrant elevation.
One great drawback to this system was that elevation was given with reference to the plane of the racers upon which the mounting moved, and as this was not always truly horizontal grave errors were introduced.
1, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower of stonecrop; 2, flower of Sedum rubens.
The blanks are placed in the slide J and the lowest one is carried forward to the die in two successive movements of the " layer-on " K, a rod working backwards and forwards on a horizontal plate and actuating the finger L, fig.
This brings the beam to a horizontal position.
The syrinx consisted of a varying number of reeds, having their open ends or embouchures in a horizontal line and their stopped ends, formed by the knots in the reed, gradually decreasing in length from left to right.
Here the rocks are all essentially horizontal and of Palaeozoic age, mainly Devonian.
The crest consists of six or eight narrow and elongated feathers, turned slightly upwards at the end, and is usually carried in a horizontal position, extending in the cock beyond the middle of the back; but it is capable of being erected so as to become nearly vertical.
The Columbia plateau consists of horizontal beds of lava having a total thickness of several thousand feet, and its surface has a general elevation of tow to 2000 ft.
12 represent a horizontal section of the dome through the source P. Let OPA be the radius through P. Let PQ represent a ray of sound making the angle B with the tangent at A.
This is well illustrated by the remarkable horizontal.
summer's day the temperature of the surface layers may be much higher than that of the higher layers, and the effect on the horizontal carriage of sound may be very marked.
The two forks are fixed so that one vibrates in a vertical, and the other in a horizontal, plane, and they are so placed that a converging beam of light received on one mirror is reflected to the other and then brought to a point on a screen.
If the first fork alone vibrates, the point on the screen appears lengthened out into a vertical line through the changes in inclination of the first mirror, while if the second fork alone vibrates, the point appears lengthened out into a horizontal line.
It is set so that it can be turned at any desired and determined speed about a horizontal axis, and when going fast enough it appears grey.
The pipe was fixed in a horizontal position, and along the top wall ran a platinum wire wetted with sulphuric acid.
As usually arranged, a thin metal plate is screwed on to the top of a firm upright post at the centre of the plate, which is horizontal.
In a common form of electrically maintained fork, the fork is set horizontal with its prongs in a vertical plane, and a small electro-magnet is fixed between them.
In the Great Plains region the geological structure is very simple, consisting of nearly horizontal strata of Cretaceous rock in the middle and western portions, and of Tertiary rock on the eastern border, but in the mountain region the rocks have been folded and faulted until the structure is intricate and obscure.
There is also in large bridges wind-bracing to stiffen the structure against horizontal forces.
On the other hand, a girder imposes only a vertical load on its piers and abutments, and not a horizontal thrust, as in the case of an arch or suspension chain.
on either side from the towers the chains are carried over similar saddles without rollers, and thence at 45° with the horizontal down to the anchorages.
long at the centre of the bridge, and longer as they are more inclined, so that their horizontal projection is 24 ft.
The main suspension chains are carried across the centre span in the form of horizontal ties resting on the high-level footway girders.
On the abutment towers the chains are connected by horizontal links, carried on rockers, to anchor ties.
- The main supporting members are two or more horizontal beams, girders or trusses.
In the girders of bridges the horizontal girder is almost exclusively subjected to vertical loading forces.
The function of the flanges is to resist a horizontal tension and compression distributed practically uniformly on their cross sections.
The horizontal stresses in the flanges are greatest at the centre of a span.
Warren type in which the bracing bars form equilateral triangles, the Whipple Murphy in which the struts are vertical and the ties inclined, and the lattice in which both struts and ties are inclined at equal angles, usually 45° with the horizontal.
- The fortress draw-bridge is the original type, in which a single leaf, or bascule, turns round a horizontal hinge at one abutment.
The main girders are hung at each side on a horizontal shaft 8a in.
horizontal and 12 ft.
The pillars are strengthened against lateral yielding by horizontal and diagonal bracing.
(4) The horizontal pressure due to a wind blowing transversely to the span, which becomes of importance in long and high bridges.
If w is the weight of a locomotive in tons, r the radius of curvature of the track, v the velocity in feet per sec.; then the horizontal force exerted on the bridge is wv 2 /gr tons.
The loading forces to be considered are vertical, the horizontal forces due to wind pressure are treated separately and provided for by a horizontal system of bracing.
For practical purposes it is accurate enough to consider the booms or chords as carrying exclusively the horizontal tension and compression and the web as resisting the whole of the vertical and, in a plate web, the equal horizontal shearing forces.
If A t A, are the cross sections of the tension and compression flanges or chords, and h the distance between their mass centres, then on the assumption that they resist all the direct horizontal forces the total stress on each flange is Ht=H,=M/h and the intensity of stress of tension or compression is f t = M/Ath, f c = M/Ach.
If A is the area of the plate web in a vertical section, the intensity of shearing stress is fs = S/A and the intensity on horizontal sections is the same.
Projecting A'F'C'B' on to the horizontal AB, take Ff =m(l-x)il, the moment at C of unit load at F.
Lay off kf, hg, horizontal and equal to 1.
Obviously no is horizontal and equal to 1.
it is economical to have one horizontal boom and one polygonal (approximately parabolic) boom.
Thus we shall call the first inclined line on the left hand the line AG, the line representing the first force on the top left-hand joint AB, the first horizontal member at the top left hand the line BH, &c; similarly each point requires at least three letters to denote it; the top first left-hand joint may be called Abhg, being the point where these four spaces meet.
Chain Loaded uniformly along a Horizontal Line.
The true catenary is that assumed by a chain of uniform weight per unit of length, but the form generally adopted for suspension bridges is that assumed by a chain under a weight uniformly distributed relatively to a horizontal line.
Remembering that in this case the centre bending moment Ewl will be equal to wL 2 /8, we see that the horizontal tension H at the vertex for a span L (the points of support being at equal heights) is given by the expression 1..
70, at a distance x from the vertex, the horizontal component of the resultant (tangent to the curve) will be unaltered; the vertical component V will be simply the sum of the loads between 0 and F, or wx.
resultant tension along the chain at F, the vertical force V passing through the point D, and the horizontal tension at O; hence H: V = DC: FC = wx 2 /2 y: wx = x/2.
This method distorts the curve, so that vertical ordinates of the curve are drawn to a scale b times greater than that of the horizontal ordinates.
Thus if the horizontal scale be one-tenth of an inch to the foot, a =120, and a beam Ioo ft.
Most of these consist merely of a chamber, usually square, excavated in the rock, and approached by a " dromos " or horizontal approach in the side of a hill.
It is approached by a horizontal avenue 20 ft.
- Diagram showing the change of the Actinula (A) into a Polyp (B); a-b, principal (vertical) axis; c-d, horizontal axis.
3, B, transitional stage, showing preponderating growth in the horizontal plane.
There is an older series, ranging from the Devonian to the Cretaceous, which is folded and faulted and forms all the higher hills, and there is a newer series of Tertiary age, which lies nearly horizontal and rests unconformably upon the older beds.
The line of sight Ox, considered horizontal in range table results, may be inclined slightly to the horizon, as in shooting up or down a moderate slope, without appreciable modification of (28) and (29), and y or PM is still drawn vertically to meet OB in M.
So also the angle /3 must be increased by S to obtain the angle at which the shot strikes a horizontal plane - the water, for instance.
air may be ignored as insensible, and the actual velocity and its horizontal component, or component parallel to the line of sight, are undistinguishable.
so that Denoting dx/dt, the horizontal component of the velocity, by q, (49) v cos i =q, equation (43) becomes (50) dq/dt= -r cos i, and therefore by !(48) (51) dq _dq dt ry di - dt di-g' It is convenient to express r as a function of v in the previous notation (52) Cr = f(v), dq _vf(v) di - Cg ' an equation connecting q and i.
Zenodotus produced before 274 the first scientific edition of the Iliad and Odyssey, an edition in which spurious lines were marked, at the beginning, with a short horizontal dash called an obelus (-).
Of these two kinds of genetic and adaptive resemblance, homogeny is the warp composed of the vertical, hereditary strands, which connect animals with their ancestors and their successors, while analogy is the woof, composed of the horizontal strands which tie animals together by their superficial resemblances.
C, Dolphin (Sotalia fluviatilis), with horizontal tail, fin or fluke.
If now the prism P be interposed as in the figure, the whole beam is not only refracted upward, but also spread out into the spectrum RV, the horizontal breadth of the band of colours being the same as that of the original image S.
Thus if a horizontal slit is illuminated by an arc lamp, and the light - rendered parallel by a collimating lens - is transmitted through the sodium tube and focused on the vertical slit of a spectroscope, the effect of the sodium vapour is to produce its refraction spec trum vertically on the slit.
About the middle of the 13th century, the cross with horizontal arms begins to appear on the back of the vestment, and by the 15th this had become the most usual form, though the forked cross also survived - e.g.
Sometimes the back of the chasuble has no cross, but only a vertical orphrey, and in this case the front, besides the vertical stripe, has a horizontal orphrey just below c d From Braun's Liturgische Gewandung, by permission of the publisher, B.
The ears are more or less upright, sometimes horizontal, but never actually pendent, as in some Asiatic breeds.
The horns of the male differ from those of the female, being directed vertically and in shape spiral, whilst in the female they have a horizontal tendency, somewhat like those of a ram.
But certainly an Etruscan city was situated on the hill of Colonna, where there are remains of city walls of massive limestone, in almost horizontal courses.
The mosaic pictures are arranged in tiers, divided by horizontal and vertical bands.
In other types of electrostatic instruments the movable system rotates round a horizontal axis or rests upon knife edges like a scale beam; in others again the movable system is suspended by a wire.
This mountain system consists essentially of two belts: one on the south-east, chiefly of ancient and greatly deformed crystalline rocks, the other on the north-west, a heavy series of folded Palaeozoic strata; and with these it will be convenient to associate a third belt, farther north-west, consisting of the same Palaeozoic strata lying essentially horizontal and constituting the Appalachian plateau.
south-westward to Alabama, where the deformed mountain structures pass out of sight under nearly horizontal strata of the Gulf coastal plain.
The transition from the strongly folded structure of the Alleghany ridges and valleys to the nearly horizontal structure of the Appala; chian plateau is promptly made; and with the change of structure comes an appropriate change of form.
The horizontal strata of the plateau present equal ease or difficulty of erosion in any direction; the streams and the submature valleys of the plateau therefore ramify in every direction, thus presenting a pattern that has been called insequent, because it follows no apparent control.
The same Paiaeozoic formations that are folded in the belt of the Alleghany ridges lie nearly horizontal in the plateau district next north-west.
A curious feature appears in northern Pennsylvania: here the lateral pressure of the Palaeozoic mountain-making forces extended its effects through a belt about fifty miles wider than the folded belt of the Hudson Valley, thus compressing into great rock waves a part of the heavy stratified series which in New York lies horizontal and forms the Catskills; hence one sees, in passing south-west from the horizontal to the folded strata, a beautiful illustration of the manner in which land sculpture is controlled by land structure.
They are usually fine-textured limestones and shales, lying horizontal; the moderate or small relief that they were given by mature preglacial erosion is now buried under the drift, but is known by numerous borings for oil, gas and water.
As in the Atlantic coastal plain, it is only the lower, seaward part of this region that deserves the name of plain, for there alone is the surface unbroken by hills or valleys; the inner part, initially a plain by reason of its essentially horizontal (gently seaward-sloping) structure, has been converted by mature dissection into an elaborate complex of hills and valleys, usually of increasing altitude and relief as one passes inland.
Near the Colorado river the dissected cuesta of the Grand Prairie passes southward, by a change to a more nearly horizontal structure, into the dissected Edwards plateau (to be referred to again as part of the Great Plains), which terminates in a maturely dissected fault scarp, 300 or 400 ft.
The Great Plains.A broad stretch of country underlaid by nearly horizontal strata extends westward from the 97th meridian to the base of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of from 300 to 500 in., and northward from the Mexican, boundary far into Canada.
The strata here are Cretaceous or early Tertiary, lying nearly horizontal.
between the horizontal structures of the plains on the east and the plateaus on the west.
The Plateau province, next west of the southern Rocky Mountains, is characterized for the most part by large-textured forms, developed on a great thickness of nearly horizontal Palaeozoic, The Plateau Mesozoic and Tertiary formations, and by a dry climate.
In the north, where dislocations have invaded the field of the horizontal Columbian lavas, as in south-eastern Oregon and north-eastern California, the blocks are monoclinal in structure as well as in attitude; here the amount of dissection is relatively moderate, for some of the fault faces are described as ravined but not yet deeply dissected; hence these dislocations appear to be of recent date.
Over the interior the strata are nearly horizontal, but in the mountain regions of the east and west, as well as in the mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, they are tilted and folded, and locally much metamorphosed.
In the coastal plain the Comanchean beds are generally not cemented, but consist of gravel, sand and clay, occupying the nearly horizontal position in which they were originally deposited.
On the Atlantic coast they are nearly horizontal, but dip gently seaward.
-, c.i, p. i, m.; total 44; the upper incisors diminishing rapidly in size from the first to the third, and the lower incisors long, narrow, closely approximated, and almost horizontal in position, their tips inclining towards the middle line, the second slightly larger than the first, the third much smaller.
horizontal wooden laths connected by leathern hinges, have also been employed.
up the curtains, and then lifting the hinged frames to a horizontal position under the overhead bridge by means of chains worked by a winch on the bridge.
The earliest form of shutter weir, known as a bear-trap, introduced in the United States in 1818, and subsequently erected across the Marne in France, consists of two wooden gates, each turning on a horizontal axis laid across the apron, inclined towards one another and abutting together at an angle in the centre when the weir is closed; the up-stream one serves as the weir, and the down-stream one forms its support, and both fall flat upon the apron for opening the weir.'
The weir is raised again by pulling up the shutters to a horizontal position by their bottom chains from a special boat, or from a foot-bridge on movable frames, together with their trestles and the props which are replaced in their shoes.
Round it the Palaeozoic sands and clays, largely derived from its own waste, were deposited as nearly horizontal beds, in many places still almost undisturbed.
The Mesozoic sediments were almost entirely laid down to the west and south-west of the protaxis, upon the fiat-lying Palaeozoic rocks, and in the prairie region they are still almost horizontal; but in the Cordillera they have been thrust up into the series of mountain chains characterizing the Pacific coast region.
The whole region is underlain by nearly horizontal and undisturbed rocks of the Palaeozoic from the Devonian downward.
16, is that the sub-pallial space is divided into two spaces by a horizontal septum.
Classification Of Lamellibranchia The classification originally based on the structure of the gills by P. Pelseneer included five orders, viz.: the Protobranchia in which the gill-filaments are flattened and not reflected; the Filibranchia in which the filaments are long and reflected, with non-vascular junctions; the Pseudo-lamellibranchia in which the gill-lamellae are vertically folded, the interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions being vascular or non-vascular; the Eulamellibranchia in which the interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions are vascular; and lastly the Septibranchia in which the gills are reduced to a horizontal paltition.
The vagina is a dilatable muscular passage, lined with mucous membrane, which leads from the uterus to the external generative organs; its direction is, from the uterus, downward and forward, and its anterior and posterior walls are in contact, so that in a horizontal section it appears as a transverse slit.
europaea) is, when grown in perfection, a stately tree with tall erect trunk, gradually tapering from root to summit, and horizontal branches springing at irregular intervals from the stem, and in old trees often becoming more or less drooping, but rising again towards the extremities; the branchlets or side shoots, very slender and pendulous, are pretty thickly studded with the spurs each bearing a fascicle of thirty or more narrow linear leaves, of a peculiar bright light green when they first appear in the spring, but becoming of a deeper hue when mature.
zygomatic arch, the middle portion of which is formed by the more or less straight and horizontal jugal, and the large infra-orbital canal, traversed by a portion of the masseter muscle.
Imagine a horizontal section of a beam of light, and this section divided into a number of equal parts.
As an architectural term "bevel" is a sloped or canted edge given to a sill or horizontal course of stone, but is more frequently applied to the canted edges worked round the projecting bands of masonry which for decorative purposes are employed on the quoins of walls or windows and in some cases, with vertical joints, cover the whole wall.
It remains to consider the measurement of the declination and the horizontal component, these two elements being generally measured with the same instrument, which is called a unifilar magnetometer.
This mirror can rotate about a horizontal axis which is at right angles to the line of collimation of the telescope, and is parallel to the surface of the mirror.
If, however, a theodolite, fitted with a telescope which can rotate about a horizontal axis and having an altitude circle, is employed, so that when observing a transit the altitude of the sun or star can be read off, then the time need only be known to within a minute or so.
The method of measuring the horizontal component which is almost exclusively used, both in fixed observatories and in the field, consists in observing the period of a freely suspended magnet, and then obtaining the angle through which an auxiliary suspended magnet is deflected by the magnet used in the first part of the experiment.
By the vibration experiment we obtain the value of the product of the magnetic moment (M) of the magnet into the horizontal component (H), while by the deflexion experiment we can deduce the value of the ratio of M to H, and hence the two combined give both M and H.
The axis of the magnet is horizontal and at the same level as the mirror magnet, while when the central division of the scale B appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope the axes of the two magnets are at right angles.
An attachment to the ordinary ship's compass, by means of which satisfactory measurements of the horizontal component have been made on board ship, is described by L.
The principle of the method consists in deflecting the compass needle by means of a horizontal magnet supported vertically over the compass card, the axis of the deflecting magnet being always perpendicular to the axis of the magnet attached to the card.
The needle is so mounted that it only moves freely in the horizontal plane, and therefore the horizontal component of the earth's force alone directs it.
The direction assumed by the needle is not generally towards the geographical north, but diverges towards the east or west of it, making a horizontal angle with the true FIG.
Following the first chart of lines of equal variation compiled by Edmund Halley in 1700, charts of similar type have been published from time to time embodying recent observations and corrected for the secular change, thus providing seamen with values of the variation accurate to about 30' of arc. Possessing these data, it is easy to ascertain by observation the effects of the iron in a ship in disturbing the compass, and it will be found for the most part in every vessel that the needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian by a horizontal angle called the deviation of the compass; in some directions of the ship's head adding to the known variation of the place, in other directions subtracting from it.
If an iron ship be swung when upright for deviation, and the mean horizontal and vertical magnetic forces at the compass positions be also observed in different parts of the world, mathematical analysis shows that the deviations are caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by the transient induced magnetism of soft iron both horizontal and vertical, and in a lesser degree by iron which is neither magnetically hard nor soft, but which becomes magnetized in the same manner as hard iron, though it gradually loses its magnetism on change of conditions, as, for example, in the case of a ship, repaired and hammered in dock, steaming in an opposite direction at sea.
The horizontal directive force on the needle on board is nearly always less than on land, sometimes much less, whilst in armour-plated ships it ranges from 8 to 2 when the directive force on land= 1 o.
B has reference to horizontal forces acting in a longitudinal direction in the ship, and caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by vertical induction in vertical soft iron either before or abaft the compass.
D is due to transient induction in horizontal soft iron, the direction of which passes continuously under or over the compass.
E is due to transient induction in horizontal soft iron unsymmetrically placed with regard to the compass.
C is compensated by permanent magnets athwartships and horizontal; D by masses of soft iron on both sides of the compass, and generally in the form of cast-iron spheres, with their centres in the same horizontal plane as the needles; E is usually too small to require correction; A is fortunately rarely of any value, as it cannot be corrected.
The deviation observed when the ship inclines to either side is due - (i) to hard iron acting vertically upwards or downwards; (2) to vertical soft iron immediately below the compass; (3) to vertical induction in horizontal soft iron when inclined.
Galileo proceeded to measure the motion of a body on a smooth, fixed, inclined plane, and found that the law of constant acceleration along the line of slope of the plane still held, the acceleration decreasing in magnitude as the angle of inclination was reduced; and he inferred that a body, moving on a smooth horizontal plane, would move with uniform velocity in a straight line if the resistance of the air, and friction due to contact with the plane, could be eliminated.
Along each side of the body stretches a horizontal fin and a similar flange surrounds the tail.
The observations of Strachey, Godwin-Austen and of Griesbach and other members of the Geological Survey of India only extend to the southern edge or rim of the great plateau, where vast alluvial deposits in horizontal strata have been furrowed into deep ravines, while Russian explorers have but superficially examined the mountain regions of the north and north-east, and the British mission to Lhasa, in 1904 afforded observations merely along the trade-route to that city.
The phenomena may be investigated by following a horizontal line across the diagram.
On the large scale it is obtained by distilling Chile saltpetre with concentrated sulphuric acid in horizontal cast iron stills, the vapours being condensed in a series of stoneware Woulfe's bottles.
The moulds for the face of a wall consist generally of wooden shutters, leaning against upright timbers which are secured by horizontal or raking struts to firm ground, or to anything that will bear the weight.
The steel reinforcement is generally applied in the form of vertical rods built in the wall at intervals, with lighter horizontal rods which cross the vertical ones, and thus form a network of steel which is buried in the concrete.
In the Cottancin system the concrete is replaced by bricks pierced with holes through which the vertical rods are threaded; the horizontal tie-rods are also used, but these do not merely cross the vertical ones, but are woven in and out of them.
use the modification of the Monier system, consisting of a horizontal network of crossed steel rods buried in the concrete.
the Williams system small flat bars are used, which are not quite horizontal, but pass alternately over and under the rolled joists which support the slabs.
But it is obvious that certain distributions will predominate, for the crystals will tend to fall so as to offer the least resistance to their motion; a needle-shaped crystal tending to keep its axis vertical, a plate-shaped crystal to keep its axis horizontal.
If these vertical faces become very numerous, the eye will perceive a colourless horizontal circle.
Reflection from an excess of horizontal prisms gives rise to a vertical circle passing through the sun.
The "tangential arcs" (T) were explained by Young as being caused by the