of Amsterdam, connected by steam-tramway with Haarlem and Amsterdam, and on the North Holland canal.
ALKMAAR, a town in the province of North Holland, kingdom of Holland, 244 m.
as far as Jutland, along the coasts of Holland and Germany.
By the end of the 15th century it had become one of the most prosperous towns of Holland, on account of its fisheries and its cloth-trade.
In 1847 he was appointed governor at the Hague, and commandant in South Holland.
After the conclusion of peace in 1815 it was restored to Prussia, except some small portions which were given to the kingdom of Holland.
founded a town here, which was peopled chiefly with Protestant refugees from Holland.
The king's attitude secured for him the good will and affection of a people, loyal by tradition to the house of Orange, and the revolutionary disturbances of 1848 found no echo in Holland.
Descartes accepted the philosophic mission, and in the spring of 1629 he settled in Holland.
Till 1649 Descartes lived in Holland.
Such then was the work that Descartes had in view in Holland.
Alkmaar is a typical North Holland town, with tree-lined canals and brightly coloured 17th-century houses.
Alkmaar derives its chief importance from being the centre of the flourishing butter and cheese trade of this region of Holland.
In 1254 it received a charter from William II., count of Holland, similar to that of Haarlem, but in the 15th century duke Philip the Good of Burgundy made the impoverishment of the town, due to ill-government, the excuse for establishing an oligarchical regime, by charters of 1436 and 1437.
In 1799 Alkmaar gave its name to a convention signed by the duke of York and the French general Brune, in accordance with which the Russo-British army of 23,000 men, which was defeated at Bergen, evacuated Holland.
DELFT, a town of Holland in the province of South Holland, on the Schie, 5 m.
This was specially true of the Reformers in Switzerland, France, Scotland, Holland and in some parts of Germany.
Its constitution has spread to Holland, Scotland (Ireland, England), and to the great American (and Colonial) churches.
In 1574 the first provincial synod of Holland and Zealand was held, but William of Orange would not allow any action to be taken independently of the state.
During 1567 and 1568 the persecutions in France and Holland drove thousands of Protestants, mostly Presbyterians, to England.
By 1665 the Dutch possessed rough charts of almost the whole of the western littoral, while to the mainland itself they had given the name of New Holland.
In 1684 a vessel had sailed from Holland for the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, and after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, she was never again heard of.
Some twelve years afterwards the East India Company fitted out an expedition under the leadership of Commander William de Vlamingh, with the object of searching for any traces of the lost vessel on the western shores of New Holland.
He was soon admitted a member of the French Academy of the Fine Arts, but on the revocation of the edict of Nantes he was obliged to take refuge in Holland, and his name was struck off the Academy roll.
From Holland he was invited to England by the duke of Montague, who employed him, together with other French painters, to paint the walls of his palace, Montague House (on the site of which is now the British Museum).
Texel was already separated from the mainland in the 8th century, but remained a Frisian province and countship, which once extended as far as Alkmaar in North Holland, until it came into the possession of the counts of Holland.
The island of Terschelling once formed a separate lordship, but was sold to the states of Holland.
As early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and the United Netherlands.
The geographical features of the countries formerly known collectively as the Netherlands or Low Countries are dealt with under the modern English names of Holland and Belgium.
Here we are concerned only with their earlier history, which is put for convenience under this heading in order to separate the account of the period when they formed practically a single area for historical purposes from that of the time when Holland and Belgium became distinct administrative units.
Chief among these states were the duchy of Brabant, the counties of Flanders, Hainault, Holland, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg, and the bishoprics of Utrecht and Liege.
In 834 vasions Utrecht and Dorestad were sacked, and a few years of the later all Holland and Friesland was in their hands.
of Holland, Philip of Flanders, Otto I.
of Holland) who bore the brunt of the fighting and specially distinguished themselves.
Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft, Vlaardigen, Rotterdam in Holland, and Middleburg and Zierikzee in Zeeland, repeated with modifications the characteristics of the communes of Flanders and Brabant.
He inherited Flanders and Artois, purchased the county of Namur (1427) and compelled his cousin Jacqueline, the heiress of Holland, Zeeland, Hainault and Friesland, to surrender her possessions to him, 1428.
representing Flanders, Brabant, Hainault and Holland met at Ghent, where Mary was detained almost as a prisoner, and compelled her (February 10, 1477) to sign the " Great Privilege."
four duchies, Brabant, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg; seven counties, Flanders, Artois, Hainault, Holland, Zeeland, Namur and Zutphen; the margraviate of Antwerp; and five lordships - Friesland, Mechlin, Utrecht, Overyssel, and Groningen with its dependent districts.
These striking successes caused a wave of revolt to spread through Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland, Utrecht and Friesland.
Within three months of the capture of Brill, Amsterdam was the only town in Holland in the hands of the Spaniards.
Already at his summons the states of Holland had Orange takes up met at Dort (July 15) under the presidency of Philip his resi- de Marnix, lord of Sainte Aldegonde, and they had deuce at unanimously recognized William as their lawful stadt- Delft.
But the very horrors of Don Frederick's advance roused a spirit of indomitable resistance in Holland.
In honour of this great deliverance, the state of Holland founded the university, which was speedily to make the name of Leiden illustrious throughout Europe.
The sovereignty of Holland and Zeeland was offered to the queen of England, but she, though promising secret support, declined.
The stadtholder summoned a meeting of the states of Holland and Zeeland to Delft, and on the 25th of April an act of federation between the two provinces was executed.
A treaty establishing a firm alliance between the provinces, represented by the states-general, assembled at Brussels on the one part, and on the other by the prince of Orange, and the states of Holland and Zeeland, was agreed upon and ratified under the title of the " Pacification of Ghent."
It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.
Act of Federation between Holland and Zeeland.
He therefore refused, with the approval of the representatives of these provinces, to allow the publication of the " Perpetual Edict " in Holland and Zeeland.
Through his exertions the Spanish troops had not only been expelled from Holland and Zeeland, but also from the citadels of Antwerp and Ghent, which were now in the hands of the patriots.
He was invited to come to Brussels, and after some hesitation, and not without having first obtained the approval of the states of Holland and Zeeland, he assented.
The Union of Utrecht was signed on the 29th of January by the representatives of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Zutphen.
For their later history see Holland and Belgium.
BOCHOLT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, near the frontier of Holland, 12 m.
In 1653 he had made the astonishing proposal to the Dutch that England and Holland should divide the habitable globe outside Europe between them, that all states maintaining the Inquisition should be treated as enemies by both the proposed allies, and that the latter "should send missionaries to all peoples willing to receive them, to inculcate the truth of Jesus Christ and the Holy Gospel."
Great writers like Milton and Harrington supported Cromwell's view of the duty of a statesman; the poet Waller acclaimed Cromwell as "the world's protector"; but the London tradesmen complained of the loss of their Spanish trade and regarded Holland and not Spain as the national enemy.
War broke out between the Protestant states of Sweden, Denmark, Holland and Brandenburg, with whom religion was entirely subordinated to individual aims and interests, and who were far from rising to Cromwell's great conceptions; while the Vaudois were soon subjected to fresh persecutions.
The war with France, Holland and Spain offered opportunities of gaining additional territory.
In his later years he overcame the drunkenness that was habitual to him in youth; he developed seriousness of character and unselfish devotion to what lie believed was the cause of patriotism; and he won the respect of men of high character and capacity in France and Holland.
The two cables to Holland and one of the cables to Germany were already the property of Great Britain, and the German Union Company's cable to Germany was purchased by the German government.
HELMOND, a town in the province of North Brabant, Holland, on the small river Aa, and on the canal (Zuid-Willems Vaart) between 'sHertogenbosch and Maastricht, 241 m.
In 1906 there were 30,551, equal to 7.2 per cent., more telephone stations in the United Kingdom than in the ten European countries of Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Italy; Norway, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, having a combined population of 288 millions as against a population of 42 millions in the United Kingdom.
He terminated the war with Holland in 1674, and from that time maintained a friendly correspondence with William; while in 1677, after two years of tedious negotiations, he overcame all obstacles, and in spite of James's opposition, and without the knowledge of Louis XIV., effected the marriage between William and Mary that was the germ of the Revolution and the Act of Settlement.
Simultaneously Danby guided through parliament a bill for raising money for a war against France; a league was concluded with Holland, and troops were actually sent there.
Locke had spent some years in Holland, the country of Grotius, who, with help from other great lawyers, and under a misapprehension as to the meaning of the Roman jus gentium, shaped modern concepts of international law by an appeal to law of nature.
With the Reformation in the 16th century, Church courts properly speaking disappeared from the non-episcopal religious communities which were established in g Holland, in the Protestant states of Switzerland and of Germany, and in the then non-episcopal countries of Denmark and Norway.
GRONINGEN the most northerly province of Holland, bounded S.
The chief agricultural products are barley, oats, wheat, and in the north-east flax is also grown, and exported to South Holland and Belgium.
Hoogezand and Sappemeer, Veendam and Wildervank, New and Old Pekela, New and Old Stads-Canal are instances of villages which have extended until they overlap one another and are similar in this respect to the industrial villages of the Zaan Streek in North Holland.
Groningen, Holland (Capital) >>
On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of Holland and Denmark.
In Holland he may not enter into any agreement, direct or indirect, with a medical man with regard to the supply of medicines.
In France, Switzerland, Belgium and Holland the number is not limited, and every qualified pharmacist has the right to open a shop or buy a pharmacy.
The period of study is eighteen months in Denmark or Norway, and two in Austria, Finland, Germany, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, three in Belgium, France, Greece and Italy, four to six in Holland, and five in Spain.
It was the spirit of the age; and England, English and Holland and France were fired by it.
In 1697 the Dutch captain Vlamingh landed on the west coast of Australia, then called New Holland, in 31° 43' S., and named the Swan river from the black swans he discovered there.
Tasman sailed from Batavia in 1642, and on the 24th of November sighted high land in 42° 30' S., which was named van Diemen's Land, and after landing there proceeded to the discovery of the western coast of New Zealand; at first called Staten Land, and supposed to be connected with the Antarctic continent from which this voyage proved New Holland to be separated.
He left Holland in 1718, went by land through Persia to India, and eventually made his way to Lhasa, where he resided for a long time.
These were still further extended in 1250 by the anti-Caesar William of Holland, who had made himself master of the place and of the imperial regalia, after a long siege, in 1248.
He left his wife for a mistress, Elizabeth Holland, was in discord with his family, and lived to see his two nieces, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, and his son Surrey, the fiery-tempered poet, go in turn to the block.
KAMPEN, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, on the left bank of the Ysel, 31 m.
Of the churches the Bovenkerk ("upper church"), or church of St Nicholas, ranks with the cathedral of Utrecht and the Janskerk at 's Hertogenbosch as one of the three great medieval churches in Holland.
There are many other, though slighter, remains of the ancient churches and monasteries of Kampen; but the most remarkable building is the old town-hall, which is unsurpassed in Holland.
modern France and Belgium with parts of Holland, Germany and Switzerland.
The trade is done almost entirely with Great Britain, Germany and Holland, but.
From Holland, earlier, had proceeded an apologetic work by a man of European fame.
SNEEK, a town in the province of Friesland, Holland, to the west of Sneek lake, 14 m by rail S.S.W.
Many towns shut their gates upon them; but, in spite of discouragement, they spread from Poland to the Rhine, and penetrated as far as Holland and Flanders.
The emperor, the governments of England, Holland, France and Sweden, and even the Grand Turk made advances to the tsar.
His foreign tour, during which he visited Germany, Holland, England, France and Austria, lasted nearly a year and a half, and was suddenly interrupted, when on his way from Vienna to Venice to study the construction of war-galleys, by the alarming news that the turbulent stryeltsi of Moscow had mutinied anew with the intention of placing Sophia on the throne.
Holland, Hungary and Switzerland were all early in the field; and Belgium has succeeded, through the instrumentality of the semi-official Societe Nationale de Chemins de Fer Vicinaux, started in 1885, in developing one of the most complete systems of rural railway transport in the world.
Charles's ambition aimed at wider fields, and when Margaret, countess of Flanders, asked help of the French court against the German king William of Holland, by whom she had been defeated, he gladly accepted her offer of the county of; Hainaut in exchange for his assistance (1253); this arrangement was, however, rescinded by Louis of France, who returned from captivity in 1254, and Charles gave up Hainaut for an immense sum of money.
Most of them fled from Silesia into Saxony, and thence to Holland, England and North America.
He served first in Holland, and in the Thirty Years' War he commanded from 1638 to 1639 the French contingent in the army of his friend Bernard of SaxeWeimar, distinguishing himself particularly at the siege of Breisach in 1638.
It is to Holland and to the 17th century that we must turn for the first real steps towards Jewish emancipation.
Holland from the moment that it joined the union of Utrecht (1579) deliberately set its face against religious persecution (Jewish Encyclopedia, i.
By the middle of the 17th century the Jews of Holland had become of such importance that Charles II.
The pioneers of this emancipation in Holland and England were Sephardic (or Spanish) Jews - descendants of the Spanish exiles.
Crowds of wanderers were to be met on every road; Germany, Holland and Italy were full of Jews who, pack on shoulder, were seeking a precarious livelihood at a time when peddling was neither lucrative nor safe.
The French assembly did not succeed in obtaining formal assent to these decisions (except from Frankfort and Holland), but they gained the practical adhesion of the majority of Western and American Jews.
In Holland the Jews were admitted to political liberty in 1796.
Harwich is one of the principal English ports for continental passenger traffic, steamers regularly serving the Hook of Holland, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Esbjerg, Copenhagen and Hamburg.
It has been customary for Protestant writers to represent the mystics of Germany and Holland as precursors of the Reformation.
All Boehme's works were translated into English in the time of the Commonwealth, and regular societies of Boehmenists were formed in England and Holland.
In 1650 he became burgomaster of Dort and member of the states of Holland and West Friesland.
In 1667 he was the deputy chosen by the states of Holland to accompany Admiral de Ruyter in his famous expedition to Chatham.
At the end of the Napoleonic wars Portugal had Macao and Goa, Holland Java, Sumatra and other islands, France some odds and ends in India, while England emerged with Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and a free hand in India.
The affair ended by his escaping to Switzerland, where Sophie joined him; they then went to Holland, where he lived by hackwork for the booksellers; meanwhile Mirabeau had been condemned to death at Pontarlier for rapt et vol, and in May 1777 he was seized by the French police, and imprisoned by a lettre de cachet in the castle of Vincennes.
He then intervened in the suit pending between his father and mother before the parlement of Paris, and attacked the ruling powers so violently that he had to leave France and again go to Holland, and try to live by literary work.
After a period of work in Holland he betook himself to England, where his treatise on lettres de cachet had been much admired, being translated into English in 1787, and where he was soon admitted into the best Whig literary and political society of London, through his old schoolfellow Gilbert Elliot, who had now inherited his father's baronetcy and estates, and become a leading Whig member of parliament.
His first literary work, except the bombastic but eloquent Essai sur le despotisme (Neufchatel, 1 775), was a translation of Robert Watson's Philip II., done in Holland with the help of Durival; his Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus (London, 1788) was based on a pamphlet by Aedanus Burke (1743-1802), of South Carolina, who opposed the aristocratic tendencies of the Society of the Cincinnati, and the notes to it were by Target;, his financial writings were suggested by the Genevese exile, Claviere.
They took refuge in Holland, from whence they emigrated to Pennsylvania, in small companies, between 1719 and 1729.
He succeeded in escaping from the Tower, but was again captured, was condemned to death by the new "high court of justice" on the 8th of March 1649, and was beheaded together with the duke of Hamilton and Lord Holland the next day.
to seize Holland, that part of Alsace which remained to Germany was again overrun by the French.
Paulus was educated in the seminary at Tubingen, was three years master in a German school, and then spent two years in travelling through England, Germany, Holland and France.
Henceforth Bentham was a frequent guest at Bowood, where he saw the best society and where he met Miss Caroline Fox (daughter of the second Lord Holland), to whom he afterwards made a proposal of marriage.
He thought it his duty to support the German Habsburgs and the cause of the Roman Catholic Church against the Protestants, to assert his sovereignty over Holland, and to extend the dominions of his house.
The utter exhaustion of his people in the course of a hopeless struggle with Holland, France and England was seen by him with sympathy, but he considered it an unavoidable misfortune and not the result of his own errors, since he could not be expected to renounce his rights or to desert the cause of God and the Church.
The grout, which he mentions as " coming over to us in Holland ships," about which he desires information, was probably the same as shelled barley; and mills for manufacturing it were introduced into Scotland from Holland towards the beginning of the 18th century.
In 1474 he settled down at Deventer in Holland, where he either founded or succeeded to the headship of a school, which' became famous for the number of its distinguished alumni.
The arrival of the Bonapartes at Toulon coincided with a time of acute crisis in the fortunes of the republic. Having declared war on England and Holland (1st of February 1793), and against Spain (9th of March), France was soon girdled by foes; and the forces of the first coalition invaded her territory at several points.
He carried matters with so high a hand in the affairs of Holland, Switzerland and Italy as seriously to diminish the outlets for British trade in Europe.
Ministers were also deeply concerned at the continued occupation of Holland by French troops, which made that country and, therefore, the Cape of Good Hope, absolutely dependent on France.
French troops were also required to withdraw from Holland and Switzerland, and thus fulfil the terms of the treaty of Luneville.
Finally, on the 7th of May, the British government sent a secret offer to withdraw from Malta as soon as the French evacuated Holland.
But Napoleon's actions, especially the annexation of Genoa, at last brought the three powers to accord, with the general aim of re-establishing the status quo ante in Germany, Holland, Switzerland and Italy, or, in short, of restoring the balance of power which Napoleon had completely upset.
On the 27th of March he offered the crown of Spain to his brother Louis, king of Holland, in these terms: "The climate of Holland does not suit you; besides Holland can never rise from its ruins.
The year 1810 saw the crown set to that edifice by the annexations of Holland and of the north-west coast of Germany.
In the case of King Louis, family quarrels embittered the relations between the two brothers; but it is clear from Napoleon's letters of November - December 1809 that he had even then resolved to annex Holland in order to gain complete control of its customs and of its naval resources.
The negotiations which he allowed to go on with England in the spring of 1810, mainly respecting the independence of Holland, are now known to have been insincere.
Louis fled from his kingdom, and on the 9th of July 1810 Holland became part of the French empire.
Napoleon on his return to St Cloud inveighed against his ministers for talking so much about peace and declared that he would never give up Holland; France must remain a great empire, and not sink to the level of a mere kingdom.
He would never give up Holland; rather than do that, he would cut the dykes and give back that land to the sea.
Murat now joined the allies; Germany, Switzerland and Holland were lost to Napoleon; but when the allies began to invade Alsace and Lorraine, they found the French staunch in his support.
So often had he declared that the Rhine and Holland were necessary to France that every one looked on his present assertions as a mere device to gain time.
Holland Rose, The Life of Napoleon I.
Shaw's Zoology of New Holland (4to, 1794) added those of a few more, as did J.
In regard to Holland we have Schlegel's Holl d .
MEPPEL, a town in the province of Drente, Holland, 162 m.
He made clear his belief that the question was closely connected with the problems of the Pacific and Far East, and invitations were also sent accordingly to China and to the smaller European powers with Far-Eastern interests - Holland, Belgium and Portugal.
ABRAHAM KUENEN (1828-1891), Dutch Protestant theologian, the son of an apothecary, was born on the 16th of September 1828, at Haarlem, North Holland.
Muurling, one of the founders of the Groningen school, which made the first pronounced breach with Calvinistic theology in the Reformed Church of Holland.
At the time of his father's assassination in 1584 he was being educated at the university of Leiden, at the expense of the states of Holland and Zeeland.
During the period of Leicester's governorship he remained in the background, engaged in acquiring a thorough knowledge of the military art, and in 1586 the States of Holland conferred upon him the title of prince.
From this time forward, Oldenbarneveldt at the head of the civil government and Maurice in command of the armed forces of the republic worked together in the task of rescuing the United Netherlands from Spanish domination (for details see Holland).
Oldenbarneveldt, supported by the states of Holland, came forward as the champion of provincial sovereignty against that of the states-general; Maurice threw the weight of his sword on the side of the union.
- Lancashire (Down Holland Moss), Holland, Sweden, Sardinia, Kaluga (Russia), Red Sea, Mediterranean.
Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.
SOUTH HOLLAND, a province of Holland, bounded W.
by North Holland, E.
The natural division into dunes, geest grounds, and clay and low fen holds for South as well as for North Holland.
The Hook (Hoek) of Holland harbour, built at the mouth of the New Waterway (1866-1872) from Rotterdam, is the chief approach to Central Europe from Harwich on the east coast of England.
Among other places of interest are Rynsburg, the site of a convent for nobles founded in 1133 and destroyed in the time of Spanish rule; Voorschoten; Wassenaar, all of which were formerly minor lordships; Loosduinen, probably the Lugdunum of the Romans, and the seat of a Cistercian abbey destroyed in 1579; Naaldwyk, an ancient lordship; and 's Gravenzande, which possessed a palace of the counts of Holland in the 12th century, when it was a harbour on the Maas.
The market-gardening of the region called the Westland, between the Hague and the Hook of Holland, is remarkable, and large quantities of vegetables are exported to England.
BRIELLE (Briel or Bril), a seaport in the province of South Holland, Holland, on the north side of the island of Voorne, at the mouth of the New Maas, 51 m.
HOLLAND, a city of Ottawa county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Macatawa Bay (formerly called Black Lake), near Lake Michigan, and 25 M.
Holland is a grain and fruit shipping centre, and among its manufactures are furniture, leather, grist mill products, iron, beer, pickles, shoes, beet sugar, gelatine, biscuit (Holland rusk), electric and steam launches, and pianos.
In 1908 seven weekly, one daily, and two monthly papers (four denominational) were published at Holland, five of them in Dutch.
Holland was founded in 1847 by Dutch settlers, under the leadership of the Rev. A.
Holland (Cloth) >>
Holland in Roscher's Lexikon der mythologie.
The old opinion that the law originated in south Holland is entirely without foundation.
ZUTPHEN, or Zutfen, a town in the province of Gelderland, Holland, on the right bank of the Ysel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 18 m.
The Roman Catholic cathedral of St John, the Janskerk, with its interior in a state of preservation rare in Holland, is one of the finest architecturally in the country.
Meanwhile, Elizabeth's position in Holland grew more and more unsatisfactory.
His son, Humphrey VIII., who succeeded him in the same year, was allowed to marry one of the king's daughters, Eleanor, the widowed countess of Holland (1302).
During the 14th century trade was carried on with Germany, Spain and Holland, and in 1346 Hartlepool provided five ships for the French war, being considered one of the chief seaports in the kingdom.
On the revolt of Messina from Spain, he was sent to support the insurgents, and had to encounter the united fleets of Spain and Holland under the command of the celebrated Admiral de Ruyter.
In 1637 Breda was recaptured by Frederick Henry of Orange after a four months' siege, and in 1648 it was finally ceded to Holland by the treaty of Westphalia.
During the wars of the French Revolution, it was taken by Dumouriez in 1793, evacuated soon after and retaken by Pichegru in 1795, after the whole of Holland had already succumbed to the French.
In 1 575 a conference was held here between the ambassadors of Spain and those of the United Provinces; in 1667 a peace was signed between England, Holland, France and Denmark; and in 1746-1747 the representatives of the same powers met in the town to discuss the terms of another treaty.
at Adrianople; Alexander Parker (1628-1689) went to Africa; others made their way to Rome; two women were imprisoned by the Inquisition at Malta; two men passed into Austria and Hungary; and William Penn, George Fox and several others preached in Holland and Germany.
South Holland >>
Differences with various French officials led to his retirement to Holland, where he remained until after the treaty of peace had been signed, when he settled in England.
The problem of inland waterways has always been a most important one in northern, eastern and southern Louisiana, where there are systems of improved bayous, lakes and canals which, with the levees, make this region something like Holland, on a greater scale.
Russia, driven from Azov in 1695, succeeded in capturing it in the following year; Venice continued to press the Turks; in this condition of affairs Hussein Kuprili (q.v.) was called to office; England and Holland urged Turkey to Ibrahim, Ahmed II., 1691-1695.
England and Holland now urged their mediation, and after negotiations the treaty of Passarowitz (Pozharevats in Servia) was signed (July 21, 1718); Venice ceded the Morea to Turkey but kept the strongholds she had occupied in Albania and Dalmatia; Belgrade, Temesvar and Walachia as far as the Olt were retained by Austria.
Turkey had cause of complaint against Russia for refusing to allow the Crimean troops to march through Daghestan during the Persian campaign, and on the 28th of May 1736, war was declared, in spite of the efforts of England and Holland.
In spite of this initial success, however, the campaign proved disastrous to the Austrians; and France, which had meanwhile come to terms with the emperor, endeavoured to mediate a peace in conjunction with Sweden and Holland.
Through the mediation of England, Holland and Prussia, Turkey and Austria concluded on the 4th of August 1791 the treaty of Sistova, by which Belgrade and the other conquests made by Austria were restored.
An important event not to be passed over without mention is the grant on the 10th of March 1870 of the firman instituting the Bulgarian exarchate, thus severing the Bulgarian Church from Text in Holland, p. 212.
Though he had control of what remained of the navies of Holland and Spain, as well as of the French, he was outnumbered at every point, while the efficiency of the British fleet gave it a mobility which doubled its material superiority.
The remaining colonial possessions of France, and of Holland, then wholly dependent on her, were conquered by degrees, and the ports in which privateers were fitted out to cruise against British commerce in distant seas were gradually rendered harmless.
HARDERWYK, a seaport in the province of Gelderland, Holland, on the shores of the Zuider Zee, 17 m.
He went back to Padua, where he studied hydraulics, removed in 1800 to Holland, and in 1803 went to England, where he married an Englishwoman.
Its commerce was further extended and developed by the French occupation of Holland in 1795, when the Dutch trade was largely directed to its port.
HELLEVOETSLUIS, OT - HELVOETSLUIS, a fortified seaport in the province of South Holland, the kingdom of Holland, on the south side of the island of Voorne-and-Putten, on the sea-arm known as the Haringvliet, 52 m.
ENSCHEDE, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, near the Prussian frontier, and a junction station 5 m.
By the victories of Pichegru the stadtholder and all his family were, however, compelled to leave Holland and seek refuge in England, where the palace of Hampton Court was set apart for their use.
When Holland rose in revolt against French domination in 1813, after eighteen years of exile he landed at Scheveningen (on the 19th of November) and was on the 3rd of December, amid universal rejoicing, proclaimed prince sovereign of the Netherlands.
His assumption in the following year of the title of king of the Netherlands was recognized by the powers, and by the treaty of Paris his sovereignty was extended over the southern as well as the northern Netherlands, Belgium being added to Holland "as an increase of territory."
A cry now arose in Holland for a revision of the fundamental law and for more liberal institutions; ministerial responsibility was introduced, and the royal control over finance diminished.
In 1681 he finally severed his French connexions, and returned to Holland.
EINDHOVEN, a town in the province of North Brabant, Holland, and a railway junction 8 m.
In passing through Holland he made the acquaintance of Albert Schultens (1686-1750), whose influence on his philological views became allpowerful a few years later.
At the age of twelve he was sent abroad to complete his education, and resided at the principal universities of Germany, Holland, France, Italy and Switzerland for seventeen years.
But home difficulties and financial necessities prevented the West India Company from sending adequate reinforcements from Holland.
It was not, however, till 1662 that Holland signed a treaty with Portugal, by which all territorial claims in Brazil were abandoned in exchange for a cash indemnity and certain commercial privileges.
A hardy and enterprising race of men had sprung from this mixture, and supplies being sent by sea from Holland.
The northern provinces had fallen into the power of Holland; the southern, peopled in a great measure by the hardy descendants of the successive colonists who had issued on all sides from the central establishment of Sao Paulo, had learned from their habits of unaided and successful enterprise to court independence.
The good doctor had travelled much, and the reading of his itineraries and note-books awakened such a longing for travel in the young Holberg that at last, at the close of 1704, having scraped together 60 dollars, he went on board a ship bound for Holland.
Smellekamp (a man who subsequently played a part in the early history of the Transvaal and Orange Free State), concluded a treaty with the volksraad assuring them of the protection of Holland.
The burghers represented that they were under the protection of Holland, but this plea was peremptorily rejected by the commander of the British forces.
The British government appointed Lords Auckland and Holland as negotiators, and the result of the deliberations was the treaty of the 31st of December 1806, which contained no provision against impressments and provided no indemnity for the seizure of goods and vessels.
It was after the election of Westminster in 1788 that Tooke depicted the rival statesmen (Lord Chatham and Lord Holland, William Pitt and C. J.
Of the non-British or Boer whites Russians form 3.01%, Germans 1-62% and Dutch (of Holland) 1-14%.
The " Dopper " Church, an offshoot of the Separatist Reformed Church of Holland, is distinguished from the other Dutch churches in being more rigidly Calvinistic and " Biblical," and in not using hymns.
The Separatist Reformed Church of Holland had sent out a young expositor of its doctrines named Postma, who, in November 1858, became minister of Rustenburg.
He was empowered by the volksraad to raise £300,000, but with great difficulty he obtained in Holland the sum of £90,000 only, and that at a high rate of interest.
TIEL, a town in the province of Gelderland, Holland, on the right bank of the Waal (here crossed by a pontoon bridge), 25 m.
The prosperity of the town has been revived in modern times by the establishment by the railway company of a branch line from Sittingbourne in connexion with a service of mail and passenger steamers to Flushing (Holland), which run twice daily.
During the time of the alliance between Scotland and Holland, which was closer in Fifeshire than in other counties, Dysart became known as Little Holland.
During the Civil War James was taken prisoner by Fairfax (1646), but contrived to escape to Holland in 1648.
Finally, in 1908 a dispute arose with Holland on the ground of the harbouring of refugees in Curacoa.
The Dutch Minister was expelled, and Holland replied by the despatch of gunboats, who destroyed the Venezuelan fleet and blockaded the ports.
Harvey, as is well known, spoke slightingly of the great chancellor, and it is not till the rapid development of physical science in England and Holland in the latter part of the century, that we find Baconian principles explicitly recognized.
The method of clinical instruction in hospitals, commenced by the Italians, was introduced into Holland, where it was greatly developed, especially at Leiden, in the hands of Francis de la Bo gy, called Sylvius (1641-1672).
The founder of the iatrochemical school was Sylvius (1614-1672), who belonged to a French family settled in Holland, and was for fourteen years professor of medicine at Leiden, where he attracted students from all quarters of Europe.
The doctrines of Sylvius became widely spread in Holland and Germany; less so in France and Italy.
On entering Holland, which it does below Emmerich, its course is again deflected to the west.
Within Holland the banks are so low.
Almost immediately after entering Holland the stream divides into two arms, the larger of which, carrying off about two-thirds of the water, diverges to the west, is called the Waal, and soon unites with the Maas.
The numerous arms into which the Rhine branches in Holland have already been noticed.
The Rhine connects the highest Alps with the mud banks of Holland, and touches in its course the most varied geological periods; but the river valley itself is, geologically speaking, of comparatively recent formation.
The first proposal for a free Rhine was mooted by the French at the congress of Rastatt (1797-1799), but Holland, commanding the mouth of the river, placed every obstacle in the way of the suggestion.
In T831, on the separation of Holland and Belgium, the former had become more amenable to reason; and a system was agreed upon which practically gave free navigation to the vessels of the riverine states, while imposing a moderate tariff upon foreign ships.
Capacious river harbours have been formed at various points, twenty-nine of these being in Germany and eight in Holland.
At present the Rhine in Holland has a depth of about 9 ft.
Altogether a sum approaching 2,500,000 was spent in Holland within the latter part of the 19th century on the improvement of the Rhine and its principal arteries.
Before the introduction of railways there were no permanent bridges across the Rhine below Basel; but now trains cross it at about a dozen different points in Germany and Holland.
This sport was allowed to fall into disuse, and was not again prevalent until it was introduced from Holland after the Restoration.
During the war between France and Holland (1672-77) and that of the Spanish Succession, Artois was invaded again, but the treaties of Nijmwegen (1678) and of Utrecht (1713) confirmed the sovereignty of France.
England takes by far the greatest share of Burma's rice, though large quantities are also consumed in Germany, while France, Italy, Belgium and Holland also consume a considerable amount.
The vessels produced by the 16th-century glass-workers in Germany, Holland and the Low Countries are closely allied in form and decoration.
Owing to theAfashion of Dutch and Flemish painters introducing glass vases and drinking-glasses into their paintings of still life, interiors and scenes of conviviality, Holland and Belgium at the present day possess more accurate records of the products of their ancient glass factories than any other countries.
ZAANDAM (incorrectly Saardam), a town of Holland, in the province of North Holland, on the river Zaan, 62 m.
Many weavers fled to Holland and England, the duke took up his residence in the strong castle of Vilvorde, and Brussels prospered at the expense of Louvain.
5 1 ° 55' In former centuries vines were cultivated to the north of this region, as, for instance, in Holland, in Belgium largely, and in England, where they might still be grown.
He taught with great regularity for upward of thirty years, the only interruptions being that of 1813-1814 (occasioned by the War of Liberation, during which the university was closed) and those occasioned by two prolonged literary tours, first in 1820 to Paris, London and Oxford with his colleague Johann Karl Thilo (1794-1853) for the examination of rare oriental manuscripts, and in 1835 to England and Holland in connexion with his Phoenician studies.
ZEELAND (or Zealand), a province of Holland, bounded S.E.
by South Holland, and E.
JACOBUS ARMINIUS (1560-1609), Dutch theologian, author of the modified reformed theology that receives its name of Arminian from him, was born at Oudewater, South Holland, on the 10th of October 1560.
The six years he remained at Leiden (1J76-1582) were years of active and innovating thought in Holland.
Calvinism had become, towards the close of the 16th century, supreme in Holland, but the very rigour of the uniformity it exacted provoked a reaction.
This seemed to the high Calvinists of Holland a grave heresy.
By the peace of Copenhagen in 1441, after the unsuccessful war of the League with Holland, the attempted monopoly of the Baltic was broken, and, though the Hanseatic trade regulations were maintained on paper, the Dutch with their larger ships increased their hold on the herring fisheries, the French salt trade, and the Baltic grain trade.
In Germany, at his instigation, the archbishops with a few of the secular nobles in 1246 elected Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, German king; but the "priests' king," as he was contemptuously called, died in the following year, William II., count of Holland, being after some delay elected by the papal party in his stead.
Utrecht, Holland (Province) >>
Its chief breeding-quarters seem to extend from Holland eastwards to the south of Russia.
With this plan in view he began (1769) a tour through France, England, Holland, &c., for the purpose of collecting information respecting their systems of education.
Holland in vol.
GOUDA (or TER GouwE), a town of Holland, in the province of South Holland, on the north side of the Gouwe at its confluence with the Ysel, and a junction station 122m.
The Groote Markt is the largest market-square in Holland.
The transit and shipping trade is considerable, and as one of the principal markets of South Holland, the round, white Gouda cheeses are known throughout Europe.
Having completed his university course at Upsala, in 1710, Swedenborg undertook a European tour, visiting England, Holland, France and Germany, studying especially natural philosophy and writing Latin verses, a collection of which he published in 1710.
His life from 1747 was spent alternately in Sweden, Holland and London, in the composition of his works and their publication, till his death, which took place in London on the 29th of March 1772.
The Spaniards replied by appealing to Holland, who sent a fleet under Ruyter into the Mediterranean.
In 1676 the French admiral, Abraham Duquesne, defeated the combined fleet of Spain and Holland; but, notwithstanding this victory, the French suddenly abandoned Messina in 1678, and the Spanish occupied the town once more.
He then spent some time in Holland, and the results of his investigations appeared at the Hague in 1766 in his Elenchus Zoophytorum and Miscellanea Zoologica, and in1767-1804in his Spicilegia Zoologica (Berlin).
The logic of Ramus enjoyed a great celebrity for a time, and there existed a school of Ramists boasting numerous adherents in France, Germany and Holland.
adoption of similar departments in a great number of newspapers and periodicals, and, besides several imitators in England, there are now parallel journals in Holland, France, and Italy.
This was the origin of the clandestine press of Holland, and it was that country which for the next hundred years supplied the ablest periodical criticism from the pens of French Protestant refugees.
From its commencement the Journal des savants was pirated in Holland, and for ten years a kind of joint issue made up with the Journal des Trevoux appeared at Amsterdam.
Throughout the 18th century, in France as in England, a favourite literary method was to write of social subjects under the assumed character of a foreigner, generally an 1 Matthew Maty, M.D., born in Holland, 1718, died principal librarian of the British Museum, 1776.
In 1680 he travelled in England and Holland in order to obtain literary assistance, and the first number appeared in 1682, under the title of Acta eruditorum lipsiensium, and, like its successors, was written in Latin.
The Algemeene Kunst en Letterbode (1788) was long the leading review of Holland; in 1860 it was joined to the Nederlandsch Spectator (1855).
CHARLES JAMES FOX (1749-1806), British statesman and orator, was the third son of Henry Fox, 1st Lord Holland, and his wife, Lady Caroline Lennox, eldest daughter of Charles Lennox, 2nd duke of Richmond.
The relations of Lord Holland to his sons would be difficult to parallel.
In 1768 Lord Holland bought the pocket borough of Midhurst for him, and he entered on his parliamentary career, and on London society, in 1769.
Within the next few years Lord Holland reaped to the full the reward for all that was good, and whatever was evil, in the training he had given his son.
In 1774 Lord Holland had to find £140,000 to pay the gambling debts of his sons.
Horace Walpole has drawn a picture of him at that time which Lord Holland, Fox's beloved and admiring nephew, speaking from his early recollections of his uncle, confesses has "some justification."
Fox's time at St Anne's was largely spent in gardening, in the enjoyment of the country, and in correspondence on literary subjects with his nephew, the 3rd Lord Holland, and with Gilbert Wakefield, the editor of Euripides.
The materials for a life of Fox were first collected by his nephew, Lord Holland, and were then revised and rearranged by Mr Allen and Lord John Russell.
See also Lloyd Sanders, The Holland House Circle (1908).
In 1595 Emden became a free imperial city under the protection of Holland, and was occupied by a Dutch garrison until 1744 when, with East Friesland, it was transferred to Prussia.
ZUIDER ZEE, or Zuyder Zee, a land-locked inlet on the coast of Holland, bounded N.
by the provinces of North Holland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overysel, and Friesland.
It was separated from the sea by a belt of marsh and fen uniting Friesland and North Holland, the original coast-line being still indicated by the line of the Frisian Islands.
If a line be drawn from the island of Urk to Marken, and thence westwards to Hoorn (North Holland) and N.N.E.
In 1901 the government introduced a bill in the States General, based on the recommendations of the commission, providing for enclosing the Zuider Zee by building a dike from the North Holland coast, through the Amsteldiep to Wieringen and from that island to the Friesland coast at Piaam; and further providing for the draining of two portions of the enclosed area, namely the N.W.
Power passed into the hands of John de Witt, who represented the oligarchic element and the special interests of one province, Holland, and was taken from the Orange party which represented the more democratic element and the more general interests of the Seven Provinces.
in 1685 he forced the duke of Monmouth to leave Holland, and sought to dissuade him from his ill-starred expedition to England.
William set out from Holland with an army on the 2nd of November and landed at Torbay (Nov.
It is not often remembered that William possessed an experience of the workings of representative government in Holland, which was remarkably similar to that in England.
HILVERSUM, a town in the province of North Holland, 18 m.
It was not till 1860 that he settled in London, when he took up his quarters at 2 Orme Square, Bayswater, where he stayed till, in 1866, he moved to his celebrated house in Holland Park Road, with its Arab hall decorated with Damascus tiles.
The revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and the death of his father led him to come to England; but, unable to find employment there, he crossed to Holland and enlisted in the company of French volunteers at Utrecht commanded by Daniel de Rapin, his cousin-german.
After travelling with his charge, he settled with his family in Holland, first at the Hague, then, for economy's sake, at Wesel, in 1707, where he began his great work, L'Histoire d'Angleterre.
After serving as instructor in mathematics to the young prince Louis, he took part with credit in the expedition into Holland, and was given the order Pour le merite.
The gross errors of his policy - the renewal of the war with Holland in 1621, the persistence of Spain in taking part in the Thirty Years' War, the lesser wars undertaken in northern Italy, and the entire neglect of all effort to promote the unification of the different states forming the peninsular kingdom - were shared by him with the king, the Church and the commercial classes.
in the N., belonging to France, foem a dependency of Guadeloupe, while the rest of the island, belonging to Holland, is a dependency of Curacao.
St Martin was first occupied by French freebooters in 1638, but ten years later the division between France and Holland was peaceably made.
Lord Ashley now retired into Holland, where he became acquainted with Le Clerc, Bayle, Benjamin Furly, the English Quaker merchant, at whose house Locke had resided during his stay at Rotterdam, and probably Limborch and the rest of the literary circle of which Locke had been a cherished and honoured member nine or ten years before.
Unrestrained conversation on the topics which most interested him - philosophy, politics, morals, religion - was at this time to be had in Holland with less danger and in greater abundance than in any other country in the world.
In August 1703 he again settled in Holland, in the air of which he seems, like Locke, to have had great faith.
(See HOLLAND: History.)
ASSEN, the capital of the province of Drente, Holland, 16 m.
Corps (Holland) (55th and 16th Div.
In 1676 he visited Geneva on his way to France, and subsequently travelled to England and Holland.
He was notoriously no friend to the Loevenstein party then prevalent in Holland, and was displaced, his place being taken by Cornelius de Witt and Michiel Adriaanzoon de Ruyter.
Blake had not remained on the coast of Holland, for the Council of State was still almost as intent as the Dutch on convoying trade or molesting the enemy's.
On the 18th of February 1653 the Dutch admiral, who had now collected the homeward-bound convoys, was off Plymouth on his way back to Holland, and was attacked by the English fleet.
Blake was forced by his still unhealed wound to go ashore, and the sole command was left to Monk, who remained cruising on the coast of Holland.
The states-general now sought for peace, but Cromwell's demands were excessive, and could not be accepted without a surrender of the independence of Holland.
De Ruyter re-established the Dutch posts in Gambia, and, though he failed to retake New Amsterdam, did much injury to English trade before he returned to Holland.
De Ruyter covered the return of the trade to Holland.
The French, who had signed a treaty with Holland in 1662, were reluctantly induced to intervene in the war as the enemies of England.
Their avowed object was a partition of Holland, but there was a secret understanding that King Charles II.
In 1673 the allies made an effort to invade Holland from the sea coast.
At the end of July the allies again appeared off the coast of Holland, bringing four thousand soldiers in the war-ships and two thousand in transports.
As England withdrew from her alliance with Louis XIV., the other powers of Europe, frightened by the growth of the aggressive French power, began to come forward to the support of Holland.
The force was inadequate, but it was all that Holland could spare.
Reinforcements sent out from Holland were stopped in the Straits of Gibraltar and blockaded in Cadiz.
Invasion of Holland, 1672.
- The diplomacy of Louis had, before the outbreak of war, deprived Holland of her allies - England (treaty of Dover, 1670), Sweden (treaty of Stockholm, 1672) and the emperor, and when he declared war on the United Provinces in March 1672, it seemed that the Dutch could offer little resistance.
Conde in Holland was to renew his efforts against the Amsterdam defences; during the winter the demands of the war on the Rhine had reduced the French forces in the provinces to the size of a mere army of occupation.'
William wintered in Holland, Montecucculi in Cologne and Julich, and the Spaniards, who had served with William, in their own provinces of the Meuse.
The 1 Marshal Luxemburg, who was left in command of the army in Holland during the winter of 1672-73, had indeed made a bold attempt to capture Leiden and the Hague by marching a corps, from Utrecht across the frozen inundations.
Holland was again inundated in 1673.
This council was nominated by the governments of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Russia, Germany, Great Britain, Holland and Belgium, with headquarters in Copenhagen and a central laboratory at Christiania, and its aim was to furnish data for the improvement of the fisheries of the North Sea and surrounding waters.
He was apparently much in East Friesland till 1541; in North Holland, with Amsterdam as centre, from 1541 to 1543; again till '545 in East Friesland (where he held a disputation at Emden with John a Lasco in January 1 544); till 1547 in South Holland; next, about Lubeck; at Wismar in1553-1554(he held two disputations with Martin Micronius at Norden in February 1 554); lastly at Wustenfelde, a village near Oldesloo, between Hamburg and Lubeck, where he died on the 13th of January 1 559.
He was successful in restoring the authority of Maximilian in Holland, Flanders and Brabant, but failed to obtain any repayment of the large sums of money which he had spent in these campaigns.
He made many valuable contributions to the history of Holland :: Batavia Illustrata (4 parts, Leiden, 1609); Corte historische Beschryvinghe der Nederlandscher Oorlogen (1612); Inferioris Germaniae ...
In 1756, immediately on his leaving school, he was appointed to a junior clerkship in the secretary of state's office by Henry Fox (afterwards Lord Holland), with whose family Dr Francis was at that time on intimate terms; and this post he retained under the succeeding administration.
In 1830 when the Belgian provinces separated from Holland, an effort was made to include Luxemburg in the new kingdom of the Belgians; but in November 1831 the powers decided that part of the grand-duchy should be retained by the king of Holland, who refused to accept this arrangement.
retaining the name, was ruled by the kings of Holland until the death of William III.
ZWOLLE, the capital of the province of Overysel, Holland, on the Zwarte Water, and a junction station 242 m.
Zwolle has a considerable trade by river, a large fish market, and the most important cattle market in Holland after Rotterdam.
He warmly supported the Catholic missionary bishop of Holland, Rovenius, in his contests with the Jesuits, who were trying to evangelize that country without regard to the bishop's wishes.
But Jansen, as he said, did not mean to be a school-pedant all his life; and there were moments when he dreamed political dreams. He looked forward to a time when Belgium should throw off the Spanish yoke and become an independent Catholic republic on the model of Protestant Holland.
Another son, Erasmus (1625-1698), born at Roskilde, spent ten years in visiting England, Holland, Germany and Italy, and filled the chairs of mathematics and medicine at Copenhagen.
Of the original building only the clock tower (sent from Holland in 1727) remains.
Cape Town was founded in 1652 by settlers sent from Holland by the Netherlands East India Co., under Jan van Riebeek.
He also published An Introduction to the History of the Holy Eastern Church (1850, 2 vols.); History of the so-called Jansenist Church of Holland (1858); Essays on Liturgiology and Church History (1863); and many other works.
It is divided politically between Britain (south-east), Germany (north-east) and Holland (west), the Dutch territory occupying about 48.6% of the whole area, the German 28.3% and the British Territory of Papua 23-1%.
This budget concerned only the Asiatic possessions of Holland, not the Polynesian ones, and Dutch New Guinea must, consequently, have its own budget.
It appears to have been from France rather than from Geneva that the Presbyterian churches of Holland, Scotland and the United States derived their form of government.
Indeed, Holland became the home of modern religious liberty, the haven of innumerable free spirits, and the centre of activity of printers and publishers, who asked for no other imprimatur than the prospect of intelligent readers.
Permanency of occupation, however, dates from the voyage of the " Mayflower," which brought about a hundred men, women and children who had mostly belonged to an English sect of Separatists, originating in Yorkshire, but who had passed a period of exile for religion's sake in Holland.
It is an important fortress, forming the principal point d'appui of the line of defensive inundations called the "New Holland Water Line," in addition to its position as a railway centre.
Connected with the university are a valuable library, occupying the palace built for Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland, in 1807 and containing upwards of 200,000 volumes and MSS.; a museum of natural history; an ophthalmic institute; physical and chemical laboratories; a veterinary school; a botanic garden; and an observatory.
Other buildings of interest are the museum of industrial art; the so-called "Pope's house," built in 1517 by Adrian Floriszoon Boeyens, afterwards Pope Adrian VI., and a native of Utrecht; the royal mint of Holland; the Fleshers' Hall (1637); the home for the aged, occupying a 14th-century mansion; the town hall (1830); and the large hospital prison and barracks.
The Utrechters, under the leadership of Gerard Prouninek, otherwise Deventer, vehemently took the side of Leicester in his quarrel with the estates of Holland, and the English governor-general made the town his headquarters during residence in the Netherlands, and took it under English protection.
Though heartily disliked in Holland, Leicester made himself so popular in Utrecht that the burgher guard even presented him with a petition that he would, assume the sovereignty.
Alfred Holland Smith >>
Hence, when in 1850 a hydraulic installation was required for a new ferry station at New Holland, on the Humber estuary, the absence of water mains of any kind, coupled with the prohibitive cost of a special reservoir owing to the character of the soil, impelled him to invent a fresh piece of apparatus, the "accumulator," which consists of a large cylinder containing a piston that can be loaded to give any desired pressure, the water being pumped in below it by a steam-engine or other prime mover.
Benedictines - Wilfrid, Willibrord, Swithbert, Willehad - who evangelized Friesland and Holland; and another, Winfrid or Boniface, who, with his fellow-monks Willibald and others,.
A small body of religious dissentients, one hundred and one men, women and children, including some who had fled to Holland to escape the discipline of the church of England, secured leave from the Virginia Company to plant themselves within its bounds.
After the renewal of the war between Spain and Holland in 1621, the Dutch invaded the Portuguese colony of Brazil, and seized Bahia.
The grand-duke's connexion with the courts of Russia and Holland - his mother was a Russian grand-duchess and his wife, Sophia Louisa (1824-1897), a princess of the Netherlands - tended to give the Weimar society a cosmopolitan character, and the grand-duke devoted himself largely to encouraging men of intellect, whether Germans or foreigners, who came to visit or to settle in the town.
HAARLEM, a town of Holland in the province of North Holland, on the Spaarne, having a junction station 11 m.
Haarlem is the seat of the governor of the province of North Holland, and of a Roman Catholic and a Jansenist bishopric. In appearance it is a typical Dutch town, with numerous narrow canals and quaintly gabled houses.
The Great Church, dedicated to St Bavo, with a lofty tower (255 ft.), is one of the most famous in Holland, and dates from the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries.
The town hall was originally a palace of the counts of Holland, begun in the 12th century, and some old 13th-century beams still remain; but the building was remodelled in the beginning of the 17th century.
The Dutch Society for the Promotion of Industry (Nederlaandsche Maatschappij ter Bevordering van Nijverheid), founded in 1777, has its seat in the Pavilion Welgelegen, a villa on the south side of the Frederiks Park, built by the Amsterdam banker John Hope in 1778, and afterwards acquired by Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland.
Haarlem, which was a prosperous place in the middle of the 12th century, received its first town charter from William II., count of Holland and king of the Romans, in 1245.
It played a considerable part in the wars of Holland with the Frisians.
In 1492 it was captured by the insurgent peasants of North Holland, was re-taken by the duke of Saxony, the imperial stadholder, and deprived of its privileges.
On the 10th of June 1746 he left Holland and settled in Leipzig, where he hoped to get medical practice.
FRANEKER, a town in the province of Friesland, Holland, 5 m.
RICHARD HOLLAND, or Richard De Holande (fl.
When the War of 1812 broke out he was captain of the U.S. frigate "Constitution" (44) and was on a mission to Europe carrying specie for the payment of a debt in Holland.
In the freer atmosphere of Holland the exiles lose the antithetical attitude, with its narrowing and exaggerative tendency, and gain breadth and balance in the assertion of their distinctive testimony.
12, 1658), agreed on by representatives - the majority non-ministerial - from 120 churches, is one tempered by experience gained in Holland and New England, as well as in the Westminster Assembly.
There are also congregational churches in Austria, Bulgaria, Holland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and in Japan (93).
He conceived that a vast trade with the Iroquois for furs might be established; his report aroused great interest in Holland; and the United Netherlands, whose independence had been acknowledged in the spring, claimed the newly discovered country.
In 1653, during the war between England and Holland, the Dutch, fearing an English attack, built a wall, from which the present Wall Street was named, across Manhattan Island at what was then the northern limits of New Amsterdam.
In August 1673, Holland and England being at war, a Dutch fleet surprised New York, captured the city, and restored Dutch authority and the names of New Netherland and New Amsterdam.
He engaged twice in personal disputation with Arminius in the assembly of the estates of Holland in 1608, and was one of five Gomarists who met five Arminians or Remonstrants in the same assembly of 1609.
In Sweden Vipa, in Germany Kiebitz, in Holland Kiewiet, and in France Dixhuit, are names of the lapwing, given to it from its usual cry.
Though the canons of Dort were adopted by but two churches outside of Holland, the synod ranks as the most impressive assemblage of the Reformed Church.
SCHIEDAM, a town and river port of Holland, in the province of South Holland, on the Schie, near its confluence with the Maas, and a junction station 3 m.
Other classes of prehistoric pile-structures akin to the lake dwellings are the Terremare of Italy and the Terpen of Holland.
The Terpen of Holland appear as mounds somewhat similar to those of the terremare, and were also pile structures, on low or marshy lands subject to inundations from the sea.
The Kuilenburg bridge in Holland, which has a span of 492 ft., was erected on a timber staging of this kind, containing 81,000 cub.
The Moerdyk bridge in Holland, with 14 spans of 328 ft., was erected in a similar way.
His brother Alexandre, vicomte de Beauharnais, married Josephine Tascher de la Pagerie (afterwards the wife of Napoleon Bonaparte) and had two children by her - Eugene de Beauharnais and Hortense, who married Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland, and became mother of Napoleon III.
In Holland and the Scandinavian countries the organization is more modern and fairly adequate.
After some years in Paris he went to Holland, and then on to London, where he practised his profession.
He destined Louis for the throne of Holland, and proclaimed him king of that country on the 6th of June 1806.
In the latter part of 1809 Napoleon virtually resolved to annex Holland, in order to stop the trade which the Dutch secretly carried on with England.
At the close of the year Louis went to Paris, partly in order to procure a divorce from Hortense and partly to gain better terms for Holland.
On the 9th of July 1810 Napoleon annexed Holland to the French empire.
Under more favourable conditions Louis would have gained a name for kindness and philanthropy, proofs of which did indeed appear during his reign in Holland and gained him the esteem of his subjects; but his morbid sensitiveness served to embitter his relations both of a domestic and of,'a political nature and to sour his own disposition.
Loosjes, Louis Bonaparte, Koning van Holland (Amsterdam, 1888); L.
He gained Holland, then France, where he turned again to science.
Organizations have been established to advocate this method of living under the name of "Vegetarian Societies" in many countries - chiefly the United Kingdom, America, Germany, France, Austria, Holland and Australia.
As he continued to preach the reformed doctrines in opposition to the royal ordinance, he was obliged to leave the country and retired to Holland, where he was well received and appointed one of the pensionary ministers of Gouda.
In June he was appointed one of three commissioners to mediate for a peace between Denmark, supported by Holland, and Sweden.
The parliamentary borough falls within the Holland or Spalding division of the county.
Large sums have been voted in Holland for the establishment of primary and secondary schools, and the government has undertaken to assist in the establishment of parochial schools, the object being that every village, at least in Java, should possess one.
The following table affords comparisons in the revenue and expenditure: - The monetary system is similar to that of Holland (the unit being the guilder), but there are also certain silver and copper coins of small value bearing Malay or Javanese inscriptions.
The Dutch now sought to monopolize not only the distribution but the production of spices - an enterprise facilitated by the co-operation of many exiled Portuguese Jews who had settled in Holland.
It visited Madura, and came into conflict with the Portuguese at Bantam in Java, returning to Holland in 1597.
A new war between Great Britain and Holland broke out in 1672 and was terminated by the Treaty of Westminster (February 17, 1674), by which the points at issue between the two companies were referred first to commissioners and finally to an arbitrator.
Daendels (1808-1811), who was sent out as governorgeneral by Louis Bonaparte, after the French conquest of Holland.
In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
He subsequently held various commands in Holland, on the Rhine and in Italy, where up to January 17 99 he commanded in chief.
The Dutch had the right to make this levy under treaties going back to the treaty of Munster in 1648, and they clung to it still more tenaciously after Belgium separated herself in 1830-1831 from the united kingdom of the Netherlands - the London conference in 1839 fixing the toll payable to Holland at I.
Every Lent he fell ill and had to return to Holland to recover.
In France, in England, in Holland the evangelicals continued to describe their churches as ecclesiae reformatae, without the arriere pensee which in Germany had confined the designation "Reformed" to the followers of a particular church order and doctrine.
Manufactories of it were afterwards established in Germany, Holland and Flanders.
Valdemar had indeed pledged it solemnly and irrevocably to King Magnus of Sweden, who had held it for twenty years; but profiting by the difficulties of Magnus with his Norwegian subjects, after skilfully securing his own position by negotiations with Albert of Mecklenburg and the Hanseatic League, Valdemar suddenly and irresistibly invaded Scania, and by the end of 1361 all the old Danish lands, except North Holland, were recovered.
MAASTRICHT, or Maestricht, a frontier town and the capital of the province of Limburg, Holland, on the left bank of the Maas at the influx of the river Geer, 19 m.
The church of St Servatius is said to have been founded by Bishop Monulphus in the 6th century, thus being the oldest church in Holland; according to one account it was rebuilt and enlarged as early as the time of Charlemagne.
The French government at once set to work to enter into similar arrangements with other countries, and treaties were successively concluded in 1860-66 with Belgium, with the Zollverein (Germany), Italy, Switzerland, Sweden and Norway, Holland, Spain, Austria.
The United Kingdom and Holland alone held consistently and unfalteringly to the principle of free trade.
In August 1787 Russia and Austria provoked the Porte to declare war against them both, and two months later a defensive alliance was concluded between Prussia, England and Holland, as a counterpoise to the alarming preponderance of Russia.
Not only are millions of bulbs cultivated in Holland for export every year, but thousands are now also grown for the same purpose in the Channel Islands, more particularly in Guernsey.
Holland was confirmed in the possession of Belgium and Luxemburg, Limburg and Liege were added to her dominions.
The chief gardens in Holland are at Amsterdam, owned by the society "Natura Artis Magistra."
Descriptions of Iannina will be found in Holland's Travels (1815); Hughes, Travels in Greece, &c. (1830); H.
ALMELO, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, 12 m.
He insisted on the use of the prayer-book among the English soldiers in the service of Holland, and forced strict conformity on the church of the merchant adventurers at Delft, endeavouring even to reach the colonists in New England.
Meanwhile he had visited England, where he was well received; and he afterwards travelled in Holland, Belgium and France, acquainting himself with the condition and prospects of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Bavarian clergy invited Bishop Loos of the Jansenist Church in Holland, which for more than 150 years had existed independent of the Papacy and had adopted the name of "Old Catholic," to hold confirmations in Bavaria.
These first successes of the Vendeans coincided with grave republican reverses on the frontier - war with England, Holland and Spain, the defeat of Neerwinden and the defection of Dumouriez.
He was carrying on the struggle against Henry Raspe's successor, William II., count of Holland, when the emperor died in December 1250, and a few days later Conrad narrowly escaped assassination at Regensburg.
During the, 8th century the classical scholarship of the Netherlands was under the healthy and stimulating influence of Bentley (1662-1742), who marks the beginning of the English and Dutch period, mainly represented English in Holland by Bentley's younger contemporary and correspondent, Tiberius Hemsterhuys (1685-1766), and the latter scholar's great pupil David Ruhnken (1723-1798).
In Belgium we have P. Willems and the Baron De Witte (long resident in France); in Holland, C. G.
Philologie in Deutschland (1883); in Holland, L.
MAASSLUIS, a river port of Holland, in the province of South Holland, on the New Waterway, 10 m.
It was not, however, till the 14th of April 1672 that Sweden, by the treaty of Stockholm, became a regular "mercenarius Galliae," pledging herself, in return for 400,000 ecus per annum in peace and 600,000 in war time, to attack with 16,000 men those German princes who might be disposed to assist Holland.
by Wellhausen and in Holland by Kuenen.
In April 1644 he attacked the Portuguese island of Saint Martin and was wounded; he had to return to Holland, and there one of his legs was amputated.
In response to the demand for self-government, in September 1647 he and the council appointed - after the manner then followed in Holland - from eighteen representatives chosen by the people a board of nine to confer with him and the council whenever he thought it expedient to ask their advice; three of the nine, selected in rotation, were permitted to sit with the council during the trial of civil cases; and six were to retire each year, their successors to be chosen by the director and council from twelve candidates nominated by the board.
In 1650 the statesgeneral suggested a representative government to go into effect in 1653, but the company opposed it; in 1653, however, there was established the first municipal government for the city of New Amsterdam modelled after that of the cities of Holland.
Misled by instructions from Holland that the expedition was directed wholly against New England, Stuyvesant made no preparation for defence until just before the fleet arrived.
ROERMOND, a town in the province of Limburg, Holland, on the right bank of the Maas at the confluence of the Roer, and a junction station 28 m.
On the death of Frederick Henry William succeeded him, not only in the family honours and possessions, but in accordance with the terms of the act of survivance in all his official posts, as stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overyssel and Groningen and captain-general and admiral-general of the Union.
William, who had always been bitterly opposed to the policy of abandoning the French alliance in order to gain better terms from Spain, did his utmost to prevent the ratification, but matters were too far advanced for his interposition to prevail in the face of the determination of the states of Holland to conclude a peace so advantageous to their trade interests.
A prolonged controversy arose, which ended in the states-general in June 1650 commissioning the prince of Orange to visit the towns of Holland and secure a recognition of their authority.
On the 30th of July six leading members of the states of Holland were seized and imprisoned in the castle of Loevestein.
Cowed by the bold seizure of their leaders, the states of Holland submitted.
In that year his father died, and in July 1641 he crossed to Holland.
MERSEN (MEERSSEN), TREATY OF, a treaty concluded on the 8th of August 870 at Mersen, in Holland, between Charles the Bald and his half-brother, Louis the German, by which the kingdom of their nephew Lothair II.
LEIDEN or Leyden, a city in the province of South Holland, the kingdom of the Netherlands, on the Old Rhine, and a junction station 18 m.
Its early name was Leithen, and it was governed until 1420 by burgraves, the representatives of the courts of Holland.
Walch, for a year in Holland, France, Switzerland and Italy.
There was thus left a gap between 20,000 and 90,000, which was filled up by Adrian Vlacq (or Ulaccus), who published at Gouda, in Holland, in 1628, a table containing the logarithms of the numbers from unity to 100,000 to ro places of decimals.
In 182 9 Bosworth went to Holland as chaplain, first at Amsterdam and then at Rotterdam.
He remained in Holland until 1840, working there on his Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language (1838), his best-known work.
Holland drove them out in 1816, and, by giving them thus a valid excuse for aiding the Belgian revolution of 1830, secured them the strong position they have ever since held in Belgium; but they have succeeded in returning to Holland.
Of all the various nationalities represented in the Society, neither France, its original cradle, nor England, has ever given it a head, while Spain, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Germany and Poland, were all represented.
In 1798 he commanded the French army which occupied Switzerland, and in the following year he was in command of the French troops in Holland.
- It is singular that while France, Spain, Italy, Bohemia and Holland possessed the Bible in the vernacular before the accession of Henry VIII., and in Germany the Scriptures were printed in 1466 and seventeen times reprinted before Luther began his great work, yet no English printer attempted to put the familiar English Bible into type.
In 1529 the manuscript translation of Deuteronomy is mentioned as having perished with his other books and papers in a shipwreck which he suffered on the coast of Holland, on his way to Hamburg.
Dr Thomas Holland, afterwards rector of Ex.
As a poet, St Aldegonde is mainly known through his admirable metrical translation of the Psalms (1580), and the celebrated Wilhelmus van Nassauwe, one of the two officially recognized national anthems of Holland, is also ascribed to him.
During the war with Holland several efforts were made to conquer this captaincy, but without success.
(2) During the second period the successive interventions of France, Spain and Holland extended the naval war till it ranged from the West Indies to the Bay of Bengal.
Holland having now joined the allies, the British government was compelled to withdraw part of its fleet from other purposes to protect the North Sea trade.
A desperate battle was fought on the Dogger Bank on the 5th of August between Sir Hyde Parker and the Dutch admiral Zoutman, both being engaged in protecting trade; but Holland did not affect the general course of the war.
In the West Indies Rodney, having received news of the breach with Holland early in the year, took the island of St Eustatius, which had been a great depot of contraband of war, on the 3rd of February.
He was also for a short time Prussian minister in Holland, where he endeavoured without success to contract a loan.
It seems probable that Forrett acted without authority, and his successor, Forrester, was arrested by the Dutch in New Amsterdam and sent to Holland before he could confirm the transfer.
REMONSTRANTS, the name given to those Dutch Protestants who, after the death of Arminius, maintained the views associated with his name, and in 1610 presented to the states of Holland and Friesland a " remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of departure from stricter Calvinism.
The judgment of the synod was enforced by the deposition and in some cases the banishment of Remonstrant ministers; but the government soon became convinced that their party was not dangerous to the state, and in 1630 they were formally allowed liberty to reside in all parts of Holland and build churches and schools.
PENSIONARY, a name given to the leading functionary and legal adviser of the principal town corporations of Holland, because they received a salary, or pension.
The earliest "pensionaries" in Holland were those of Dort (1468) and of Haarlem (1478).
In the States of the province of Holland pensionary of the order of nobles (Ridderschap) was the foremost official of that assembly and he was named - until the death of Oldenbarneveldt in 1619 - the land's advocate, or more shortly, the advocate.
From1653-1672John de Witt, re-elected twice, made the name of grand pensionary of Holland for ever famous during the time of the wars with England.
The office was abolished after the conquest of Holland by the French in 1795.
Knutsford was the birthplace of Sir Henry Holland, Physician Extraordinary to Queen Victoria (1788-1873); and his son, the second Sir Henry, who was secretary of state for the colonies (1887-1892), was raised to the peerage in 1888 with the title of Baron Knutsford.
In 1631 he led a Dutch fleet from the Indies to Holland, and in 1636 he was raised to the governor-generalship. He came into conflict with the Portuguese, and took their possessions in Ceylon and Malacca from them.
Holland 30,905,712 89,121,124 89,121,124
More than half the shipping entering and leaving the ports of the United States in 1908 was British; Germany, the Scandinavian countries, France, Holland and Italy ranking next in order; the United States, although ranking after Great Britain, contributed less than a seventh of the total.
Another link with the past is found in Holland House, hidden in its beautiful park north of Kensington Road.
It was built by Sir Walter Cope, lord of the manor, in 1607, and obtained its present name on coming into the possession of Henry Rich, earl of Holland, through his marriage with Cope's daughter.
During the tenancy of Henry Fox, third Lord Holland (1773-1840), the house gained a European reputation as a meeting-place of statesmen and men of letters.
The formal gardens of Holland House are finely laid out, and the rooms of the house are both beautiful in themselves and enriched with collections of pictures, china and tapestries.
1610), a native of Germany, long resident in Holland.
By order of the privy council the lead was stripped off the roofs in 1567 and sold to Holland to pay the troops; but the ship conveying the spoils foundered in the North Sea.
5 that in 1748 he was compelled to quit Holland for Berlin, where Frederick the Great not only allowed him to practise as a physician, but appointed him court reader.
The next years he spent in exile, at first in London, then in Holland; in 1852 he went to Paris, where, by means of private connexions, he received an appointment in the bank of Bischoffheim & Goldschmidt, of which he became managing director, a post which he held till 1866.
In 1648, when Sir William Batten went over to Holland with a portion of his squadron, Ayscue's influence kept a large part of the fleet loyal to the Parliament, and in reward for this service he was appointed the following year admiral of the Irish Seas.
His flagship, the "Prince Royal," was taken on the third day, and he himself remained a prisoner in Holland till the peace.
His first experience of active service was in the campaign of 1 7941 795, when the British force under the duke of York was driven out of Holland by Pichegru.
Wellington's reward was a fresh grant of £ 200,000 from parliament, the title of prince of Waterloo and great estates from the king of Holland, and the order of the Saint-Esprit from Louis XVIII.
A ferry serves New Holland, on the Lincolnshire shore (Great Central railway).
EDAM, a town of Holland in the province of North Holland, close to the Zuider Zee, about 13 m.
It gives its name to the description of "sweet-milk cheese" (zoetemelks kaas) made throughout North Holland, which is familiar on account of its round shape and red rind.
of Bavaria, count of Holland.
In March 1825 he was created cardinal by Leo XII., and shortly afterwards was entrusted with an important mission to adjust a concordat regarding the interests of the Catholics of Belgium and the Protestants of Holland.
He was next employed in organizing the departments which were formed in Holland, of which he was governor-general from 1811 to 1813.
After five years spent in mathematical and astronomical studies, he went to Holland, in order to visit several eminent continental mathematicians.
They embarked for Holland in September 1583, and arrived at Laski's residence in February following.
The most fertile districts lie on the banks of the Elbe and near the North Sea, where, as in Holland, rich meadows are preserved from encroachment of the sea by broad dikes and deep ditches, kept in repair at great expense.
The land was a part of the original Phelps-Gorham Purchase, and subsequently (about 1793) came into the possession of the Holland Land Company, being part of the tract known as the Holland Purchase.
Turner, History of the Holland Purchase (Buffalo, 1850); T.
In 1311 Robert de Holland fortified a mansion here, and in 1327 this castle belonged to Henry, earl of Lancaster; but it was dismantled in 1460, and little more than the site is now traceable.
In 1677 he visited Holland along with Barclay, Penn and seven others; and this visit he repeated (with five others) in 1684.
However in 1642 Mary crossed over to Holland with her mother, Queen Henrietta Maria, and in 1644, as the daughter-in-law of the stadtholder, she began to take her place in public life.
From 1654 to 1657 the princess passed most of her time away from Holland.
The position both of Mary and of her son in Holland was greatly bettered through the restoration of Charles II.
In 1777 he visited England, Germany and Holland; and in the following year he travelled through Italy, with the view of exploring thoroughly the remains of ancient art.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.