History Sentence Examples
Is there some history I should know about?
I can think of a thousand scenes and places in history I'd visit!
History is the life of nations and of humanity.
It is with a kind of fear that I begin to write the history of my life.
Our battles with diseases go as far back into history as we can see.Advertisement
And if history is an accurate guide, that wealth will be partially redistributed to the poor—even the poorest of the poor, the bottom billion.
They are rare in the history of the world.
This is the whole history of "My Prisons."
The more we try to explain such events in history reasonably, the more unreasonable and incomprehensible do they become to us.
At that point, the iffy parts of human history are behind us and it is blue skies and clean sailing ahead.Advertisement
I don't remember much history.
It wasn't until she mentioned that goats were as much a part of American history as Longhorns that he realized how much she missed them.
Come on back to New Hampshire and get on with your life and forget about history.
There's no other history, unless they're at it again and trying to use Jonny to try to get to me.
If you would know the history of these homesteads, inquire at the bank where they are mortgaged.Advertisement
Even without their shared history, there had always been something about Tim that Brady liked.
At the university he made rapid progress, especially in jurisprudence, though preferring the study of history, literature, juridical science and philosophy.
But during the whole of this active life, many details of which are very interesting as illustrative of the life and manners of the time, he never lost sight of a design which he had formed at a very early period, of writing the history of those civil wars in France in which he had borne a part, and during which he had had so many opportunities of closely observing the leading personages and events.
That is the dreadful history of the final, and deadliest, century of smallpox.
Still more difficult would it be to find an instance in history of the aim of an historical personage being so completely accomplished as that to which all Kutuzov's efforts were directed in 1812.Advertisement
Modern history, in theory, rejects both these principles.
We introduced ourselves one by one, each adding a brief history.
The best account of the life of Davila is that by Apostolo Zeno, prefixed to an edition of the history printed at Venice in 2 vols.
The Mercians, however, recovered their independence in 658, and from this time onward Northumbria played little part in the history of southern England.
He was a priest of the Jerusalem temple, probably a member of the dominant house of Zadok, and doubtless had the literary training of the cultivated priesthood of the time, including acquaintance with the national historical, legal and ritual traditions and with the contemporary history and customs of neighbouring peoples.Advertisement
This, in history, is called the Battle of Lexington.
But what about a reasoned belief based on a balanced look at both history and current reality that leads you to be optimistic?
It is a tale that history repeats with surprising consistency.
Notable examples exist, but the flow of history in this regard has rendered its verdict.
I took the greatest delight in these German books, especially Schiller's wonderful lyrics, the history of Frederick the Great's magnificent achievements and the account of Goethe's life.
In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
The first book that gave me any real sense of the value of history was Swinton's "World History," which I received on my thirteenth birthday.
I felt it, and still remark it almost daily in my walks, for by it hangs the history of a family.
But all I can learn of their conclusions amounts to just this, that "Cato and Brister pulled wool"; which is about as edifying as the history of more famous schools of philosophy.
History must do the same.
If we unite both these kinds of history, as is done by the newest historians, we shall have the history of monarchs and writers, but not the history of the life of the peoples.
The theory of the transference of the collective will of the people to historic persons may perhaps explain much in the domain of jurisprudence and be essential for its purposes, but in its application to history, as soon as revolutions, conquests, or civil wars occur--that is, as soon as history begins--that theory explains nothing.
In history we find a very similar progress of conviction concerning the part played by free will in the general affairs of humanity.
But in the Crusades we already see an event occupying its definite place in history and without which we cannot imagine the modern history of Europe, though to the chroniclers of the Crusades that event appeared as merely due to the will of certain people.
The recognition of man's free will as something capable of influencing historical events, that is, as not subject to laws, is the same for history as the recognition of a free force moving the heavenly bodies would be for astronomy.
No need to play around with stupid 1930 history.
Betsy was enthralled with the area and became an immediate student of the history.
The Dawkinses were history and no one seemed to miss the feuding quartet.
She had a history with Wynn, and he was right.
He was easy to talk to, despite knowing his history and his elevation to a god.
The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis, after having been useful in the discovery Present and the co-ordination of knowledge, has been aban- position doned and replaced by one more in harmony with later of the discoveries.
There is what looks like an excellent contemporary portrait in one of the windows of All Souls College, which is figured in the Victoria County History for Hampshire, ii.
See Victoria County History, Berkshire; Joseph Stevenson, Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, A.D.
He was the author of an important History of the Constituent Assembly (Paris, 2 vols., 1828-1829).
Among his numerous works is a history of Pomerania, which remained unpublished till 1728.
In the West the Church enters the medieval stage of its history with the death of Gregory, while in the East even John of Damascus is rather a compiler of patristic teaching than a true "father."
Having studied at Marburg and Jena, he for some time lived at Leipzig as a private tutor; but in 1802 he was appointed professor at Marburg, and two years later professor of philology and ancient history at Heidelberg.
In history he is commonly called Cyrus the Great.
History is full of radical breaks with the past that only seem to have come out of nowhere but were, in fact, predictable.
I don't use history to predict the future, like some talisman that lets me pick winning lottery numbers (don't I wish).
I don't dispute the cliché, "Those who do not know history are doomed to repeat it."
At the very least, history can clearly show the range of outcomes that are likely.
But at times in history, left-handedness was thought to be a malady in need of curing (and in some parts of the world still is).
And when more and more people have their medical history tracked over time, we will learn even more about how our bodies get sick and how they heal.
Although nations create governments to establish such protections, history shows that all too often, governments fail to do so.
Try to think of the advances we have seen so far in history as the very tip of the iceberg, a hint of what is possible, not even being within sight of what is possible.
No matter your view of history and cosmology, civilization is very young.
The farther back in history the object of our observation lies, the more doubtful does the free will of those concerned in the event become and the more manifest the law of inevitability.
So also in history what is known to us we call laws of inevitability, what is unknown we call free will.
Free will is for history only an expression for the unknown remainder of what we know about the laws of human life.
Whether you prefer history, nature or amusements along the shore, there is something for everyone.
Boston is a fascinating city, rich in history and tradition.
His is a sordid history.
Damian closed his eyes in pain, unable to shake his brother's black history.
Fred, with the help of his cadre of lady friends, was the one person who had the best shot of producing further information on the family and its history.
But don't worry—Fitz is past history.
Frankly, we didn't need to talk about history.
And why is Fitzgerald history?
Their turf wars and battle against the Dark One --and now Sasha --had stirred up some of the bloodiest wars in mankind's history.
Rhyn looked squarely at the death dealer, sensing unease for the first time in their long history.
This town sure likes its history.
After all, it's an important part of their family history.
This here stuff is history.
I don't know where all this anger is coming from, but you might as well get it in your head that you and I are history.
Interesting. A Death with a history as a mortal. Not any mortal, but one you say she was in love with. I'd heard rumor but never thought a deity capable of such a thing.
When you're on their list, you're history!
I think I'm history.
Lori picked up a magazine, obviously trying to forget the history between Carmen and her husband.
Pretty words again - and yet, considering his history with women, maybe they were more than mere words.
If I had his history, I'd be nervous about the bride's intentions on this day too.
No White God has fallen in the history of our worlds.
She sat in front of the obelisk, staring at all that remained of her family history.
The book was about all the different goat breeds and uses of the goat, beginning with a history of the goat.
They both have a long history here, though.
Sofi, the wife of the White God, Damian, was the most powerful Oracle Xander had ever met in his long history.
He felt nothing for the beautiful woman before him, not even anger, despite their shared history.
Both of them had an interest in Xander's life, one out of spite and the other out of a sense of shared history.
I'm not sure that's a good thing, though knowing what I do of your history...
His gaze darkened, and Xander knew his long-time ally was thinking of their shared history from the time before the Schism that split the mortal and immortal worlds apart.
They have history, and not a good one.
It's a piece of family history as well as a legacy.
When you were sixteen, you slept with your history teacher.
Refounded by the Byzantines in the 6th century, the city disappeared from history at the time of the Arab conquest of the country in the 7th century.
To these may be added the industrial museum, the cabinet of coins, the museum of natural history, the collection of majolica vases in the new palace, and the Wurttemberg museum of antiquities.
Its importance, however, is of comparatively modern growth and in the early history of Wurttemberg it was overshadowed by Cannstatt, the central situation of which on the Neckar seemed to mark it out as the natural capital of the country.
Horace Walpole, who gives an unfavourable picture of his private character, acknowledges that Stone possessed "abilities seldom to be matched"; and he had the distinction of being mentioned by David Hume as one of the only two men of mark who had perceived merit in that author's History of England on its first appearance.
He was no follower of their ideas, indeed often opposed to them; but he derived from Bacon an increasing stimulus towards the investigation of certain great problems of history and philosophy, while Grotius proved valuable in his study of philosophic jurisprudence.
Giovan Vincenzo Gravina wrote a history of Roman law, specially distinguished for its accuracy and elegance.
These differences are not caused by difference of nationality only, but are to be noted in the history of the same people, even in that of the Romans.
The names of leading legislators, which we so often find recorded in the history of primitive peoples, are symbols and myths, merely serving to mark an historic period or epoch by some definite and personal denomination.
Vico was the first thinker who asked, Why have we a science of nature, but no science of history?
The ideal truth within us, constituting the inner life that is studied by philosophers, becomes transmuted by the facts of history into assured reality.
For Vico psychology and history were the two poles of the new world he discovered.
In all parts of history in which he was best versed Vico pursues a stricter and more scientific method, and arrives at safer conclusions.
This is the case in Roman history, especially in such portions as related to the history of law.
Vico may be said to base his considerations on the history of two nations.
Having once formulated his idea, he made it more general in order to apply it to the history of all nations.
In the following year he was appointed successor to the celebrated Perizonius, who had held the chair of history, Greek language and eloquence at Leiden.
He was subsequently appointed professor of history for the United Provinces and chief librarian.
After his abdication Northumbrian history degenerates into a record of dynastic murders.
He died in 894, after which date little is known of Northumbrian history for a number of years.
The history of their decline differs from that of the Murabtis, whom they had displaced.
He possessed many excellent qualities, bravery, piety and generosity; but his reign is memorable rather in the history of the house of Habsburg than in that of the kingdom of Germany.
After distinguishing himself at school in history and philosophy, he turned to the study of science.
His marriage in March 1518 was arranged by the pope with Madeleine la Tour d'Auvergne, a royal princess of France, whose daughter was the Catherine de' Medici celebrated in French history.
On the 3rd of July 1517 he published the names of thirty-one new cardinals, a number almost unprecedented in the history of the papacy.
In its earlier history the region was agricultural.
The history of these lines is the subject of the following paragraphs.
Further discussion of the question of Douglas's alleged Humanism will be found in Courthope's History of English Poetry, i.
From his sixth to his ninth year he was given over to the care of learned foreigners, who taught him history, geography, mathematics and French.
From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and GÃ¶ttingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology.
For this latter purpose he had chosen as his thesis the constitution of the free Lombard cities in the middle ages, the province in which he was destined to do most for the scientific study of history.
Here, too, it was that Hegel's philosophy of history made a deep impression upon him.
As a critic of independent views he won the approval of Goethe; on the other hand, he fell into violent controversy with Ranke about questions connected with Italian history.
Up to the revolutionary year 1830 his religious views had remained strongly tinged with rationalism, Hegel remaining his guide in religion as in practical politics and the treatment of history.
The Euhemerist theory mainly appeals to ancestor worship - a fact of undoubted importance in the history of religion, especially in China and in ancient Rome.
Almost nothing is known of the subsequent history of the poet.
After a few years the father quarrelled with the Russian government, and went to England, where he obtained a professorship of natural history and the modern languages at the famous nonconformist academy at Warrington.
The elder Forster, however, was soon provided for elsewhere, being appointed professor of natural history at Halle.
See Lord Stanhope, History of the War of Succession in Spain (London, 1832).
The part he played during the summer of 1789 is one of the most debated points in the history of the Revolution.
It appears but little in history, though its importance is vouched for by numerous inscriptions, the majority of which belong to the early Empire.
The period of Vansittart's government has been truly described as "the most revolting page of our Indian history."
The history of the city is unknown, though it is regarded as probable that it preserved its independence long after the Spaniards had taken possession of the rest of the district.
There are a theatre, an interesting museum of antiquities, natural history and art; and a picturesque park (Bjergsted).
Palgrave's most important work is his History of Normandy and England, which appeared in four volumes (London 1851-1864), and deals with the history of the two countries down to 1101.
Thus the history of the Nabataeans cannot certainly be carried back beyond 312 B.C., at which date they were attacked without success by Antigonus I.
The Nabataeans had already some tincture of foreign culture when they first appeared in history.
Scharer in his sketch of Nabataean history appended to Gesch.
There is now no doubt that William Gascoigne, a young gentleman of Yorkshire, was the first 1 Gran, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 449.
There is a museum of natural history; the collection is reminiscent of the famous naturalist Gilbert White, of Selborne in this vicinity.
For the history of the definition see Vatican Council; also Papacy, Gallicanism, Febronianism, Old Catholics, &c.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to the history of Africa.
From 1701 to 17 21 Collier was employed on his Great Historical, Geographical, Genealogical and Poetical Dictionary, founded on, and partly translated from, Louis Moreri's Dictionnaire historique, and in the compilation and issue of the two volumes folio of his own Ecclesiastical History of Great Britian from the first planting of Christianity to the end of the reign of Charles II.
For particulars of Collier's history as a nonjuring bishop, see Thomas Lathbury, A History of the Nonjurors .
The early history of Sardinia is entirely unknown.'
But he is chiefly famous for his History of the Church of Rome to the Pontificate of Innocent III.
In 1781 he married Manon Jeanne Phlipon (1754-1793), and the name of Madame Roland is famous in history.
What makes him memorable in English history is that he opposed the establishment of a special kind of political organization.
Court formed the design of writing a history of Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live to carry out.
Such a view of existence has been common throughout the history of thought, and especially among physical scientists.
The palace contains a picture gallery and collections of natural history and antiquities, and in front of it are two monumental fountains and a monument to the emperor William I.
On the 18th of August 1477, by his marriage at Ghent to Mary, who had just inherited Burgundy and the Netherlands from her father Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, he effected a union of great importance in the history of the house of Habsburg.
The history, indeed, of many a word lies hid in its equivocal uses; and it in no way derogates from the dignity of the highest poetry to gain strength and variety from the ingenious application of the same sounds to different senses, any more than from the contrivances of rhythm or the accompaniment of imitative sounds.
The best account of Descartes's mental history during his life in Holland is contained in his letters, which extend over the whole period, and are particularly frequent in the latter half.
It was one of the oldest cities of Etruria, but does not appear in history till the Roman colonization of 247 B.C., and was never of great importance, except as a resort of wealthy Romans, many of whom (Pompey, the Antonine emperors) had villas there.
The conquest of Kazan was an epoch-making event in the history of eastern Europe.
The cause of this long duration, and at the same time the secret of its history, is to be found in the isolated position of Trebizond and its district, between the mountains and the sea, which has already been described.
He wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung, published during the years 1870-74, and in 1880-86 a history of pietism (Die Geschichte des Pietismus).
We find the office mentioned in a Corcyraean inscription dating probably from the 7th century B.C., and it continued to grow more important and frequent throughout Greek history.
In 1866 he was appointed professor of history and English literature in Owens College, Manchester, and was principal from 1890 to 1897, when he retired.
His most important work is his standard History of English Dramatic Literature to the Age of Queen Anne (1875), re-edited after a thorough revision in three volumes in 1899.
Waller edited the Cambridge History of English Literature (1907, &c.).
Her great beauty and romantic history made her the fashion, and she attracted the notice of the regent, Philip, duke of Orleans, whose offers she had the strength of mind to refuse.
The second book continues the history of his conquests, and the third contains the victory over Porus, the relations with the Brahmins, the letter to Aristotle on the wonders of India, the histories of Candace and the Amazons, the letter to Olympias on the marvels of Farther Asia, and lastly the account of Alexander's death in Babylon.
In the i i th century Simeon Seth, protovestiarius at the Byzantine court, translated the fabulous history from the Persian back into Greek.
He had some knowledge of authentic history, and rejected the more marvellous elements of the story.
It is a Latin poem in ten books of hexameters, and contains a curious admixture of Biblical history.
After an account of the ancient history of Macedonia and of the intrigue of Nectanebus we are told how Philip dies, and how Alexander subdues Rome and receives tribute from all European nations.
The treaty of Tubingen is the name given in German history to an arrangement made in 1514 between Duke Ulrich and his subjects, by which the latter acquired various rights and privileges on condition of relieving the former of his debts.
Although in the course of its long history it has undergone many sieges and was sacked at various epochs by the Vandals, Normans, French and Spaniards, it preserves many monuments of its ancient days.
The history of Tournai dates from the time of Julius Caesar, when it was called civitas Nerviorum or castrum Turnacum.
See METAPHYSICS; and Lange's History of Materialism.
The desire to obtain the monopoly of the spice trade has been a potent force in the fashioning of Asiatic history.
The department he specially cultivated was that of continental history and foreign politics.
These were followed by his most important work, the History of France (5 vols., 1858-1868).
See James Hall, A History of Nantwich or Wich Milbank (1883).
Compelled by the second Restoration to retire into private life, he devoted his leisure to writing the history of his times, an occupation for which his previous employments well fitted him.
Of still greater importance for the history of Napoleon are Fain's Memoires, which were published posthumously in 1908; they relate more particularly to the last five years of the empire, and give a detailed picture of the emperor at work on his correspondence among his confidential secretaries.
Robur, one of the most valued of the genus, and the most celebrated in history and myth, may be taken as a type of the oaks with sinuated leaves.
In less than two years he had taken his rank as one of the great cavalry leaders of history.
The history of Gregory by Agathangelus is a compilation of about 450, which was rendered into Greek 550.
This, the latest of his works in the domain of church history (it was written after 451), is a source of great though not of primary importance for 'the history of the old heresies.
Besides this work Theodoret has also left us a church history in five books, from 324 to 429, which was published shortly before the council of Chalcedon.
The style is better than that of Socrates and Sozomen, as Photius has remarked, but as a contribution to history the work is inferior in importance.
The church history has been published frequently in connexion with the histories of Socrates, Sozomen and others, e.g.
On the sources of Theodoret's church history see Jeep, Quellenuntersuchungen z.
History he is confused with a later Tetzel of Nuremberg.
Although there is very little authentic information about Fabian, there is evidence that his episcopate was one of great importance in the history of the early church.
There he began his investigations into the geography, history and antiquities of the district.
This history begins at the time of the council of Clermont, deals with the fortunes of the first crusade and the earlier history of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, and ends somewhat abruptly in 11 21.
The first edition of the history was published at Helmstadt in 1584, and a good edition is in the Recueil des historiens des croisades, tome iv.
The two works on which his reputation principally rests are the A postolici, or History of Apostles and Fathers in the first three centuries of the Church (1677), and Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Historia Literaria (1688).
On the whole the history of the colony has been one of peaceful progress, interrupted now and again, as in 1903, by severe droughts.
It never again played a prominent part in Ionian history, and is rarely mentioned.
A vivid but somewhat chauvinistic history of Bela's reign will be found in Acsady's History of the Hungarian Realm (Hung.), i.
It sustained frequent sieges during the troubled history of the Israelite kingdom.
The next event we hear of in the history of the city is its conquest by Alexander the Great (331 B.C.), and later by Ptolemy Lagi and Demetrius Poliorcetes.
Dammartin is historically important as the seat of a countship of which the holders played a considerable part in French history.
The ancient Perusia first appears in history as one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria.
There is probably no other branch of art in which orthodox tradition is so entirely divorced from the historical sense, and the history, when studied at all, so little illuminated by the permanent artistic significance of its subjects.
To write an account of symphonic instrumentation in any detail would be like attempting a history of emotional expression; and all that we can do here is to point out that the problem which was, so to speak, shelved by the polyphonic device of the continuo, was for a long time solved only by methods which, in any hands but those of the greatest masters, were very inartistic conventions.
Richard Strauss, in his edition of Berlioz's works on Instrumentation, paradoxically characterizes the classical orchestral style as that which was derived from chamber-music. Now it, is true that in Haydn's early days orchestras were small and generally private; and that the styles of orchestral and chamber music were not distinct; but surely nothing is clearer than that the whole history of the rise of classical chamber-music lies in its rapid differentiation from the coarse-grained orchestral style with which it began.
Since then the political history of Rajputana has been comparatively uneventful.
The early history of the country is the story of a struggle for supremacy between the cities.
The strain of the next three years' continuous work undermined his health and his eyesight, and he was compelled to retire from his professorship. During these years he had published works on Plato and Socrates and a history of philosophy (1875); but after his retirement he further developed his philosophical position, a speculative eclecticism through which he endeavoured to reconcile metaphysical idealism with the naturalistic and mechanical standpoint of science.
See Victoria County History, Devonshire; The Teignmouth Guide and Complete Handbook to the Town and Neighbourhood (Teignmouth, 1875).
He compiled the history and did an analysis of the writings of all the ecclesiastical writers of the first thirteen centuries.
Unfortunately several of these fertile tracts suffer severely from malaria (q.v.), and especially the great plain adjoining the Gulf of Tarentum, which in the early ages of history was surrounded by a girdle of Greek cities—some of which attained to almost unexampled prosperity—has for centuries past been given up to almost complete desolation.
Most large towns contain important state or communal archives, iii which a considerable amount of research is being done by local investigators; the various societies for local history (Societd di Storia Patria) do very good work and issue valuable publications; the treasures which the archives contain are by no means exhausted.
The difficulty of Italian history lies in the fact, that until modern times the Italians have had no political unity, no independence, no organized existence as a nation.
The early history of Italy will be found under ROME and allied headings.
It is not necessary to write the history of the Lombard kingdom in detail.
We may reckon these measures among the earliest advantages extended to the cities, which still contained the bulk of the old Roman population, and which were destined to intervene with decisive effect two centuries later in Italian history.
The truth is that no period in Italian history was less really glorious than that which came to a close in 961 by Berengar II.s cession of his rights to Otto the Great.
Looking back from the vantage-ground of history upon the issue of this long struggle, we are struck with the small results which satisfied the Lombard communes.
The next great chapter in the history of against Italian evolution is the war of the burghs against the nobles, nobles.
The subsequent events of Italian history will be rendered most intelligible if at this point we trace the development of these five constituents of Italian greatness separately.
Therefore, when he died in 1458, he bequeathed Naples to his natural son Ferdinand, while Sicily and Aragon passed together to his brother John, and so on to Ferdinand the Catholic. The twenty-three years of Alfonsos reign were the most prosperous and splendid period of South Italian history.
The republic of Venice differed essentially from any other state in Italy; and her history was so separate that, up to this Venice point, it would have been needless to interrupt the narrative by tracing it.
Humiliating to human nature in general as are the annals of the 18th-century campaigns in Europe, there is no point of view from which they appear in a light so tragi-comic as from that afforded by Italian history.
Victor AmadeusIl.sreignwasof greatimport- I ance in the history of his state.
A succinct account of the chief events of the period will be found in Sir Spencer Walpoles History of Twenty-Five Years (London, 1904).
It is difficult to indicate in a short space the most important sources of general Italian history.
For modern times, see Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (1899) antI Bolton King and Thomas Okeys Italy To-day (1901).
His work embraced the history of Rome from its foundation down to his own days.
Livy regards him as a less trustworthy authority than Fabius Pictor, and Niebuhr considers him the first to introduce systematic forgeries into Roman history.
Claudius Quadrigarius (about 80 B.C.) wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls and went down to the death of Sulla or perhaps later.
Valerius Antias, a younger contemporary of Quadrigarius, wrote the history of Rome from the earliest times, in a voluminous work consisting of seventy-five books.
The writers mentioned dealt with Roman history as a whole; some of the annalists, however, confined themselves to shorter periods.
His work was overloaded with rhetorical embellishment, which he was the first to introduce into Roman history.
Peter, Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae (1870, 1906), and Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenta (1883); also articles ROME, History (ancient) ad fin., section "Authorities," and Liv y, where the use made of the annalists by the historian is discussed; Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopddie, art.
The history of the two cognate names reflects in some measure the development of Indian religious speculation generally.
The chief interest, however, attaching to the Brahmanas is doubtless their detailed description of the sacrificial system as practised in the later Vedic ages; and the information afforded by them in this respect should be all the more welcome to us, as the history of religious institutions knows of no other sacrificial ceremonial with the details of which we are acquainted to anything like the same extent.
But the expression Natural Theology Natural itself has a history.
Ritchie's Natural Rights, from the point of view of a very hostile (evolutionary) idealism, sketches the early history of the phrase Natural Law.'
Zwingli and Calvin on the other hand prefer the positive view of law as instituted by God far back in history in the days of the Old Covenant; but,, when exegesis or controversy puts pressure upon them, they fall into line and reiterate the appeal to a Natural Law.
And yet theism - or monotheism - constitutes a special locus in the history of religion.
Legge, who finds true theism at the dawn of Chinese history, is the most authoritative representative of such views.
The theist believes that he can further trace many incomplete workings of the monothesitic instinct in the history of religion.
In point of fact, as we look to history, we find that theism has been much simplified and cut down.
Certainly history shows that theism has generally been associated with some reduced or limited form of philosophy, usually with the intuitionalist scheme.
There is another conception of necessity which has established itself in the history of science and philosophy.
The disciple, Christian W Wolff, is one of the most typical figures in the history of theistic thought.
Scepticism, with which P. Bayle had played as a historian - he amused himself, too, with praising the Manichaean solution of the riddle of the universe - became a serious power in the history of philosophy with the advent of David Hume.
But it is a plain finding of history that he has brought no " Copernican revolution " 4 to their minds.
God sees all history neither as future nor as present but as actual.
The causes which led to the grant of Magna Carta are described in the article on English History.
It is very interesting, but it does not constitute any marked advance in the history of parliament, as it merely expresses the customary method of summoning a council.
As Pollock and Maitland (History of English Law) say "on the whole the charter contains little that is absolutely new.
In fresh-water Hydromedusae the life-cycle is usually secondarily simplified, but in marine forms the life-cycle may be extremely complicated, and a given species often passes in the course of its history through widely different forms adapted to different habitats and modes of life.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
Heraclitus again deserves a prominent place in a history of the idea of evolution.
Aristotle's brief suggestions respect ing the origin of society and governments in the Politics show a leaning to a naturalistic interpretation of human history as a development conditioned by growing necessities.
The course of human history is regarded by those writers who are most concerned to refute Judaism as a progressive divine education.
The foundations of this theory of history as an upward progress of man out of a barbaric and animal condition were laid by Vico in his celebrated work Principii di scienza nuova.
From this capability of natural development (which already involves a teleological idea) Kant distinguishes the power of moral self-development or selfliberation from the dominion of nature, the gradual realization of which constitutes human history or progress.
Heinrich Steffens, in his Anthropologie, seeks to trace out the origin and history of man in connexion with a general theory of the development of the earth, and this again as related to the formation of the solar system.
This conception of an immanent spontaneous evolution is applied alike both to nature and to mind and history.
Only spirit has a history; in nature all forms are contemporaneous.2 Hegel's interpretation of mind and history as a process of evolution has more scientific interest than his conception of nature.
Yet while, in its application to history, Hegel's theory of evolution has points of resemblance with those doctrines which seek to explain the worldprocess as one unbroken progress occurring in time, it constitutes on the whole a theory apart and sui generis.
Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.
Evolution, or development, is, in fact, at present employed in biology as a general name for the history of the steps by which any living being has acquired the morphological and the physiological characters which distinguish it.
The balance of these tendencies has been against the attachment of great importance to sexual selection, and in favour of attaching a great importance to natural selection; but the dominant feature in the recent history of the theory has been its universal acceptance and the recognition that this general acceptance has come from the stimulus given by Darwin.
The history of the city is closely associated with that of the countship of Flanders (q.v.), of which it was the seat.
This was the favourite shrine of Mary of Guise, who betook herself hither at momentous crises in her history.
For the history of Pali before the canonical books were composed we have no direct evidence.
We are thus beginning to know something of the history of this literature.
Of the history of Pali in Siam very little is known.
The works on religion and philosophy especially will be of as much service for the history of ideas in these later periods as the publication of the canonical books has already been for the earlier period to which they refer.
Aurelius was thenceforth indisputed master of the empire, during one of the most troubled periods of its history.
He soon became prior of the abbey of Anchin, near Pecquencourt, and passed much of his time in the valuable library of the abbey, studying ecclesiastical history, especially that of Flanders.
The name of Cawnpore is indelibly connected with the blackest episode in the history of the Indian Mutiny - the massacre here in July 1857 of hundreds of women and children by the Nana Sahib.
They will at least ensure for him an honourable place in the history of the modern Spanish theatre.
Evidence of the intense interest taken by American visitors in Stratford is seen in the memorial fountain and clock-tower presented in 1887, and in a window in the church illustrating scenes from the Incarnation and containing figures from English and American history.
The name of Orpheus is equally important in the religious history of Greece.
Some account of the history of plant classification and the development of a natural system in which an attempt is made to show the actual relationships of plants, is given in the article BOTANY.
History and Bibliography.The study of plant anatomy was begun in the middle of the seventeenth century as a direct result of the construction of microscopes, with which a clear view of the structure of plant tissues could be obtained.
We know very little of the details of reduction in the lower plants, but it probably occurs at some stage in the life history of all plants in which sexual nuclear fusion takes place.
Our regions will not be natural unless they mark out real discontinuities both of origin and affinity, and these we can only seek to explain by reference to past changes in the earths history.
The Persians are not mentioned in history before the time of Cyrus; the attempt to identify them with the Parsua, a district in the Zagros chains south of Lake Urmia, often mentioned by the Assyrians, is not tenable.
Like Arabia and similar countries, it could exercise a great momentary influence in history and produce a sudden change throughout the world; but afterwards it would sink into local insignificance.
His Histoire des causes premieres was among the first attempts at a history of philosophy, and in his work on Epicurus, following on Gassendi, he defended Epicureanism against the general attacks made against it.
This gives to it unity and definiteness, and renders superfluous the attemps that have been made from time to time to define the limits which divide geography from geology on the one hand and from history on the other.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
A little-known book which appears to have escaped the attention of most writers on the history of modern geography was published at Oxford in 1625 by Nathanael Carpenter, fellow of Exeter College, with the title Geographie delineated forth Carpenter.
A much more important work in the history of geographical method is the Geographia generalis of Bernhard Varenius, a German medical doctor of Leiden, who died at the age of twentyeight in 1650, the year of the publication of his book.
In this connexion he divided the communication of experience from one person to another into two categories - the narrative or historical and the descriptive or geographical; both history and geography being viewed as descriptions, the former a description in order of time, the latter a description in order of space.
Physical geography he viewed as a summary of nature, the basis not only of history but also of " all the other possible geographies," of which he enumerates five, viz.
Ritter was led deeper and deeper into the study of history and archaeology.
Some of his followers showed a tendency to look on geography rather as an auxiliary to history than as a study of intrinsic worth.
For some of these we have no certain information, and regarding others the tales narrated in the early records are so hard to reconcile with present knowledge that they are better fitted to be the battle-ground of scholars championing rival theories than the basis of definite history.
The hieroglyphic inscriptions of Egypt and the cuneiform inscriptions of Assyria are rich in records of the movements and achievements of armies, the conquest of towns and the subjugation of peoples; but though many of the recorded sites have been identified, their discovery by wandering armies was isolated from their subsequent history and need not concern us here.
He was in the Persian Gulf, India and Java, and resided for more than two years in Japan, of which he wrote a history.
Lacerda left a valuable record of his adventurous journey; but with Mungo Park and Lacerda the history of African exploration in the 18th century closes.
The three voyages of Captain James Cook form an era in the history of geographical discovery.
The distribution of fossils frequently makes it possible to map out approximately the general features of land and sea in long-past geological periods, and so to enable the history of crustal relief to be traced.'
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
It is situated on the Trnava, and has played an important role in the ecclesiastical history of Hungary.
The Portland Society of Natural History, founded in 1843 and incorporated in 1850, has a building (1880) containing a library and natural history collections.
Both in East and West, the 4th and 5th centuries form the golden age of dogmatic theology, of homiletic preaching, of exposition, of letter-writing, of Church history, of religious poetry.
They are important witnesses to the text of the New Testament, to the history of the canon, and to the history of interpretation.
A small point in tie history of prayer, but one that has an interesting bearing on the subject of its relation to magic, is concerned with the custom of praying silently.
His spare time was devoted to the prosecution of studies in philology and history, more particularly to the study of Thucydides, and of the new light which had been cast upon Roman history and upon historical method in general by the researches of Niebuhr.
In 1841, after fourteen years at Rugby, Dr Arnold was appointed by Lord Melbourne, then prime minister, to the chair of modern history at Oxford.
For the other books, the recognized Targum on the Prophets is that ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel (4th century ?), which originated in Palestine, but was edited in Babylonia, so that it has the same history and linguistic character as Onkelos.
Eliezer, of the 8th or 9th century, a sort of history of creation and of the patriarchs, and the Tanna debe Eliyahu (an ethical work of the 10th century but containing much that is old), besides a large number of minor compositions.'
In his Me'or t Enayim (Mantua, 1573) Dei Rossi endeavoured to investigate Jewish history in a scientific spirit, with the aid of non-Jewish authorities, and even criticizes Talmudic and traditional statements.
Another historian living also in Italy was Joseph ben Joshua, whose Dibhre ha-yamim (Venice, 1 534) is a sort of history of the world, and his `Emeq ha-bakhah an account of Jewish troubles to the year 1575.
Patriotic efforts are made to encourage the use of Hebrew both for writing and speaking, but the continued existence of it as a literary language depends on the direction in which the future history of the Jews will develop.
Un homme d'etat russe (1884) gave the history of the emancipation of the serfs by Alexander II.
In 1881 Leroy-Beaulieu was elected professor of contemporary history and eastern affairs at the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, becoming director of this institution on the death of Albert Sorel in 1906, and in 1887 he became a member of the Academic des Sciences Morales et Politiques.
Of the many pretenders to this dignity known in all periods of Moslem history the most famous was the first caliph of the Fatimite dynasty in North Africa, `Obaidallah al-Mandi, who reigned 909-933.
He went to Rome after the termination of the civil wars, and spent twenty-two years in studying the Latin language and literature and preparing materials for his history.
According to him, history is philosophy teaching by examples, and this idea he has carried out from the point of view of the Greek rhetorician.
But he has carefully consulted the best authorities, and his work and that of Livy are the only connected and detailed extant accounts of early Roman history.
It may be divided into three divisions, upper, lower and middle, each of which is distinguished by special physical features, and has played a conspicuous part in the world's history, retaining to the present day monumental evidence of the races who have lined its banks.
It stands in relation to Danish history somewhat as Westminster Abbey does to English, containing the tombs of most of the Danish kings from Harold I.
Now the second period of her history opens; it remained for Roman territory to become romanized.
By history it had already (in the time of Augustus) been Roman for from 80 to loo years and was familiar with Roman ways.
Other noteworthy buildings are the konak or governor's residence, the Roman Catholic and Orthodox cathedrals, the hospital, the townhall and the museum, with fine antiquarian and natural history collections.
But in the view of general history Normans and Northmen must be carefully distinguished.
The English and the Sicilian settlements form the main Norman history of the II th century.
Several of these features stand out very clearly in Norman history.
The quality which Geoffrey Malaterra expresses by the word "effrenatissima" is also clearly marked in Norman history.
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
Many sources for the history of the Normans were collected by Andre Du Chesne in his Hist.
After the declaration of independence the history of Uruguay becomes a record of intrigues, financial ruin, and political folly and crime.
Yet nobility, in some shape or another, has existed in most places and times of the world's history, while the British peerage is an institution purely local, and one which has actually hindered the existence of a nobility in the sense which the word bears in most other countries.
The way in which nobility has arisen in different times and places is very various, and there are several nations whose history will supply us with examples of a nobility of one kind giving way to a nobility of another kind.
The history of the Roman commonwealth illustrates this perhaps better than any other.'
Our first glimpses of authentic Roman history set before us two orders in the same state, one of which is distinguished from the other by many exclusive privileg