The nobles who dominated the diet did nothing to remove the most crying evil of the country - the miserable state of the peasants, who had been freed from personal serfdom by Napoleon in 1807, but were being steadily driven from their holdings by the landlords.
About 80% of holdings (amounting to about 6o% of the cultivated area) are cultivated by the proprietor; of the rest approximately 13% are let on lease and 7% are worked on the system known as mtayage (q.v.).
of uncultivable area covered by lakes, rivers, towns, &c. Only the roughest estimate is possible as to the sizes of holdings, but in general terms it may be said that about 3 million persons are proprietors of holdings under 25 acres in extent amounting to between 15 and 20% of the cultivated area, the rest being owned by some 750,000 proprietors, of whom 150,000 possess half the area in holdings averaging 400 acres in extent.
Henceforward he who inherits a barony must pay r¦o, he who inherits a knight's fee too shillings or less, and for smaller holdings less "according to the ancient custom of fiefs."
A further act was passed in 1906 (the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906) which improved the tenant's position in respect of freedom of cropping, disposal of produce and compensation for disturbance.
Holdings hands like an old world family; we were committing our lives together like marriage vows.
His story being that their family dealt in oil and real estate, and he managed some of their holdings.
A more progressive form of pastoral industry is that of the tanche (enclosed holdings), in which the owner is both agriculturist and cattle raiser.
The object of settlers, however, in a great many, perhaps in the majority of instances, is to dispose of their holdings as soon as possible after the requirements of the law have been complied with, and to avoid permanent settlement.
This has greatly facilitated the formation of large estates devoted chiefly to grazing purposes, contrary to the policy of the legislature, which has everywhere sought to encourage tillage, or tillage joined to stock-rearing, and to discourage large holdings.
There was distrust in the minds of the depositors, especially those whose holdings were small, and most of the banks were, at a very early period, subjected to the strain of repaying a large proportion of their deposits as they fell due.
The whole land is covered with feudal holdings, masters of the levy, police, &c. There is a regular postal system.
Schiavanza, either simple or with a share in the crops, is a form of contract similar to the boaria, but applied principally to large holdings.
On some small holdings, however, it exists with contracts lasting from two to six years.
It contains the ruined capital of the ancient Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, and on the overthrow of that state by the Mahommedans, in f 564, the tract now forming the district of Bellary was split up into a number of military holdings, held by chiefs called poligars.
The later tendency was towards the absorption of smaller holdings into large estates.
Sheep-raising, involving larger holdings, less supervision and less labour, was preferred by the capitalist land-holder to the cultivation of the wheat, spelt, vines or olives which were the chief crops of the country.
They were bound to the soil and occupied holdings of scattered strips (amounting usually to a virgate or 30 acres) in return for a payment partly in labour and partly in kind.
Below the villeins in the social scale came the cottiers possessing smaller holdings, sometimes only a garden, and no oxen.
Fitzherbert, in deploring the gradual discontinuance of the practice of marling land, had alluded to the grievance familiar in modern times of tenants "who, if they should marl and make their holdings much better, fear lest they should be put out, or make a great fine or else pay more rent."
The author, writing from the landowner's point of view, ascribes the rise in rents and the rise in the price of corn' to the " emulation " of tenants in competing for holdings, a practice implying that the agriculture of the period was prosperous.
On the other hand, the small farmers who occupied separated holdings were deterred from improving by the fear of a rise in rent.
The owner in fee and life tenant, the occupier, whether of large or of small holding, whether under lease, or custom, or agreement, or the provisions of the Agricultural Holdings Act - all without distinction have been involved in a general calamity."
The legislative outcome of the findings of this royal commission was the Agricultural Holdings Act 1883, a measure which continued in force in its entirety till 1901, when a new act came into operation.
Amongst its chief recommendations were those relating to amendments in the Agricultural Holdings Acts, and to tithe rentcharge, railway rates, damage by game, sale of adulterated products, and sale of imported goods (meat, for example) as home produce.
The other measure arising out of the report of the royal commission of 1893 was the Agricultural Holdings Act 1900.
It provided that a county council might acquire any suitable land, with the object of allotting from one to fifty acres, or, if more than fifty acres, of an annual value not exceeding £50, to persons who desired to buy, and would themselves cultivate, the holdings.
But this aspect of the law, under which the landlord, other than the crown, is himself always a tenant, falls beyond the scope of the present article, which is restricted to those holdings that arise from the hiring and leasing of land.
In the absence of express agreement or custom or statutory provision (such as is made by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1883), a tenancy from year to year is determinable on half a year's notice expiring at the end of some current year of the tenancy.
The Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 conferred upon every tenant (with slight exceptions) entire freedom of cropping and of disposal of produce, notwithstanding any custom of the county or explicit agreement to the contrary.
Section 47 of the act gives the tenant the same rights to compensation as if his holding had been a holding under the Agricultural Holdings Act 1908 (vide supra).
Compensation was given to market gardeners for unexhausted improvements by the Market Gardeners' Compensation Act 1895 and by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 for improvements effected before the commencement of that act on a holding cultivated to the knowledge of the landlord as a market garden, if the landlord had not dissented in writing to the improvements.
The important sections of these acts were incorporated in the Agricultural Holdings Act 1908, s.
where a tenant's rent is in arrear, or he fails to remove on the expiry of his lease (Act of Sederunt, 14th of Dec. 1756: Agricultural Holdings Act 1883, s.
The Agricultural Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1883 and 1900, already referred to incidentally, contain provisions - similar to those of the English acts - as to a tenant's right to compensation for unexhausted improvements, removal for non-payment of rent, notice to quit at the termination of a tenancy, and a tenant's property in fixtures.
The Crofters' Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1886, 1887 and 1888, confer on " crofters " special rights.
The Small Holdings Act 1892 applies to Scotland.
Local preachers received notice to quit their holdings, labourers were discharged, those who opened their cottages for meetings were evicted, and to show any hospitality to a travelling preacher was to risk the loss of home and employment.
Cattle, horses and sheep are largely reared in the southern prairie region on ranches or smaller holdings.
Though slaves were obtained by the early victories of Rome over her Italian neighbours, no large number was employed on the small holdings of those periods.
But the landlord's interest and the general tone of feeling alike modified practice even before the intervention of legislation; they were habitually continued in their holdings, and came to possess in fact a perpetual and hereditary enjoyment of them.
Although there are some good arable farms in favoured districts, the vast majority of holdings are small crofts occupied mostly by peasants who combine fishing with farming.
Holdings of more than 32 acres constituted only 7% of the total.
The Vakuf tenants were at that time extremely prosperous, for their rent had been fixed for ten years in advance on the basis of the year's harvest, and so had not risen proportionately to the value of their holdings.
16 1920); (b) about 40,000 owners of small holdings, averaging from 26 to 150 ac., formed the backbone of the Lettish middle class, and the liberal professions (nicknamed the " grey barons ") were partly supported by about 10,000 tenants of small farms; (c) the owners of very small holdings in Latgalia and Courland numbered some 10,600.
A portion of the estate, equal in size to the average holdings, is left to the owner, without, however, the proviso that this portion must necessarily coincide with the administrative centre, the manor or family house.
In addition to this, a reserve force called the telekkatonasag was recruited from among the lesser gentry according to their teleks or holdings, every thirty-three teleks being held responsible for a mounted and fully equipped archer.
Two progressive measures of the highest importance were passed by this diet, one making Magyar the official language of Hungary, the other freeing the peasants' holdings from all feudal obligations.
Between 1902 and 1907 about 55 o families were placed on the land, their holdings aggregating over 500,000 acres.
But in spite of the fiasco of the Irish Councils Bill (1907), the struggles over education (Mr Birrell's bill of 1906 being dropped on account of the Lords' amendments), the rejection by the peers of the Plural Voting Abolition Bill (1906), and the failure (again due to the Lords) of the Scottish Small Holdings Bill and Valuation Bill (1907), which at the time made his premiership appear to be a period of bitter and unproductive debate, a good many reforming measures of some moment were carried.
In Burma the cultivators themselves continue to hold the land from government, and the extent of their holdings averages about five acres.
no longer deals with idolatry, but with the corruption of society, and particularly of its leaders - the grasping aristocracy whose whole energies are concentrated on devouring the poor and depriving them of their little holdings, the unjust judges and priests who for gain wrest the law in favour of the rich, the hireling and gluttonous prophets who make war against every one "that putteth not into their mouth," but are ever ready with assurances of Yahweh's favour to their patrons, the wealthy and noble sinners that fatten on the flesh of the poor.
An "anti-suicide bureau" was opened in 1907, and at Boxted, near Colchester, a scheme for Small Holdings has been initiated.
It is estimated that there are about io,000 small holdings averaging about four acres and intensely cultivated.
It includes, for instance, a considerable amount of information regarding holdings and stock.
The number of holdings of one acre and upwards in size rose from 33,332 in 1886 to 58,904 in 1896, and 72,338 in 1906; but the area held in estates of 5000 acres and upwards remains very large and has diminished but slowly despite the severity of the graduated land-tax.
The graduated land-tax, which has since been stiffened, rises from nothing at all upon the smaller holdings to 3d.
the Local Government Acts 1888, 1894, the Agricultural Holdings (England) Acts 1883 to 1906, the Small Holdings and Allotments Act 1907, the Light Railways Act 1896, the Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890, the Workmen's Compensation Act 1906, &c.
It is curious that while in England the burgage-tenure was deemed a species of socage, to distinguish it from the military holdings, in Scotland it was strictly a military holding, by the service of watching and warding for the defence of the burgh.
As a result of their inquiry the Crofters' Holdings Act was passed in 1886, and in the course of a few years some improvement was evident and has since been sustained.
It is due, under the Agricultural Holdings Acts 1883-1906, for agricultural improvements (see Landlord And Tenant; Cf.
The helots were state slaves bound to the soil- adscripti glebae - and assigned to individual Spartiates to till their holdings (icXi pot); their masters could neither emancipate them nor sell them off the land, and they were under an oath not to raise the rent payable yearly in kind by the helots.
The holdings run fairly small, the average being between 30 and 40 acres.
Generally speaking, the arable land, which is chiefly occupied by small holdings, is confined to the lowlands.
There are some very fertile regions in the level portions of the county, but in the mountainous districts the soil is poor, the holdings are subdivided beyond the possibility of affording proper sustenance to their occupiers, and, except where fishing is combined with agricultural operations, the circumstances of the peasantry are among the most wretched of any district of Ireland.
But in the " Great Division " which took place in 1848 and forms the foundation of present land titles, about 984,000 acres, nearly onefourth of the inhabited area, were set apart for the crown, about r, 495, 000 acres for the government, and about 1,619,000 acres for the several chiefs; and the common people received fee-simple titles 4 for their house lots and the pieces of land which they cultivated for themselves, about 28,600 acres, almost entirely in isolated patches of irregular shape hemmed in by the holdings of the crown, the government or the great chiefs.
4 These and other title-holders received corresponding rights to the use of irrigation ditches, and to fish in certain sea areas adjacent to their holdings.
The holdings were probably not compact but consisted of scattered strips in common fields, changed perhaps from year to year, the choice being determined by lot or otherwise.
The greater proportion of the land throughout the kingdom is in the hands of peasant proprietors, the extent of the separate holdings differing very much in different districts.
The holdings of the peasant families vary generally from 8 to 13 acres, the minimum in Russia being 16 to 22 acres.
He died in January 1680, and two years later his heirs disposed of his New Jersey holdings to Penn and other quakers.
The population of the immigrant colony was 792,666, consisting mainly of thriving and prosperous peasants with occupancy rights in holdings of about 28 acres each.
In the west and south-west of the country especially, opportunities of migration and of expansion had been gradually reduced, and to provide for their increasing numbers they were compelled to divide their holdings again and again until these patches of land became too small for the support of a household.
Large holdings of at least 500 hectares (a hectare equals about 22 acres) are indispensable to the profitable pursuit of extensive agriculture.
These holdings are usually called feudi or latifondi.
Along the coast landed property is as a rule broken up into small holdings, usually cultivated by their owners.
Over 1,600,000 feddans were held in holdings of from 5 to sofeddans.
Most of the land is freehold and cultivated by the owner himself, and comparatively little land is let on lease except very large holdings and glebe farms. The independent small farmer (bonder) maintains a hereditary attachment to his ancestral holding.
In the island of Bornholm, the assessment is somewhat different, though the general state of agricultural holdings is the same as in other parts.
In the country, Land Commissions similarly constituted deal with many questions affecting agricultural holdings.
The farms are of comparatively small size, the average cultivated area of the holdings in 1894 being 63 acres, and the hired labour averages about two men for each farm.
2.4.1 Table IX.-Classification of Holdings above 1 Acre.
But the abolition of the law of hypothec in 1879 - under which the landlord had a lien for rent upon the produce of the land, the cattle and sheep fed on it, and the live stock and implements used in husbandry - the Ground Game Act of 1880, the sevekal Agricultural Holdings Acts, and the construction of light railways improved matters and established a better understanding.
A large amount of capital was lost by tenants, and a few farms were thrown here and there upon the landlords' hands, but in no district was rent extinguished or were holdings abandoned.
It reported next year, and in 1886 the Crofters' Holdings Act was passed.
After the passing of the act (1886) the Crofters' Commission in 15 years considered applications for rent and revaluation of holdings which amounted to £82,790, and fixed the fair rent at £61,233, or an annual reduction of £21,557; of arrears of rent amounting to £184,962 they cancelled £124,180, and also assigned 4 8, 949 acres in enlargement of holdings.
will be found a classification of the holdings in 1895, 1903 and 1905.
The figures show that the holdings under 50 acres constituted fully two-thirds of the total holdings and that, though no very decided alteration in the size of farms was in progress, the larger portion of the cultivated land was held in farms of between 50 and 300 acres.
There were 81 5,453 " farms " or individual holdings, but more than one-fifth of these were small parcels or gardens containing less than an acre each; about one-half contained less than 21 acres each, and the average size was 8.57 acres.
If, however, the two conditions mentioned were forthcoming, villeins, or, as they were technically called, villein socmen of ancient demesne manors, could resist any attempt of their lords to encroach on their rights by depriving them of their holdings or increasing the amount of their customary services.
While the manorial system was in full force this contrast led to a classification of holdings and affected the whole position of people on the land.
As a rule people used land as holdings, and those were rigidly classified as villein or free tenements.
The interesting point to be noticed is that, without any formal break, leasing land for life and for term of years is seen to be rapidly spreading from the end of the 13th century, and numberless small tenancies are created in the 14th century which break up the disposition of the holdings.
Thus Arkansas has shared that fall in the average size of farms common to all sections of the Union (save the north central) since 1850, but especially marked since the Civil War in the " Cotton States," owing to the subdivision of large holdings with the introduction of the tenant system.
The percentage of farms worked by owners fell from 69.1% in 1880 to 54.6% in 1900; the difference of the balances or 1 4.5% indicates the increase of tenant holdings, two-thirds of these being for shares.
The renting of large holdings prevails to a greater extent than in any other state except Texas.
The most remunerative and most characteristic farming to-day is diversified and intensive and on small holdings.
The thrifty and methodical habits of the French peasantry, and also the system of small holdings which prevails in France, have, there is little doubt, done much to raise the French wine industry to the pre-eminent position which it holds.
There is perhaps no branch of agriculture which requires more minute attention or for which a system of small holdings is more suitable than wine culture.
In the holdings of neat cattle (1,453,971) and sheep (2,045,577) it ranked in 1900 respectively seventeenth and tenth among the states of the Union; in 1907, according to the Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture, there were in the state 1,561,712 neat cattle and 1,677,561 sheep. Stock-raising has always been important.
The holdings throughout Wales are for the most part smaller in extent than the average farms of England.
Since then one-fourth of the peasantry have been enabled to purchase their holdings, more than half a million acres having passed into their possession.
Agriculture is the chief occupation, and it is, on all the larger holdings, carried on with greater scientific knowledge than in any other part of Russia.
These indelning soldiers were provided with holdings on which they lived in times of peace.
As this tenure is very ancient, though modified in 1832 and 1867, the value of such holdings has been greatly enhanced with the improvement of the land and the decline in the purchasing power of currency.
Later inquirers, including Leo, Troya and Hegel, have found that the supposition does not tally with a whole series of facts, which point to a Lombard territorial law ignoring completely any parallel Roman and personal law, to a great restriction of full civil rights among the Romans, analogous to the condition of the rayah under the Turks, and to a reduction of the Roman occupiers to a class of half-free "aldii," holding immovable tenancies under lords of superior race and privilege, and subject to the sacrifice either of the third part of their holdings or the third part of the produce.
The state maintains a Forest Commission whose chief concern' is to control the fires and thereby give value to private holdings.
This combination threatened to monopolize traffic, and it was opposed by the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, and a branch of the North Pennsylvania (from Jenkintown to Yardley; sometimes called the " national " or " air-line "), and by the general public; and in 1873 the state passed a general railway law giving other railways than the United New Jersey holdings of the Penn, In 1864 a bill was introduced in the Federal House of Representatives making the Camden & Atlantic (now the Atlantic City) railway and the Raritan & Delaware Bay (now a part of the Central of New Jersey) a post route between New York and Philadelphia and authorizing these railways to carry passengers and freight between New York and Philadelphia.
There were 76.000 occupiers of rural holdings in 1905, and the area occupied by them, exclusive of lands leased from the state, is 48,081,000 acres.
The average size of holdings in England may be taken approximately as 66 acres, the average in 1903 being 66.1, whereas in 1895 it was 65.3.
If the Board of Agriculture is satisfied, after holding a local inquiry, that a county council have failed to fulfil their obligations as to allotments, the board may transfer all and any of the powers of the county council to the Small Holdings Commissioners.
By the Small Holdings and Allotments Act 1907, Small Holdings Commissioners are appointed by the Board of Agriculture to ascertain the extent of the demand for small holdings, and confer Small .
holdings Local authorities are required to furnish information and give assistance to the commissioners, who report to the board.
If the board, after considering the report, consider it desirable, they require the county council concerned to prepare a scheme for the provision of small holdings; if the county council decline to prepare a scheme, the board may direct the commissioners to do so.
Every county council must establish a small holdings and allotments committee, to which must be referred all matters relating to the exercise and performance by the council of their powers and duties as to small holdings and allotments.
But the most important provision was the agreement of Belgium to respect the concessions granted in the lands of the Fondation in November 1906 to the American Congo Company and the Compagnie forestiere et miniere, companies in which the Congo State had large holdings.
Other holdings were as follows: between 20 acres and 50 acres, 3688 in 1880, and 5261 in 1900; between 50 acres and Too acres, 2056 in 1880 and 3741 in 1900; less than To acres, 434 in 1880 and 1622 in 190o; woo acres and more, 9 in 1880 and 248 in 1900.
The most characteristic feature of this act was that the peasants, as distinct from household servants, received not only personal freedom but allotments in land in certain proportions to their former holdings.
As a result of these measures the majority of Rumans are peasant proprietors; but the smallness of the holdings renders scientific farming difficult except by cooperation, and many proprietors can only live by working for the owners of large estates.
He abolished the system by which public lands were leased to middlemen, reduced the land tax on small holdings, and granted new facilities for obtaining credit to the peasants.
It dealt with the natives residing in certain native reserves, and in addition to providing for their interests and holdings, and in other ways protecting the privileges accorded to them, the principle of the duty of some degree of labour devolving upon every able-bodied native enjoying these privileges was asserted, and a small labour tax was levied.'
Certainty and legal protection were so essential that even villain holdings were treated as villain socage when legal protection was obtainable for it, as was actually the case with the peasants on Ancient demesne who could sue their lords by the little writ of right and the Monstraverunt.
Hitherto the most important class in Posen had been the Polish nobles, of whom many were very poor; but the economic development of the country and the break-up of the large estates into peasant holdings, which created a comparatively wealthy Polish middle class, threatened German ascendancy more seriously than had the traditional nationalism of the nobles.
Nevertheless he was driven by the logic of events to attack Normandy, for as long as his brother reigned there, and as long as many English barons retained great holdings on both sides of the Channel and were subjects of the duke as well as of the king, intrigues and plots never ceased.
In the manor rolls it is not Uncommon to find whole families swept away, so that no heir can be detected to their holdings.
In the course of two generations the farmers who paid rent for these holdings became more and more numerous, and demesne land tilled by villein-service grew more and more rare.
The unfortunate persons driven from their holdings and forced to seek a refuge in the towns, in England, orwhen they could afford itin the United States, carried with them everywhere the seeds of disease, the constant handmaid of famine.
On the meeting of the new parliament Lord Salisburys government was defeated on an amendment to the address, demanding facilities for agricultural laborers to obtain small holdings for gardens and pasturethe policy, in short, which was described as three acres and a cow.
Amersham (Elmodesham, Agmondesham, Hagmondesham, Aumundesham, Homersham) at the time of the Domesday Survey was divided into no less than six holdings.
It was purchased by De Lesseps's Compagnie Universelle de Canal Interoceanique de Panama for $25,500,000; and, with the other holdings of the French company, 68,869 shares (more than 97% of the total) passed to the 1 Christobal, the port of Colon, and Balboa, the port of Panama, lie within the canal zone and are under the jurisdiction of the United States.
In 1793 he had begun to build his house, Montpelier, at Thomaston, Maine, where he speculated unsuccessfully in the holdings of the Eastern Land Association; and he lived there until his death on the 25th of October 1806.
Since the desirable lands of the country have been occupied, the prices of these lands have advanced slowly, with the result that the big farms are being divided up into small holdings.
Holdings are generally small, not exceeding an average of 20 acres for each household.
Small holdings were in themselves a hindrance to Servian agricultural progress, inasmuch as small farmers cannot afford the cost of scientific farming; hence the great success of co-operation.
There is a tax on the gross receipts of corporations, a graduated land tax on all holdings exceeding 640 acres, a tax on income exceeding $3500, and a tax on gifts and inheritances.
Before 1846 the number of small holdings was inordinately large.
But the potato famine and the repeal of the Corn Laws, occurring almost simultaneously, caused an immediate and startling diminution in the number of smaller holdings.
Thus in 1905 the number of holdings be tween 1 and 5 acres was 62,126, the number between 5 and 15 acres 154,560, the number between 15 and 30 acres 134,370 and the number above 30 acres 164,747.
Generally speaking, however, it will be seen from the figures that since the middle of the 19th century holdings between I and 30 acres have decreased and holdings over 30 acres have increased.
Of the total holdings under 30 acres considerably more than one-third are in Ulster, and of the holdings over 30 acres more than one-third are in Munster.
The number of holdings of over 500 acres is only 1526, of which 475 are in Connaught.
A considerable proportion, however, of these larger holdings, especially in Connaught, consist of more or less waste land, which at the best can only be used for raising a few sheep.
Under the act of 1881, down to the 31st of March 1906, the rents of 360,135 holdings, representing nearly 11,000,000 acres, had been fixed for the first statutory term of 15 years either by the land commissioners or by agreements between landlords and tenants, the aggregate reduction being over 20% as compared with the old rents.
The rents of 120,515 holdings, representing over 3,500,000 acres, had been further fixed for the second statutory term, the aggregate reduction being over 19% as compared with the first term rents.
Although the acts of 1870 and 1881 provided facilities for the purchase of holdings by the tenants, it was only after the passing of the Ashbourne Act in 1885 that the transfer of ownership to the occupying tenants began on an extended scale.
In order to improve the condition of affairs in congested districts, the board was empowered (I) to amalgamate small holdings either by directly aiding migration or emigration of occupiers, or by recommending the Land Commission to facilitate amalgamation, and (2) generally to aid and develop out of its resources agriculture, forestry, the breeding of live-stock, weaving, spinning, fishing and any other suitable industries.
Money enough was advanced out of the surplus property of the Irish Church to pay for tenants of holdings under X30 one year's rent upon all arrears accruing before November 1880, giving them a clear receipt to that date on condition of their paying another year themselves; of the many reasons against the measure the most important was that it was a concession to agrarian violence.
Lord Barrymore) for his exertions in favour of a brother landlord, his tenants in Tipperary were ordered to give up their holdings.
Dairy farms, to mention only a few of the most important points which had been hitherto excluded, were admitted within the scope of the Land Acts, and purely pastoral holdings of between £So and boo were for the first time included.
In Ireland the poorrate used to be divided between landlord and tenant, except on holdings valued at L4 and under, in which the landlord paid the whole.
This board has power within the districts affected by it to foster agriculture and fisheries, to enlarge holdings, and to buy and hold land.
Their holdings are rarely divided, and a common custom is the inheritance of landed property by the youngest son.
In order to farm these, the Church and the rich landowners granted back the holdings on the temporary and conditional terms of tenancy-at-will or of the beneficium, thus multiplying endlessly the land subject to their overlordship and the men who were dependent upon them as tenants.
free education, small holdings, graduated taxation and local government.
Before 1892 Mr Chamberlain had the satisfaction of seeing Lord Salisbury's ministry pass such important acts, from a progressive point of view, as those dealing with Coal Mines Regulation, Allotments, County Councils, Housing of the Working Classes, Free Education and Agricultural Holdings, besides Irish legislation like the Ashbourne Act, the Land Act of 1891, and the Light Railways and Congested Districts Acts.
It was a subsidiary of one or more of Mr. Cooms' international holdings and would be devoted to analyzing a myriad of production numbers effecting economies from countries around the world.
I shall research this old man's recent holdings as tedious as the project will be.
abbey's holdings and expanding Rievaulx's circle of benefactors.
The proportion of iconographic questions will vary enormously according to the nature of the museums's holdings.
archiepiscopal collections and its important manuscript holdings, ranks as one of the country's major specialist repositories.
archival holdings are usually unique documents, which can also be fragile.
In recent years the Library's holdings of naval history have been significantly augmented.
boatmanntire holdings - including objects painted by boatmen, costumes worn by boating families. waterways souvenirs, along with photographic and archive material.
burgage holdings, occupied by more than 80 tenants.
computerizeof computerizing the records of the Museum holdings has also proceeded during the year.
salmonella contamination was found on eight per cent of UK holdings surveyed for a recent European Food Safety Authority report.
duplicate existing SSL holdings.
For the Record Office's holdings, consult the catalog el in the Searchroom.
fissile material holdings.
Holdings worth up to 10,000 Swiss francs were released in their entirety.
Proposal: The SRA and Stagecoach Holdings plc signed Heads of Terms for a 20-year franchise in March 2001.
germ plasm holdings.
Only 45 HEIs declared equity holdings, totalling almost £ 194 million.
The research for the book draws extensively on archive sources, especially the manuscript holdings on the Abbey at the National Library of Ireland.
I give a table of land holdings in the village.
In 1999 there were over 17 thousand agricultural holdings, nearly 10 thousand of which were arable.
The periodical holdings of all the sites are listed within the library catalog.
In the UK, the average size of horticultural holdings is 16 hectares.
The conservation agencies and others have extensive data holdings coded using the NVC.
All States should increase transparency and security of their fissile material holdings.
The same week that I met my Oxford student, Internet incubator Oxygen Holdings made its market debut.
leet jurisdiction within his holdings (see Franchise Courts above ).
manuscript holdings on the Abbey at the National Library of Ireland.
In several areas, such as medieval and renaissance manuscripts, and emblem literature, holdings are of world importance.
microform holdings, personal papers, memoirs, oral histories, film footage, and photographs.
outsourcetion, funds with direct holdings of property are increasingly outsourcing management to specialist companies.
When etailers increase their real estate holdings, as in happening in the USA, the debate becomes even more paradoxical.
periodical holdings of all the sites are listed within the library catalog.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange has agreed to buy CBOT Holdings for $ 8 billion to create a global derivatives powerhouse.
renaissance manuscripts, and emblem literature, holdings are of world importance.
The Standard interests now reorganized all their holdings under the name of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
rodenticides on farms and holdings This agriculture information sheet (no.
Euro Cargo Rail is a wholly owned subsidiary of English Welsh & Scottish Railroad Holdings Limited.
tenants of the manor and describe their individual holdings.
In this manner, holding and fattening smaller tilapia is comparable with livestock holdings.
villein tenants of the manor, some with considerable holdings.
For example, Joshua 12 is viewed as a list of those kings whose holdings were successfully wrested from them.
Fitzherbert, in deploring the gradual discontinuance of the practice of marling land, had alluded to the grievance familiar in modern times of tenants " who, if they should marl and make their holdings much better, fear lest they should be put out, or make a great fine or else pay more rent."
The object of the Small Holdings Act 1892 was to facilitate the acquisition of small agricultural holdings.
(See also Allotments And Small Holdings.) Agricultural Education.
The Agricultural Holdings Act 1908 (which repeals the Agricultural Holdings Acts of 1883, 1900 and 1906) gives to the agricultural tenant a right to compensation for (i.) certain specified improvements made by him with the landlord's previous consent in writing; and (ii.) certain other classes of improvements although the landlord's consent has not been obtained.
(See further the articles Ejectment, Fixtures, Rent.) The Small Holdings and Allotments Act 1908, which repealed previous acts of 1887, 1890 and 1907, deals, on terms similar to those of the Agricultural Holdings Act 1908, with small holdings and allotments (the expression " small holding " meaning an agricultural holding which exceeds one acre, and either does not exceed fifty acres, or, if exceeding fifty acres, is at the date of sale or letting of an annual value for the purposes of income tax not exceeding fifty pounds; the expression " allotment " includes a field garden).
A lease may be transmitted (i.) by " assignation," intimated to the landlord, and followed by possession on the part of the assignee; (ii.) by sub-lease - the effect of which is equivalent to that of under-lease in English law; (iii.) by succession, as of the heir of a tenant; (iv.) in the case of agricultural holdings, by bequest (Agricultural Holdings [Scotland] Act 1883, s.
1920 (passed in order to curtail the power of Baltic landowners) a State fund was created with a view to forming new holdings and increasing the size of the minute holdings, and " in order to satisfy the requirements of economic enterprises, social and cultural institutions and to enlarge the areas of towns and villages."
A new Small Holdings Act (1907) for England was passed; the Trades Disputes Act (1906) removed the position of trades unions from the controversy excited over the Taff Vale decision; Mr LloydGeorge's Patents Act (1907) and Merchant Shipping Act (1906) were welcomed by the tariff reformers as embodying their own policy; a long-standing debate was closed by the passing of the Deceased Wife's Sister Act (1907); and acts for establishing a public trustee, a court of criminal appeal, a system of probation for juvenile offenders, and a census of production, were passed in 1907.
also Allotments And Small Holdings), and under the Workmen's Compensation Act 1906 to workmen, in respect of accidents in the course of their employment (see Employers' Liability); and under the Licensing Act 1904, to the payments to be made on the extinction of licences to sell intoxicants.
Land monopoly is an evil of large proportions in California to-day, but it is due to the laxness of the United States government in enabling speculators to accumulate holdings and not to the original extent of Mexican grants.
It is impossible to give more than approximately accurate statistics of the resultant depopulation of Portugal; but it seems probable that the inhabitants of the kingdom decreased from about 1,800,000 or 2,000,000 in 1500 to The Slave thus discredited; the peasants sold their farms and p emigrated or flocked to the towns; and small holdings were merged into vast estates, unscientifically cultivated by slaves and comparable with the latifundia which caused so many agrarian evils during the last two centuries of the Roman republic. The decadence of agriculture partly explains the prevalence of famine at a time when Portuguese maritime commerce was most prosperous.
Holdings An area of land rented from a landlord.
Safe use of rodenticides on farms and holdings This agriculture information sheet (no.
Holdings that disappointed did so as a result of specific, rather than sectorial, issues.
Rentals and surveys also name the tenants of the manor and describe their individual holdings.
Most of the land was rented by the villein tenants of the manor, some with considerable holdings.
You should focus on what your holdings are worth, not the percentage of the company you own.
She developed her passion for changing a space after watching her great-grandfather and grandfather manage real estate holdings.
HSBC Card Services is part of HSBC holdings, a leading international banking powerhouse headquartered in the United Kingdom.
Chase acquired Bank One in order to continue growing their holdings of financial institutions.
Online accounts are also commonly used for simply monitoring brokerage holdings.
Included in his holdings are an extensive art collection, a fleet of vintage cars, and several elaborate homes located around the world.
While some of the wealthiest stars are simple to name off, there are others who are quietly hiding their holdings and making smart decisions to expand their empires.
In 2005 Namco merged with Bandai to create Namco Bandai Holdings Inc., the third largest video games company in Japan.
Read the Guide to the Holdings of the Still Picture Branch of the National Archives and Records Administration.
Its extensive holdings almost guarantee a breakthrough in the genealogical brick wall.
The holdings are vast, so allow plenty of time.
The holdings at NARA are massive, with over nine billion pages of documents, over seven million maps and 20 million photographs.
For family historians, the more popular holdings come under several main categories.
For historians researching Native American lineage, the National Archives has extensive holdings from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
This list of holdings is only the start.
These holdings include both Union and Confederate Civil War service records.
The FedEx company holdings are divided into a number of operating units.
Corporate positions may be applied for online as well, with resume submissions accepted at the Sears Holdings Corporation website.
For example, pharmacists and technicians can apply for jobs in Sears Holdings pharmacies (like at Kmart).
Sears Portrait Studio employeess work for CPI rather than for Sears Holdings Corporation.
Sears Holdings Corporation owns and operates several companies, including Kmart, Orchard Supply Hardware Store, myGofer.com, and others.
For complete details about working for any of these companies, visit the Careers page on the Sears Holdings Corporation website.
Kmart is owned by Sears Holdings Corporation, so your search for job openings and information about working for the company will need to start on the careers page on the company's website.
To do this, simply visit the "Search Openings" page on the Sears Holdings Corporation website.
When you click on the Search Openings link, you will be taken to a searchable database that includes information about professional positions with all of the stores and brands owned by Sears Holdings Corporation and corporate office jobs.
Kmart online job applications for non-management positions in stores are available on the Sears Holdings Corporation web site.
The parent company is called Sears Holdings Corporation and employs over 300,000 people.
Individuals who are interested in being considered for one of these jobs can click on the link posted on the Entry Level Jobs page of the Sears Holdings Corporation web site.
Sears Holdings Corporation is the parent company for a number of brands, including Kmart, Sears, Orchard Supply Hardware and gofer stores.
Job seekers can search for available positions with the company by visiting the Professional & Salaried Jobs page on the Sears Holdings Corporation web site.
Sears Holdings Corporation is the name given to the new company created when Kmart bought Sears Roebuck and Co. The sale was completed on March 24, 2005.
The Sears Holdings head office is located at Hoffman Estates, which is in the Chicago area.
The company operates Land's End and other specialty stores along with its Sears and Kmart holdings.
Nationwide's insurance holdings encompass automobile, homeowners, life, and commercial policies.
Banks do not generally like to keep a large portfolio of real estate holdings, and for this reason they oftentimes present the foreclosed homes for sale at an amount that is less than the actual market value of the home.
In June 2005, Bank of America agreed to modify many of the troubled predatory loans from Countrywide's holdings, up to a value of $8.4 billion dollars.
Once the economy turned, EcoQuest's sales followed suit and after an unsuccessful bid to get third-party financing, Jackson sold a large portion of the company to Aerus Holdings LLC.
Langston's: At this site, select Ariat under either men's or women's items, and the result will list current holdings including closeout prices Ariat boots.
Maharishi was involved in a number of large real estate holdings as well, and reportedly died a billionaire.
The General Auto Insurance Company is a subsidiary of PGC Holdings Corp.
The Tesco name first appeared on a storefront in 1929, and the company was taken public in 1947 as Tesco Stores (Holdings) Limited.
General Electric would retain about 10 percent of the organization's stock, but the company had to give up complete control and no longer was able to use the name GE Employers Reinsurance to describe their holdings.
When Frodo goes into the West, he leaves his holdings to Sam.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.