The Pipe Roll of Cloyne, compiled by Bishop Swaffham in 1364, is a remarkable record embracing a full account of the feudal tenures of the see, the nature of the impositions, and the duties the purl homines Sancti Colmani were bound to perform at a very early period.
Twelve years later (1205-1206) we learn from another document, preserved in the same volume as the oath, that alii probi homines were associated with the mayor and dchevins to form a body of twenty-four (that is, twelve skivini and an equal number of councillors).
Round holds that the Court of Skivini and alii probi homines, of which at present we know nothing further than what is contained in the terms of the oaths, was the germ of the Common Council.
It is at this Ghibel- time that the people of Florence first began to acquire influence, and while the countess presided at the courts of justice in the name of the Empire, she was assisted by a group of great feudal nobles, judges, lawyers, &c., who formed, as elsewhere in Tuscany, the boni homines or sapientes.
As the countess was frequently absent these boni homines gave judgment without her, thus paving the way for a free commune.
After the death of Countess Matilda in 1115 the grandi or boni homines continued to rule and administer justice, but in the name of the people - a change hardly noticed at first, but which marks the foundation of the commune.
After 1138 the boni homines began to be called consules, while the population was divided into the grandi or delle torri, i.e.
At first the consules, of whom there seem to have been twelve, two for each sestiere or ward, were chosen by the men of the towers, and assisted by a council of loo boni homines, in which the arti were predominant; the government thus came to be in the hands of a few powerful families.
The true resurrection is the spiritual baptism bequeathed by Christ to the boni homines.
(Fn2) Christ was a life-giving spirit, and the boni homines, the "good men," as the Cathars called themselves, are his ambassadors.
The rite was appointed by Christ, and has been handed down from generation to generation by the boni homines.
The germ of a parliament existed in the crown vassals and the royal officials - chancellor, steward, constable, marischal and the rest - with bishops, priors, earls, barons and other probi homines.
The Ragman's Roll contains sworn submissions of all probi homines outside of the western thoroughly Celtic region; and, in October 1296, Edward returned to England, with Baliol his prisoner, leaving Scotland in the hands of the earl of Surrey as guardian, Cressingham as treasurer, and Ormsby as justiciary.
Simultaneously with its incorporation by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, who presented the city with its own mint toll and market, there appears a magistracy of six, chosen probably by the Vogt from the Schtifen (scabini, probi homines).
Braun (Liturgische Gewandung, p. 513) thinks that the symbolism of the cross may have had some influence in fixing and propagating the square shape, and he quotes a decree of the synod of Aix (1585) ordering the J g h clergy to wear a biretta sewn in the form of a cross (biretum in modum crucis consuturn, ut ecclesiasticos homines decet).
Bene cognosci poterit, quo modo homines ibi vivant, quae sint differentiae inter vitam eorum et nostram et quae condiciones sint similes.
The Pentecostal inspiration has been construed as a providential antithesis to the confusion of tongues - an idea which Grotius expressed in the words: "Poena linguarum dispersit homines; donum linguarum dispersos in unum populum collegit."
But it must not be forgotten that it was his scientific curiosity as to the phenomena of the eruption of Vesuvius that brought his life of unwearied study to a premature end; and any criticism of his faults of omission is disarmed by the candour of the confession in his preface: nec dubitamus multa esse quae et nos praeterierint; homines enim sumus et occupati o„ciis.
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