Hohenstaufen Sentence Examples
The disorder in Germany after the fall of the Hohenstaufen afforded an opportunity for Rudolph to increase his possessions.
He was attached to the Hohenstaufen by the marriage of his daughter, Elizabeth, with Conrad, son of Frederick II.
He was the uncle and guardian of Conradin of Hohenstaufen, whom he assisted to make his journey to Italy in 1267, and accompanied as far as Verona.
Having married Constance, daughter of Manfred of Beneventum, he came forward as the representative of the claims of the Hohenstaufen in Naples and Sicily against Charles, duke of Anjou.
But the duchy was re-established after the death of the German king Henry I., and became hereditary in the Hohenstaufen family, and then in the house of Austria, which succeeded in 1273 to the imperial dignity.Advertisement
In the same year, however, Isaac was dethroned by his brother, Alexius III.; but Henry married Isaac's daughter Irene to his brother, Philip of Swabia, and thus attempted to give the Hohenstaufen a new title and a valid claim against the usurper Alexius.
The heirs of the Norman kings were the Hohenstaufen; and we have already seen Henry VI.
It is this Hohenstaufen policy which becomes the primary occasion of the diversion of the Fourth Crusade.
Charles of Anjou had succeeded, as a result of the long "crusade" waged by the papacy against the Hohenstaufen from the council of Lyons to the battle of Tagliacozzo (1245-1268), in establishing himself in the kingdom of Sicily.
Some of them lay the blame on the papacy; and it is true that the papacy had contributed towards the decay of the Crusades when it had allowed its own particular interests to overbear the general welfare of Christianity, and had dignified with the name and the benefits of a Crusade its own political war against the Hohenstaufen.Advertisement
It cried Crusade when there was no Crusade; and the long Crusade against the Hohenstaufen, if it gave the papacy an apparent victory, only served in the long run to lower its a It is difficult to decide how far Arabic models influenced ecclesiastical architecture in the West as a result of the Crusades.
His descent from the Hohenstaufen through his mother, a daughter of the emperor Philip, gave him claims to represent the Swabian line.
It is surrounded by old walls, flanked with towers, and has a considerable number of ancient buildings, among which are the fine church of the Holy Cross; St John's church, which dates from the time of the Hohenstaufen; and, situated on a height near the town, partly hewn out of the rock, the pilgrimage church of the Saviour.
It received town rights from Frederick Barbarossa, and after the extinction of the Hohenstaufen became a free imperial town.
With his death the Hohenstaufen race became extinct.Advertisement
Innocent, determined that the Hohenstaufen should not again dominate Italy, offered the crown of Sicily in turn to Richard of Cornwall, Charles of Anjou, and Henry III.
But the battle of Benevento (1266), where Manfred fell, and the rout of Tagliacozzo (1268), sealing the ruin of the house of Hohenstaufen in Italy and the triumph of that of Anjou, were fatal to Pisa.
Under the Hohenstaufen many brilliant diets were held within its walls.
In 1194 the city, with the rest of Sicily, passed to the house of Hohenstaufen under the emperor Henry VI., who died there in 1197; and after the fall of the Hohenstaufen was contended for by Peter I., king of Aragon, and Charles I., count of Anjou.
As a counterstroke, however, Conrad of Hohenstaufen, the brother of Frederick, was chosen German king in December 1127, and was quickly recognized in northern Italy.Advertisement
But Lothair gained the upper hand in Germany, and by the end of 1129 the Hohenstaufen strongholds, Nuremberg and Spires, were in his possession.
This struggle was accompanied by disturbances in Lorraine, Saxony and Thuringia, but order was soon restored after the resistance of the Hohenstaufen had been beaten down.
He then received as papal fiefs the vast estates of Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, thus securing for his daughter and her Welf husband lands which might otherwise have passed to the Hohenstaufen.
Resuming the struggle against the Hohenstaufen, Lothair soon obtained the submission of the brothers, who retained their lands, and a general peace was sworn at Bamberg.
Albert, who was a Minnesinger, was loyal to the declining fortunes of the Hohenstaufen, and afterwards supported his brother-in-law, Rudolph of Habsburg, in his efforts to obtain the German throne.Advertisement
After a short apostasy, during which he supported Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, Conrad returned to the side of the Hohenstaufen and aided Conrad IV.
Hohenstaufen, surnamed Stupor Mundi, in alliance with Pisa, against a Genoese squadron bringing a number of English, French and Spanish prelates to attend the council summoned to meet at the Lateran by Gregory IX.
It first appears as a town in 942 and until 1108 was the seat of the counts of Rothenburg-Komburg; when this line became extinct it passed to the family of Hohenstaufen, one member of which took the title of duke of Rothenburg.
Papsttum zur Zeit des Hohenstaufen Friedrich II.
During the middle ages it was a considerable centre of commerce and shipping, and under the Hohenstaufen emperors was raised to the rank of a free imperial city.
Conrad's son Frederick inherited the duchy of Franconia which his father had received in 1115, and this was retained by the Hohenstaufen until the death of Duke Conrad II.
In 1152 Frederick received the duchy of Swabia from his cousin the German king Frederick I., and on his death in 1167 it passed successively to Frederick's three sons Frederick, Conrad and Philip. The second Hohenstaufen emperor was Frederick Barbarossa's son, Henry VI., after whose death a struggle for the throne took place between Henry's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, and Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV.
Regained for the Hohenstaufen by Henry's son, Frederick II., in 1214, the German kingdom passed to his son, Conrad IV., and when Conrad's son Conradin was beheaded in Italy in 1268, the male line of the Hohenstaufen became extinct.
The castle of Hohenstaufen was destroyed in the 16th century during the Peasants' War, and only a few fragments now remain.
It may even be maintained that his elevation was due solely to his personal claims. This was a victory for Rome, and it was repeated in the case of the first Hohenstaufen, Conrad III., who owed his elevation (1138) mainly to the princes of the Church and the legate of Innocent II., by whom he was crowned.
The Hohenstaufen succumbed to it, and the papacy itself received a terrible shock, which shook its vast empire to the foundations.
Having occupied Tuscany he marched into Apulia, part of the kingdom of Frederick of Hohenstaufen, afterwards the emperor Frederick II., and on the 18th of November 1210 was excommunicated by the pope.
This was still proceeding when Frederick died in December 1250 and it was only ended by the overthrow of the Hohenstaufen and the complete destruction of the imperial authority in Italy.
His son Otto II., called the Illustrious, was the next duke, and his loyalty to the Hohenstaufen caused him to be placed under the papal ban, and Bavaria to be laid under an interdict.
He was the uncle and guardian of Conradin of Hohenstaufen, and when this prince was put to death in Italy in 1268, Louis and his brother Henry inherited the domains of the Hohenstaufen in Swabia and elsewhere.
After the death of Philip and the recognition of Otto he was among the princes who invited Frederick of Hohenstaufen, afterwards the emperor Frederick II., to come to Germany and assume the crown.
Henrys chief friends were his nephews, the two Hohenstaufen princes, Frederick and Conrad, to whose father Frederick the emperor Henry IV.
While they were thus employed the friends of the house of Hohenstaufen, convinced that Fredericks kingship was not possible, chose the late emperors brother, Philip, duke of Swabia, to fill the vacant throne; soon afterwards the enemies of the house found a candidate in the person of.
Thus the struggle between Welf and Hohenstaufen was renewed and civil war broke out at once.
The struggle to maintain the position of the Hohenstaufen in Italy was continued after this event; but in October 1268, by the execution of Conrads son Conradin, the family became extinct.
The age of the Hohenstaufen emperors is, in many respects, the most interesting in the medieval history of Germany.
Otto was also related to the great house of Hohenstaufen, a relationship which gave him access to sources of information usually withheld from the ordinary monastic annalist, and his work is very valuable for the earlier part of the career of Frederick I.
Ferdinand, who showed himself docile to the influence of Berengaria, so long as she lived, married the wife she found for him, Beatrice, daughter of the emperor Philip (of Hohenstaufen), and followed her advice both in prosecuting the war against the Moors and in the steps which she took to secure his peaceful succession to Leon on the death of his father in 1231.
The Hohenstaufen kings refused to admit this claim; hence the persistent hostility of the popes and the calling in of foreign potentates and armies.
Alexander fulminated with excommunication and interdict against the party of Manfred, but in vain; nor could he enlist the kings of England and Norway in a crusade against the Hohenstaufen.
This class was largely reinforced, when after the extinction of the royal house of Hohenstaufen in the 13th century, a great number of towns founded by them on their demesne successfully claimed immediate subjection to the crown.
The great age of the Empire began slightly earlier, and continued until the fall of the Hohenstaufen in the middle of the 13th century.
When Conradin, the last of the Hohenstaufen, appeared in Italy the pope excommunicated him and his supporters, but it is improbable that he was in the remotest degree responsible for his execution.
The ruined castle of Stahleck, crowning the heights above the town, is celebrated in history as the scene of the marriage between Henry, eldest son of Henry the Lion (shortly before the latter's death in 1195) and Agnes of Hohenstaufen, which effected a temporary reconciliation between the houses of Welf and Hohenstaufen.
Pope Innocent IV., having deposed the emperor Frederick II., after several princes had refused to allow themselves to be nominated in the place of the Hohenstaufen, caused the young Il count of Holland to be elected king of the Romans (1247) by an assembly composed chiefly of German ecclesiastics.
The duchy was nominally retained by the emperors in their own hands until 1115, when the emperor Henry V., wishing to curb the episcopal influence in this neighbourhood, appointed his nephew Conrad of Hohenstaufen as duke of Franconia.
Conrad's son Frederick took the title of duke of Rothenburg instead of duke of Franconia, but in 1196, on the death of Conrad of Hohenstaufen, son of the emperor Frederick I., the title fell into disuse.
The duchy of Swabia was ruled by the Hohenstaufen family until the death of Conradin in 1268, when a considerable part of it fell to the count of Wurttemberg, the representative of a family first mentioned about 1080, a certain Conrad von Beutelsbach, having called himself after his ancestral castle of Wurttemberg.
This diocese, and indeed the whole of Bavaria, was then disturbed by the feud between the Welfs and the Hohenstaufen, and the church was in a deplorable condition; but a great improvement was brought about by the new bishop in both ecclesiastical and secular matters.
Otto's Latin is excellent, and in spite of a slight partiality for the Hohenstaufen, and some minor inaccuracies, the Gesta has been rightly described as a "model of historical composition."
The famous quarrel between the priesthood and the Empire, which had culminated at Canossa under Gregory VII., in the apotheosis of Philip the the Lateran council under Innocent III., and again Fair and in the fall of the house of Hohenstaufen under Innocent the IV., was reopened with the king of France by Boniface Papacy.
Another marriage, that of Peter, the son and successor of James the Conqueror, with Costanza, the daughter of Manfred of Beneventum, gave him claims on the Neapolitan and Sicilian inheritance of the Hohenstaufen.
Frederick was welcomed in Swabia, and the renown of the Hohenstaufen name and a liberal distribution of promises made his progress easy.
Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, was chosen German king in opposition to Frederick in May 1246, but neither he nor his successor, William II count of Holland was successful in driving the Hohenstaufen from Germany.
In Germany the enactments of 1220 and 1231 contributed to the disintegration of the Empire and the fall of the Hohenstaufen, while conflicting interests made the government of Italy a problem of exceptional difficulty.
Then Conradin, Frederick's grandson and last legitimate descendant of the Hohenstaufen, came into Italy, where he found many partisans among the Ghibellines of Lombardy and Tuscany, and among Manfred's former adherents in the south.
C. Schlosser to give it up for history, and after continuing his historical work at Jena and teaching in the gymnasium at Wertheim he made his mark by his Die teutschen Geschichtsschreiber vom Anfang des Frankenreichs bis auf die Hohenstaufen (1839).
The Norman line of Sicilian kings might be extinct; their policy lived after them in their Hohenstaufen successors, and that policy, as it had helped to divert the Fourth Crusade to the old Norman objective of Constantinople, helped still more to give the Sixth Crusade its secular, diplomatic, non-religious aspect.
Affied through his mother to the Welfs of Bavaria, and anxious to put an end to the unrest which dominated Germany, especially to the strife between the families of WeIf and Hohenstaufen, Frederick began his reign by promising to secure for Henry the Lion the duchy of Bavaria, and by appeasing Henrys uncle, Count Welf, by making him duke of Spol.eto and margrave of Tuscany.
The German Minnesinger and romance-writers, whose golden age corresponded with that of the Hohenstaufen, were not content only to sing the joy of life or the chivalrous virtues of courage, courtesy and reverence for women; they in some sort anticipated the underlying ideas of the Reformation by championing the claims of the German nation against the papal monarchy and pure religion, as they conceived it, against the arrogance and corruption of the clergy.