What causes historical events?
I see us today in a situation like those historical ones.
into the farther East, where the historical Alexander was almost forgotten.
Besides the historical narrative, there were works mainly geographical or topographical left by persons like Baeton and Diognetus, whom Alexander had employed (as Onyarcaral.) to survey the roads over which he passed.
The historians call this activity of the historical figures "the reaction."
Prince Andrew, being always near the commander in chief, closely following the mass movements and general orders, and constantly studying historical accounts of battles, involuntarily pictured to himself the course of events in the forthcoming action in broad outline.
Even Fred O'Connor was taking the day off from his historical research to watch the festivities.
And yet, though Rembrandt's " Nightwatch " is dated the very year after the publication of the Meditations, not a word in Descartes breathes of any work of art or historical learning.
The books he read were chiefly historical, and on these he spent a certain sum every year.
To Droysen and Kaerst it accords with the historical conditions; to Grote and to Beloch it is a betrayal of the prerogative of Hellenism.
Upon it or its site centre nearly all the historical associations of the place.
I called an historical society, or two.
I refer to history extensively in these pages because I believe historical people are exactly like us, only in different circumstances.
I got nada, even in historical data.
Anyone projecting an end to the historical constant of war had better be ready to overcome no small amount of justified skepticism.
Apart from that, the chief source of our error in this matter is due to the fact that in the historical accounts a whole series of innumerable, diverse, and petty events, such for instance as all those which led the French armies to Russia, is generalized into one event in accord with the result produced by that series of events.
Dr. Bell went with us himself to the electrical building, and showed us some of the historical telephones.
English equity has one marked historical peculiarity, viz.
It is the game on the perfectly level green that constitutes the historical game of bowls.
The same applies to historical events.
"Let's see if the brick building has a museum or historical collection of some kind," Betsy said as we approached the building.
There is, and can be, no cause of an historical event except the one cause of all causes.
But why intellectual activity is considered by the historians of culture to be the cause or expression of the whole historical movement is hard to understand.
A few had been converted to apartments, but a recent wave of historical consciousness had temporarily halted the decay.
See Lord Acton, English Historical Review, i.
They all flow naturally from our daily and historical experience.
But examining the events themselves and the connection in which the historical persons stood to the people, we have found that they and their orders were dependent on events.
Owing to the historical past of Naples, and its social and economic condition at the end of the 17th century, the only study that really flourished there was that of law; and this soon penetrated from the courts to the university, and was raised to the level of a science.
He was a priest of the Jerusalem temple, probably a member of the dominant house of Zadok, and doubtless had the literary training of the cultivated priesthood of the time, including acquaintance with the national historical, legal and ritual traditions and with the contemporary history and customs of neighbouring peoples.
The chief town of the province, 's Hertogenbosch, may be cited as an interesting historical example.
Fred O'Connor, back from his second stint at the library and historical museum, was now poring over the newspaper and circling the Saturday garage sales in the classified ads.
Every act of theirs, which appears to them an act of their own will, is in an historical sense involuntary and is related to the whole course of history and predestined from eternity.
This conception is the one handle by means of which the material of history, as at present expounded, can be dealt with, and anyone who breaks that handle off, as Buckle did, without finding some other method of treating historical material, merely deprives himself of the one possible way of dealing with it.
And so these historians also see and admit historical events which are exceptions to the theory.
The correspondence was stiff and formal and said little, certainly nothing about the town of Ouray and was totally absent any tidbits of historical nature.
Cynthia carefully hand washed the articles of clothing from Fred's box of historical goodies and hung them outside in the sun to dry.
Of those, again, who maintain the traditional view, some, like Niebuhr and Grote, regard it as convicting Alexander of mad ambition and vainglory, whilst to Kaerst Alexander only incorporates ideas which were the timely fruit of a long historical development.
Still more difficult would it be to find an instance in history of the aim of an historical personage being so completely accomplished as that to which all Kutuzov's efforts were directed in 1812.
Having abandoned the conception of the ancients as to the divine subjection of the will of a nation to some chosen man and the subjection of that man's will to the Deity, history cannot without contradictions take a single step till it has chosen one of two things: either a return to the former belief in the direct intervention of the Deity in human affairs or a definite explanation of the meaning of the force producing historical events and termed "power."
In historical works on the year 1812 French writers are very fond of saying that Napoleon felt the danger of extending his line, that he sought a battle and that his marshals advised him to stop at Smolensk, and of making similar statements to show that the danger of the campaign was even then understood.
If the whole activity of the leaders serves as the expression of the people's will, as some historians suppose, then all the details of the court scandals contained in the biographies of a Napoleon or a Catherine serve to express the life of the nation, which is evident nonsense; but if it is only some particular side of the activity of an historical leader which serves to express the people's life, as other so-called "philosophical" historians believe, then to determine which side of the activity of a leader expresses the nation's life, we have first of all to know in what the nation's life consists.
In dealing with this period they sternly condemn the historical personages who, in their opinion, caused what they describe as the reaction.
Lotze's historical position is of much interest.
The psychologist must study mankind from the historical or comparative standpoint, analysing the elements which constitute the fabric of society, with its customs, its conventions and the main tendencies of its evolution.
Miss Worthington's a big mucky-muck in the historical society, he said, for Edith Shipton's benefit.
Many historical and other works besides.
The historians of culture are quite consistent in regard to their progenitors, the writers of universal histories, for if historical events may be explained by the fact that certain persons treated one another in such and such ways, why not explain them by the fact that such and such people wrote such and such books?
Without such justification there would be no reply to the simplest question that presents itself when examining each historical event.
Fred was back in town, treating the children to sandwiches before returning to the library for a new dose of historical research.
The minority, among whom were prominent Ca" "pals Rauscher and Schwarzenberg, Hefele, bishop of Rotterdam (the historian of the councils) Cardinal Mathieu, Mgr Dupanloup, Mgr Maret, &c., &c., did not pretend to deny the papal infallibility; they pleaded the inopportuneness of the definition and brought forward difficulties mainly of an historical order, in particular the famous condemn ion of Pope Honorius by the 6th ecumenical council of Const: ntinople in 680.
If any single action is due to free will, then not a single historical law can exist, nor any conception of historical events.
Peter Bayle is severe on certain historical inaccuracies of Davila, and it is true that Davila must be read with due remembrance of the fact that he was not only a Catholic but the especial protege of Catherine de' Medici, but it is not to be forgotten that Bayle was as strongly Protestant.
The city is full of museums, historical sites, parks and gardens.
From 1701 to 17 21 Collier was employed on his Great Historical, Geographical, Genealogical and Poetical Dictionary, founded on, and partly translated from, Louis Moreri's Dictionnaire historique, and in the compilation and issue of the two volumes folio of his own Ecclesiastical History of Great Britian from the first planting of Christianity to the end of the reign of Charles II.
According to this view the power of historical personages, represented as the product of many forces, can no longer, it would seem, be regarded as a force that itself produces events.
Both Deans agreed the letters were polite but of zero historical interest and strangely unloving.
The historical figures at the head of armies, who formerly reflected the movement of the masses by ordering wars, campaigns, and battles, now reflected the restless movement by political and diplomatic combinations, laws, and treaties.
Undoubtedly some relation exists between all who live contemporaneously, and so it is possible to find some connection between the intellectual activity of men and their historical movements, just as such a connection may be found between the movements of humanity and commerce, handicraft, gardening, or anything else you please.
On the other hand, even if we admitted that words could be the cause of events, history shows that the expression of the will of historical personages does not in most cases produce any effect, that is to say, their commands are often not executed, and sometimes the very opposite of what they order occurs.
Fred, remembering historical items from an earlier mystery in which he and his stepson were involved, jumped at the offer.
Vico raised the problem to a higher plane, by tracing the origin of law in the human mind and explaining the historical changes of the one by those of the other.
The parish of Mortlach, in which Dufftown is situated, is rich in archaeological and historical associations.
It would be a mistake to think that this is ironic--a caricature of the historical accounts.
All the contradictions and obscurities of history and the false path historical science has followed are due solely to the lack of a solution of that question.
And it would avoid awkward places where it's unclear if the category is for a modern or a historical entity.
The recognition of man's free will as something capable of influencing historical events, that is, as not subject to laws, is the same for history as the recognition of a free force moving the heavenly bodies would be for astronomy.
Herbert Spencer) hold that most gods are deified men, and most myths historical traditions which have been grotesquely distorted.
So say the third class of historians who regard all historical persons, from monarchs to journalists, as the expression of their age.
Examining only those expressions of the will of historical persons which, as commands, were related to events, historians have assumed that the events depended on those commands.
AURUNCI, the name given by the Romans to a tribe which in historical times occupied only a strip of coast on either side of the Mons Massicus between the Volturnus and the Liris, although it must at an earlier period have extended over a considerably wider area.
Thompson, Historical Sketches of Bridlington (1821); Victoria County History: Yorkshire.
These charges are not wholly unfounded; but the chief social and political evils in Bosnia and Herzegovina may be traced to historical causes operative long before the Austro-Hungarian occupation, and above all to the political ambition of the rival churches.
This article is of great historical importance as forming the basis of the later claim of Russia to possess by treaty the right to protect the Orthodox subjects of the Porte.'
In ancient times the expedition was regarded as a historical fact, an incident in the opening up of the Euxine to Greek commerce and colonization.
Captain Desbriere's exhaustive work was done for the historical section of the French general staff, and is a fine example of the scholarly and conscientious modern French historical school.
It still remains possible therefore that the seven days' eating of unleavened bread (and bitter herbs) is an historical reminiscence of the incidents of the Exodus, where the normal commissariat did not begin until a week after the first exit.
There appears to have been originally considerable variety in the mode of keeping the Passover, but the earliest mention in the historical narratives (Josh.
In the prefecture, a building of the 18th century, once the bishop's palace, is a collection of historical portraits.
Avery, Cleveland in a Nutshell: An Historical and Descriptive Readyreference Book (Cleveland, 1893); James H.
The town's commercial center has historical restaurants open from morning until night.
Enjoy the city's natural wonders, historical significance and popularity as a centrally-located meeting and convention destination.
In seeking the laws of historical movement just the same thing happens.
Recognizing the falsity of this view of history, another set of historians say that power rests on a conditional delegation of the will of the people to their rulers, and that historical leaders have power only conditionally on carrying out the program that the will of the people has by tacit agreement prescribed to them.
The subjects of the poems are threefold: (I) amatory and personal, mostly regarding Cynthia - seventy-two (sixty Cynthia elegies), of which the last book contains three; (2) political and social, on events of the day - thirteen, including three in the last book; (3) historical and antiquarian - six, of which five are in the last book.
The theological interest which attaches to the idea of the preAaronic king-priest in these typical applications is practically independent of the historical questions suggested by the narrative of Gen.
Freeman and Charles Elton discovered by historical research that a breach of the conditions of the professorship had occurred, and Christ Church raised the endowment from Loo a year to £50o.
The origin of Presbyterianism is a question of historical interest.
Gillingwater, An Historical Account of the Town of Lowestoft (ed.
Science and Literature.-Though the university of Cordoba is the oldest but one in South America, it has made no conspicuous contribution to Argentine literature beyond the historical works of its famous rector, Gregorio Funes (1749-1830).
The ministry of war is divided into branches for infantry, cavalry, &c.and services for special subjects such as military law, explosives, health, &c. The general staff (stat major de larme) has its functions classed as follows: personnel; material and finance; 1st bureau (organization and mobilization), 2nd (intelligence), 3rd (military operations and training) and 4th (communications and transport); and the famous historical section.
GayLussac, who obtained it by heating mercury or silver cyanide; this discovery is of considerable historical importance, since it recorded the isolation of a "compound radical."
He admits in the sacred writings as in the classics only one acceptation, and that the grammatical, convertible into and the same with the logical and historical.
at Jerusalem (1898); Conder, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1897), and The City of Jerusalem (1909), an historical survey over 4000 years; Le Strange, Pal.
First (a), in the earlier biblical writings which describe the state of affairs under the Hebrew monarchy there is not this fundamental distinction among the Levites, and, although a list of Aaronite high-priests is preserved in a late source, internal details and the evidence of the historical books render its value extremely doubtful (1 Chron.
of Israel, it may be observed that no adequate interpretation has yet been found of the ethnological traditions of Levi and other sons of Leah in their historical relation to one another or to the other tribes.
This phenomenon of what might have been taken for a piece of Umbrian text appearing in a district remote from Umbria and hemmed in by Latins on the north and Oscan-speaking Samnites on the south is a most curious feature in the geographical distribution of the Italic dialects, and is clearly the result of some complex historical movements.
He was in communication all his life with the leading contemporary statesmen, so that his correspondence is one of the most interesting and important of historical documents.
Here we are concerned only with their earlier history, which is put for convenience under this heading in order to separate the account of the period when they formed practically a single area for historical purposes from that of the time when Holland and Belgium became distinct administrative units.
It contains, besides a fine library, a collection of the presents he received during his long career; numerous autographs, and other historical relics, a collection of rare coins, armour, portraits and various minerals.
Gregory's ordination at Caesarea is historical.
The `EAXnvucwv OEpairEvruo lraen,uhTwv (De Curandis Graecorum Affectionibus) - written before 438 - is of an historical and apologetic character, very largely indebted to Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius; it aims at showing the advantages of Christianity as compared with " the moribund but still militant " Hellenism of the day, and deals with the assaults of pagan adversaries.
It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
3, 14 (based on Varro), the historical character of which is doubted by Leo (Plautinische Forschungen, p. 60, sqq.).
Fichte's general views on philosophy seem to have changed considerably as he advanced in years, and his influence has been impaired by certain inconsistencies and an appearance of eclecticism, which is strengthened by his predominantly historical treatment of problems, his desire to include divergent systems within his own, and his conciliatory tone.
There is probably no other branch of art in which orthodox tradition is so entirely divorced from the historical sense, and the history, when studied at all, so little illuminated by the permanent artistic significance of its subjects.
Historical inscriptions, royal charters and rescripts, despatches, private letters and the general literature afford welcome supplementary information.
Part 1.-Land And Submarine Telegraphy Historical Sketch.
They may be enumerated, proceeding from Rimini southwards: (1) the Foglia; (2) the Metauro, of historical celebrity, and affording access to one of the most frequented passes of the Apennines; (3) the Esino; (4) the Potenza; (5) the Chienti; (6) the Aso; (7) the Tronto; (8) the Vomano; (9) the Aterno; (10) the Sangro; (11) the Trigno, which forms the boundary of the southernmost province of the Abruzzi, and may therefore be taken as the limit of Central Italy.
The lakes Averno (Avernus), Lucrino (Lucrinus), Fusaro (Palus Acherusia), and Agnano are within this group, which has shown activity in historical times.
Since its first historical eruption in AD.
The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.
Equally contemptible in its political results and void of historical interest was the brief visit of John of Bohemia, son of Henry VII., whom the Ghibellines next invited to assume their leadership. He sold a few privileges, conferred a few titles, and recrossed the Alps in 1333.
Muratoris great collection, the Rerum Italicarum 5cr iptores in combination with his Dissertationes, the chronicles and other historical material published by the Archjvjo Storjco Italiano, and the woiks of detached annalists of whom the \Tjllanj are the most notable, take first rank.
Porcius Cato historical composition He is not to be confused with L.
The original letters, however, of Danby to Montagu have now been published (by the Historical MSS.
Belief in a primitive historical revelation, once universal among Christians, has almost disappeared; but belief in a very early and highly moral theism is stoutly defended, chiefly on Australian evidence, by Andrew Lang (The Making of Religion and later works).
Wolff's list is of some historical importance - atheism, deism (a God without care for men) and naturalism (denial of supernatural revelation); anthropomorphism (assigning a human body to God); materialism, and idealism (non-existence of matter); paganism (polytheism); Manichaeism, Spinozism, Epicureanism.
The Bridgewater treatises have little more than historical interest to-day.
A certain historical interest also attaches to the Burnett prize essays on theism: 1815, 1st prize, W.
Gwatkin (Edinburgh: The Knowledge of God) pours out his historical knowledge, and W.
Wallace (Lectures and Essays, incorporating Glasgow lectures) gives some useful historical references.
332) is the first historical bishop. Four great saints of the 4th century are connected with the city.
The following exposition of the historical development of the doctrine is taken from Sully's article, and for the most part is in his own words.
Finally, human development, as exhibited in historical and prehistorical records, is regarded as the highest and most complex result of organic and physical evolution.
In this way we see that just as advancing natural science was preparing the way for a doctrine of physical evolution, so advancing historical research was leading to the application of a similar idea to the collective human life.
Taking into account existing animals and plants alone, it became obvious that they fell into groups which were more or less sharply separated from one another; and, moreover, that even See the " Historical Sketch " prefixed to the last edition of the Origin of Species.
general acceptance of evolution; but it seems established as a historical fact that the world has come to accept evolution, first, because of Darwin's theory of natural selection, and second, because of Darwin's exposition of the evidence for the actual occurrence of organic evolution.
James Prinsep was then devoting his rare genius to the decipherment of the early inscriptions of northern India, especially those of Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. He derived the greatest assistance from Tumour's work not only in historical information, but also as regards the forms of words and grammatical inflexions.
Long ago Westergaard, Rhys Davids and Ernst Kuhn,' had made the same suggestion, mainly on historical grounds, Mahinda, who took the texts to Ceylon, having been born at Vedisa in that district.
A certain amount of progress has been made in the historical criticism of these books.
The Christians suffered from systematic persecution, and many historians, with a strange lack of historical insight, have poured denunciation upon him for an attitude which was the natural outcome of his convictions.
For special points see: (1) Historical: Authorities under ROME: Ancient History; S.
Calderini, Die Marcussdule (Munich, 1896), with historical introduction by Th.
In 1788 Lieutenant Bligh of the "Bounty" spent some time at Tahiti, to which island the historical interest now passes.
The college in 1907-1908 had 150 students and a faculty of 16; it publishes an endowed historical series called The John P. Branch Historical Papers of Randolph-Macon College; and it is a part of the "RandolphMacon System of Colleges and Academies," which includes, besides, Randolph-Macon Academy (1890) at Bedford City, Virginia, and Randolph-Macon Academy (1892) at Front Royal, Virginia, both for boys; Randolph-Macon Woman's College (1893) at Lynchburg, Virginia, which in 1907-1908 had an enrolment of 390; and Randolph-Macon Institute, for girls, Danville, Virginia, which was admitted into the "System" in 1897.
It is possible, but very improbable, that Orpheus was an historical personage; even in ancient times his existence was denied.
The Cell Theory.For a general and historical account of the cell theory see CYTOLOGY.
The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
The coins demonstrate that Hellenism had become quite extinct in Persis, while the old historical and mythical traditions and the Zoroastrian religion were supreme.
The applications of anthropogeography to human uses give rise to political and commercial geography, in the elucidation of which all the earlier departments or stages have to be considered, together with historical and other purely human conditions.
The physical side of geography continued to be elaborated after Varenius's methods, while the historical side was developed separately.
In this connexion he divided the communication of experience from one person to another into two categories - the narrative or historical and the descriptive or geographical; both history and geography being viewed as descriptions, the former a description in order of time, the latter a description in order of space.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
The minor subdivisions into provinces, counties and parishes, or analogous areas, may also be related in many cases to natural features or racial differences perpetuated by historical causes.
Its general appearance is that rather of a spacious modern, than of a medieval city full of historical associations.
Longfellow - which was built in1785-1786by General Peleg Wadsworth (1748-1829), a soldier of the War of Independence, a representative in Congress from 1793 to 1807, and the grandfather of the poet; was given by Longfellow's sister, Mrs Anne Longfellow Pierce (1810-1901) to the Maine Historical Society; and contains interesting relics of the Wadsworth and Longfellow families, and especially of the poet himself.
Behind the "Home" is the Library of the Maine Historical Society.
(For further historical detail, see Ornithology).
Round, Peerage Studies; Howard of Corby, Memorials of the Family of Howard; Brenan and Statham, House of Howard; Howard, Historical Anecdotes of the Howard Family; Morant, Essex; Blomefield, Norfolk.
in the story of the historical Sargon (L.
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
His spare time was devoted to the prosecution of studies in philology and history, more particularly to the study of Thucydides, and of the new light which had been cast upon Roman history and upon historical method in general by the researches of Niebuhr.
They begin with Mar Rab Sheshna (7th century) and continue to Hai Gaon, who died in 1038, and are full of historical and literary interest.
998) was the author of the famous "Letter" (in the form of a Responsum to a question addressed to him by residents in Kairawan), an historical document of the highest value and the foundation of our knowledge of the history of tradition.
after 1510), astronomer, wrote the Sephei Yuhasin, an historical work of importance.
In Germany David Gans wrote on astronomy, and also the historical work Zemah David (Prag, 1592).
about 1685) wrote the historical work Qore ha-doroth (Venice, 1746), using Jewish and other sources; Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah, kabbalist and student of Luria, wrote Qol be-ramah, a commentary on the Zohar and on the liturgy; Abraham Hayekini, kabbalist, chiefly remembered as a supporter of the would-be Messiah, Shabbethai Zebhi, wrote Hod Malkuth (Constantinople, 1655) and sermons.
Lecky, Historical and Political Essays (1908).
Another great historical movement, headed by a leader who proclaimed himself the mandi (Mahommed ibn Abdallah ibn Tumart), was that of the Almohades.
His Ada, which have scarcely any historical value, relate that he left Ireland, and came to France with his companions.
Its interest, however, is historical.
The change in the name is the sign of a thorough change, if not in the people themselves, yet in their historical position.
housed the state library and the library of the Kentucky State Historical Society.
Hyman, Handbook of Indianapolis (Indianapolis, 1907); Nathaniel Bolton, "Early History of Indianapolis and Central Indiana" (Indiana Historical Society's Publications, No.
Holloway, Indianapolis, a Historical and Statistical Sketch (Indianapolis, 1870); the Indianapolis Board of Trade's Report on the Industries of Indianapolis (1889); Civic Studies of Indianapolis (Indianapolis, 1907 seq.), edited by Arthur W.
An account of his Welsh campaigns is given in the Vitae duorum Off arum, but it is difficult to determine how far the stories there given have an historical basis.
As the administrative headquarters of the district, Calicut maintains its historical importance.
the Pugio Fidei of Raymond Martini (c. 1 280), 1 While these writings are of great historical value, they do not, of course, represent the Christian argument as conceived to-day.
Bayle, the historical sceptic, lectured and published his learned Dictionnaire (1696) at Rotterdam.
Yet it seems plain that any theology, maintaining redemption as historical fact (and not merely ideal), must attach religious importance to conclusions which are technically probable rather than proven.
If we transfer Christian evidence from the " historical " to the " philosophical " with H.
More visible dangers arise for the apologist in the region of science, historical or physical.
Positively it may be affirmed that the recovered figure of the historical Jesus is the greatest asset in the possession of modern Christian theology and apologetics.
Negatively, " unchallenged historical certainties " are becoming few in number, or are disappearing altogether, through the industry of modern minds.
Even the Roman Catholic Church produced the Abbe Loisy (though he undertakes to play off church certainties against historical uncertainties).
The apologist must maintain (I) that Jesus of Nazareth is a real historical figure - a point well-nigh overlooked by Strauss, and denied by some modern advocates of a mythical theory; (2) that Jesus is knowable (not one " of whom we really know very little " - B.
Jowett) in his teaching, example, character, historical personality; and that he is full of moral splendour.
For other sources see articles "Bohmische-Bruder" and "Zinzendorf" in Hauck's Realencyklopaedie; and for latest results of historical research, Zeitschrift fur Briidergeschichte (half-yearly).
In 1879 he was appointed president of the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (Academy of Sciences) at Vienna, and in 1896 succeeded von Sybel as chairman of the historical commission at Munich.
His scientific temper and the special facilities which he enjoyed for drawing from original sources give to his numerous historical works a very special value.
Any account of the educational system cannot, therefore, be otherwise than historical and provisional [ED.j.
The Incarnation was no isolated historical occurrence, but it is repeated over and over again in the faithful, each one of whom is in a certain sense God, by virtue of the indwelling Spirit.
See Sienkiewicz, Recueil de documents relatifs a la Russie, 1502-1842 (1852); Soloviev, Russian Historical Writers (Pisateli russkoe ist.
The publications of the Imperial Russian Historical Society of St Petersburg, amounting to upwards of 100 vols., are of great value.
de Martens, Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie avec les puissances etrangeres (St Petersburg, from 1878 still incomplete), which contains valuable historical introductions based on unpublished sources; A.
trans., 1896), an admirable account, partly historical, partly based on personal observation of the government, religion and the social and economic conditions of Russia; Combes de Lestrade, La Russie economique et sociale (Paris, 1896); " Nikolai " (pseudonym of Danielson), Histoire des developpement economique de la Russie depuis l'abolition du servage (Paris, 1899).
Ellis, Original Letters illustrative of English History (London, 1825-1846); Rolls of Parliament; Royal and Historical Letters, Henry IV.
da Fonseca, An Historical and Archaeological Sketch of Goa, Bombay, 1878).
(2 vols., London, 1872), is useful, though the historical commentary has little value.
Luther at one period (in his treatise De captivitate Babylonica) maintained, though not on historical grounds, that the offering of the oblations of the people was the real origin of the conception of the sacrifice of the mass; but he directed all the force of his vehement polemic against the idea that any other sacrifice could be efficacious besides the sacrifice of Christ.
He wrote (1) Antapodoseos, seu rerum per Europem gestarum, Libri VI, an historical narrative, relating to the events from 887 to 949, compiled with the object of avenging himself upon Berengar and Willa his queen; (2) Historia Ottonis, a work of greater impartiality and merit, unfortunately covering only the years from 960 to 964; and (3) the Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana (968-969).
Brown in the Scottish Historical Review (January 1904).
His graduation thesis, published in 1819, on the history of the Merovingian mayors of the palace, attracted the attention of Baron Stein, by whom he was engaged in 1820 to edit the Carolingian chroniclers for the newly-founded Historical Society of Germany.
In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
He resigned all his appointments in 1874, and on the 7th of October 1876 died at Munich while attending the sittings of the historical commission.
and Tiridates from the Achaemenian king Artaxerxes II., but this has evidently no historical value.
In the historical evolution of Hebrew sacrifice it is remarkable how long this non-ethical and primitive survival of old custom still survived, even far into post-exilian times.
As Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Judicium de Thucydide, c. 23) distinctly states that the work current in his time under the name of Cadmus was a forgery, it is most probable that the two first are identical with the Phoenician Cadmus, who, as the reputed inventor of letters, was subsequently transformed into the Milesian and the author of an historical work.
The text of the notice of the third Cadmus of Miletus in Suidas is unsatisfactory; and it is uncertain whether he is to be explained in the same way, or whether he was an historical personage, of whom all further record is lost.
He still continued his yearly experimental contributions to the North American Review, elaborating them with a view as much to ultimate historical proficiency as to immediate literary effect, the essays on Scottish Song (1826), Novel-Writing (1827), Moliere (1828), and Irving's Granada (1829)) belonging to this preparatory period.
The winter found him arranging for the publication in England of the selection from his articles and reviews which appeared in 1845, under the title of Critical and Historical Essays, and was issued almost contemporaneously at New York under the title of Biographical and Critical Miscellanies.
Meanwhile his indiscriminate appetite for reading had begun to fix itself more and more decidedly upon history; and the list of historical works devoured by him during this period of chronic ill-health is simply astonishing.
Soon after his " release from the fruitless task of the Swiss revolution " in 1768, he had gradually advanced from the wish to the hope, from the hope to the design, from the design to the execution of his great historical work.
" The subsidiary rays of medals and inscriptions, of geography and chronology, were thrown on their proper objects; and I applied the collections of Tillemont, whose inimitable accuracy almost assumes the character of genius, to fix and arrange within my reach the loose and scattered atoms of historical information."
But apart from the inevitable advances made in the course of a century during which historical research entered upon a new phase, the reader of Gibbon must be warned against one capital defect.
The centenary of Gibbon's death was celebrated in 1894 under the auspices of the Royal Historical Society: Proceedings of the Gibbon Commemoration, 1 79418 94, by R.
Ramsay, "Historical Geography of Asia Minor" (R.G.S.
The mosaics of the choir (547) are due to Justinian, and, though inferior in style, are remarkable for their splendour of colouring and the gorgeous dresses of the persons represented, and also for their historical interest, especially the scenes representing the emperor and the empress Theodora presenting offerings.
The great historical importance of Ravenna begins early in the 5th century, when Honorius, alarmed by the progress of Alaric in the north of Italy, transferred his court hither.
By this time the alteration of the coast-line and the filling up of the lagoons had probably commenced, and no historical importance attaches to its subsequent fortunes.
From it have been transferred to the fireproof building of the Registry of Deeds many interesting historical documents, among them the records of the Plymouth colony, the will of Myles Standish, and the original patent.
JOHN FISKE (1842-1901), American historical, philosophical and scientific writer, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 30th of March 1842, and died at Gloucester, Massachusetts, on the 4th of July 1901.
His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.
are the famous sulphur baths of Schinznach, just above which is the ruined castle of Habsburg, the original home of that great historical house.
After studying at the Ecole Normale Superieure he was sent to the French school at Athens in 1853, directed some excavations in Chios, and wrote an historical account of the island.
Although his making religion the sole factor of this evolution was a perversion of the historical facts, the book was so consistent throughout, so full of ingenious ideas, and written in so striking a style, that it ranks as one of the masterpieces of the French language in the 19th century.
those on the Germanic mark and on the allodium and beneficium) were models of learning and sagacity, all were dominated by his general idea and characterized by a total disregard for the results of such historical disciplines as diplomatic. From this crucible issued an entirely new work, less well arranged than the original, but richer in facts and critical comments.
The result of this enormous labour, albeit worthy of a great historian, clearly showed that the author lacked all sense of historical proportion.
also summarizes much of the author's earlier work, including that on historical changes of climate.) World Power and Evolution, New Haven, Conn., 1919.
We might at first suppose that the sun was really an intensely heated body radiating out its heat as does white-hot iron, but this explanation cannot be admitted, for there is no historical evidence that the sun is growing colder.
We have not the slightest reason to think that the radiation from the sun is measurably weaker now than it was a couple of thousand years ago, yet it can be shown that, if the sun were merely radiating heat as simply a hot body, then it would cool some degrees every year, and must have cooled many thousands of degrees within the time covered by historical records.
From his early youth he applied himself to historical studies and literature in general.
He made no attempt at a critical examination of historical traditions, and wrote in a flowery and often bombastic style, but in spite of this drawback, Mirkhond's Rauzat remains one of the most marvellous achievements in literature.
He had no taste for historical investigations.
The O'Neills of Ulster: Their History and Genealogy, by Thomas Mathews (3 vols., Dublin, 1907), an ill-arranged and uncritical work, has little historical value, but contains a mass of traditional and legendary lore, and a number of translations of ancient poems, and genealogical tables of doubtful authority.
As the principle was abandoned even by its authors, it is now only of historical importance, although for many years it exerted considerable influence on thermochemical research.
In June 1905, in commemoration of the 1200th anniversary of "the town, the bishopric and the school," an historical pageant, invented and arranged by Louis N.
Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land.
When the curtain rises again we enter upon the historical traditions of the Old Testament.
In the light of contemporary monuments, archaeological evidence, the progress of scientific knowledge and the recognized methods of modern historical criticism, the representation of the origin of mankind and of the history of the Jews in the Old Testament can no longer be implicitly accepted.
This involves the view that the historical traditions are mainly due to two characteristic though very complicated recensions, one under the influence of the teaching of Deuteronomy (Joshua to Kings, see § 20), the other, of a more priestly character (akin to Leviticus), of somewhat later date (Genesis to Joshua, with traces in Judges to Kings, see § 23).
Older material (often of composite origin) has been used, not so much for the purpose of providing historical information, as with the object of showing the religious significance of past history; 3 Or land Israel, W.
The historical traditions are to be supplemented by the great body of prophetic, legal and poetic literature which reveal contemporary conditions in various internal literary, theological or sociological features.
titles of psalms, dates and headings of prophecies) involves a criticism of the historical traditions themselves, and thus the two major classes of material must be constantly examined both separately and in their bearing on one another.
The first scientific historical work was by H.
The historical (and related) works of T.
All modern 1 It is useful to compare the critical study of the Koran, where, however, the investigation of its various " revelations " is simpler than that of the biblical " prophecies " on account of the greater wealth of independent historical tradition.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
From a variety of independent reasons one is forced to conclude that, whatever historical elements they may contain, the stories of this remote past represent the form which tradition had taken in a very much later age.
To deny their historical character is to reject them as trustworthy accounts of the age to which they are ascribed, and even those scholars who claim that they are essentially historical already go so far as to concede idealization and the possibility or probability of later revision.
Although it is difficult to determine the true historical kernel, two features are most prominent in the narratives which the post-exilic compiler has incorporated: the revelation of Yahweh, and the movement into Palestine.
The best historical narratives belong to Israel and Gilead; Judah scarcely appears, and in a relatively old poetical account of a great fight of the united tribes against a northern adversary lies outside the writer's horizon or interest (Judg.
As a result of this backward projection of later conceptions, the recovery of the true historical nucleus is difficult.
The feeling of national unity between north and south would require historical treatment, the existence of rival monarchies would demand an explanation.
Although the rise of the Hebrew state, at an age when the great powers were quiescent and when such a people as the Philistines is known to have appeared upon the scene, is entirely intelligible, it is not improbable that legends of Saul and David, the heroic founders of the two kingdoms, have been put in a historical setting with the help of later historical tradition.
It is at least necessary to distinguish provisionally between a possibly historical framework and narratives which may be of later growth - between the general outlines which only external evidence can test and details which cannot be tested and appear isolated without any cause or devoid of any effect.
As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).
Moreover, the account of the joint undertaking by Judah (under Jehoshaphat) and Israel against Syria at Ramoth-Gilead at the time of Ahab's death, and again (under Ahaziah) when Jehoram was wounded, shortly before the accession of Jehu, are historical doublets, and they can hardly be harmonized either with the known events of 854 and 842 or with the course of the intervening years.
The bearing of this displacement upon the literary and historical criticism of the narratives has never been worked out.
The importance of the historical questions regarding relations between Damascus, Israel and Judah is clear.
Syria must have resumed warfare with redoubled energy, and a state of affairs is presupposed which can be pictured with the help of narratives that deal with similar historical situations.
For the understanding of these great wars between Syria and Israel (which the traditional chronology spreads over eighty years), for the significance of the crushing defeats and inspiring victories, and for the alternations of despair and hope, a careful study of all the records of relations between Israel and the north is at least instructive, and it is important to remember that, although the present historical outlines are scanty and incomplete, some - if not all - of the analogous descriptions in their present form are certainly later than the second half of the 9th century B.C., the period in which these great events fa11.4 13.
Tradition, in fact, is concentrated upon the rise of the Judaean dynasty under David, but there are significant periods before the rise of both Jehoash and Uzziah upon which the historical records maintain a perplexing silence.
When, as often, the great figures have been made the spokesmen of the thought of subsequent generations, the historical criticism of the prophecies becomes one of peculiar difficulty.
2 According to the historical traditions it is precisely in the age of Jeroboam II.
In the south of the Sinaitic peninsula, remains have been found of an elaborate half-Egyptian, half-Semitic cultus (Petrie, Researches in Sinai, xiii.), and not only does Edom possess some reputation for " wisdom," but, where this district is concerned, the old Arabian religion (whose historical connexion with Palestine is still imperfectly known) claims some attention.
[The genuineness of such discoveries is naturally a matter for historical criticism to decide.
(e) Finally, the recurrence of similar historical situations in Judaean history must be considered.
The scantiness of historical tradition makes a final solution impossible, but the study of these years has an important bearing on the history of the later Judaean state, which has been characteristically treated from the standpoint of exiles who returned from Babylonia and regard them selves as the kernel of " Israel."
To this catastrophe may be due the fragmentary character of old Judaean historical traditions.
It is a gratuitous assumption that the history of (north) Israel ceased with the fall of Samaria or that Judah then took over Israelite literature and inherited the old Israelite spirit: the question of the preservation of earlier writings is of historical importance.
8, 6) has been carried back to the earliest ages; yet the present period, after the age of rival kingdoms, Judah and Israel, and before the foundation of Judaism, is that in which the historical background for the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel is equally suitable (§§ 5, 20, end).
It was an age of literary activity which manifested itself, not in contemporary historical records - only a few of which have survived - but rather in the special treatment of previously existing sources.
The next historical notice is dated in the second year of Darius (520) when two prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, came forward to kindle the Judaeans to new efforts, and in spite of opposition the work went steadily onwards, thanks to the favour of Darius, until the Temple was completed four years later (Ezra v.
2-9) rely upon the historical trustworthiness of 2 Kings xxii.
Although Judah was always closely connected with the south, these " southern " features (once clearly more extensive and complete) are found in the Deuteronomic and priestly compilations, and their presence in the historical records can hardly be severed from the prominence of " southern " families in the vicinity of Jerusalem, some time after the fall of Jerusalem.
To a certain extent it would seem that even as Chronicles (q.v.) has passed through the hands of one who was keenly interested in the Temple service, so the other historical books have been shaped not only by the late priestly writers (symbolized in literary criticism by P), but also by rather earlier writers, also of priestly sympathies, but of " southern " or half-Edomite affinity.
Recent criticism goes to show that there is a very considerable body of biblical material, more important for its attitude to the history than for its historical accuracy, the true meaning of which cannot as yet be clearly perceived.
No doubt there is much that is purely artificial and untrustworthy in the late (post-exilic) representations of these divisions, but it is almost incredible that the historical foundation for their early career is severed from the written sources by centuries of warfare, immigration and other disturbing factors.
historical criticism is faced with the established literary conclusions which, it should be noticed, place the Deuteronomic and priestly compilations posterior to the great changes at and after the fall of the northern monarchy, and, to some extent, contemporary with the equally serious changes in Judah.
There are external historical circumstances and internal literary features which unite to show that the application of the literary hypotheses of the Old Testament to the course of Israelite history is still incomplete, and they warn us that the intrinsic value of religious and didactic writings should not depend upon the accuracy of their history.'
- There is another remarkable gap in the historical traditions between the time of Zerubbabel and the reign of Artaxerxes I.
Daniel, Esther, i Esdras, Josephus), the historical narratives are of the scantiest and vaguest until the time of Artaxerxes, when the account of a return (Ezra iv.
But the problems are admittedly complicated, and since one is necessarily dependent upon scanty narratives arranged and rearranged by later hands in accordance with their own historical theories, it is difficult to lay stress upon internal evidence which appears to be conclusive for this or that reconstruction.
4 There are three inquiries: (a) the critical value of i Esdras, (b) the character of the different representations of post-exilic internal and external history, and (c) the recovery of the historical facts.
70), it will be seen that the recurrence of similar causes leads to a similarity in the contemporary literary productions (with a reshaping of earlier tradition), the precise date of which depends upon delicate points of detail and not upon the apparently obvious historical elements.
The work represented in Nehemiah and Ezra, and put into action by the supporters of an exclusive Judaism, certainly won the day, and their hands have left their impress upon the historical traditions.
The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis (§ 4) does not pretend to be complete in all its details and it is independent of its application to the historical criticism of the Old Testament.
2 The most " unhistorical " tradition has some significance for the development of thought or of historywriting, and thus its internal features are ultimately of historical value.
Although these and other phenomena cannot yet be safely placed in a historical frame, the methodical labours of past scholars have shed much light upon the obscurities of the exilic and post-exilic ages, and one must await the more comprehensive study of the two or three centuries which are of the first importance for biblical history and theology.
But closer examination reveals remarkable gaps and irreconcilable historical standpoints.
Hence, in the absence of more complete external evidence one is obliged to recognize the limitations of Old Testament historical criticism, even though this recognition means that positive reconstructions are more precarious than negative conclusions.
Although the light thrown upon ancient conditions of life and thought has destroyed much that sometimes seems vital for the Old Testament, it has brought into relief a more permanent and indisputable appreciation of its significance, and it is gradually dispelling that pseudo-scientific literalism which would fetter the greatest of ancient Oriental writings with an insistence upon the verity of historical facts.
If, as seems probable, the continued methodical investigation, which is demanded by the advance of modern knowledge, becomes more drastic in its results, it will recognize ever more clearly that there were certain unique influences in the history of Palestine which cannot be explained by purely historical research.
The combination is certainly artificial and not historical.
Anglo-Jewry is rich, however, in charitable, educational and literary institutions; chief among these respectively may be named the Jewish board of guardians (1859), the Jews' college (1855), and the Jewish historical society (1893).
It has the "mixed" faults which make the greater poem of his Scots successor, Thomson, a "transitional" document, but these give it an historical, if not an individual, interest.
This tribe, called Bruttii and Brittii in Latin inscriptions, and Bpirrtot on Greek coins and by Greek authors, occupied the south-western peninsula of Italy in historical times, the ager Bruttius (wrongly called Bruttium) corresponding almost exactly to the modern Calabria.
Subsequently the Dorian element became greatly strengthened by fresh immigrations from the Peloponnesus, and during the historical period all the principal cities of the island were either Dorian colonies, or had adopted the Dorian dialect and institutions.
See M'Crie's Life of Alexander Henderson (1846); Aiton's Life and Times of Alexander Henderson (1836); The Letters and Journals of Robert Baillie (1841-1842) (an exceedingly valuable work, from an historical point of view); J.
speaks for some writer to record, is to be distinguished) - has been assisted by the historical use of the term, in ancient times, for an extraordinary magistrate in the Roman commonwealth.
John Rushworth (Historical Collections) is more precise.
Owen, "A Biography of Mississippi," in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1 899, i.
633-828 (Washington, 1900); "Report of the Mississippi Historical Commission" in the Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, v.
Most of Riley's work is in the Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society (Oxford, 1898 seq.), which he edited; see his Spanish Policy in Mississippi-after the Treaty of San Lorenzo, i.
Weeks, Bibliography of Historical Literature of North Carolina (Cambridge, 1895).
On the practical side, mysticism maintains the possibility of direct intercourse with this Being of beings - intercourse, not through any external media such as an historical revelation, oracles, answers to prayer, and the like, but by a species of ecstatic transfusion or identification, in which the individual becomes in very truth " partaker of the divine nature."
A review of the historical appearances of mysticism will serve to show how far the above characteristics are to be found, separately or in combination, in its different phases.
The systematic theosophy of Plotinus and his successors does not belong to the present article, except so far as it is the presupposition of their mysticism; but, inasmuch as the mysticism of the medieval Church is directly derived from Neoplatonism through the speculations of the pseudo-Dionysius, Neoplatonic mysticism fills an important section in any historical review of the subject.
The freedom with which Eckhart treats historical Christianity allies him much more to the German idealists of the 19th century than to his scholastic predecessors.
In historical times we find the island occupied by Greeks.
From 1899 until his death he was president of the Texas State Historical Association.
Some of them offer historical y outlines.
We do not know if the Mongols, Turks, &c., had any earlier home than central Asia, but their extensive movements from that region are historical.
It is clear, however, that the Chinese came from the west, and entered their present territory along the course of the Hwang-ho at an unknown period, possibly about 3000 B.C. In early historical times China consisted of a shifting confederacy of feudal states, but about 220 B.C. the state of Tsin or Chin (whence the name China) came into prominence, and succeeded in forming a homogeneous empire, which advanced considerably towards the south.
Japan has never been invaded in historical times, but an attempt made by Kublai Khan to conquer it was successfully repulsed.
The most recent authorities are of opinion that the Kolarians and Dravidians represent a single physical type; but, whatever the historical explanation may be, they certainly have different languages and show different stages of civilization.
No historical record has been preserved of these latter, but they appear to have profoundly affected the population of Bengal, which is believed to be MongoloDravidian in composition.
The religion was remodelled by Zoroaster, who seems to be a historical character and to have lived about the 7th century B.C. About the same time they shook off the domination of Assyria.
The many historical associations of Southwark, contemporary memorials of which are almost wholly swept away, centre upon the district bordering the river, and formerly known as Bankside.
contains a great deal of additional matter, which can rarely be treated as of equal historical value with the preceding.
A comparison of the two records, however, is especially important for its illustration of the later tendency to idealize the figure of David, and the historical critic has to bear in mind the possibility that this tendency had begun long before the Chronicler's time, and that it may be found in the relatively older records preserved in Samuel.
Since the early historical narrative (i Sam.
7) which cannot be used as historical material.
4 But what is lost as regards historical material is a distinct gain to the study of the development of Hebrew thought and philosophy of history.
Nor can it be maintained that the elaborate ritual ascribed to David by the chronicler has any historical value.
The province is officially divided into the three districts of Stralsund, Stettin and Koslin, but more historical interest attaches to the names of Vorpommern and Hinterpommern, or Hither and Farther Pomerania, the former being applied to the territory to the west, and the latter to that to the east of the Oder.
But, though his De la monarchie prussienne sous Frederic le Grand (London, 1788) gave him a general reputation for historical learning, he had in the same year lost a chance of political employment.
There is no doubt, even on Jordanes' own statements, that his work is based upon that of Cassiodorus, and that any historical worth which it possesses is due to that fact.
His wide reading and capacious memory enabled him to carry in his mind the materials of a sound historical theology, but these materials were unsifted by criticism.
He was educated for the Church, and at the Sorbonne, to which he was admitted in 1749 (being then styled abbe de Brucourt), he delivered two remarkable Latin dissertations, On the Benefits which the Christian Religion has conferred on Mankind, and On the Historical Progress of the Human Mind.
The materials thus obtained formed the basis of his historical and biographical works, which relate chiefly to the period of the Reformation.
His Historical and Biographical Works were reprinted in 19 vols.
His was, indeed, a typically logical, as opposed to a historical, mind.
The logical and historical methods can, however, seldom be combined without confusion; and it is perhaps fortunate that Bentham devoted his long life to showing how much may be done by pursuing the former method exclusively.
He wrote also Elements de metaphysique (1724), a "French Grammar on a new plan," and a number of historical essays.
See Davies, New Historical and Descriptive View of Derbyshire (Belper, 1811); D.
The Executive Mansion of the Confederate States of America, built in 1819, purchased by the city in 1862, and leased to the Confederate government and occupied by President Jefferson Davis in 1862-65, was acquired in 1890 by the Confederate Memorial Library Society, and is now a Confederate Museum with a room for each state of the Confederacy and a general library in the " Solid South " room; it has valuable historical papers, collected by the Southern Historical Society, and the society has published a Calendar of Confederate Papers (1908).
Lee's family, has been occupied, since 1893, by the Virginia Historical Society (organized 1831; reorganized 1847) as the repository of a valuable library and collection of portraits of historical interest.
It is impossible to do more than mention a few of the historical events which have taken place at Fontainebleau.
c. 125, 1867, is of historical interest, in that it contains the first mention of pleuro-pneumonia, and the exposure in any market of cattle suffering from that disease was made an offence.
and Philip III., Hooke's Roman History, part of a translation of Rollin's Ancient History, Langhorne's Plutarch, Burnet's History of My Own Times, thirty volumes of the Annual Register, Millar's Historical View of the English Government, Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, M`Crie's Knox, and two histories of the Quakers.
This system, which for many years subsequently was regarded as authoritative, has been subjected to vigorous criticism by later economists, and it is perhaps not too much to say that it now possesses mainly an historical interest.
Notwithstanding his misgivings and even disclaimers, he yet remained as to method a member of the old school, and never passed into the new "historical" school.
See further LOGIC (Historical Sketch); PSYCHOLOGY; ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS.
Foreign trade and foreign intercourse were undeveloped, but their influence was in historical times never entirely absent, while the influence of Roman law and the Christian Church constantly tended to modify the manorial organization.
For short historical periods, indeed, many phenomena are so remotely connected with the ordinary business of life that we may ignore them.
This may be, in the historical sense, merely a passing phase of human progress, due to the rapid extension of the industrial revolution to all the civilized and many of the uncivilized nations of the world, bringing in its train the consolidation of large areas, a similarity of conditions within them, and amongst peoples and governments a great increase in the strength of economic motives.
The historical relations between philosophy and economics are of great importance in tracing the development of the latter, and have done much to determine its present form.
Experimental psychology may in course of time have an important bearing on economics, but the older science cannot be said to be of much significance except in its historical aspects.
There would probably have been no controversy at all on this subject but for the fact that economics was elaborated into systematic form, and made the basis of practical measures of the greatest importance, long before the remarkable development in the 19th century of historical research, experimental science and biology.
The scientific and historical movement of the 19th century was revolutionary in character.
In all branches of economics, even in what is called the pure theory, there is an implied reference to certain historical or existing conditions of a more or less definite character; to the established order of an organized state or other community, at a stage of development which in its main features can be recognized.
We shall best illustrate the character and method of economic reasoning by examples, and for that purpose let us take first of An all a purely historical problem, namely, the effect on of the wage-earners of the wages clauses of the Statute of Apprenticeship (1563).
A correct sense of proportion and the faculty of seizing upon the dominant factors in an historical problem are the result partly of the possession of certain natural gifts in which many individuals and some nations are conspicuously wanting, partly of general knowledge of the working of the economic and political institutions of the period we are studying, partly of what takes the place of practical experience in relation to modern problems, namely, detailed acquaintance with different kinds of original sources and the historical imagination by which we can realize the life and the ideals of past generations.
But at this stage in historical investigation it is generally the want of evidence of a sufficiently complete and continuous character, rather than difficulties of method, which forces us to leave the problem unsolved.
We cannot suppose that there occurred, at or about the commencement of the 19th century, a breach of historical continuity of such a character that institutions, customs, laws and social conventions were suddenly swept away, the bonds of society loosened, and the state and people of England dissolved into an aggregate of competing individuals.
There is another very important instrument of investigation which can be used in our own time, but cannot be employed in historical research.
Historical documents, however detailed, rarely show all the factors we have to deal with or fully explain a given situation.
We can therefore substitute sound diagnosis for guesswork more frequently in modern than in historical problems.
In many works, such as those of a statistical or historical character, there are frequently to be found passages which could have been written in no other period, but are only of the nature of ejaculations and do not affect the argument.
We must include the pioneers of the historical school, the economic historians, the socialists, the statisticians, and others whose contributions to economics are now appreciated, and without whose labours the science as we know it now would have been impossible.
It is frequently supposed that the influence of the " old Political Economy " has been gradually undermined by the attacks of the historical school.
If our view is correct that, broadly speaking, the two ways of regarding economic questions are complementary rather than mutually exclusive, there does not seem to be any reason why the growth of the historical school should have been destructive of the " old Political Economy " if it had been well founded.
This assumption, however, has been made quite impossible, not by the historical school, but by the criticism and analysis of economists in the direct line of the Ricardian succession.
But rehabilitation in accordance with the canons of historical justice will not restore the lost influence of the Ricardian school.
In general theory special studies by other men cannot play the same part as they do in historical and statistical work.
In historical and statistical investigation, or in special studies of particular subjects, it is possible, given the pecuniary means, to organize a whole army of skilled assistants, and with ordinary care to combine the results of their separate efforts.
Just as the historical school grew up along with the greatest constructive achievement of the 29th century, namely, the consolidation of Germany, so the application to modern problems of the methods of that school has been called forth by the constructive needs of the present generation.
That is, original investigation of special problems has to be carried out on a more gigantic scale than any economist of the historical school ever dreamt of or the world requires, with the certain knowledge that at the end of it all the general theory will not correspond with the facts of life.
The great men of the period, Cobden and Bright, are merely historical figures.
Ingram in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica is still a valuable historical account.
His historical research was exemplified in his De antiquitate ecclesiae, and his editions of Asser, Matthew Paris, Walsingham, and the compiler known as Matthew of Westminster; his liturgical skill was shown in his version of the psalter and in the occasional prayers and thanksgivings which he was called upon to compose; and he left a priceless collection of manuscripts to his college at Cambridge.
Firdousi's own education eminently qualified him for the gigantic task which he subsequently undertook, for he was profoundly versed in the Arabic language arid 1'itefature and had also studied deeply the Pahlavi or Old Persian, and was conversant with the ancient historical records which existed in that tongue.
As early as the 5th century of the Christian era we find mention made of these historical traditions in the work of an Armenian author, Moses of Chorene (according to others, he lived in the 7th or 8th century).
The task of continuing and completing the collection of the ancient historical traditions of the empire especially attracted him.
That is tp say, his gnosis neutralizes all that is empirical and historical, if not always as to its actuality, at least absolutely in respect of its value.
The most convincing proof of this is that Origen (i) takes the idea of the immutability of God as the regulating idea of his system, and (2) deprives the historical "Word made flesh" of all significance for the true Gnostic. To him Christ appears simply as the Logos who is with the Father from eternity, and works from all eternity, to whom alone the instructed Christian directs his thoughts, requiring nothing more than a perfect - i.e.
In such propositions historical Christianity is stripped off as a mere husk.
Where his fundamental conception admits of it, he tries to solve historical problems by historical methods.
Even in the christology, where he is treating of the historical Christ, he entertains critical considerations; hence it is not altogether without reason that in after times he was suspected of "Ebionitic" views of the Person of Christ.
The military and historical works comprise precis of the wars of Julius Caesar, Turenne and Frederick the Great.
There is scarcely anything historical in this account, perhaps not even the name Tiridates, for, according to the older tradition, Arsaces himself ruled for many years.
This MS., the contents of which are fully catalogued in the Fourth Report (1874) of the Historical MSS.
the calendar of Morcelli; and historical synaxaria, which give biographical notices besides, e.g.
The notices given in the historical synaxaria are summaries of those in the great menologies, or collections of lives of saints, for the twelve months of the year.
The oldest historical synaxaria apparently go back to the tenth century.
Pithou wrote a great number of legal and historical books, besides preparing editions of several ancient authors.
Its subject, which is of high historical value as a record of costume, represents the translation of the body of St Mark, and gives us a view of the west façade of the church as it was at the beginning of the 13th century before the addition of the ogee gables, with alternating crockets and statues, and the intermediate pinnacled canopies placed between the five great arches of the upper storey.
Brown, Venice, an Historical Sketch of the Republic (London, 1895); H.
Wilgus, "Evolution of Township Government in Ohio," in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 18 94, pp. 403-412 (Washington, 1895); D.
There is considerable material of value, especially for local history, in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (1st ed., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial edition [enlarged], 2 vols., Columbus, 1889-1891).
Erskine had little interest in the "historical criticism" of Christianity, and regarded as the only proper criterion of its truth its conformity or nonconformity with man's spiritual nature, and its adaptability or non-adaptability to man's spiritual needs.
His other works are mainly accounts of his travels: Sketches of the Natural, Political and Civil State of Switzerland (London, 1779), Account of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and America (London, 1780), Account of Prisons and Hospitals in Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1781), Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1784), Travels in Switzerland (London, 1789), Letter on Secret Tribunals of Westphalia (London, 1796), Historical Tour in Monmouthshire (London, 1801).
Rudd, An Historical Sketch of Salisbury, Connecticut (New York, 1899); and Ellen S.
and pamphlets), the Massachusetts Historical Society (founded 1791; 50,300), the Boston medical library (founded 1874; about 80,000), the New England Historic-Genealogical Society (founded 18 45; 33,750 volumes and 34,150 pamphlets), the state library (founded 1826; 140,000), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (founded 1780; 30,000), the Boston Society of Natural History (founded 1830; about 35,000 volumes and 27,000 pamphlets).
A great mass of original historical documents have been published by the registry department of the city government since 1876 (34 v.
Historical and critical - Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik (2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des transcendentalen Realismus; Ober die dialektische Methode; studies of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus; Geschichte der deutschen Asthetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologie; Das Christentum des neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik.
His nephew, Diego, the younger (1586-1660), produced Chauleidos (1628) and other Latin poems, including sacred dramas; a novel, Casamento Perfeito (1630); and shone as a historical critic.
The historical interest of the place centres in its proximity to the castle of Dinefawr, now commonly called Dynevor, which was originally erected by Rhodri Mawr or his son Cadell about the year 876 on the steep wooded slopes overhanging the Towy.
Besides the University Library, there are a Public Library (1887), containing about 80,000 vols., the library of the Young Men's Institute (1826) and the collection of the New Haven Colony Historical Society.
See Leonard Bacon, Thirteen Historical Discourses (New Haven, 1839); J.
Bartlett, Historical Sketches of New Haven (New Haven, 1897); Edward E.
Hoadly; and the Papers and other publications (1865 sqq.) of New Haven Colony Historical Society.
" It is an acknowledged historical fact," says Butler, " that Christianity offered itself to the world, and demanded to be received, upon the allegation - i.e.
This view is now generally abandoned; for it is recognized that acts of superhuman power, even if established by adequate historical evidence, do not necessarily certify their divine origin.
Having discussed the possibility and necessity of miracles for the divine revelation, we must now consider i,whether there is sufficient historical evidence for their occurrence.
The miracles recorded of Elijah and Elisha lie somewhat apart from the main currents of the history, the narratives themselves are distinct from the historical works in which they have been incorporated, and the character of some of the actions raises serious doubts and difficulties.
Arnold, and other occasional pieces (Kleine Gelegenheitsschriften, 1829), mainly of a practical, exegetical and historical character.
One of his more recent historical works is Die Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (1902; English translation in two volumes, 1904-1905).
Historical Causes of the Crusades.
geography more studied; the Crusades gave a great impulse to the writing of history, and produced, besides innumerable other works, the greatest historical work of the middle ages - the Historia transmarina of William of Tyre.
Side by side with Beha-ud-din's life of Saladin, Ibn Athir's work is the most considerable historical record written by the Arabs.
The Cid of romance, the Cid of a thousand battles, legends and dramas, the Cid as apotheosized in literature, the Cid invoked by good Spaniards in every national crisis, whose name is a perpetual and ever-present inspiration to Spanish patriotism, is a very different character from the historical Rodrigo Diaz - the freebooter, the rebel, the consorter with the infidels and the enemies of Spain.
The Poema del Cid, written in the latter half of the 12th century, has scarcely any trace of a historical character.
He had an extraordinary memory, well stored with scientific knowledge, both modern and historical, a cool and impartial judgment, and a strong preference for facts as against theory of the speculative kind.
This knowledge, joined to what he had gathered by historical reading of equally unusual extent, he carefully digested and gave to the world in his Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, containing notices of the lives and labours of mathematicians, astronomers, physicists, and chemists, of all peoples and all ages.
Poggio's History of Florence, written in avowed imitation of Livy's manner, requires separate mention, since it exemplifies by its defects the weakness of that merely stylistic treatment which deprived so much of Bruni's, Carlo Aretino's and Bembo's work of historical weight.
An ardent Liberal, he took an active part in party struggles under the Restoration, while throwing himself with equal vigour into the great work of historical regeneration which was going on at that period.
Campbell's Historical Sketches of Colonial Florida (Cleveland, 1892), which treats at length of the history of Pensacola; H.
Chambers's West Florida and its Relation to the Historical Cartography of the United States (Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series 16, No.
French's Historical Collections of Louisiana (New York, 1846-1875).
g g 7 Y g maritime wars of the 18th century gave scope to the exercise of its prize jurisdiction; and its international importance as a prize court in the latter half of the 18th and the first part of the 19th centuries is a matter of common historical knowledge.
The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
The decisive considerations for the determination of the date are the language, the historical background and the thought.
The general historical situation, also, presupposed or referred to, is that of the period from the year 200 B.C. to the beginning of our era; in particular, the familiar references to kings as a part of the social system, and to social dislocations (servants and princes changing places, x.
A precise indication of date has been sought in certain supposed references or allusions to historical facts.
between a king who is a boy and one who is of noble birth may allude to historical persons.
In the museum is a fine collection of works of art by Holbein (who lived in Basel from 1528 to 1531), while the historical museum (in the old Franciscan church) contains many treasures, and among them the fragments of the famous Dance of Death, wrongly attributed to Holbein.
Taking Varro for his model, Fenestella was one of the chief representatives of the new style of historical writing which, in the place of the brilliant descriptive pictures of Livy, discussed curious and out-of-the-way incidents and customs of political and social life, including literary history.
The descent of alchemistical doctrine can thus be traced with fair continuity for a thousand years, from the Greeks of Alexandria down to the time when Latin alchemy was firmly established in the West, and began to be written of by historical authors like Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon and Arnoldus Villanovanus in the 13th century.
Ancient historical reminiscences and natural phenomena, especially volcanic catastrophes, are at the bottom of the legend.
There is strong evidence at all events that many of the conceptions are contrary to historical fact, and the points of similarity between native Canaanite cult and Israelite worship are so striking that only the persistent traditions of Israel's origin and of the work of Moses compel the conclusion that the germs of specific Yahweh worship existed from his day.
P. Stanley, Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey (4th and revised ed., London, 1876), 4 11 -4 1 3, 495-504; H.
In later times the tendency was to regard Memnon as a real historical figure.
iv., and Freeman in his Historical Essays (1871), give noteworthy but conflicting appreciations.
The Homeric poems scarcely mention Attica, and the legends, though numerous, are rarely of direct historical value.
This interesting historical monument was demolished by the Greek authorities in 1874, notwithstanding the protests of Penrose, Freeman and other scholars.
See Charles McCarthy, The Antimasonic Party: A Study of Political Anti-Masonry in the United States, 1827-1840, in the Report of the American Historical Association for 1902 (Washington, 1903); the Autobiography of Thurlow Weed (2 vols., Boston, 1884); A.
For our part, we are not disinclined to believe that the Robin Hood story has some historical basis, however fanciful and romantic the superstructure.
Whatever may have been the immediate genesis of the myth - and it may well be sought in the heartless forest laws - its vitality was assured by the English love of archery and historical repetition.
Van Middeldyk gives a brief bibliography of historical works, and a more extensive list is given in General George W.
During his long stay in Catalonia he made preparations for a geographical and historical description of this province, which was bound to France by so many political and literary associations.
From the surplus of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was constructed in 1914 the Jefferson Memorial costing 8485,000 and devoted to the collections of the Missouri Historical Society.