Homer Sentence Examples
She is rarely mentioned in Homer, nor is she included amongst the Olympian gods.
To him Homer was a great writer, though what his writing was about he did not know.
Suppose Alfred Nota and his pal Homer's break-in at Collingswood Avenue was just a cover-up and their true mission was to plant a listening device.
The "hundred cities" ascribed to Crete by Homer are in a fair way Y period.
One book of the second edition of the Scienza nuova is devoted to "The Discovery of the True Homer."Advertisement
These poems were recited at rhapsodic contests together with those of Homer and Hesiod, and Orphic hymns were used in the Eleusinian mysteries.'
Thales of earth Miletus is claimed as the first exponent of the idea of a Flat Homer.
It was during this period that he read Homer and Longinus, having for the first time acquired some real mastery of Greek; and after the publication of the Essai, his mind was full of projects for a new literary effort.
He deepened and extended his acquaintance with Greek, particularly with his favourite authors Homer and Xenophon; and, to crown all, he succeeded in achieving the third perusal of Blackstone's Commentaries.
Epicaste (as Jocasta is called in Homer) hanged herself, and Oedipus lived as king in Thebes tormented by the Erinyes of his mother.Advertisement
A relation between objects of art described by Homer and the Mycenaean treasure was generally allowed, and a correct opinion prevailed that, while certainly posterior, the civilization of the Iliad was reminiscent of the Mycenaean.
The inscriptions are post-Aegean by many centuries, but they occur in the part of the island known to Homer as that inhabited by the Eteo-Cretans, or aborigines..
This great disaster, which cleared the ground for a new growth of local art, was probably due to yet another incursion of northern tribes, more barbarous than their predecessors, but possessed of superior iron weapons - those tribes which later Greek tradition and Homer knew as the Dorians.
Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's literary circle, and was the probable author of an epic, of which the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the palace and the meeting between Charlemagne and Leo III.
The cardinal therefore obtained a bull from Pope Paul II., permitting him to recall his original donation, and in a letter dated from the baths of Viterbo, May 13th, 1468, he made over his library to the republic. The principal treasures of the collection, including splendid Byzantine book-covers, the priceless codices of Homer, the Grimani Breviary, an early Dante, &c., are exhibited under cases in the Sala Bessarione in the Zecca or mint where the library has been installed.Advertisement
His taste, however, was curious; he preferred Cato the elder, Ennius and Caelius Antipater to Cicero, Virgil and Sallust, the obscure poet Antimachus to Homer and Plato.
According to Homer she was the mother of nineteen of Priam's fifty sons.
Xenophanes in the middle of the 6th century had made the first great attack on the crude mythology of early Greece, including in his onslaught the whole anthropomorphic system enshrined in the poems of Homer and Hesiod.
One may notice that the first Ptolemy himself made a contribution of some value to historical literature in his account of Alexander's campaigns; the fourth Ptolemy not only instituted a cult of Homer but himself published tragedies; and even Ptolemy Euergetes II.
The geographical knowledge of Anaximander was naturally more ample than that of Homer, for it extended from the Cassiterides or Tin Islands in the west to the Caspian in the east, which he conceived to open out into Oceanus.Advertisement
In Homer, where they appear indifferently under the name of apirveac and 615EXAca, their function is to carry off those whose sudden disappearance is desired by the gods.
Another METRODORUS1 of Lampsacus was a pupil of Anaxagoras, and one of the earliest to attempt' to interpret Homer allegorically.
The institution does not present itself in a very harsh form in Homer, especially if we consider (as Grote suggests) that " all classes were much on a level in taste, sentiment and instruction."
Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch's contemporary, declares that neither Homer nor Hesiod sang of the chariot and horses of Zeus so worthily as Zoroaster, of whom the Persians tell that, out of love to wisdom and righteousness, he withdrew himself from men, and lived in solitude upon a mountain.
Homer was acquainted with it and speaks of the "Argo" as well known to all men; the wanderings of Odysseus may have been partly founded on its voyage.Advertisement
In Homer Athena already appears as the goddess of counsel, of war, of female arts and industries, and the protectress of Greek cities, this last aspect of her character being the most important and pronounced.
As Such she appears in Homer and Hesiod and in post-Homeric legend as the slayer of the Gorgon and taking part in the battle of the giants.
As early as Homer she takes especial interest in the occupations of women; she makes Hera's robe and her own peplus, and spinning and weaving are often called "the works of Athena."
And Chronological Notes The most conspicuous property of the lodestone, its attraction for iron, appears to have been familiar to the Greeks at least as early as 800 B.C., and is mentioned by Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus and others.
Demetrius Chalcondyles published the editio princeps of Homer, Isocrates, and Suidas, and a Greek grammar (Erotemata) in the form of question and answer.
This was the KaXinrTpa, or veil called Kpr t &Eµvov in Homer.
It is also repeatedly mentioned (Kpkos) by Homer, Hippocrates and other Greek writers; and the word "crocodile" was long supposed to have been derived from Kancos and whence we have such stories as that "the crocodile's tears are never true save when he is forced where saffron groweth" (Fuller's Worthies).
The Platonic testimony, if it proved anything, would prove too much, namely, that the doctrine of the unity of Being originated, not with Xenophanes, but before him; and, in fact, the passage from the Sophist no more proves that Plato attributed to Xenophanes the philosophy of Parmenides than Theaetetus, 160 D, proves that Plato attributed to Homer the philosophy of Heraclitus.
Among the Greeks in the time of Homer wine was in general use.
According to Homer, his resting-place was the island of Pharos, near the mouth of the Nile; in Virgil his home is the .island of Carpathus, between Crete and Rhodes.
But neither in Homer nor in Hesiod is there any trace of the idea that the heroes after death had any power for good or evil over the lives of those who survived them; and consequently, no cult.
In addition to persons of high rank, poets, legendary and others (Linus, Orpheus, Homer, Aeschylus and Sophocles), legislators and physicians (Lycurgus, Hippocrates), the patrons of various trades or handicrafts (artists, cooks, bakers, potters), the heads of philosophical schools (Plato, Democritus, Epicurus) received the honours of a cult.
At this time Tennyson was brooding much upon the ancient world, and reading little but Milton, Homer and Virgil.
This fact of the idiosyncrasy of national poetry he illustrated with great fulness and richness in the case of Homer, the nature of whose works he was one of the first to elucidate, the Hebrew poets, and the poetry of the north as typified in ' ` Ossian."
In February 1852 the Whig government was defeated on a Militia Bill, and Lord John Russell was succeeded by Lord Derby, formerly Lord Stanley, with Mr Disraeli, who now his constant companions were Homer and Dante, and entered office for the first time, as chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons.
Geschichte, i., Strassburg, 1893), as being simply an attempt to reconcile the political geography of Homer (i.e.
But in proportion as an earlier date has become more probable for Homer, the hypothesis of Ionic origin has become less tenable, and the belief better founded (I) that the poems represent accurately a welldefined phase of culture in prehistoric Greece, and (2) that this " Homeric " or " Achaean " phase was closed by some such general catastrophe as is presumed by the legends.
Homer merely states that he was distinguished for his prowess with the bow; that he was bitten by a snake on the journey to Troy and left behind in the island of Lemnos; and that he subsequently returned home in safety.
See Homer, Iliad, ii.
These traditions, finding their clearest delineation in the lines of Homer, had been subjected to the analysis of the critical historians of the early decades of the 19th century, and their authenticity had come to be more than doubted.
The philological analysis of Wolf and his successors had raised doubts as to the very existence of Homer, and at one time the main current of scholarly opinion had set strongly in the direction of the belief that the Iliad and the Odyssey were in reality but latter-day collections of divers recitals that had been handed down by word of mouth from one generation to another of bards through ages of illiteracy.
It was strenuously contended that the case could not well be otherwise, inasmuch as the art of writing must have been quite unknown in Greece until after the alleged age of the traditional Homer, whose date had been variously estimated at from 1000 to Boo B.C. by less sceptical generations.
This carries us back towards the traditional age of Homer.
German historians have not made matters more clear by treating the Letters on the principle of "the higher criticism" of Homer and the Bible.
He was probably the first to attempt a serious prose history and to employ critical method to distinguish myth from historical fact, though he accepts Homer and the other poets as trustworthy authority.
Probably the two terms were not originally distinguished; but usually both in Homer and in later writers nectar is the drink and ambrosia the food.
According to a later tradition, not known to Homer, the Moerae appeared to Althaea when Meleager was seven days old, and announced that the child would only live as long as the log blazing on the hearth remained unconsumed.
Under the kings of Athens it must have closely resembled the Boule of elders described by Homer; and there can be no doubt that it was the chief factor in the work of transforming the kingship into an aristocracy, in which it was to be supreme.
The story of the childhood of Achilles in Homer differs from that given by later writers.
According to Homer, he was brought up by his mother at Phthia with his cousin and intimate friend Patroclus, and learned the arts of war and eloquence from Phoenix, while the Centaur Chiron taught him music and medicine.
He is not an important figure in Homer.
Proofs of the Inquiry into the Life and Writings of Homer, p. 33 o (London, 1736).
Never mingling with the sea which it encloses, according to Homer it has neither source nor mouth.
In Homer he is the origin of all things, even the father of the gods, and the equal in rank of all of them save Zeus.
His epic in fourteen books, known as Ta µe6' "Oµrjpov or Posthomerica, takes up the tale of Troy at the point where Homer's Iliad breaks off (the death of Hector), and carries it down to the capture of the city by the Greeks.
The poet has no originality; in conception and style his work is closely modelled on Homer.
In this last aspect he was one of the chief gods of the Thracians, amongst whom his home was placed even in the time of Homer.
In Homer Ares is the lover of Aphrodite, the wife of Hephaestus, who catches them together in a net and holds them up to the ridicule of the gods.
Homer knows special priests who preside over ritual acts in the temples to which they are attached; but his kings also do sacrifice on behalf of their people.
Felix Jezierski, the previous editor of the above-mentioned journal, published in it translr tions of parts of Homer, and is also the author of an excellent version of Faust.
This is a colossal seated image cut in a niche of the rock, of "Hittite" origin, and perhaps that called by Pausanias the "very ancient statue of the Mother of the Gods," carved by Broteas, son of Tantalus, and sung by Homer.
He also opposed Aristarchus, and supported the Stoics, by insisting on an allegorical interpretation of Homer.
Meeting with an accident while he was wandering on the Palatine, and being detained in Rome, he passed part of his enforced leisure in giving lectures (possibly on Homer, his favourite author), and thus succeeded in arousing among the Romans a taste for the scholarly study of literature.
In the time of Photius the poets usually studied at school were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar; certain select plays of Aeschylus (Prometheus, Septem and Persae), Sophocles (Ajax, Electra and Oedipus Tyrannus), and Euripides (Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenissae, and, next to these, Alcestis, Andromache, Hippolytus, Medea, Rhesus, Troades,) also Aristophanes (beginning with the Plutus), Theocritus, Lycophron, and Dionysius Periegetes.
The opening pages of his commentaries on the Iliad and the Odyssey dwell with enthusiasm on the abiding influence of Homer on the literature of Greece.
His five great pagan poets are Homer, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Lucan; Statius he regards as a " Christian " converted by Virgil's Fourth Eclogue.
Among the scholars of Italian birth, probably the only one in this age who rivalled the Greeks as a public expositor of their own literature was Politian (1454-1494), who lectured on Homer and Aristotle in Florence, translated Herodian, and was specially interested in the Latin authors of the Silver Age and in the text of the Pandects of Justinian.
The Greek authors were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar and the dramatists, with Herodotus, Xenophon and Plato, Isocrates and Demosthenes, Plutarch and Arrian.
Wolf (1759-1824), whose Prolegomena to Homer appeared in 1795.
Greek fell still further into the background; and Homer and Demosthenes The age of g Y g Y iFrenchnfluence.
Lastly, his Mouseion (a word of doubtful meaning) contained the narrative of the contest between Homer and Hesiod, two fragments of which are found in the 'Agon `Omerou Kai `Esiodou, the work of a grammarian in the time of Hadrian.
From Homer onwards Sisyphus was famed as the craftiest of men.
The reason for this punishment is not mentioned in Homer, and is obscure; according to some, he had revealed the designs of the gods to mortals, according to others, he was in the habit of attacking and murdering travellers.
See Homer, Iliad, v.
Zoilus appears to have been at one time a follower of Isocrates, but subsequently a pupil of Polycrates, whom he heard at Athens, where he was a teacher of rhetoric. Zoilus was chiefly known for the acerbity of his attacks on Homer (which gained him the name of Homeromastix, "scourge of Homer"), chiefly directed against the fabulous element in the Homeric poems. Zoilus also wrote against Isocrates and Plato, who had attacked the style of Lysias of which he approved.
The next few happy years were devoted to his profession and a good deal of miscellaneous reading, especially of Shakespeare (he learnt English in order to compare the original with his well-thumbed German version) and Homer.
The Greek sirens of Homer are clearly a form of these deadly fairies, as the Nereids and Oreads and Naiads are fairies of wells, mountains and the sea.
He regarded Homer as the source of all wisdom and knowledge indeed, his description of Greece is largely drawn from Apollodorus's commentary on the Homeric " Catalogue of Ships " - and treated Herodotus with undeserved contempt.
She does not appear in Homer, although according to Xanthus (regarded by some as a fictitious personage), to whom Stesichorus was indebted for much in his Oresteia, she was identical with the Homeric Laodice, and was called Electra because she remained so long unmarried ('A-MKTpa).
In central Euboea were the Curetes and Abantes, who seem to have come from the neighbouring continent by way of the Euripus; of these the Abantes, after being reinforced by Ionians from Attica, rose to great power, and exercised a sort of supremacy over the whole island, so that in Homer the inhabitants generally are called by that name.
There is an old and seemingly trustworthy tradition that some lines in Homer's "Catalogue of the Ships," Iliad, ii.
Aristotle is said to have written on monarchy and on colonies for Alexander; and the pupil is said to have slept with his master's edition of Homer under his pillow, and to have respected him, until from hatred of Aristotle's tactless relative, Callisthenes, who was done to death in 328, he turned at last against Aristotle himself.
Plato's theory of the soul and its immortality was not the ordinary Greek view derived from Homer, who regarded the body as the self, the soul as a shade having a future state but an obscure existence, and stamped that view on the hearts of his countrymen, and affected Aristotle himself.
After Homer there had come to Greece the new view that the soul is more real than the body, that it is imprisoned in the carcase as a prison-house, that it is capable of enjoying a happier life freed from the body, and that it can transmigrate from body to body.
In Homer the fire-god was the son of Zeus and Hera, and found a place in the Olympian system as the divine smith.
In Homer, the skill of Hephaestus in metallurgy is often mentioned; his forge was on Olympus, where he was served by images of golden handmaids which he had animated.
His association with Lemnos can be traced from Homer to the Roman age.
After studying at Leipzig, he went to Amsterdam, where he edited Homer and the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux for Wetzstein the publisher.
It was cultivated by the Greeks in Homer's time under the name erebinthos, and is also referred to by Dioscorides as krios from the resemblance of the pea to the head of a ram.
It is worthy of remark that Homer names, as adorning the garden of Alcinous, seven plants only - wild olive, oil olive, pear, pomegranate, apple, fig and vine.
His doctrinal position is explained in his letters to his patron Eusebius, bishop of the imperial city of Nicomedia, and to Alexander of Alexandria, and in the fragments of the poem in which he set forth his dogmas, which bears the enigmatic title of " Thalia " (06XECa), used in Homer, in the sense of " a goodly banquet," most unjustly ridiculed by Athanasius as an imitation of the licentious style of the drinking-songs of the Egyptian Sotades (270 B.C.).
It is a popular disquisition on the heroes of the Trojan War in the form of a conversation between a Thracian vine-dresser on the shore of the Hellespont and a Phoenician merchant who derives his knowledge from the hero Protesilaus, Palamedes is exalted at the expense of Odysseus, and Homer's unfairness to him is attacked.
Homer speaks as if there were one town in the island called Lemnos, but in historical times there was no such place.
Homer was a close observer of expression and of appearance as correlated with character, as is shown by his description of Thersites 3 and elsewhere.
In Homer he is one of the best and bravest of the heroes, and the favourite of Athena, whereas in later legend he is cowardly and deceitful.
His exposition of the methods of Homer and Sophocles is especially suggestive, and he may be said to have marked an epoch in the appreciation of these writers, and of Greek literature generally.
Homer's familiarity with the art of tempering could come only after centuries of the wide use of iron.
Of these works, only three, the Milanese Theocritus and Isocrates and the Florentine Homer, were classics.
He was the father of the Pleiades and Hyades; according to Homer, of Calypso.
The Greek word is used by Homer as a personal epithet, and by Hesiod for the hard metal in armour, while Theophrastus applies it to the hardest crystal.
As ferryman of the dead he is not mentioned in Homer or Hesiod, and in this character is probably of Egyptian origin.
He became famous as a translator of Homer and Plato.
In antiquity her fame rivalled that of Homer.
He lived during the reigns of the first two Ptolemies, and was at the height of his reputation about 280 B.C. He was the first superintendent of the library at Alexandria and the first critical editor (8copOc,rns) of Homer.
His colleagues in the librarianship were Alexander of Aetolia and Lycophron of Chalcis, to whom were allotted the tragic and comic writers respectively, Homer and other epic poets being assigned to Zenodotus.
In Homer they are gigantic cave-dwellers, cannibals having only one eye, living a pastoral life in the far west (Sicily), ignorant of law and order, fearing neither gods nor men.
The coast is for the most part flat, more regular in outline and less favourable to shipping, while in the east, 1 The name T pcvaKpia was no doubt suggested by the OpcvaKln of Homer (which need not, however, be Sicily), and the geography was then fitted to the apparent meaning given to the name by the change.
In the Homeric poems (1000 B.C.) the Achaeans are the master race in Greece; they are represented both in Homer and in all later traditions as having come into Greece about three generations before the Trojan war (1184 B.C.), i.e.
They are written in the Doric dialect, with epic licences; the metre is dactylico-trochaic. Brief as they are, they show us what Longinus meant by calling Stesichorus "most like Homer"; they are full of epic grandeur, and have a stately sublimity that reminds us of Pindar.
But the work which gained him his reputation as the Homer of Rome, and which called forth the admiration of Cicero and Lucretius and frequent imitation from Virgil, was the Annales, a long narrative poem in eighteen books, containing the record of the national story from mythical times to his own.
The Homeric epithet 130wires may have meant "cow-faced" to the earliest worshippers of Hera, though by Homer and the later Greeks it was understood as "large-eyed," like the cow.
He was a quietist and an epicurean, and the closest parallel to Homer in the literature of the North.
Among the Greeks and Romans, on the other hand, the chariot had passed out of use in war before historical times, and was retained only for races in the public games, or for processions, without undergoing any alteration apparently, its form continuing to correspond with the description of Homer, though it was lighter in build, having to carry only the charioteer.
He employed hundreds of copyists and scholars, giving as much as ten thousand gulden for a metrical translation of Homer, and founded a library of nine thousand volumes.
His Homer and the Epic appeared in 1893; a new prose translation of The Homeric Hymns in 1899, with essays literary and mythological, in which parallels to the Greek myths are given from the traditions of savage races; and his Homer and his Age in 1906.
Between the Milyas and the Pamphylian Gulf was the lofty mountain range of Solyma, which was supposed to derive its name from the Solymi, a people mentioned by Homer in connexion with the Lycians and the story of Bellerophon.
He began to lecture on Homer and the Epistle to Titus, and in connexion with the former he announced that, like Solomon, he sought Tyrian brass and gems for the adornment of God's Temple.
Homer represents Greece as beginning her Iron Age twelve hundred years before our era.
Andromache is one of the finest characters in Homer, distinguished by her affection for her husband and child, her misfortunes and the resignation with which she endures them.
Besides philosophical studies, where he now added Aristotle to Plato, he read Homer and the Greek tragedians, made extracts from books, attended lectures on physiology, and dabbled in other sciences.
The poems of Homer are full of descriptions of elaborate works in bronze, gold and silver, which, even when full allowance is made for poetic fancy, show clearly enough very advanced skill in the working and ornamenting of these metals.
Homer's description of the shield of Achilles, made of bronze, enriched with bands of figure reliefs in gold, silver and tin, could hardly have been written by a man who had not some personal acquaintance with works in metal of a very elaborate kind.
Besides pamphlets on the Catholic and slavery questions, as well as several fugitive jeux d'esprit, and a number of unsigned articles in the Analytical Review, Geddes also published a free metrical version of Select Satires of Horace (1779), and a verbal rendering of the First Book of the Iliad of Homer (1792).
Bearing out the evidence of tradition as well as architecture, the numerous finds of individual objects in terra-cotta figurines, vases, bronzes, engraved stones, &c., point to organized civilized life on this site many generations before Mycenae was built, a fortiori before the life as depicted by Homer flourished - nay, before, as tradition has it, under Proetus the walls of Tiryns were erected.
Homer was acquainted with tin and other articles of Indian merchandise by their Sanskrit names; and a long list has been made of Indian products mentioned in the Bible.
He developed four well-defined characters in the process - a country farmer, Ezekiel Biglow, and his son Hosea; the Rev. Homer Wilbur, a shrewd old-fashioned country minister; and Birdofredum Sawin, a Northern renegade who enters the army, together with one or two subordinate characters; and his stinging satire and sly humour are so set forth in the vernacular of New England as to give at once a historic dignity to this form of speech.
He is not mentioned in Homer or Hesiod.
It is noticeable that there is no mention of these Heraclidae or their invasion in Homer or Hesiod.
It was shown by Homer Lane that a mass of gas held in equilibrium by the mutual gravitation of its parts actually grows hotter through radiating heat; the heat gained by the resulting contraction more than counterbalances that lost by radiation.
In 1729 he published the first twelve books of Homer's Iliad.
She is not mentioned in Homer, although the hearth is recognized as a place of refuge for suppliants; this seems to show that her worship was not universally acknowledged at the time of the Homeric poems. In post-Homeric religion she is one of the twelve Olympian deities, but, as the abiding goddess of the household, she never leaves Olympus.
In Homer the word has a wide application, including not only hand-workers but even heralds and physicians.
The New English Dictionary points out that the transferred use is due less to Homer's Odyssey than to Fenelon's Telemaque, in which Mentor is a somewhat prominent character.
The extant lives of Homer (edited in Westermann's Vitarum Scriptores Graeci minores) are eight in number, including the piece called the Contest of Hesiod and Homer.
The fact that they were all ascribed to Homer merely means that they belong to a period in the history of the Ionian and Aeolian colonies when " Homer " was a name which drew to itself all ancient and popular verse.
Again, comparing the " epigrams " with the legends and anecdotes told in the Lives of Homer, we can hardly doubt that they were the chief source from which these Lives were derived.
Here is doubtless the source of the chief incident of the Herodotean Life - the birth of Homer " Son of the Meles."
The epithet Aeolian implies high antiquity, inasmuch as according to Herodotus Smyrna became Ionian about 688 B.C. Naturally the Ionians had their own version of the story - a version which made Homer come out with the first Athenian colonists.
Hence we may most naturally account for the belief that Homer was a Chian.
Hence doubtless the claim of Colophon to be the native city of Homer - a claim supported in the early times of Homeric learning by the Colophonian poet and grammarian Antimachus.
The Little Iliad and the Phocais, according to the Herodotean life, were composed by Homer when he lived at Phocaea with a certain Thestorides, who carried them off to Chios and there gained fame by reciting them as his own.
It passed under the name of Creophylus, a friend or (as some said) a son-in-law of Homer; but it was generally believed to have been in fact the work of the poet himself.
Finally the Thebaid always counted as the work of Homer.
These indications render it probable that the stories connecting Homer with different cities and islands grew up after his poems had become known and famous, especially in the new and flourishing colonies of Aeolis and Ionia.
The contention for Homer, in short, began at a time when his real history was lost, and he had become a sort of mythical figure, an " eponymous hero," or personification of a great school of poetry.
No legend claims for Miletus even a visit from Homer, or a share in the authorship of any Homeric poem.
Yet Arctinus of Miletus was said to have been a " disciple of Homer," and was certainly one of the earliest and most considerable of the " Cyclic " poets.
The incident shows that the poems of the Ionic Homer had gained in the 6th century B.C., and in the Doric parts of the Peloponnesus, the ascendancy, the national importance and the almost canonical character which they ever afterwards retained.
On the one hand, it seemed to follow from the existence of such a family that Homer was a mere " eponymus," or mythical ancestor; on the other hand, it became easy to imagine the Homeric poems handed down orally in a family whose hereditary occupation it was to recite them, possibly to add new episodes from time to time, or to combine their materials in new ways, as their poetical gifts permitted.
On this a scholiast says that the name "Homeridae " denoted originally descendants of Homer, who sang his poems in succession, but afterwards was applied to rhapsodists who did not claim descent from him.
He adds that there was a famous rhapsodist, Cynaethus of Chios, who was said to be the author of the Hymn to Apollo, and to have first recited Homer at Syracuse about the 69th Olympiad.
On the contrary, Plato and other Attic writers use the word to include interpreters and admirers - in short, the whole " spiritual kindred " - of Homer.
And although we hear of " descendants of Creophylus " as in possession of the Homeric poems, there is no similar story about descendants of Homer himself.
The quotation from the Iliad is of interest because it is made in order to show that Homer supported the story of the travels of Paris to Egypt and Sidon (whereas the Cyclic poem called the Cypria ignored them), and also because the part of the Iliad from which it comes is cited as the " Aristeia of Diomede."
The earliest mention of the name of Homer is found in a fragment of the philosopher Xenophanes (of the 6th century B.e., or possibly earlier), who complains of the false notions implanted through the teaching of Homer.
To these may be added, as occasionally of value, (c) much evidence of the direct influence of Homer upon the subsequent course of literature and art.
In the Peloponnesus the face of things was completely altered by the Dorian conquest, no trace of which is found in Homer.
The eastern shores of the Aegean, which the earliest historical records represent to us as the seat of a brilliant civilization, giving way before the advance of the great military empires (Lydia and afterwards Persia), are almost a blank in Homer's map. The line of settlements can be traced in the Catalogue from Crete to Rhodes, and embraces the neighbouring islands of Cos and Calymnos.
Between Rhodes and the Troad Homer knows of but one city, Miletus - which is a Carian ally of Troy - and the mouth of one river, the Cayster.
The mixed type of government described by Homer - consisting of a king guided by a council of elders, and bringing all important resolutions before the assembly of the fighting men - does not seem to have been universal in Indo-European communities, but to have grown up in many different parts of the world under the stress of similar conditions.
Priesthood in Homer is found in the case of particular temples, where an officer is naturally wanted to take charge of the sacred inclosure and the sacrifices offered within it.
As there is no law in Homer, so there is no morality.
The heroes of Homer are hardly more moral agents than the giants and enchanters of a fairy tale.
It has been supposed indeed that the art of riding was known in Homer's own time, because it occurs in comparisons.
The question whether writing was known in the time of Homer was raised in antiquity, and has been debated with especial eagerness ever since the appearance of Wolf's Prolegomena.
The Theban cycle is represented by the Thebaid (which Callinus, who was of the 7th century, ascribed to Homer) and the Epigoni.
Other ancient epics - ancient enough to have passed under the name of Homer - are the Taking of Oechalia, and the Phocais.
But in the Ionic dialect the sound of died out soon after Homer's time, if indeed it was still pronounced then.
The author of the Iliad, at least, was evidently a European Greek who lived before the colonization of Asia Minor; and the claims of the Asiatic cities mean no more than that in the days of their prosperity these were the chief seats of the fame of Homer.
Now in Homer there are upwards of 80 second aorists (not reckoning aorists of " Verbs in µc," such as i'ar,Y, i,3rpv), whereas in all Attic prose not more than 30 are found.
But here again we find that they bear witness to Homer.
It is plain, in short, that the later poetical vocabulary was separated from that of prose mainly by the forms which the influence of Homer had saved from being forgotten.
Thus Homer has 11 .c€v, we go, - - let us go.
Again, " with " is in Homer auv (with the dative), in Attic prose perec with the genitive.
In addition to the particle Homer has another, hardly distinguishable in meaning.
Homer uses no constructions loosely or without corresponding differences of meaning.
In general, however, these are older forms, which must have existed in Ionic at one time, and may very well have belonged to the Ionic of Homer's time.
The fact that there are so many traces of it in Homer is a strong proof of the antiquity of the poems, but no proof of admixture with Aeolic.
It is clear that the variety of forms in Homer is too great for any actual spoken dialect.
The Epic of Homer was doubtless formed originally from a spoken variety of Greek, but became literary and conventional with time.
There were doubtless poets before Homer, as well as brave men before Agamemnon; and indeed the formation of a poetical dialect such as the Homeric must have been the work of several generations.
What then was the original language of Homer ?
If, however, as is the view of some of Fick's followers, the transposition took place several centuries earlier, before species of literature had appropriated particular dialects, then the linguistic facts upon which Fick relied to distinguish the " Aeolic " and " Ionic " elements in Homer disappear.
The view that Homer underwent at any time a passage from one dialect to another may be dismissed.
As the scene which Homer depicts is prae-Dorian Greece; it is reasonable to call his language Achaean.
An examination of these arguments throws light on two chief aspects of the relation between Homer and his " cyclic " successors.
They did so largely from hints and passing references in Homer.
Monro's Homer's Odyssey, books xiii.
The text of Homer must have attracted some attention when Antimachus came to be known as the " corrector " (ScopOwTi 7 s) of a distinct edition (iicSovcs).
His remarks on Homer (in the Poetics and elsewhere) show that he had made a careful study of the structure and leading ideas of the poems, but do not throw much light on the text.
In the same spirit he looked upon the ideas and beliefs of Homer as a consistent whole, which might be determined from the evidence of the poems. He noticed especially the difference between the stories known to Homer and those given by later poets, and made many comparisons between Homeric and later manners, arts and institutions.
Not that the " Wolfian theory " of the Homeric poems is directly supported by anything in the Scholia; the immediate object of the Prolegomena was not to put forward that theory, but to elucidate the new and remarkable conditions under which the text of Homer had to be settled, viz.
Homer was soon drawn into the circle of inquiry.
The voice of antiquity is unanimous in declaring that " Peisistratus first committed the poems of Homer to writing, and reduced them to the order in which we now read them."
Such attempts usually start with the tacit assumption that each of the persons concerned - Lycurgus, Solon, Peisistratus, Hipparchus - must have done something for the text of Homer, or for the regulation of the rhapsodists.
With regard to the statements which attribute some work in connexion with Homer to Peisistratus, it was noticed by Wolf that Cicero, Pausanias and the others who mention the matter do so nearly in the same words, and, therefore, appear to have drawn from a common source.
This source was .in all probability an epigram quoted in two of the short lives of Homer, and there said to have been inscribed on the statue of Peisistratus at Athens.
In it Peisistratus is made to say of himself that he "collected Homer, who was formerly sung in fragments, for the golden poet was a citizen of ours, since we Athenians founded Smyrna."
Against the theory which sees in Peisistratus the author of the first complete text of Homer we have to set the absolute silence of Herodotus, Thucydides, the orators and the Alexandrian grammarians.
The result of these considerations seems to be that nothing rests on good evidence beyond the fact that Homer was recited by law at the Panathenaic festival.
It was equally natural that the importance of his work as regards the text of Homer should be exaggerated.
Such is the " action " (7rpa cs) which in Aristotle's opinion showed the superiority of Homer to all later epic poets.
These speeches form the cardinal points in the action of the Iliad - the framework into which everything else is set; and they have also the best title to the name of Homer.
Either is enough to fill the space in Homer's canvas; and the suspicion arises (as when two Platonic dialogues bear the same name) that if either had been genuine, the other would not have come into existence.
For instance, the word 4 6/30s, which in Homer means " flight in battle " (not " fear "), occurs thirty-nine times in the Iliad, and only once in the Odyssey; but then there are no battles in the Odyssey.
This has been especially noticed in the case of the story of Polyphemus, one that is found in many countries, and in versions which cannot all be derived from Homer.
A few words remain to be said on the style and general character of the Homeric poems, and on the comparisons which may be made between Homer and analogous poetry in other countries.
The peculiar rapidity of Homer is due in great measure to his use of the hexameter verse.
That Homer possesses this rapidity without falling into the corresponding faults - that is, without becoming either " jerky " or monotonous - is perhaps the best proof of his unequalled poetical skill.
The plainness and directness, both of thought and of expression, which characterize Homer were doubtless qualities of his age; but the author of the Iliad (like Voltaire, to whom Arnold happily compares him) must have possessed the national gift in a surpassing degree.
On the contrary, they belong rather to the humbler epico-lyrical school for which Homer has been so often claimed.
The proof that Homer does not belong to that school - that his poetry is not in any true sense " ballad-poetry " - is furnished by the higher artistic structure of his poems (already discussed), and as regards style by the fourth of the qualities distinguished by Arnold - the quality of nobleness.
It is his noble and powerful style, sustained through every change of idea and subject, that finally separates Homer from all forms of " ballad-poetry " and " popular epic."
Most of these, however, fail to afford any useful points of comparison, either from their utter unlikeness to Homer, or because there is no evidence of the existence of anterior popular songs.
They are epic in character, and were recited by professional jongleurs (who may be compared to the aouSoi of Homer).
But in Homer the interest is purely dramatic. There is no strong antipathy of race or religion; the war turns on no political event; the capture of Troy lies outside the range of the Iliad.
Lang (see especially the latter's Homer and his Age, 1907).
Of the former kind were Homer, Lucretius, Burns, Scott; of the latter were Euripides, Dryden, Milton.
Phaer's Virgil, Chapman's Homer, Harrington's Orlando, Marlowe's Hero and Leander, Fairfax's Jerusalem Delivered, North's Plutarch, Hoby's Courtier - to mention only a few examples - placed English readers simultaneously in possession of the most eminent and representative works of Greece, Rome and Italy.
According to Suidas, he also wrote a treatise on the poetry of Hesiod and Homer.
In Homer the element of time is definitely recognized.
But behind Homer stretches the dim scene of pre-Hellenic religion, and the conflict of elements " Pelasgic, and Hellenic, out of which the Homeric religion emerged; and beneath the Homeric religion how many features of the' religion of ghosts and nature-spirits survived in popular usage and the lower cults!
Jones calls it, which, if ever it should be generally understood in its original language, will contest the merit of invention with Homer itself.
Plato (Theaetetus, 15 2 E) puts him at the head of the masters of comedy, coupling his name with Homer and, according to a remark in Diogenes Laertius, Plato was indebted to Epicharmus for much of his philosophy.
He read Homer in twenty-one days, and then went through all the other Greek poets, orators and historians, forming a grammar for himself as he went along.
As, in Fenelon's own opinion, the great merit of Homer was his "amiable simplicity," so the great merit of Telemaque is the art that gives to each adventure its hidden moral, to each scene some sly reflection on Versailles.
To name the Palmeirim d'Inglaterra of Moraes (q.v.) is to mention a famous book from which, we are told, Burke quoted in the House of Commons, while Cervantes had long previously declared that it ought to be guarded as carefully as the works of Homer.
But Homer we now know to be a relatively late witness in this matter.
Yet the Arcadians, like the other Greeks, had probably long before Homer risen above this stage of thought; for Greek religion was so strongly 1 Corp. Inscr.
His character and power as a deity of the sky, who ruled the phenomena of the air, so clearly expressed in Homer, explains the greater part of his cult and cult-titles.
Petrarch, who possessed a MS. of Homer and a portion of Plato, never acquired the Greek language, although he attempted to gain some little knowledge of it in his later years.
Homer, he said, was dumb to him, while he was deaf to Homer; and he could only approach the Iliad in Boccaccio's rude Latin version.
But they were continued and edited by men in whom the critical spirit was awakening, as when the chroniclers of Ionian towns began the criticism of Homer.
The perspective stretches out as far the other side of Homer as we are this.
The whole book is a queer mixture of Hellenism and Hebraism, in which the same method of allegory is applied to Homer and Hesiod as to Moses.
This pause is no new invention, being exceedingly common in Homer.
In the Epics his practice agrees with that of Homer.
The large bronzes are almost the only ones which have survived from classical times, the most famous of them being the seated Mercury and the dancing Faun; the marbles reckon among their vast number the Psyche, the Capuan Venus, the portraits of Homer and Julius Caesar, as well as the huge group called the Toro Farnese (Amphion and Zethus tying Dirce to its horns), the Farnese Hercules, the excellent though late statues of the Balbi on horseback and a very fine collection of ancient portrait busts.
He promoted the subscription for Pope's Homer, contributed some numbers to the Tatler, Spectator, and Intelligencer, and joined with Pope and Arbuthnot in establishing the Scriblerus Club, writing Martinus Scriblerus, his share in which can have been but small, as well as John Bull, where the chapter recommending the education of all blue-eyed children in depravity for the public good must surely be his.
About this time he ventured to send in to the Academy a translation of the passage from Homer proposed for their prize, and, though his attempt passed without notice, he received so much encouragement from his friends that he contemplated translating the whole of the Iliad.
In Homer Apollo appears only as the god of prophecy, the sender of plagues, and sometimes as a warrior, but elsewhere as exercising the most varied functions.
In Homer he frequently appears on the field, like Ares and Athene, bearing the aegis to frighten the foe.
This side of Apollo's character does not appear in Homer, where Paieon is mentioned as the physician of the gods.
In Homer she is the mother of the gods, though not a universal mother like Cybele, the Phrygian Great Mother, with whom she was later identified.
His best book is a Life of Cardinal Wolsey (London, 1724), containing documents which are still valuable for reference; of his other writings the Prefatory Epistle containing some remarks to be published on Homer's Iliad (London, 1714), was occasioned by Pope's proposed translation of the Iliad, and his Theologia speculativa (London, 1718), earned him the degree of D.D.
In literature the chief glory of Chios was the school of epic poets called Homeridae, who helped to create a received text of Homer and gave the island the reputation of being the poet's birthplace.
He could quote Homer and Pindar, and he had read Aristotle.
The third, fourth, fifth and sixth books are devoted to Virgil, dwelling respectively on his learning in religious matters, his rhetorical skill, his debt to Homer (with a comparison of the art of the two) and to other Greek writers, and the nature and extent of his borrowings from the earlier Latin poets.
Herodotus, like Homer, has a denotative as well as a connotative use.
The copious additional information given by later writers is all by way either of interpretation of local legends in the light of Ephorus's theory, or of explanation of the name "Pelasgoi"; as when Philochorus expands a popular etymology "stork-folk" (w€Xaa'yoi-- it €Xap'yoi) into a theory of their seasonal migrations; or Apollodorus says that Homer calls Zeus Pelasgian "because he is not far from every one of us," 6TL Tiffs ryes 7rEXas EaTCV.
It is in the Arcadian and Athenian rites and legends, however, which are certainly earlier than Homer, that the original conception of the goddess is to be found.
As already noticed, in Homer Artemis appears as a goddess of death; closely akin to this is the conception of her as a goddess of war.
His Ert j €ptaµoi dealt with difficult words and peculiar forms in Homer.
The ancient fame of Demosthenes as an orator can be compared only with the fame of Homer as a poet.
It is curious that, though the sphinx (as also the gryphon) were thus common in the Mycenaean period, the words ÏƒÏ†Î¯Î³Î¾ and Î³ÏÏÏˆ do not occur in Homer.
It is so employed by Homer, who calls it ipvOpos (red), afico/i (glittering), OaEvv6 (shining), terms which apply only to copper.
Religion may here be defined as the conception of divine, or at least supernatural powers entertained by men in moments of gratitude or of need and distress, in hours of weakness, when, as Homer says, "all folk yearn after the gods."
As the ancestors of the Greeks, with the Aryans of India, the Egyptians, and others advanced in civilization, their religious thought was shocked and surprised by myths (originally dating from the period of savagery, and natural in that period) which were preserved down to the time of Pausanias by local priesthoods, or which were stereotyped in the ancient poems of Hesiod and Homer, or in the Brahmanas and Vedas of India, or were retained in the popular religion of Egypt.
The baser Greek myths of the wanderings, amours and adventures of the gods, myths ignored by Homer, are parallel to the adventures of the Alcheringa people, and the fable of the mutilation of Osiris and the search for the lost organ by Isis, actually occurs among the Alcheringa tales of Messrs Spencer and Gillen.
The quarrels of Hera with Zeus (which are a humorous anthropomorphic study in Homer) are represented as a way of speaking about winter and rough weather.
Smintheus, one of Apollo's titles in Homer, is connected with the field-mouse (0 7.41.003), one of his many sacred animals.
Apollo, in any case, is the young and beautiful archer-god of Homer; Artemis, his sister, is the goddess of archery, who takes her pastime in the chase.
Her close relations (un-Homeric) with the bear and bear-worship have suggested a derivation from " In Homer her " gentle shafts " deal sudden and painless death; she is a beautiful Azrael.
A much more important daughter of Zeus in Homer is Athene, the " greyeyed " or (as some take yXavtc arcs, rather improbably) the " owlheaded " goddess.
Her birth from the head of Zeus is not explicitly alluded to in Homer., In Homer, Athene is a warlike maiden, the patron-goddess of wisdom and manly resolution.
Poseidon is to the sea what Zeus is to the air, and Hades to the underworld in Homer.
Thus Homer adopts the system 5 Cf.
Among the other gods Dionysus is but slightly alluded to in Homer as the son of Zeus and Semele, as the object of persecution, and as connected with the myth of Ariadne.
As to the origin of the gods, Homer is not very explicit.
Zeus is usually called Cronion and Cronides, which Homer certainly understood to mean " son of Cronus," yet it is expressly stated that Zeus " imprisoned Cronus beneath the earth and the unvintaged sea."
The victory remained with the younger branch, the immortal Olympians of Homer.
Very much later the name was mistaken for a genuine patronymic, In Homer and in Hesiod myths enter the region of literature, and become, as it were, national.
It is to be noticed that there is no mention in Homer of her prophetic gifts.
The Mysians appear in the list of the Trojan allies in Homer and are represented as settled in the Calms valley at the coming of Telephus to Pergamum; but nothing else is known of their early history.
Here he completed his translation of Homer, materially assisted by Mr Throckmorton's chaplain Dr Gregson.
In 1790, a year before the Homer was published, commenced his friendship with his cousin John Johnson, known to all biographers of the poet as " Johnny of Norfolk."
In Homer's Iliad he is described as of great stature and colossal frame, second only to Achilles in strength and bravery, and the "bulwark of the Achaeans."
The most common and consistent tradition connects Homer with the valley of Smyrna and the banks of the Meles; his figure was one of the stock types on Smyrnaean coins, one class of which was called Homerian; the epithet "Melesigenes" was applied to him; the cave where he was wont to compose his poems was shown near the source of the river; his temple, the Homereum, stood on its banks.
The name "Illyrian" (see Illyria) was applied to all the tribes of this stock who dwelt west of the northern extensions of the Pindus range and in what was termed Upper Macedonia in later times, and who extended right up to the head of the Adriatic. In Homer the name Macedonia is not yet known, and the term Thracian is applied to all the tribes dwelling from Pieria to the Euxine.
Even so Homer and Hesiod attributed to the gods all that is a shame and a reproach among men - theft, adultery, deceit and other lawless acts..
Archaeological evidence points clearly now to the conclusion that the splendid but overgrown civilization of the Mycenaean or " late Minoan " period of the Aegean Bronze Age collapsed rather suddenly before a rapid succession of assaults by comparatively barbarous invaders from the European mainland north of the Aegean; that these invaders passed partly by way of Thrace and the Hellespont into Asia Minor, partly by Macedon and Thessaly into peninsular Greece and the Aegean islands; that in east Peloponnese and Crete, at all events, a first shock (somewhat later than i soo B.C.) led to the establishment of a cultural, social and political situation which in many respects resembles what is depicted in Homer as the " Achaean " age, with principal centres in Rhodes, Crete, Laconia, Argolis, Attica, Orchomenus and south-east Thessaly; and that this regime was itself shattered by a second shock or series of shocks somewhat earlier than boo B.C. These latter events correspond in character and date with the traditional irruption of the Dorians and their associates.
Survival of fair hair and complexion and light eyes among the upper classes in Thebes and some other localities shows that the blonde type of mankind which is characteristic of north-western Europe had already penetrated into Greek lands before classical times; but the ascription of the same physical traits to the Achaeans of Homer forbids us to regard them as peculiar to that latest wave of pre-classical immigrants to which the Dorians belong; and there is no satisfactory evidence as to the coloration of the Spartans, who alone were reputed to be pure-blooded Dorians in historic times.
They find that the documents are of composite origin, partly notes from Mary to Darnley, partly a diary of Mary's, and so on; all combined and edited by some one who played the part of the legendary editorial committee of Peisistratus (see Homer), which compiled the Iliad and Odyssey out of fragmentary lays !
At Florence the earliest editions of Homer (1488) and Isocrates (1493) had been produced by Demetrius Chalcondyles, while Janus Lascaris was the first to edit the Greek anthology, Apollonius Rhodius, and parts of Euripides, Callimachus and Lucian (1494-1496).
In the university of Paris, which was originally opposed to this innovation, the statutes of 1598 prescribed the study of Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Theocritus, Plato, Demosthenes and Isocrates (as well as the principal Latin classics), and required the production of three exercises in Greek or Latin in each week.
In literature, from the times of Homer and Hesiod, she played an important part, appearing most frequently as the jealous and resentful wife of Zeus.
The evidence of Mycenaean remains, as compared with the literary evidence of Homer, is both inadequate and inconclusive (see Aegean Civilization; Greek Art; Arms And Armour, Ancient; Plate; &c.).
In Homer they are two in number (in later writers generally three); their home is an island in the western sea between Aeaea, the island of Circe, and the rock of Scylla.
The Margites - a humorous poem which kept its ground as the reputed work of Homer down to the time of Aristotle - began with the words, " There came to Colophon an old man, a divine singer, servant of the Muses and Apollo."
We seem through him to obtain a glimpse of an early post-Homeric age in Ionia, when the immediate disciples and successors of Homer were distinct figures in a trustworthy tradition - when they had not yet merged their individuality in the legendary " Homer " of the Epic Cycle.
It seems, then, that if we imagine Homer as a singer in a royal house of the Homeric age, but with more freedom regarding the limits of his subject, and a more tranquil audience than is allowed him in the rapid movement of the Odyssey, we shall probably not be far from the truth.
The passage shows, not merely that Homer was well known at Colophon in the time of Xenophanes, but also that the great advance in moral and religious ideas which forced Plato to banish Homer from his republic had made itself felt in the days of the early Ionic philosophers.
The proof of this proposition is to be obtained chiefly by comparing the grammatical formation and the syntax of Homer with those of Attic. The comparison of the vocabulary is in the nature of things less conclusive on the question of date.
Thus we find in Homer, but not in the later language (a) The second aorist middle without the " thematic " E or as g - was struck; Ec/Oc-ro, perished; aA-To, leaped.
The true account of the matter is that in Homer the place of the preposition is not rigidly fixed, as it was afterwards.
The orators Lycurgus and Isocrates make a great deal of the recitation of Homer at the Panathenaea, but know nothing of the poems having been collected and arranged at Athens, a fact which would have redounded still more to the honour of the city.
Under these influences the older stories of Lycurgus bringing Homer to the Peloponnesus, and Solon providing for the recitation at Athens, were thrown into the shade.
One of the earliest movements after this discovery was probably that of the Achaeans of Homer, who about 1450 B.C. invaded Greece (see Achaeans), bringing with them the use of iron and brooches, the practice of cremating the dead, and the style of ornament known as Geometric. Later the Cimmerians (see Scythia and Cimmerii) passed down from the Cimbric Chersonese, doubtless following the amber routes, and then turned east along the Danube, some of their tribes, e.g.
Homer calls the God of the lower world Zeus KaraxOovcos, 6 and the title of Zeus XOovcos which was known to Hesiod, occurred in the worship of Corinth;';' and there is reason to believe that Eubouleus of Eleusis and Trophonius of Lebadeia are faded forms of the nether Zeus; in the Phrygian religion of Zeus, which no doubt contains primitive Aryan elements, we find the Thunder-God associated also with the nether powers.8 A glimpse into a very old stratum of Hellenic religion is afforded us by the records of Dodona.
We now know this city to have belonged to the middle pre-Mycenaean period, long' prior to the generation of Homer's Archaeans; but Schliemann far and wide proclaimed it "Troy," and was backed by Gladstone and a large part of the European public. Trying to resume his work in February 1874, he found himself inhibited by the Ottoman government, whose allotted share of the gold treasure had not been satisfactory, and it was not till April 1876 that he obtained a firman.
It is curious that, though the sphinx (as also the gryphon) were thus common in the Mycenaean period, the words ÃÆ’Ãâ€ ÃŽ¯ÃŽ³ÃŽ¾ and ÃŽ³ÃÃÃË† do not occur in Homer.
Religion may here be defined as the conception of divine, or at least supernatural powers entertained by men in moments of gratitude or of need and distress, in hours of weakness, when, as Homer says, " all folk yearn after the gods."
Of these formulae '(chosen because illustrated by Greek heroic legends) - (I) is a sanction of barbarous nuptial etiquette; (2) is an obvious ordinary incident; (3) is moral, and both (3) and (1) may pair off with all the myths of the origin of death from the infringement of a taboo or sacred command; (4) would naturally occur wherever, as on the West Coast of Africa, human victims have been offered to sharks or other beasts; (5) the story of flight from a horrible crime, occurs in some stellar myths, and is an easy and natural invention; (6) flight from wizard father or husband, is found in Bushman and Namaqua myth, where the husband is an elephant; (7) success of youngest brother, may have been an explanation and sanction of " tungsten-recht " - Maui in New Zealand is an example, and Herodotus found the story among the Scythians; (8) the bride given to successful adventurer, is consonant with heroic manners as late as Homer; (9) is no less consonant with the belief that beasts have human sentiments and supernatural powers; (to) the " strong man," is found among Eskimo and Zulus, and was an obvious invention when strength was the most admired of qualities; (II) the baffled ogre, is found among Basques and Irish, and turns on a form of punning which inspires an " ananzi " story in West Africa; (12) descent into Hades, is the natural result of the savage conception of Hades, and the tale is told of actual living people in the Solomon Islands and in New Caledonia; Eskimo Angekoks can and do descend into Hades - it is the prerogative of the necromantic magician; (13) " the false bride," found among the Zulus, does not permit of such easy explanation - naturally, in Zululand, the false bride is an animal; (14) the bride accused of bearing be 1st-children, has already been disposed of; the belief is inevitable where no distinction worth mentioning is taken between men and animals.
It was Homer's requiem; itself an Iliad and Odyssey in the air, singing its own wrath and wanderings.
I kept Homer's Iliad on my table through the summer, though I looked at his page only now and then.
Homer Simpson 10th August, 2002 But you do n't reach sanctuary just by looking at the sky.
Sanskrit epic similes differ greatly from the similes of Homer in this aspect.
The ancient Greek poet Homer is the supposed author of The Odyssey, although very little is known about him.
Troy is a movie written by David Benioff, and loosely based on Homer 's epic tale.
You sing whatever immortal Homer left unsung, so the Trojan War wo n't lack the final touch.
While the first five seasons were sold in rectangular cardboard cases, season six introduced plastic packaging in the shape of a character's head, in this case, Homer.
Or the hair on Homer Simpson's, if you get a character Chia.
If Nice or Perfect pops up, chances for a homer are higher.
The Homer theme, based on The Simpsons television show, is also quite amusing.
Zeus and the Titaness, Dione, are given as parents of Aphrodite (counterpart of the Roman Venus - goddess of love) in Homer's Illyiad / Iliad.
In Homer's legend, Aphrodite married the god of fire, Hephaestus, who was reportedly very ugly.
Aneas was the founder of Rome in Homer's legend.
There are two sources that are imperative to consult concerning the accounts of the mythological gods - Homer's Iliad and Hesiod's Theogony.
Homer - The father, who is a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant.
Homer stumbles through life as a crude, clumsy, lazy, overeating character who is extremely loyal to and protective of his family.
Santa's Little Helper - Furniture chewing greyhound that Homer brought home from the dog racing track.
Homer's "Iliad" tells the story of how their sister, Helen, launched a thousand ships during the Trojan War with her beauty.
Goat cheese was mentioned as far back as classical times, when Homer referred to the sheep and goat milk that was turned into cheese in the caves of Ancient Greece.
In the 1940s and 1950s, funny song parodies rose in popularity, thanks to Spike Jones and Homer and Jethro, who wrote funny parodies to lampoon both the popular music and the styles of the day.
Ghosts have appeared as speaking characters in drama as long as drama has existed, at least as far back as Homer.