How to use Holy in a sentence
Is this a holy place?
May God keep you in His holy and mighty care.
This was the Holy Grail for a spy!
Several conventions guarantee the free communication of the bishops, clergy and laity with the Holy See; and this admits of the publication and execution of apostolic letters in matters spiritual.
To endow the universal substance with moral attributes, to maintain that it is more than the metaphysical ground of everything, to say it is the perfect realization of the holy, the beautiful and the good, can only have a meaning for him who feels within himself what real not imaginary values are clothed in those expressions.Advertisement
Having taken holy orders his advancement in the Church was very rapid, mainly through the influence of his brother Andrew.
It consists of reading of Holy Scripture, psalmody, non-liturgical prayer and preaching.
Oh, by the by!" he shouted through the doorway after Pierre, "is it true that the countess has fallen into the clutches of the holy fathers of the Society of Jesus?"
You said the bridge would be burned, but who would it burn, I could not know by the holy spirit!
He also excavated the holy tank from which the town derives its name of Amrita Turas, or Pool of Immortality.Advertisement
A Hugh de Lusignan appears in the illfated crusade of 110o-1101; another Hugh, the Brown, came as a pilgrim to the Holy Land in 1164, and was taken prisoner by Nureddin.
The present church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the site upon which one of the churches of Constantine was built, but the second church, the Basilica of the Cross, has completely disappeared.
Certainly the names are largely identical with ancient holy cities, which, however, are holy because they possessed noted shrines, not because the inhabitants were members of a holy tribe.
The conquest of Cyprus by the Turks, and their aggressions on the Christian powers, frightened the states of the Mediterranean into forming a holy league for their common defence.
Other writers again have placed the Acra on the eastern side of the hill upon which the church of the Holy Sepulchre now stands, but as this point was probably quite outside the city at the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, and is at too great a distance from the Temple, it can hardly be accepted.Advertisement
After the holy sites had been determined, Constantine gave orders for the construction of two magnificent churches, the one over the tomb and the other over the place where the cross was discovered.
The churches at the Holy Sepulchre were much damaged, but were partially restored by the monk Modestus, who devoted himself with great energy to the work.
Adieu, dear and kind friend; may our divine Saviour and His most Holy Mother keep you in their holy and all-powerful care!
And he dreamed that the Holy Virgin Mother of the Kiev catacombs came to him and said, 'Believe in me and I will make you whole.'
And so I pray God to have you, my friend, in His holy and powerful keeping--Your friend Helene.Advertisement
Why were the holy relics, the arms, ammunition, gunpowder, and stores of corn not removed?
This letter having no other object, I pray God, monsieur le Prince Koutouzov, to keep you in His holy and gracious protection!
Let us not seek to penetrate what mysteries they contain; for how can we, miserable sinners that we are, know the terrible and holy secrets of Providence while we remain in this flesh which forms an impenetrable veil between us and the Eternal?
Later he took holy orders, held two livings, and became master of the rolls in 1494, while Henry VII.
The state controls all ecclesiastical appointments, decides on the passing or rejection of all decrees of the Holy See, and provides an annual subsidy for maintenance of the churches and clergy.Advertisement
The four Gothic churches of St Nicholas,' St Mary, with a lofty steeple, St James and The Holy Ghost, and the fine medieval town hall, dating in its oldest part from 1306 and restored in 1882, are among the more striking buildings.
On the whole it is most likely that the Temple was erected by Solomon on the same spot as is now occupied by the Dome of the Rock, commonly known as the Mosque of Omar, and, regard being had to the levels of the ground, it is possible that the Holy of Holies, the most sacred chamber of the Temple, stood over the rock which is still regarded with veneration by the Mahommedans.
After a severe struggle the Persians were defeated by the emperor Heraclius, who entered Jerusalem in triumph in 62 9 bringing with him the holy cross, which had been carried off by Chosroes.
Oh, Mamma, how is it you don't understand that the Holy Father, who has the right to grant dispensations...
This foe confounding Thy land, desiring to lay waste the whole world, rises against us; these lawless men are gathered together to overthrow Thy kingdom, to destroy Thy dear Jerusalem, Thy beloved Russia; to defile Thy temples, to overthrow Thine altars, and to desecrate our holy shrines.Advertisement
In the East, where after the example of the Church of Antioch the Quadragesima fast had been kept distinct from that of Holy Week, the whole fast came to last for seven weeks, both Saturdays and Sundays (except Holy Saturday) being, however, excluded.
Shakespeare is buried in the chancel of Holy Trinity church, his wife lying next to him.
Torquemada went with the sovereigns to Cordova, to Madrid or wherever the states-general were held, to urge on the war; and he obtained from the Holy See the same spiritual favours that had been enjoyed by the Crusaders.
At Saragossa Peter Arbue, a canon and an ardent inquisitor, was slain in 1485 whilst praying in a church; and the threats against the hated Torquemada made him go in fear of his life, and he never went abroad without an escort of forty familiars of the Holy Office on horseback and two hundred more on foot.
While Ferdinand was occupied with the Bohemian rebels, Bethlen led his armies into Hungary (1619), and soon won over the whole of the northern counties, even securing Pressburg and the Holy Crown.Advertisement
The Panislamic propaganda was encouraged; the privileges of foreigners in the Ottoman Empire - of ten an obstacle to government - were curtailed; the new railway to the Holy Places was pressed on, and emissaries were sent to distant countries preaching Islam and the caliph's supremacy.
The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop - all these are fine Moorish houses; the "Grand" and the "New" Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger - a Turkish palace built in 1799-1800.
The church of the Holy Trinity (built in 1870) stands at the southern end of the rue d'Isly near the site of the demolished Fort Bab Azoun.
In 1653 he had made the astonishing proposal to the Dutch that England and Holland should divide the habitable globe outside Europe between them, that all states maintaining the Inquisition should be treated as enemies by both the proposed allies, and that the latter "should send missionaries to all peoples willing to receive them, to inculcate the truth of Jesus Christ and the Holy Gospel."
As no one could curse Jesus except under the influence of a devilish afflatus, so none could say "Jesus is Lord" except he was inspired by the Holy Spirit.Advertisement
This enthusiastic love of poverty is certainly the keynote of St Francis's spirit; and so one of his disciples in an allegorical poem (translated into English as The Lady of Poverty by Montgomery Carmichael, 1901), and Giotto in one of the frescoes at Assisi, celebrated the "holy nuptials of Francis with Lady Poverty."
Francis himself set out, probably in 1212, for the Holy Land to preach the Gospel to the Saracens, but he was shipwrecked and had to return.
The sultan sent him back to the Christian camp, and he passed on to the Holy Land.
In 1274 the council of Lyons imposed a tax of a tenth part of all church revenues during the six following years for the relief of the Holy Land.
Having come to an understanding with his father-in-law Podébrad, he was able to turn his arms against the emperor Frederick, and in April 1462 Frederick restored the holy crown for 60,000 ducats and was allowed to retain certain Hungarian counties with the title of king; in return for which concessions, extorted from Matthias by the necessity of coping with a simultaneous rebellion of the Magyar noble in league with Podebrad's son Victorinus, the emperor recognized Matthias as the actual sovereign of Hungary.Advertisement
On returning home he was crowned with the holy crown on the 29th of March 1464, and, after driving the Czechs out of his northern counties, turned southwards again, this time recovering all the parts of Bosnia which still remained in Turkish hands.
In the next place, the antagonism of the popes to the emperors, whicl became hereditary in the Holy College, forced the former tc - assume the protectorate of the national cause.
The points of dispute between them related mainly to Matildas bequest, and to the kingdom of Sicily, which the pope had rendered independent of the empire by renewing its investiture in the name of the Holy See.
Among the principal events of that reign must be reckoned the foundation of the two orders, Franciscan and Dominican, who were destined to form a militia for the holy see in conflict with the empire and the heretics of Lombardy.
This is the meaning of the three leagues, in the March, in the duchy of Spoleto and in Tuscany, which now combined the chief cities of the papal territory into allies of the holy see.Advertisement
His conquests reverted to the Holy See.
Under the same pontiff, the Holy See absorbed the duchy of Urbino on the death of Francesco Maria II., the last representative of Montefeltro and Della Rovere.
Urbans predecessor, Paul V., advanced so far as to extend his spiritual jurisdiction over Venice, which, up to the date of his election (1605), had resisted all encroachments of the Holy See.
In reply the pope prepared a bull of excommunication against those who should infringe the prerogatives of the Holy See in this matter.
The pope, Pius VII., who had long been kept under restraint by Napoleon at Fontainebleau, returned to Rome in May 1814, and was recognized by the congress of Vienna (not without some demur on the part of Austria) as the sovereign of all the former possessions of the Holy See.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
The royal commissioner for finance, Giacomelli, had, as a precautionary measure, seized the pontifical treasury; but upon being informed by Cardinal Antonelli that among the funds deposited in the treasury were 1,000,000 crowns of Peters Pence offered by the faithful to the pope in person, the commissioner was authorized by the Italian council of state not only to restore this sum, but also to indemnify the Holy See for moneys expended for the service of the October coupon of the pontifical debt, that debt having been taken over by the Italian state.
The Italian treasury at once honored all the papal drafts, and thus contributed a first instalment of the 3,225,000 lire per annum afterwards placed by Article 4 of the Law of Guarantees at the disposal of the Holy See.
Once in possession of Rome, and guarantor to the Catholic world of the spiritual independence of the pope, the Italian government prepared juridically to regulate its relations to the Holy See.
Article 10 extended immunity to ecclesiastics employed by the Holy See, and bestowed upon foreign ecciesiastics in Rome the personal rights of Italian citizens.
By Article 11, diplomatists accredited to the Holy See, and papal diplomatists while in Italy, were placed on the same footing as diplomatists accredited to the Quirinal.
It is interesting, in view of his later efforts to spread the knowledge of the Bible among the people, to know that in the capacity of examiner he insisted on a thorough acquaintance with the Holy Scriptures, and rejected several candidates who were deficient in this qualification.
The most famous of the relics preserved in the cathedral is the "Holy Coat of Trier," believed by the devout to be the seamless robe of the Saviour, and said to have been discovered and presented to the city by the empress Helena.
Legend associated Trier with the martyrdom of part of the Theban legion (c. 286) and with the relics found by St Helena in the Holy Land.
The elector Richard von Greiffenklau (1467-1531) successfully opposed the Reformation, and inaugurated the exhibitions of the holy coat, which called forth the denunciations of Luther, but have continued since his day to bring wealth and celebrity to the city.
The sixth oecumenical synod decreed that the dead pope Honorius should be " cast out from the holy Catholic Church of God " and anathematized, a sentence approved by the reigning pope Leo II.
Abroad unsuccessful attempts were made by local councils to enact that officials and vicars-general should be in holy orders (Hefele on Councils of Tortosa in 1429 and Sixth of Milan in 1582).
It provided for the visitation of the clergy by the bishop, and for the power of the clergy to exclude their lay folk from the Holy Communion, subject to appeal to the bishop. Both minor and major excommunication had been in use, and for a long time public penance was required.
The patriarchate was abolished and its jurisdiction transferred by a council at St Petersburg in 1721 to a Holy Governing Synod.
The Holy Synod possesses the metropolitical jurisdiction.
Such a court can only suspend for seven days unless with the sanction of the Holy Synod (Joyce, op. cit.).
The Holy Synod can only inflict temporary suspension, or imprisonment for fifteen days, unless with the sanction of the King's ministry.
In Rome and Alexandria, and even in Jerusalem, Holy Week was included in Lent and the whole fast lasted but six weeks, Saturdays, however, not being exempt.
The Holy Spirit, we are told, rested on him, drawn to him by the usual means of the mysticsself-flogging, ablutions and penance.
It was a day of the most holy joy.
The church of the Holy Trinity occupies the site of a Saxon monastery, which existed before 691, when the bishop of Worcester received it in exchange from Ethelred, king of Mercia.
The foundation of the chapel of the gild of the Holy Cross was laid by Robert de Stratford.
The Gild of the Holy Cross, founded in the 13th century for the support of poor priests and others, exercised great authority over the town for many years.
He went to Egypt and Syria, and for the sake of visiting the holy cities became a Mahommedan.
The first seat of the Holy Office was in the convent of San Pablo, where the friars, however, resented the orders, on the pretext that they were not delegates of the inquisitor-general.
The dead even were not free from the Holy Office; but processes could be instituted against them and their remains subjected to punishment.
The sovereigns, too, saw the stream of money, which they had hoped for, diverted to the coffers of the Holy Office, and in 1493 they made complaint to the pope; but Torquemada was powerful enough to secure most of the money for the expenses of the Inquisition.
Murray's influence, however, being now supreme, he embarked in December for France, but was driven by storms on to Holy Island, where he was detained, and was subsequently, on the 18th of January 1564, seized at Berwick and sent by Elizabeth to the Tower, whence he was soon liberated and proceeded to France.
In the, 4th century Aix, now a free city of the Holy Roman Empire, played a conspicuous part, especially in the league which, between 1351 and 1387, kept the peace between the Meuse and the Rhine.
The contrast between the new regime and the ancient tradition of the city was curiously illustrated in 1818 by a scene described in Metternich's Memoirs, when, before the opening of the congress, Francis I., emperor of Austria, regarded by all Germany as the successor of the Holy Roman emperors, knelt at the tomb of Charlemagne amid a worshipping crowd, while the Protestant Frederick William III.
Kadesh (holy) was 1 Exod.
Such quotations were multiplied, as theologians learnt to depend increasingly upon their predecessors, until the testimony of "our holy father" Athanasius, or Gregory the Divine, or John the Golden-mouthed, came to be regarded as decisive in reference to controverted points of faith and practice.
There St Fiacre built a monastery in honour of the Holy Virgin, and to it added a small house for guests, to which he himself withdrew.
Three of them express in the strongest language the orthodox faith of the church in opposition to the Arian heresy, and these three put in unmistakable language the procession of the Holy Spirit from both Father and Son.
Pop. (1 9 01) 3799 The church of the Holy Trinity, one of the most noteworthy in Staffordshire, is principally Early English, and has fine stained glass.
He at once summoned the fourteenth general council of the Catholic Church, which met at Lyons in 1274, with an attendance of some 1600 prelates, for the purpose of considering the eastern schism, the condition of the Holy Land, and the abuses in the church.
The Holy Synod (established in 1721) is the supreme organ of government of the Orthodox Church in Russia.
Apart from the schools under the ministry of war (Cossack voiskos and schools at the barracks), the great bulk of the primary schools are either under the ministry of public instruction or of the Holy Synod.
Important features of Greek sacrifice, though not necessarily found in every rite, were the putting of wreaths and pieces of wool on the victim, the gilding of its horns, the lustration of the officiant and the sprinkling of those present with holy water.
After washing our hands and lighting the lamps, each is invited to sing a hymn before all to God, either taken from holy writ or of his own composition.
The world could only be christianized on condition that old holy days and customs were continued.
Another element in this ideal scheme which comes into prominence is the sharp distinction between holy and profane.
It became a holy people on holy ground.
In later Jewish literature we meet with further examples of similar hypostases in the form of Memra, Metatron, Shechinah, Holy Spirit and Bath kol.
There the tablets of "the soul of the most holy ancestral teacher, Confucius," and of his ten principal disciples stand as objects of worship for their countless followers.
On leaving Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1681, he became an assistant master at the Birmingham grammarschool, and took holy orders.
All blasphemies against God, as denying His being, or providence, all contumelious reproaches of Jesus Christ, all profane scoffing at the Holy Scriptures, or exposing any part thereof to contempt or ridicule, are punishable by the temporal courts with fine, imprisonment and also infamous corporal punishment.
An act of 1812-1813 excepts from these enactments "persons denying as therein mentioned respecting the Holy Trinity," but otherwise the common and the statute law on the subject remain as stated.
In France, blasphemy (which included, also, speaking against the Holy Virgin and the saints, denying one's faith, or speaking with impiety of holy things) was from very early times punished with great severity.
So little was the collection considered as a literary work with a definite text that every one assumed a right to abridge or enlarge, to insert ideas of his own, or fresh scriptural quotations; nor were the scribes and translators by any means scrupulous about the names of natural objects, and even the passages from Holy Writ.
By 1214 the nucleus of such an institute was formed round Dominic and was known as the "Holy Preaching."
Sergiyevo has long been renowned for its manufacture of holy pictures (painted and carved), spoons, and other articles carved in wood, especially toys, which are sold to pilgrims who resort to the place to the number of ioo,000 annually.
A small wooden church, erected by the monk Sergius, and afterwards burned (1391) by the Tatars, stood on the site now occupied by the cathedral of the Trinity, which was built in 1422, and contains the relics of Sergius, as well as ecclesiastic treasures of priceless value and a holy picture which has frequently been brought into requisition in Russian campaigns.
The momentary effect was immense; for some of the halo of the Holy Empire still clung round the head of the house of Habsburg, and Francis Joseph was welcomed to the ancient free city with enthusiasm.
In 1147 a count of Montferrat took part in the Second Crusade; but the connexion with the Holy Land begins to be intimate in 1176.
It was begun by Ugolino Vieri of Siena in 1337, and was made to contain the Holy Corporal from Bolsena, which, according to the legend, became miraculously stained with blood during the celebration of mass to convince a sceptical priest of the truth of the doctrine of transubstantiation.
Seers and prophets of all kinds ranged from those who were consulted for daily mundane affairs to those who revealed the oracles in times of stress, from those who haunted local holy sites to those high in royal favour, from the quiet domestic communities to the austere mountain recluse.
It was at the holy well of Kadesh, in the sacred mounts of Sinai and Horeb, and in the field of Edom that the 1 Cf.
This was so even in Palestine - the land which the Jews hoped to possess - and in Jerusalem itself, the holy city, in which the Temple stood.
The Romans had taken their holy place, and the Law was all that was left to them.
The holy city was barred against the Jews; they were excluded, under pain of death, from approaching within view of the walls.
Having completed his studies in the Capranica College' at Rome, and having taken holy orders, he studied diplomacy at the College of Ecclesiastical Nobles, and in 1875 was appointed councillor to the papal nunciature at Madrid.
One part of her religious being survives in that of the later Rhea, another in that of Aphrodite, one of whose epithets, Ariadne (= the exceeding holy), takes us back to the earliest Cnossian tradition.
His legendary presentation as the " Friend of God," like Abraham, to whom as to Cretan Moses the law was revealed on the holy mountain, calls myths.
Two years later, before the same pontiff, he preached in the city of Genoa a sermon which led to the general institution, in the countries of the obedience of Avignon, of the festival of the Holy Trinity.
The prefaces and notes to both these expressed the view that Holy Scripture is the only rule of doctrine, and that justification is by faith alone.
It is worn, too, on the vigils of fasts, Ember Days and days of intercession, on the Feast of Holy Innocents (if on a week-day), at litanies, penitential processions, and at other than solemn benedictions and consecrations.
His followers held a progressive revelation of God in the ages of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Just as the Mosaic dispensation came to an end with the appearance of Christ, so the sacraments of the new dispensation have lost their meaning and efficacy since the incarnation of God as Holy Spirit in the Amalricans.
As applied to the Roman Catholic Church the word embraces the whole hierarchy, whether its clerici be in holy orders or merely in minor orders.
In 1218 he went on crusade to the Holy Land and took part in the capture of Damietta; then returning to England he died at Wallingford in October 1232.
This was followed by the outbreak of the dispute between France and Turkey over the guardianship of the holy places at Jerusalem, which, after the original cause of quarrel had been forgotten, developed into the Crimean war.
Of the former class the most conspicuous was the Holy Roman Empire; but in Europe all monarchies were, within certain limits, originally elective; and, after the introduction of Christianity, the essential condition of the assumption of sovereign power was not so much kinship with the reigning family as the "sacring" by the divine authority of the Church.
It is celebrated in the evening, and is accompanied by the ancient love feast (partaken by all communicants seated at a common table), by the ceremony of the washing of feet and by the salutation of the holy kiss, the three last-named ceremonies being observed by the sexes separately.
They are sincerely devout in religion, and feel an awe regarding "the holy Brahmans," holding the life and the person of a Brahman sacred, even though he be a criminal of the deepest dye.
In 1633, although still below the canonical age, he took holy orders, and, accepting the invitation of Thomas Risden, a former fellow-student, to supply his place for a short time as lecturer in St Paul's, he at once attracted attention by his eloquence and by his handsome face.
Then followed in rapid succession the Twenty-seven Sermons (1651), "for the summer half-year," and the Twenty-five (1653), "for the winter half-year," The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living (1650), The Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying (1651), a controversial treatise on The Real Presence..
The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living provided a manual of Christian practice, which has retained its place with devout readers.
Holy Dying was perhaps even more popular.
His most popular works, The Liberty of Prophesying, Holy Living, and Holy Dying have been often reprinted.
In 1750 he decided not to take holy orders, giving as his reason, according to Dupont de Nemours, "that he could not bear to wear a mask all his life."
In fulfilment of a vow to visit the Holy Sepulchre, which he could not accomplish in person, Bruce requested Douglas to carry his heart there, but his faithful follower perished on the way, fighting in Spain against the Moors, and the heart of Bruce, recovered by Sir William Keith, found its resting-place at Melrose.
This school, of which the origin (though assigned to Athenagoras) is unknown, was the first and for a long time the only institution where Christians were instructed simultaneously in the Greek sciences and the doctrines of the holy Scriptures.
With respect to other doctrines also, such as those of the Holy Spirit and the incarnation of Christ, &c., Origen prepared the way for the later dogmas.
Thus when, after the crowning victory of Rivoli (14th of January 1797), Mantua surrendered and the Austrian rule in Italy for the time collapsed, Bonaparte was virtually the idol of the French nation, the master of the Directory and potentially the protector of the Holy See.
The logical outcome of this proceeding appeared on the 1st of August, when Napoleon declared that he no longer recognized the existence of the Holy Roman Empire.
The folly of the monarchs of the Holy Alliance in Europe gained for the writings of Montholon and Las Cases (that of Gourgaud was not published till 1899) a ready reception, with the result that Napoleon reappeared in the literature of the ensuing decades wielding an influence scarcely less potent than that of the grey-coated figure into whose arms France flung herself on his return from Elba.
Either as a soldier or a merchant, he found his way to Jerusalem, where a hospice had for some time existed for the convenience of those who wished to visit the holy places.
This Raba., the mother of falsehood and lies, of poisoning and fornication is an anti-Christian parody of the Ruha d'Qudsha (Holy Spirit) of the Syriac Church.
Of the names of the planets Estera (Ishtar Venus, also called Ruha d'Qudsha, "holy spirit"), Enba (Nebo, Mercury), Sin (moon), Kewan (Saturn), Bil (Jupiter), and Nirig (Nirgal, Mars) reveal their Babylonian origin; Il or Il Il, the sun, is also known as Kadush and Adunay (the Adonai of the Old Testament); as lord of the planetary spirits his place is in the midst of them; they are the source of all temptation and evil amongst men.
The Feast of Holy Innocents became a regular festival of children, in which a boy, elected by his fellows of the choir school, functioned solemnly as bishop or archbishop, surrounded by the elder choir-boys as his clergy, while the canons and other clergy took the humbler seats.
The ass had been introduced into the ritual of the church in the 9th century, representing either Balaam's ass, that which stood with the ox beside the manger at Bethlehem, that which carried the Holy Family into Egypt, or that on which Christ rode in triumph into Jerusalem.
The Church as a whole took but little interest in apologetics and polemics, nay, had at times even an instinctive feeling that in these controversies that which she held holy might easily suffer loss.
She now commanded the route to the Holy Land and could supply the necessary transport, and from the Crusades her growing aristocracy reaped large profits.
Zara was recovered, and while still at Zara the leaders of the Crusade, supported by Dandolo, resolved for their own private purposes to attack Constantinople, instead of making for the Holy Land.
His Doctrinal Treatises and Introductions to Different Portions of the Holy Scripture were published by the Parker Society in 1848.
In the Eastern churches, indeed, the conception of the church as the guardian of " the faith once delivered to the saints " soon overshadowed that of interpretation and development by catholic consent, and, though they have throughout claimed the title of Catholic, their chief glory is that conveyed in the name of the Holy Orthodox Church.
In 1771 he took holy orders, and afterwards visited many parts of Europe as tutor and travelling companion to various noblemen and gentlemen.
Contemporaries regarded them in the former of these two aspects, as "holy wars" and "pilgrims' progresses" towards Christ's Sepulchre; the reflective eye of history must perhaps regard them more exclusively from the latter point of view.
Considered as holy wars the Crusades must be interpreted by the ideas of an age which was dominated by the spirit of otherworldliness, and accordingly ruled by the clerical power which represented the other world.
That the Pilgrims' Progress should thus have turned into a Holy War is a fact readily explicable, when we turn to consider the attempts made by the Church, during the 11th century, to purify, or at any rate to direct, the feudal instinct for private war (Fehde).
For what follows, with regard to the Church's conversion of guerra into the Holy War, cf.
Charlemagne founded a hospital and a library in the Holy City; and later legend, when it made him the first of crusaders and the conqueror of the Holy Land, was not without some basis of fact.
The fanaticism of the caliph Hakim destroyed the church of the Sepulchre and ended the Frankish protectorate (Ioio); and the patronage of the Holy Places, a source of strife between the Greek and the Latin Churches as late as the beginning of the Crimean War, passed to the Byzantine empire in 1021.
It was thus natural, for these reasons, that the conquest of the Holy Land should gradually become an object for the ambition of Western Christianity - an object which the papacy, eager to realize its dream of a universal Church subject to its sway, would naturally cherish and attempt to advance.
On the one hand, the reconquest of lost territories from the Mahommedans by Christian powers had been proceeding steadily for more than a hundred years before the First Crusade; on the other hand, the position of the Eastern empire after 1071 was a clear and definite summons to the Christian West, and proved, in the event, the immediate occasion of the holy war.
The primary force, which thus transmuted an appeal for reinforcements into a holy war for the conquest of Palestine, was the Church.
It is the Church which creates the First Crusade, because the clergy believes in penitentiary pilgrimages, and the war against the Seljuks can be turned into a pilgrimage to the Sepulchre; because, again, it wishes to direct the fighting instinct of the laity, and the consecrating name of Jerusalem provides an unimpeachable channel; above all, because the papacy desires a perfect and universal Church, and a perfect and universal Church must rule in the Holy Land.
Like Gregory, Urban had thus sought for aid for the Eastern empire; unlike Gregory, who had only mentioned the Holy Sepulchre in a single letter, and then casually, he had struck the note of Jerusalem.
Thousands at once took the cross; the first was Bishop Adhemar of Puy, whom Urban named his legate and made leader of the First Crusade (for the holy war, according to Urban's original conception, must needs be led by a clerk).
The Chanson de Roland, which cannot be posterior to the First Crusade - for the poem never alludes to it - already contains the idea of the Holy War against Islam.
It was the disunion of the Syrian amirs, and the division between the Abbasids and the Fatimites, that made possible the conquest of the Holy City and the foundation of the kingdom of Jerusalem.
It was in the ranks of the Provencals, where the religiosity of Count Raymund seems to have extended to his followers, that these phenomena appeared; and they culminated in the discovery of the Holy Lance, which had pierced the side of the Saviour.
It might seem natural that the Holy City, conquered in a holy war by an army of which the pope had made a churchman, Bishop Adhemar, the leader, should be left to the government of the Church.
There were Genoese ships in St Simeon's harbour in the spring of 1098 and at Jaffa in 1099; in 1099 Dagobert, the archbishop of Pisa, led a fleet from his city to the Holy Land; and in i ioo there came to Jaffa a Venetian fleet of 200 sail, whose leaders promised Venetian assistance in return for freedom from tolls and a third of each town they helped to conquer.
In IIIo, for example, he was enabled to capture Sidon by the aid of Sigurd of Norway, the Jorsalafari, who came to the Holy Land with a fleet of 55 ships, starting in 1107, and in a three years' "wandering," after the old Norse fashion, fighting the Moors in Spain, and fraternizing with the Normans in Sicily.
Irritated by the concessions made by Alexius to the Pisans in II II, and furious at the revocation of her own privileges by John Comnenus in 1118, the republic naturally sought a new outlet in the Holy Land.
The vassal was bound to pay military service, not, as in western Europe, for a limited period of forty days, but for the whole year - the Holy Land being, as it were, in a perpetual state of siege.
The contributions sent to the Holy Land by the monarchs of western Europe, as commutations.
The richest proprietor in the Holy Land,' but practically immune from any charges on its property, the Church helped, unconsciously, to ruin the kingdom which it should have supported above all others.
They rode incessantly to battle over burning sands, in full armour 1 For instance, the abbey of Mount Sion had large possessions, not only in the Holy Land (at Ascalon, Jaffa, Acre, Tyre, Caesarea and Tarsus), but also in Sicily, Calabria, Lombardy, Spain and France (at Orleans, Bourges and Poitiers).
Manuel Comnenus demanded that all conquests made by the crusaders should be his fiefs; and the question was debated whether the crusaders should follow the land route through Hungary, along the old road of Charlemagne, or should go by sea to the Holy Land.
The crusaders of northern Germany never went to the Holy Land at all; they were allowed the crusaders' privileges for attacking the Wends to the east of the Elbe - a fact which at once attests the cleavage between northern and southern Germany (intensified of late years by the war of investitures), and anticipates the age of the Teutonic knights and their long Crusade on the Baltic. The crusaders of the Low Countries and of England took the sea route, and attacked and captured Lisbon on their way, thus helping to found the kingdom of Portugal, and achieving the one real success which was gained by the Second Crusade.
Louis VII., who now appeared, was induced by this failure to take the long and circuitous route by the west coast of Asia Minor; but even so he had lost the majority of his troops when he reached the Holy Land in 1148.
Scarcely a year passed in which new bands did not come to the Holy Land.
The position of the Franks in the Holy Land was not improved by the attack on Damascus; while the ignominious failure of a Crusade led by two kings brought the whole crusading movement into discredit in western Europe, and it was utterly in vain that Suger and St Bernard attempted to gather a fresh Crusade in 1150.
The Crusade was now at last answered by the counter-Crusade - the jihad; for though for many years past Saladin had, in his attempt to acquire all the inheritance of Nureddin, left Palestine unmenaced and intact, his ultimate aim was always the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem.
The tables were turned; and fighting on their own soil for the recovery of what was to them too a holy place, the Mahommedans easily carried the day.
The fingers of the clock had been pushed back; once more things were as they had been at the time of the First Crusade; once more the West must arm itself for the holy war and the recovery of Jerusalem - but now it must face a united Mahommedan world, where in 1096 it had found political and religious dissension, and it must attempt its vastly heavier task without the morning freshness of a new religious impulse, and with something of the weariness of a hundred years of struggle upon its shoulders.
Compelled to leave the court of Constantinople, which he had been serving, he had sailed for the Holy Land and reached Tyre about three weeks after the battle of Hattin.
In Germany it was the solemn national diet of Mainz (Easter 1188) which "swore the expedition" to the Holy Land; in France and England the agreement of the two kings decided upon a joint Crusade.
War had indeed disturbed the original agreement of Gisors between Philip Augustus and Henry II., but a new agreement was made between Henry's successor, Richard I., and the French king at Nonancourt (December 1189), by which the two monarchs were to meet at Vezelay next year, and then follow the sea route to the Holy Land together.
The enforced inactivity of a whole winter was the mother of disputes and bad blood; and when Philip sailed for the Holy Land, at the end of March 1191, the failure of the Crusade was already decided.
Richard stayed in the Holy Land for another year, during which he won a battle at Arsuf and refortified Jaffa.
In the event, a peace was made for three years (September 2nd, 1192), by which Lydda and Ramlah were to be equally divided, Ascalon was to be destroyed, and small bodies of crusaders were to be allowed to visit the Holy Sepulchre.
In this condition Richard left the Holy Land, when he began his eventful return, in October 1192.
Some results were, however, achieved by a body of German crusaders which had sailed in advance of Henry; by its influence Amalric of Cyprus succeeded Henry of Champagne, who died in 1197, as king of Jerusalem, and a vassal of the emperor thus became ruler in the Holy Land; while the Teutonic order, which had begun as a hospital during the siege of Acre (1190-1191), now received its organization.
The precarious empire which had been founded in 1204 drained away all the vigorous adventurers of the West for its support for many years to come, and the Holy Land was starved to feed a land less holy, but equally greedy of men.'
It owed its origin to his feverish zeal for the recovery of Jerusalem, rather than to any pressing need in the Holy Land.
While the Holy Land was thus at peace, crusaders were also being drawn elsewhere by the needs of the Latin empire of Constantinople, or the attractions of the Albigensian Crusade.2 But Innocent could never consent to forget Jerusalem, as long as his right hand retained its cunning.
The crusaders were driven back towards Damietta; and at the end of August 1221 Pelagius had to make a treaty with Malik-al-Kamil, by which he gained a free retreat and the surrender of the Holy Cross at the price of the restoration of Damietta.
Here was a crusader against whom a Crusade was proclaimed in his own territories; and when he arrived in the Holy Land he found little obedience and many insults from all but his own immediate followers.
He stayed in the Holy Land little more than a month after his coronation; and leaving in May he soon overcame the papal armies in Italy, and secured absolution from Gregory IX.
On the one hand he repeated the provisions of the Fourth Lateran council on behalf of the Crusade to the Holy Land; on the other hand he preached a Crusade against Frederick II., and promised to all who would join the full benefits of absolution and remission of sins.
For the next four years he stayed in the Holy Land, seeking to do what he could for the establishing of the kingdom of Jerusalem.
Two things gave the Mongols an influence on the history of the Holy Land and the fate of the Crusades.
For over a year he stayed in the Holy Land, making little sallies from Acre, and negotiating 2 Of the four Latin principalities of the East, Edessa was the first to fall, being extinguished between 1144 and 1150.
In 1274, at the council of Lyons, Gregory X., who had been the companion of Edward in the Holy Land, preached the Crusade to an assembly which contained envoys from the Mongol khan and Michael Palaeologus as well as from many western princes.
A precarious peace had reigned in the Holy Land since 1272, when Bibars had granted a truce of ten years; but the fall of the great power of Charles of Anjou set free Kala`un the successor of Bibars' son (who reigned little more than two years), to complete the work of the great sultan.
But it is often the case that theory develops as practice fails; and as the theory of the Holy Roman Empire was never more vigorous than in the days of its decrepitude, so it was with the Crusades.
The French kings are all crusaders - in name - until the beginning of the Hundred Years' War; but the only crusader who ever carried war in Palestine and sought to shake the hold of the Mamelukes on the Holy Land was Peter I., king of Cyprus from 1359 to 1369.
In a more noble fashion the Crusade survived in the minds of the navigators; "Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Albuquerque, and many others dreamed, and not insincerely, that they were labouring for the deliverance of the Holy Land, and they bore the Cross on their breasts."
A wide missionary activity had begun in the 13th century - an activity which was the product of the Crusades and the contact with the Moslem which they brought, but which yet helped to check the Crusades, substituting as it did peaceful and spiritual conquests of souls for the violence and materialism of even a Holy War.
He gives an ecclesiastic's account of the First Crusade, and is specially full on the spiritualistic phenomena which accompanied and followed the finding of the Holy Lance.
The basis of this growth is partly the story-telling instinct innate in all men, which loves to heighten an effect, sharpen a point or increase a contrast - the instinct which breathes in Icelandic sagas like that of Burnt Njal; partly the instinct of idolization, if it may be so called, which leads to the perversion into impossible greatness of an approved character, and has created, in this instance, the legendary figures of Peter the Hermit and Godfrey of Bouillon (qq.v.); partly the religious impulse, which counted nothing wonderful in a holy war, and imported miraculous elements even into the sober pages of the Gesta.
There seems no doubt that it is a piece of plagiary, and that its writer, Richard, "canon of the Holy Trinity" in London, stands to the Carmen as Tudebod to the Gesta, or Albert of Aix to his supposed original.
The latter appears mainly in Palestine, and has of late been considerably strengthened by immigration of European Jews, who have almost doubled the population of Jerusalem, and settled upon several fertile spots throughout the Holy Land.
After graduating at Cambridge (Emmanuel College) and taking holy orders, he officiated for several years as curate at Mitcham.
Compared with other Mahommedan peoples, the Malays are not fanatical, though occasionally an outbreak against those of a different creed is glorified by them into a holy war.
In 1066 he became the first abbot of St Stephen's at Caen, a house which the duke had been enjoined to found as a penance for his disobedience to the Holy See.
In 1395 Niccolo da Martoni, a pilgrim from the Holy Land, visited Athens and wrote a description of a portion of the city.
In due course Ignatius arrived at Jerusalem, where he intended to remain, in order continuously to visit the holy places and help souls.
They then took the vows of poverty and chastity, and pledged themselves to go to the Holy Land as missionaries or for the purpose of tending the sick; or if this design should prove impracticable, to go to Rome and place themselves at the disposal of the pope for any purpose.
The year of waiting passed away without any chance of going to the Holy Land.
The pope appointed Faber to teach Holy Scripture, and Laynez scholastic theology, in the university of the Sapienza.
The Holy Ghost College became Duquesne University, and in 1920 had 2,129 students, including department of law, 86 students, and evening school of accounts and finance, 1,120 students.
Although he had not yet taken even the minor holy orders, he was nominated bishop of Couserans by the king on the 28th of December 1641, but the pope refused to give his sanction.
His assertion that he was moved to undertake his task mainly by "zeal for God's house and for His holy law," and the very free use he has made of quotations from the Bible, leave scarcely a.
Among the most conspicuous of these are the mosque of Aurangzeb, built as an intentional insult in the middle of the Hindu quarter; the Bisheshwar or Golden Temple, important less through architectural beauty than through its rank as the holiest spot in the holy city; and the Durga temple, which, like most of the other principal temples, is a Mahratta building of the 17th century.
Even if he be an inhabitant of the sacred city he must traverse it once in the year to free himself from the impurities and sins contracted within the holy precincts.
Benares, having from time immemorial been a holy city, contains a vast number of Brahmans, who either subsist by charitable contributions, or are supported by endowments in the numerous religious institutions of the city.
The earliest mosque erected was that at Mecca, which consisted of a great court, in the centre of which was the Ka`ba or Holy Stone.
His reputation as a historian had been made as early as 1864 by his Holy Roman Empire.
Wagner's next and last work was Parsifal, based upon the legend of the Holy Grail, as set forth, not in the legend of the Morte d'Arthur, but in the versions of Chrestien de Troyes and Wolfram von Eschenbach and other less-known works.
In 1791 he was created a count of the Holy Roman Empire, and chose his title of Rumford from the name as it then was of the American township to which his wife's family belonged.
In convocation, when the supremacy was discussed (11th of February 1531), he declared that acceptance would cause the clergy "to be hissed out of the society of God's holy Catholic Church"; and it was his influence that brought in the saving clause, quantum per legem Dei licet.
By listening to the revelations of the "Holy Maid of Kent," the nun Elizabeth Barton, he was charged with misprision of treason, and was condemned to the loss of his goods and to imprisonment at the king's will, penalties he was allowed to compound by a fine of X300 (25th of March 1534).
Breda was in the i i th century a direct fief of the Holy Roman Empire, its earliest known lord being Henry I.
Meletius was a holy man, whose ascetic life was all the more remarkable in view of his great private wealth.
It is partly under grass and partly wooded, and is inhabited by Maoris, by whom it is regarded as holy ground.
On the appeal of the abbots the dispute was now referred by the Holy Synod to the court of the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the intervention of the Russian Government was invited.
The Holy Synod decided that the peculiar tenets of Bulatovich and his followers were to be known and condemned as.` the heresy of the Name of God."
In his absence he left Lucrezia as regent, offering the astounding spectacle of a pope's natural daughter in charge of the Holy See.
But he does not indulge, like Papias, in sensuous descriptions of this seventh millennium; to Barnabas it is a time of rest, of sinlessness, and of a holy peace.
Mrs Buchan claimed prophetic inspiration and pretended to confer the Holy Ghost upon her followers by breathing upon them; they believed that the millennium was near, and that they would not die, but be translated.
They believe that an experience of more than 250 years gives ample warrant for the belief that Christ did not command them as a perpetual outward ordinance; on the contrary, they hold that it was alien to His method to lay down minute, outward rules for all time, but that He enunciated principles which His Church should, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, apply to the varying needs of the day.
Can you set to your seal that they are true by the work of the same spirit in you that gave them forth in the holy ancients ?
The fathers, who were filled with suspicion, would only allow the legates of the pope to preside over them on condition of their recognizing the superiority of the council; the legates ended by submitting to this humiliating formality, but in their own name only, thus reserving the judgment of the Holy See.
The church of the Holy Ghost (Helgeands-Kyrka) in a late Romanesque style (c. 1250) is a remarkable structure with a nave of two storeys.
Such were the letters on the study of Holy Scripture (18th November 1893), and on the reunion of Christendom (20th June 1894).
On the 25th of July 1898 he addressed to the Scottish Catholic bishops a letter, in the course of which he said that "many of the Scottish people who do not agree with us in faith sincerely love the name of Christ and strive to ascertain His doctrine and to imitate His most holy example."
Slaves who were admitted to holy orders, or who entered a monastery, became freemen, under certain restrictions framed to prevent fraud or injustice.
Up to this time Wesley says he had no notion of inward holiness, but went on "habitually and for the most part very contentedly in some or other known sin, indeed with some intermission and short struggles especially before and after Holy Communion," which he was obliged to attend three times a year.
When he came into residence in November he was recognized as the father of the Holy Club.
John Gambold, a member of the Holy Club, who afterwards became a Moravian bishop, says "he was blest with such activity as to be always gaining ground, and such steadiness that he Iost none.
John Clayton, afterwards chaplain of the Collegiate Church of Manchester, who remained a strong High Churchman; James Hervey, author of Meditations among the Tombs, and Theron and Aspasio; Benjamin Ingham, who became the Yorkshire evangelist; and Thomas Broughton, afterwards secretary of the S.P.C.K., were members of the Holy Club, and George Whitefield joined it on the eve of the Wesleys' departure for Georgia.
From the time of my admission to the priesthood to my (present) fifty-ninth year, I have endeavoured, for my own use and that of my brethren, to make brief notes upon the Holy Scripture, either out of the works of the venerable fathers, or in conformity with their meaning and interpretation."
At an early age he went to visit the holy places.
Gherardo, however, did not say, as has been supposed, that Joachim's books were the new gospel, but merely that the Calabrian abbot had supplied the key to Holy Writ, and that with the help of that intelligentia mystica it would be possible to extract from the Old and New Testaments the eternal meaning, the gospel according to the Spirit, a gospel which would never be written; as for this eternal sense, it had been entrusted to an order set apart, to the Franciscan order announced by Joachim, and in this order the ideal of the third age was realized.
The Gathas alone within the Avesta make claim to be the ipsissima verba of the prophet; in the rest of that work they are put into Zoroaster's own mouth (Yasna, 9, 1) and are expressly called "the Gathas of the holy Zoroaster" (Yasna, 57, 8).
They are comprehended under the general name of amesha spenta (" immortal holy ones") and are the prototypes of the seven amshaspands of a later date.
Its centre was the holy fire on the altar.
Every young believer in Mazda, after having been received into the religious community by being girt with the holy lace, had to choose a confessor and a spiritual guide (ratu).
In 1858 the representatives of Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Piedmont, Russia, the Holy See, Sweden, Tuscany and Turkey appropriated the sum of 400,000 francs in recognition of the use of his instruments in those countries.
Hence Wisdom, the second Sephirah, and the beginning of development, when it proceeded from the Holy Aged (another name of the first Sephirah) emanated in male and female, for Wisdom expanded, and Intelligence, the third Sephirah, proceeded from it, and thus were obtained male and female, viz.
Discussing the thrice holy in Isaiah vi.
A holy war was preached by their leader, Hussein Aga Berberli, a brilliant soldier and orator, who called himself Zmaj Bosanski, the "Dragon of Bosnia," and was regarded by his followers as a saint.
The Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life (1728), together with its predecessor, A Treatise of Christian Perfection (1726), deeply influenced the chief actors in the great Evangelical revival.
It is surrounded by old walls, flanked with towers, and has a considerable number of ancient buildings, among which are the fine church of the Holy Cross; St John's church, which dates from the time of the Hohenstaufen; and, situated on a height near the town, partly hewn out of the rock, the pilgrimage church of the Saviour.
Turkey's Arabian possessions comprise, besides El-Hasa on the Persian Gulf, the low-lying, hot and insalubrious Tehama and the south-western highlands (vilayets of Hejaz and Yemen) stretching continuously along the east side of the Red Sea, and including the two holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
In this are included the expenses of the administration of both the central and provincial departments of the finance ministry, the mint, charitable allowances, expenses and presents in connexion with the holy cities (£T121,410), pension funds of state officials (£7628,038), administrative allowance made to the agricultural bank (ET225,380) and various other expenses.
Various administrative reforms were in hand in 1910-1911, by which it was expected considerably to reduce the credits demanded by the finance ministry - especially those in connexion with the holy cities.
After the subjugation of the Yemen, the absorption of the holy places was also attempted, and in Suleiman's reign judges were appointed thither from Constantinople.
The result was that the Turks in retaliation deprived the Catholics, always under the protection of France, of some of their privileges in connexion with the holy places, which were now granted to the Orthodox Church.
Turkey now sought for a rapprochement with France, and endeavoured to bring about her intervention in return for concessions as regards the holy places.
The war, which broke out in 1743, was waged with varying fortunes, and the peace by which it was concluded on the 5th of September 1746, beyond stipulating for a few privileges for Persian pilgrims to the holy places, altered nothing in the settlement arranged ten years before with Murad IV.
These religious sectaries attacked and plundered all Mussulmans not conforming to their peculiar tenets; they overran Kerbela and the Hejaz, sacking the holy cities and closing the pilgrim routes.
Roman Catholic, ecclesiastics had been guaranteed certain rights in the holy places.
He demanded the recognition of the status quo in the holy places, and of the tsar's right, under the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji, to the protectorate of all Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman dominions.
On the 22nd of April the French, Russian and British ministers came to an agreement on the question of the holy places; with the result that, when the question of protectorate was raised, Menshikov found himself opposed by the ambassadors of all the other powers.
The most notable churches are St Gotthard (14th century, remodelled in 1782) St Mary, attached to the Piarist college (1655-1658), the chapel of St Lawrence (13th century) and the church of the Holy Trinity belonging to the Franciscan friary (1655).
First and seventh days shall be holy assembly, but a re-offering for seven days.
The first month on the 14th day of the month is the Passover; the 15th day of this month shall be a feast; seven days unleavened bread to be eaten; first day a holy assembly with fire offering, two young bullocks and one lamb and seven firstling he-lambs without blemish, with appropriate meal offering and one he-goat for sin-offering; on the seventh day another hol assembly.
It was founded by the people of Epidaurus the Holy, and its principal temples were those of Asclepius and Aphrodite.
Desiring to see the clergy practise a holy poverty, he proposes the suppression of tithes and the seizure by the secular power of the greater part of the property of the church.
The pope, no longer possessing any more power than other bishops (though Marsilius recognizes that the supremacy of the Church of Rome goes back to the earliest times of Christianity), is to content himself with a pre-eminence mainly of an honorary kind, without claiming to interpret the Holy Scriptures, define dogmas or distribute benefices; moreover, he is to be elected by the Christian people, or by the delegates of the people, i.e.
The power to bless in this ecclesiastical sense is reserved to priests alone; the blessing of the paschal candle on Holy Saturday by the deacon being the one exception that proves the rule, for he uses for the purpose grains of incense previously blessed by the priest at the altar.
Certain prayers are said before each benediction, after which he sprinkles the person or thing to be blessed with holy water and, where prescribed, censes them.
He is attended by a minister with a vase of holy water, an aspergillum and a copy of the Rituale or missal.
In the blessing of the holy water (cap. ii.), the essential instrument of all benedictions, the object is clearly to establish its potency against evil spirits.
In early days the home of the Aymaras by Lake Titicaca was a "holy land" for the Incas themselves, whose national legends attributed the origin of all Quichua (Inca) civilization to that region.
Whatever effect the reinvigoration of the papacy may have had in hastening the process, the original impulse towards the adoption of the Roman rite had proceeded, not from Rome, but from Spain and Gaul; it was the natural result of the lively intercourse between the Churches of these countries and the Holy See.
An Orthodox bishop, vested for the holy liturgy, wears over his cassock - (i) the rnxcipcov, or alb (q.v.); the E7nrpay,Acov, or stole (q.v.); (3) the a narrow stuff girdle clasped behind, which holds together the two vestments above named; (4) the E7 n, uaviexa, liturgical cuffs, corresponding, possibly, to the pontifical gloves of the West;' (5) the i 7rtyovarcov, a stiff lozengeshaped piece of stuff hanging at the right side by a piece of riband from the girdle or attached to the o-AKKos, the equivalent of the Western maniple (q.v.); (6) the like the Western dalmatic (q.v.), worn instead of the 4acv6Acov, or chasuble; (7) the c?µocp6pcov, the equivalent of the Western pallium (q.v.).
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem seems already to have had its canon of liturgical colours.
In England red vestments are worn at the mass (of the Holy Spirit) attended by the Roman Catholic judges and barristers at the opening of term, the so-called "Red Mass."
The red hangings of the Holy Table, usual where the liturgical colours are not used, are also - like the cushions to support the service books - supposed to be a survival of the Sarum use.
As for copes, in some places they were ordered to be worn, and were worn at the Holy Communion, 4 while elsewhere they were thrown into the bonfires with the rest.5 The difficulty seems to have been not to suppress the chasuble, of the use of which after 1559 not a single authoritative instance has been adduced, but to save the surplice, which the more zealous Puritans looked on with scarcely less disfavour.
With this the bishop of Exeter (Ornaments Rubric, p. 30) would seem to agree, when he says that "the customs of the present day do not fully accord with any reasonable interpretation of the rubric. The stole, now nearly universal, is only covered by the rubric if the word ' vestment ' be taken to include it (a very dubious point), and then only at Holy Communion."
The cathedral church of the Holy Trinity belongs to the 13th century.
On his return he was wrecked on the holy island of Fosite (Heligoland), where his disregard of the pagan superstition nearly cost him his life.
The sacrament of the most Holy Eucharist shall be freely administered in the two kinds, that is bread and wine, to all the faithful in Christ who are not precluded by mortal sin - according to the word and disposition of Our Saviour.
Basing their views on the synoptic Gospels, and tracing descent from the obscure sect of the Alogi, the Adoptianists under Theodotus of Byzantium tried to found a school at Rome c. 185, asserting that Jesus was a man, filled with the Holy Spirit's inspiration from his baptism, and so attaining such a perfection of holiness that he was adopted by God and exalted to divine dignity.
Since the Holy See was not satisfied, Loisy sent three further declarations to Rome; the last, despatched on the i 7th of March, was addressed to the pope himself, and remained unanswered.
And the Holy Office, on the 7th of March, pronounced the major excommunication against him.
In 793 Hescham, the successor of Abd-al-Rahman II., proclaimed a holy war against the Christians, and collected an army of Ioo,000 men, half of which was directed against the kingdom of the Asturias, while the second invaded France, penetrating as far as Narbonne.
Among many places of worship may be mentioned the restored parish church of Holy Trinity, which dates from the 12th century and contains some interesting monuments and brasses; and the Perpendicular Hermitage or Tory chapel, with a 15th or 16th century chantry-house.
The heads of these countly families of the "high nobility" are entitled (by a decree of the federal diet, 1829) to the style of Erlaucht (illustrious, most honourable); (2) Counts of the Empire 2 (Reichsgrafen), descendants of those counts who, before the end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806), were Reichsstiindisch, i.e.
As for the papal countships, which are still freely bestowed on those of all nations whom the Holy See wishes to reward, their prestige naturally varies with the religious complexion of the country in which the titles are borne.
The immediate results of disestablishment were civil marriage, the civil registry of births and deaths, and the secularization of cemeteries; but the church retains its influence over all loyal churchmen through the confessional, the last rites of the church, and their sentiment against the profanation of holy ground.
By way of penance William and his wife founded the abbeys of St Stephen and the Holy Trinity at Caen.
Next, it must be carefully remembered that the early church was, in a sense hard for us even to understand, ruled and edified by the direct action of the Holy Spirit.
According to common opinion, the matter and form of ordination to the episcopate were the imposition of the consecrating bishop's hands with the words, " Receive the Holy Ghost."
Council of Trent also requires that any one who receives holy orders must have a " title," i.e.
Holy orders are to be conferred on the Ember Saturdays, on the Saturday before Passion Sunday or on Holy Saturday (Easter Eve).
The case first came under consideration when Cardinal Pole returned to England early in Mary's reign with legatine authority for reconciling the realm to the Holy See.
Thus in the Pontifical the words " Receive the Holy Ghost " are determined and defined by the context.
There is nothing in the Anglican ordinal to show that the Holy Ghost is given for the consecration of a bishop in the Roman sense.
In 1704 John Gordon, formerly Anglican bishop of Galloway, gave to the Holy Office an account of the manner in which he had been consecrated.
His protest against the Concordat of the 21st of February 1857 between Portugal and the Holy See, regulating the Portuguese Padroado in the East, his successful opposition to the entry of foreign religious orders, and his advocacy of civil marriage, were the chief landmarks in his battle with Ultramontanism, and his Estudos sobre o Casamento Civil were put on the Index.
If we are not prepared to say that the three Persons are one thing - in which case the Father and the Holy Ghost must have been incarnate along with the Son - then, did usage permit, he says, we ought to speak of three Gods.
The immanence of God in all things and His incarnation as the Holy Spirit in themselves appear to have been the chief doctrines of the Amalricans.
Immediately afterwards, owing to the quarrel about the Holy Places which arose in the east of Europe, public opinion suddenly veered round, and all the suspicion and hatred which had been directed against the emperor of the French were diverted from him to the emperor of Russia.
The ministry of Addington would not support this suggestion, but a bill was at once introduced by them and carried into law, which rendered all persons in holy orders ineligible to sit in the House of Commons, and Horne Tooke sat for that parliament only.
So firmly rooted in the land was this practice, that Coloman, much as he needed the assistance of the Holy See in his foreign policy, was only with the utmost difficulty induced, in 1106, to bring the Hungarian church into line with the rest of the Catholic world by enforcing clerical celibacy.
Stephen contrived to hold his own by adroitly contracting an alliance with the powerful Neapolitan Angevins who had the ear of the pope; but Ladislaus (q.v.) was so completely caught in the toils of the Kumanians, that the Holy See, the suzerain of Hungary, was forced to intervene to prevent the relapse of the kingdom into barbarism, and the unfortunate Ladislaus perished in the crusade that was preached against him.
All this time the pressure of the Turks upon the southern provinces of Hungary had been continuous, but fortunately all their efforts had so far been frustrated by the valour and generalship of the ban of Szoreny, John Hunyadi, the fame of whose victories, notably in 1442 and 1443, encouraged the Holy See to place Hungary for the third time at the head of a general crusade against the infidel.
But, stimulated by the representations of Pope Innocent XI., who, well aware of the internal weakness of the Turk, was bent upon forming a Holy League to drive them out of Europe, and alarmed, besides, by the danger of Vienna and the hereditary states, Leopold reluctantly contracted an alliance with John III.
What is not quite so generally known is the fact that Leopold slackened at once and would have been quite content with the results of these earlier victories had not the pope stiffened his resistance by forming a Holy League between the Emperor, Poland, Venice, Muscovy and the papacy, with the avowed object of dealing the Turk the coup de grace (March 5, 1684).
Valyi-Nagy, the first Magyar 1 The earliest, styled " Song on the Discovery of the right hand of the Holy King Stephen," and printed at Nuremberg by Anton Koburger in 1484, is lost.
In 1401 he was succeeded by his son Earl Richard, a brave and chivalrous warrior, who defeated Owen Glendower, fought the Percys at Shrewsbury, and, after travelling in state through Europe and the Holy Land, was employed against the Lollards and afterwards as lay ambassador from England to the council of Constance (1414).
St Winifred's holy well, one of the wonders of Wales, sends up water at the rate of 21 tons a minute, of an almost unvarying temperature, higher than that of ordinary spring water.
The latter make "the three notes or marks" by which a true church is known "pure and sound doctrine, the sacraments administered according to Christ's holy institution, and the right use of ecclesiastical discipline."
This picturesque privilege the family enjoyed till the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
A slave of theirs had denounced them to the Holy Office, and though the details of the accusation against them seem trivial and even contradictory, Antonio was condemned to death.
More remarkable than all his other acts is his letter to St Stephen, king of Hungary, to whom he sent a golden crown, and whose kingdom he accepted as a fief of the Holy See.
The decisions of a Gregory or a Leo the Great, of a Gelasius or an Innocent, prelates of holy life and unequalled wisdom, are accepted by the universal church; for, coming from such men, they cannot but be good.