Robert Hooke, who was some time Boyle's assistant, described (Phil.
Beyond the introduction of the spider line it is unnecessary to mention the various steps by which the Gascoigne micrometer assumed the modern forms now in use, or to describe in detail the suggestions of Hooke, 4 Wren, Smeaton, Cassini, Bradley, Maskelyne, Herschel, Arago, Pearson, Bessel, Struve, Dawes, &c., or the successive productions of the great artists Ramsden, Troughton, Fraunhofer, Ertel, Simms, Cooke, Grubb, Clarke and Repsold.
It is sufficient to note here that cells were first of all discovered in various vegetable tissues by Robert Hooke in 1665 (Micrographia); Malpighi and Grew (1674-1682) gave the first clear indications of the importance of cells in the building up of plant tissues, but it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that any insight into the real nature of the cell and its functions was obtained.
and Philip III., Hooke's Roman History, part of a translation of Rollin's Ancient History, Langhorne's Plutarch, Burnet's History of My Own Times, thirty volumes of the Annual Register, Millar's Historical View of the English Government, Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, M`Crie's Knox, and two histories of the Quakers.
ROBERT HOOKE (1635-1703), English experimental philosopher, was born on the 18th of July 1635 at Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight, where his father, John Hooke, was minister of the parish.
A protracted controversy with Johann Hevelius, in which Hooke urged the advantages of telescopic over plain sights, brought him little but discredit.
In personal appearance Hooke made but a sorry show.
Although Robert Hooke in 1668 and Ignace Pardies in 1672 had adopted a vibratory hypothesis of light, the conception was a mere floating possibility until Huygens provided it with a sure foundation.
Within a few days of the fire three several plans were presented to the king for the rebuilding of the city, by Christopher Wren, John Evelyn and Robert Hooke.
But though the plans of Wren and Hooke were not adopted, it was to these two fellows of the Royal Society that the labour of rebuilding London was committed.
Hooke's task was the humbler one of arranging as city surveyor for the building of the houses.
Hooke, contemporaries of Newton, saw that Kepler's third law implied a force tending toward the sun which, acting on the several planets, varied inversely as the square of the distance.
At Bordeaux his Universal Tables on Dialling were constructed; and in London he was admitted to the meetings of Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke and other learned and scientific men.
Brooke, a midshipman of the U.S.N., invented the principle on the " Valdivia " in 1898-1899, and to those of the " Belgica " already foreshadowed by Nicolaus Cusanus in the 15th century in 1897-1898, the " Gauss " in 1902-1903, and the " Scotia " and by Robert Hooke in the 17th, of using a heavy weight so in 1903-1904.
The older, devised by Hooke in 1667, is provided with valves above and below, both opening upward, through which the water passes freely during descent, but which are closed by some device on hauling up. The newer or slip water-bottle type consists of a cylinder allowed to drop on to a base-plate when a sample is tro be collected.
In England Robert Hooke (1635-1703) held to the theory of extinction of fossil forms, and advanced the two most fertile ideas of deriving from fossils a chronology, or series of time intervals in the earth's history, and of primary changes of climate, to account for the former existence of tropical species in England.
Suggested two centuries ago by Robert Hooke, this use of fossils has in the hands of Barrande, Neumayr, the marquis de Saporta (1895), Oswald Heer (1809-1883), and an army of followers developed into a sub-science of vast importance and interest.
Hooke, in 1674, published his observations of y Draconis, a star of the second magnitude which passes practically overhead in the latitude of London, and whose observations are therefore singularly free from the complex corrections due to astronomical refraction, and concluded that this star was 23" more northerly in July than in October.
Hooke, he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society.
The Memoires of Marshal Berwick, revised, annotated and continued by the Abbe Hooke, were published by the marshal's grandson in 1778.
Six months later, the indefatigable astronomer started for Danzig to set at rest a dispute of long standing between Hooke and Hevelius as to the respective merits of plain or telescopic sights; and towards the end of 1680 he proceeded on a continental tour.
Having reached so far as to perceive that the central force of the solar system must decrease inversely as the square of the distance, and applied vainly to Wren and Hooke for further elucidation, he made in August 1684 that journey to Cambridge for the purpose of consulting Newton, which resulted in the publication of the Principia.
Hooke invented the making of the fronts of teeth in a series of steps with a view to increase the smoothness of action.
The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years, in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English natural philosopher Robert Hooke; Lucas, mathematical professor at Liege; Linus, a physician in Liege, and many others.
But in 1679 a controversy between Hooke and Newton, about the form of the path of a body falling from a height, taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration, led Newton again to revery() his former conjectures on the moon.
In January 1684 Sir Christopher Wren, Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity, and, although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square, yet this truth was not looked upon as established.
It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of .a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance; but Halley, finding, after a delay of some months, that Hooke " had not been so good as his word " in showing his solution to Wren, started in the month of August 1684 for Cambridge to consult Newton on the subject.
In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society.
Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery.
Halley only communicated to Newton the fact " that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre," acknowledging at the same time that, though Newton had the notion from him, " yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton."
" How much of this," Halley adds, " is so, you know best, so likewise what you have to do in this matter; only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface, which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix.
In thus appealing to Newton's candour, Halley obviously wished that some acknowledgment of Hooke should be made.
On the loth, of June 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: " Sir, - In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me, I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters, so far as I could remember; for 'tis long since they were writ, and I do not know that I have seen them since.
Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit; and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it.
that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth, and before a certain demonstration I found the last year, have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low; and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens; and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters, which were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre, conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens.
Oscil., a copy being presented to me, in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy, and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness, in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth, and earth from the sun; in determining a problem about the moon's phase, and putting a limit to the sun's parallax, which shews that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion, and understood it; so that a while after, when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly, in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth, if I had not known the duplicate proportion before, I could not but have found it now.
But, grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke, yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipsis.
For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval, and guessed it to be elliptical, so Mr Hooke, without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me, can know no more, but that the proportion was duplicate quam proxime at great distances from the centre, and only guessed it to be so accurately, and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre, whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipsis.
And so Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipsis.
" There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion, that without my demonstrations, to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger, it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate.
And so, in stating this business, I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis, and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men, as to the other from Kepler; and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences.
On the 29th of June 1686 Halley wrote to Newton: - " I am heartily sorry that in this matter, wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you, you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet "; and then, after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society, he concludes: " But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print, nor on the books of the Society, you ought to be considered as the inventor.
On the 14th of July 1686 Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress, stating clearly the different things which he had from Hooke, and adding, " And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me, I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters.
This scholium was- " The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions, as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren, Hooke and Halley."
Hooke, Explication of a Glade of Light, &c. (1685); Mairan, Observations de la lumiere zodiacale; L.
Robert Hooke shaped the minutest of the lenses with which he made many of the discoveries recorded in his Micrographia from small glass globules made by fusing the ends of threads of spun glass; and the same method was employed by the Italian Father Di Torre.
It has been suggested, however, that this somewhat backhanded compliment was intended rather to rub salt into Hooke's wounds.
Hooke's design for a marine chronometer was rediscovered only in 1950 at the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge.
disapproved of the behavior of the likes of Robert Hooke.
fulsome tribute to Deputy Head Mr I G Hooke, who resigned in Aug 79.
The house was designed in 1680 by Robert Hooke the genius inventor, who developed the constant velocity joint among many other innovations.
This dispute poisoned his relationship with the then unknown newton, as the secretary repeatedly misrepresented hooke to newton.
The report begins with a fulsome tribute to Deputy Head Mr I G Hooke, who resigned in Aug 79.
Dr Hooke made the important improvement on Gascoigne's micrometer of substituting parallel hairs for the parallel edges of its original construction (Hooke's Posthumous Works, p. 497).
But these defects need not blind us to the fact that this hypothesis made the mathematical progress of Hooke, Borelli and Newton much more easy and certain.
Hooke showed some members of the Royal Society an instrument for the same purpose, depending on a vane or fly which rotated as the vessel progressed (Birch, History of the Royal Society, iv.
The death, in 1687, of his niece, Mrs Grace Hooke, who had lived with him for many years, caused him deep affliction; a law-suit with Sir John Cutler about his salary (decided, however, in his favour in 1696) occasioned him prolonged anxiety; and the repeated anticipation of his discoveries inspired him with a morbid jealousy.
From Hooke's Posthumous Works (1705), p. 127, we find that in one of the Cutlerian lectures on Light delivered in 1680, he illustrated the phenomena of vision by a darkened room, or perspective box, of a peculiar pattern, the back part, with a concave white screen at the end of it, being cylindrical and capable of being moved in and out, while the fore part was conical, a double convex lens being fixed in a hole in front.
Reading in 1657 of Otto von Guericke's air-pump, he set himself with the assistance of Robert Hooke to devise improvements in its construction, and with the result, the "machina Boyleana" or "Pneumatical Engine," finished in 1659, he began a series of experiments on the properties of air.
Ismael Bouillaud (1605-1694) stated in 1645 the fact of planetary circulation under the sway of a sun-force decreasing as the inverse square of the distance; and the inevitableness of this same " duplicate ratio " was separately perceived by Robert Hooke, Edmund Halley and Sir Christopher Wren before Newton's discovery had yet been made public. He was the only man of his generation who both recognized the law, and had power to demonstrate its validity.
In 1665, physicist Robert Hooke pointed a microscope at a piece of cork and noticed many small compartments he called "cells."
Mr Coleman has grown it well amongst Rhododendrons at Eastnor Castle; Mr Gumbleton, Mr Hooke, Mr Ellacombe, and Kew have also had it in good condition.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.