The great days of Crete lie thus beyond the historic period.
And so it is with the purpose of historic characters and nations.
In actual life each historic event, each human action, is very clearly and definitely understood without any sense of contradiction, although each event presents itself as partly free and partly compulsory.
It appears so to us because we see only the general historic interest of that time and do not see all the personal human interests that people had.
The cathedral is of great historic and architectural interest.
The names of leading legislators, which we so often find recorded in the history of primitive peoples, are symbols and myths, merely serving to mark an historic period or epoch by some definite and personal denomination.
He noted this down that same evening, among other facts he felt to be of historic importance.
Vico may have derived from Grotius the idea of natural law; but his discovery of the historic evolution of law was first suggested to him by his study of Roman law.
He could only use the eye which remained to him for brief and intermittent periods, and as travelling affected his sight prejudicially he could not anticipate any personal research amongst unpublished records and historic scenes.
Whatever the racial affinities of the early inhabitants may have been, it is certain that in historic times Rhodes was occupied by a Dorian population, reputed to have emigrated mainly from Argos subsequently to the "Dorian invasion" of Greece.
A deed done is irrevocable, and its result coinciding in time with the actions of millions of other men assumes an historic significance.
It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
Walmer Castle was for long the official residence of the lord warden, but has, since the resignation of Lord Curzon in 1903, ceased to be so used, and those portions of it which are of historic interest are now open to the public. George, prince of Wales (lord warden, 1903-1907), was the first lord warden of royal blood since the office was held by George, prince of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne.
In historic events the so-called great men are labels giving names to events, and like labels they have but the smallest connection with the event itself.
Notices of Historic Persons Buried in the Tower of London, by D.
Moses was the first historic individuality who can be said to have welded the Israelite clans into a whole.
Here at last his long yearning for some great theme worthy of his historic genius was gratified.
The actors of 1812 have long since left the stage, their personal interests have vanished leaving no trace, and nothing remains of that time but its historic results.
Professor Suess, to whom the above description is due, finds that the Mediterranean forms no exception to the rule in affording no evidence of elevation or depression within historic times; but it is noteworthy that its present basin is remarkable in Europe for its volcanic and seismic activity.
Remains of the wild cat occur in English caverns; while from those of Ireland (where the wild species has apparently been unknown during the historic period) have been obtained jaws and teeth which it has been suggested are referable to the Egyptian rather than to the European wild cat.
Here I'll make a point which I believe to be a historic constant and to which we will be returning: If property rights of the rich are respected and tax rates, while high, still allow for indefinite gain, then the rich will keep producing.
You ransack your budget of historic facts much as you would hunt for a bit of silk in a rag-bag.
- The acropolis of this historic city looks on the Libyan Sea and commands the extensive plain of Messara.
Whether the preservation of my father's house in Moscow, or the glory of the Russian arms, or the prosperity of the Petersburg and other universities, or the freedom of Poland or the greatness of Russia, or the balance of power in Europe, or a certain kind of European culture called "progress" appear to me to be good or bad, I must admit that besides these things the action of every historic character has other more general purposes inaccessible to me.
"What kept these bodies apart was their separate historic origin and development, but especially the alienation caused by the ` Voluntary Controversy ' which had its roots in the difficult problems of civil law in its relation to religion, and the stumbling-block of the civil magistrate's authority in relation to the Christian conscience."
back to the Mycenaean age (c. 1400-1100 B.C.) and seem to mark an Aegean colony: 2 but in historic times Citium is the chief centre of Phoenician influence in Cyprus.
But however small the units it takes, we feel that to take any unit disconnected from others, or to assume a beginning of any phenomenon, or to say that the will of many men is expressed by the actions of any one historic personage, is in itself false.
In Sicily and southern Italy there is hardly any visible Norman influence, except the great historic fact which we may call the creation of Sicily and southern Italy in their modern sense.
The scenery in and about the city is noted for its picturesqueness, and this, with its delightful summer climate and historic interest, attracts a large number of visitors during the summer season.
26) mentions it as an abode of the historic Pelasgians.
In this way we can reconcile the fact that the sun is certainly losing heat with the fact that the change in temperature has not been large enough to be perceived within historic times.
For a conjectural explanation of the history of the Warwick patent see Forrest Morgan, "The Solution of an Old Historic Mystery," in the Magazine of History for July, August, September and October 1909.
In Portland's architecture, both public and private, there is much that is excellent; and there are a number of buildings of historic interest.
The historic tradition which identifies with the Cretans the principal element of the Philistine confederation, and places the tomb of Minos himself in western Sicily, thus receives remarkable confirmation.
Not long after his accession to office Gorchakov issued a circular to the foreign powers, in which he announced that Russia proposed, for internal reasons, to keep herself as free as possible from complications abroad, and he added the now historic phrase, "La Russie ne boude pas; die se recueille."
History had always been a favourite study with him, and Mably's Observations sur l'histoire appears to have had considerable influence in determining him to the choice of some special period for historic research.
Some of the Jews had married women of Ashdod, Ammon and Moab, and the impetuous governor indignantly adjured them to desist from a practice which was the historic cause of national sin.
In historic times Asia has attempted to assert her influence over Europe by a series of invasions, most of which have been repulsed.
Parker (at one time music-master at the school), was held in the grounds of Sherborne Castle, and set the model for a succession of pageants held subsequently in other historic English towns.
On the 15th of November the Exclusion Bill, having passed the Commons, was brought up to the Lords, and an historic debate took place, in which Halifax and Shaftesbury were the leaders on opposite sides.
Clarke, Bermondsey, its Historic Memories (1901)
To this civilization as a whole it is convenient to give the name "Minoan," and the name of Minos itself may be reasonably thought to cover a dynastic even more than a personal significance in much the same way as such historic terms as "Pharaoh" or "Caesar."
West Indies from 1599 to 1602, established his historic connexion with Canada, to the geographical knowledge of which he made a very large addition.
Many of the great historic movements of peoples were doubtless due to the gradual change of geographical or climatic conditions; and the slow desiccation of Central Asia has been plausibly suggested as the real cause of the peopling of modern Europe and of the medieval wars of the Old World, the theatres of which were critical points on the great natural lines of communication between east and west.
It is, in fact, the groundwork of the historic Norman character.
This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests, contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.
His first introduction to the historic scenes the study of which afterwards formed the passion of his life took place in 1751, when, while along with his father visiting a friend in Wiltshire, he discovered in the library " a common book, the continuation of Echard's Roman History."
It is interesting, however, to know, that in the first volume is a review by Gibbon of Lord Lyttelton's History of Henry II., and that the second volume contains a contribution by Hume on Walpole's Historic Doubts.
Plymouth is a popular resort for visitors,, having, in addition to its wealth of historic associations and a healthy summer climate, thousands of acres of hilly woodland and numerous lakes and ponds well stocked with fish.
Later most of the historic invasions of India from central Asia followed the route which leads directly from Kabul to Peshawar and Delhi.
In general, Europe has in historic times shown itself decidedly hostile to Asiatic institutions and modes of thought.
But not to speak of the intrinsic quality of histories of this kind (which may possibly even be of use to someone for something) the histories of culture, to which all general histories tend more and more to approximate, are significant from the fact that after seriously and minutely examining various religious, philosophic, and political doctrines as causes of events, as soon as they have to describe an actual historic event such as the campaign of 1812 for instance, they involuntarily describe it as resulting from an exercise of power--and say plainly that that was the result of Napoleon's will.
And by bringing variously selected historic units (battles, campaigns, periods of war) into such equations, a series of numbers could be obtained in which certain laws should exist and might be discovered.
In the 4th century it is named by the poet Ausonius in his Ordo nobilium erbium, chiefly, perhaps, on the strength of its historic memories.
Even if this tradition does not correspond with historic fact, it is at any rate certain that Gamaliel took a leading position in the Sanhedrin, and enjoyed the highest repute as an authority on the subject of knowledge of the Law and in the interpretation of the Scriptures.
Vienna extends along the right bank of the Danube from the historic and legendary Kahlenberg to the point where the Danube Canal rejoins the main stream, being surrounded on the other side by a considerable stretch of land which is rather rural than suburban in character.
The attempts made during the 19th century to disprove the Pauline authorship now possess merely an historic interest, nor have the various hypotheses of more or less extensive interpolation won any serious support.
There was throughout historic times a close connexion which eventually amounted to political identity between the Khazars and the Barsileens (the Passils of Moses of Chorene) who occupied the delta of the Volga; and the Barsileens can be traced through the pages of Ptolemy (Geog.
Such points, however, need not here be further pursued than to establish the presence of this white race around the Caspian and the Euxine throughout historic times.
There also, in July 1905, he had his historic interview with the Emperor William II.
To Daedalus the Greeks of the historic age were in the habit of attributing buildings, and statues the origin of which was lost in the past, and which had no inscription belonging to them.
The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.
His defect lies rather in not presenting the historic Christ as the Christian's chief inspiration, a fact which connects itself with the strange absence of the names " Jesus " and " Christ."
Its wider historic significance - it was felt by its author to be adapted to the needs of the Church at large, and was generally welcomed as such - is great but hard to determine in detail.'
It is similar in shape to those of historic Indians of the region.
Dudley, Nantucket Centennial Celebration; Historic Sites and Historic Buildings (Nantucket, 1895); Obed Macy, History of Nantucket (Boston, 1835); L.
- iii., from which chapters only any certain conclusions as to the prophetic message of the historic Micah can be drawn; the remaining sections of the present book (iv.
The third volume of the Positive Polity treats of social dynamics, and takes us again over the ground of historic evolution.
In opposition to the general spirit of the 18th century he saw, by means of his historic sense, the naturalness of religion, its relation to man's wants and impulses.
The troops of Baden took a conspicuous share in the war of 1870; and it was the grand-duke of Baden, who, in the historic assembly of the German princes at Versailles, was the first to hail the king "of Prussia as German emperor.
It seems unlikely, therefore, that as a system the Synthetic Philosophy will prove long-lived; but this hardly detracts from its fruitfulness as a source of suggestion, or from the historic influence of many of its conceptions on the culture of the age.
The old churches and historic buildings of Dijon are to be found in the irregular streets of the old town, but industrial and commercial activity has been transferred to the new quarters beyond its limits.
He also wrote Tentamen Introductionis in Historiam Doctrinae de Ideis, afterwards completed and republished under the title of Historia Philosophicae Doctrinae de Ideis (Augsburg, 1723); Otium Vindelicum (1731); Kurze Fragen aus door philosophischen Historic (7 vols., Ulm, 1731-1736), a history of philosophy in question and answer, containing many details, especially in the department of literary history, which he omitted in his chief work; Pinacoiheca Scriptorum nostra aetate literis illustrium, &c. (Augsburg, 1741-1755); Ehrentempel der deutschen Gelehrsamkeit (Augsburg, 1747-1749); Institutiones Historiae Philosophicae (Leipzig, 1747 and 1756; 3rd ed.
The national love of works of large compass shows itself in the production of long epic poems, both of the historic and of the imitative Alexandrian type.
The colonies of Corinth, Sicyon and Megara, and the Sicilian offshoots of the Asiatic Dorians, belong to historic times (8th-6th centuries).
All those parts of Peloponnese and the islands which in historic times were " Dorian " are ruled by recently established dynasties of " Achaean " chiefs; the home of the Asiatic Dorians is simply " Caria "; and the geographical " catalogue " in Iliad ii.
This process of Hellenization, or at least its final stage, was further regarded as intimately connected with a movement of peoples which had brought the " Dorians " from the northern highlands into those parts of Greece which they occupied in historic times.
of 8th-century Ionians describing 12th-century events) with that of historic Greece, by explaining discrepancies (due to Homeric ignorance) as the result of " migrations " in the interval.
Herodotus, also in the 5th century, describes them as the typical (perhaps in contrast to Athenians as the only genuine) Hellenes, and traces their numerous wanderings from (I) an original home " in Deucalion's time " in Phthiotis (the Homeric " Hellas ") in south Thessaly, to (2) Histiaeotis " below Ossa and Olympus " in north-east Thessaly (note that the historic Histiaeotis is " below Pindus " in north-west Thessaly): this was " in the days of Dorus," i.e.
This process is of historic interest, and in principle it is identical with that now used.
Knox himself had a short time before put in writing a larger claim for the historic future, "What I have been to my country, though this unthankful age will not know, yet the ages to come will be compelled to bear witness to the truth."
Among large animals, the common bear and the wolf have been greatly reduced in numbers even within later historic times.
Brook Farm: Historic and Personal Memoirs (Boston, 1894), is by Dr J.
These are the Naushirwanis, a purely Persian race, who passed into Baluchistan within historic times, although the exact date is uncertain.
There is ample proof throughout the country of alterations of level within recent geologic periods; and there have even been compressions, resulting in a relative rise of the ground, over the crests of anticlinal folds, within historic record.
Apart from this variety, and from the historic interest of such places as Braga, Bussaco, Cintra, Coimbra, or Torres Vedras, the attractiveness of the country is due to its colouring, and not to grandeur of form.
The three eldest sons of King John and Queen Philippa - Edward, Pedro and Henry, afterwards celebrated as Prince Henry the Navigator - desired to win knighthood by service against the Moors, the historic enemies of their country and creed.
Its more radical elepolitical ments, known at first as the Historic Left, -were in parties.
It was to the constable that the marquis de Santillana addressed his historic letter dealing with the origins of Peninsular verse.
Borges Carneiro, but the most brilliant period was that of the first twenty-five years of constitutional government after 1834, and the historic names are those of Garrett, Manoel da Silva Passos, and the great tribune and apostle of liberty, Jose Estevao Coelho de Magalhaes.
It lies on an elevation above the Newnill Channel, a tributary of the Rother, whose flat valley, called the Rother Levels, was an estuary within historic times; and even as late as the 18th century the sea was within 2 m.
Blackmar, "The Annals of an Historic Town," in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1893 (Washington, 1894)
Instead, therefore, of constantly beginning afresh in speculation, it should be our duty to attach ourselves to what may be considered the permanent results of historic developments.
Bartlett, Concord: Historic, Literary and Picturesque (Boston, 1885); and Mrs J.
Geoffrey of Monmouth, in recording the death of Constantine, which took place about the middle of the 6th century (Historic britonum), states that he was buried "close by Uther Pendragon, within the structure of stones which was set up with wonderful art not far from Salisbury, and called in the English tongue, Stonehenge."
Bruce threw his infantry reserve into the battle, the arrows of the English archers wounded the men-at-arms of their own side, and the remnants of the leading line were tired and disheartened when the final impetus to their rout was given by the historic charge of the "gillies," some thousands of Scottish campfollowers who suddenly emerged from the woods, blowing horns, waving such weapons as they possessed, and holding aloft improvised banners.
One of the most interesting of its few historic monuments is the Koppelpoort, an old gateway situated at the end of a fine avenue of trees bordering the canal.
Bohemia has been very fruitful in historic writers.
See Justin Winsor, History of Duxbury (Boston, 1849); and Laurence Bradford, Historic Duxbury in Plymouth County (Boston, 1900) .
This magnificent palace, where so many scenes historic in the Bijapur dynasty occurred, is now the abode of hundreds of pigeons.
And this is naturally true in an especial sense of the Roman historians; the long list of annalists begins at the moment when the great struggle with Carthage had for the first time brought Rome into direct connexion with the historic peoples of the ancient world, and when Romans themselves awoke to the importance of the part reserved for Rome to play in universal history.
Hall, built originally about 1682 as the mansion of the son of Frederick Philipse (1626-1702), the lord of Philipsburgh, and enlarged to its present dimensions in 1745, is of some historic interest.
To this length Eusebius himself was unwilling to go, and so, convinced that he had misunderstood Arius, and that the teaching of the latter was imperilling the historic belief in the divinity of Christ, he gave his support to the opposition, and voted for the Nicene Creed, in which the teachings of the Arians were repudiated.
Nevertheless, it remains probable that Zeus had already been conceived as a personal and pre-eminent god by the ancestors of the leading Hellenic tribes before they entered the peninsula which became their historic home.
In France there had been no historic preparation for political freedom.
No existing ministry can claim regular historic continuity with the ancient hierarchy of Scotland, but the bishops of the Episcopal Church are direct successors of the prelates consecrated to Scottish sees at the Restoration.
P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Southern States (New York, 1900).
No historic event has made such a deep impression on the mind of the Serbs as the battle of Kossovo - probably because the flower of the Serb aristocracy fell in that battle, and because both the tsar of the Serbs, Lazar, and the sultan of the Turks, Murad I., lost their lives.
In 1756 he published a book entitled Razgovor Ugodni Naroda Slovinskoga (" The Popular Talk of the Slavonic People "), in which in 261 songs he described - in the manner and in the spirit of the national bards - the more important historic or legendary events and heroes of the " Slavonic people."
The following are among the works relating to the motion of the moon, which are of historic importance or present interest to the student: Clairaut, Theorie de la lune (2nd ed., Paris, 1765); L.
There are many residences of New York business men, and several historic buildings, including Liberty Hall, the mansion of William Livingston, first governor of the state; Boxwood Hall (now used as a home for aged women), the former home of Elias Boudinot; the old brick mansion of Jonathan Belcher (1681-1757), governor of the province from 1747 to 1757; the First Presbyterian Church; and the house occupied at different times by General Winfield Scott.
The tale is told with variations by Saxo Grammaticus (Historic Danica, ed.
It is a place of much historic interest, and has many examples of quaint Dutch colonial and early American architecture.
Next year Maurice Fitzgerald was made earl of Desmond, and from his three brethren descended the historic houses of the White Knight, the knight of Glin, and the knight of Kerry.
Creation, itself a free and non-temporal act of God's love and will, cannot be speculatively deduced, but must be accepted as an historic fact.
Hence the fact of the fall is not a speculative but an historic truth.
Many historic cottages have been converted to modern bed and breakfasts, inns, guest houses and inns.
Historic establishments abound, not the least of which are the bars and taverns frequented by patrons for more than a century.
And when you're done, there's some famous and historic bars in town that will allow you to extend the memories.
Put your name in for a reservation at the restaurant and then take a walk around the neighboring historic buildings and woods.
Secluded wooded campgrounds offer a peaceful escape from the city, as well as dozens of hiking and biking trails near the historic town.
Couples can go on an early morning road bike ride around the city's historic landmarks.
P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Western States (New York, 1901) .
Historic figures were not borne by the waves from one shore to another as before.
Historians of the third class assume that the will of the people is transferred to historic personages conditionally, but that the conditions are unknown to us.
But in that case, if the force that moves nations lies not in the historic leaders but in the nations themselves, what significance have those leaders?
The theory of the transference of the collective will of the people to historic persons may perhaps explain much in the domain of jurisprudence and be essential for its purposes, but in its application to history, as soon as revolutions, conquests, or civil wars occur--that is, as soon as history begins--that theory explains nothing.
Boston is a city that is full of historic landmarks, world-class educational facilities and beautiful landscapes with a culture all its own.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
The Old Side remained after the adjournment and organized themselves, claiming the historic succession.
It is as yet difficult to determine the part which Rhodes played in prehistoric days during the naval predominance of the neighbouring island of Crete; but archaeological remains dating from the later Minoan age prove that the early Aegean culture maintained itself there comparatively unimpaired until the historic period.
(1195-1227), was granted the lordship of the town of Clermont, which subsequently became a countship. Such was the origin of the four great historic lordships of Auvergne.
Byron's description, "[The] immemorial wood Rooted where once the Adrian wave flowed o'er," is probably true; but there is no evidence that it was in historic time that this change took place.
Only unconscious action bears fruit, and he who plays a part in an historic event never understands its significance.
But the assignment of these various meanings to the factor does not yield results which accord with the historic facts.
Only then, expressing known historic facts by equations and comparing the relative significance of this factor, can we hope to define the unknown.
Man lives consciously for himself, but is an unconscious instrument in the attainment of the historic, universal, aims of humanity.
He is as right as other historians who look for the explanation of historic events in the will of one man; he is as right as the Russian historians who maintain that Napoleon was drawn to Moscow by the skill of the Russian commanders.
The forest region, and especially its coniferous portion, though it has lost some of its representatives within historic times, still possesses an abundant fauna.
In the easternmost district of Crete, where the aboriginal " Eteocretan " element survived to historic times (Praesus, Palaikastro), later inscriptions have been discovered belonging to the 5th and succeeding centuries B.C., written in Greek letters but in the indigenous language (Comparetti, Mon.
But we need only penetrate to the essence of any historic event--which lies in the activity of the general mass of men who take part in it--to be convinced that the will of the historic hero does not control the actions of the mass but is itself continually controlled.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
A historic example is that of the condensation of three molecules of acetone, CH 3 CO CH 3, in the presence of sulphuric acid, to s-trimethylbenzene or mesitylene, C 6 H 3 (CH 3) 3, first observed in 1837 by R.
Thwing, "Cleveland, the Pleasant City," in Powell's Historic Towns of the Western States (New York, 1901).
The only other building of historic interest is the church of St John the Baptist, which is in the Perpendicular style, its fine tower having been built about 1443 by Hart, who also built the towers of Wrexham and St Stephen's, Bristol.
They are mentioned in a celebrated passage of Sulpicius Alexander, which is cited by Gregory of Tours (Historic Francorum, ii.
Ulm still preserves the dignified and old-fashioned appearance of a free imperial town, and contains many medieval buildings of historic and of artistic interest.
33-39); but none of these has any historic value.'
which carries no more intrinsic weight than the Davidic titles of the Psalms. The poem begins with a prayer that God will renew the historic manifestation of the exodus, which inaugurated the national history and faith; a thunderstorm moving up from the south is then described, in which God is revealed (3-7); it is asked whether this manifestation, whose course is further described, is against nature only (8-ii); the answer is given that it is for the salvation of Israel against its wicked foes (12-15); the poet describes the effect in terror upon himself (16) and declares his confidence in God, even in utter agricultural adversity (17-19).
Nevertheless when Guillaume seeks help from Louis the emperor he finds all his relations in Laon, in accordance with his historic Frankish origin.
The most important general change which has affected the structure of the nomomeristic Arachnida in the course of their historic development is the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial life.
With the rise of Llanelly the industrial importance of Carmarthen has tended to decline; but owing to its central position, its close connexion with the bishops of St David's and its historic past the town is still the chief focus of all social, political and ecclesiastical movements in the three counties of Cardigan, Pembroke and Carmarthen.
Skoon; Gaelic, skene, "a cutting"), a parish of Perthshire, Scotland, containing Old Scone, the site of an historic abbey and palace, and New Scone, a modern village (pop. 1585), 2 m.
It contains several historic relics, the most interesting being a bed adorned with embroidery worked by Mary Queen of Scots during her imprisonment in Lochleven Castle.
for "closed sea" and "free sea"), in international law, terms associated with the historic controversy which arose out of demands on the part of different states to assert exclusive dominion over areas of the open or high sea.
As in France, however, there are some Italian conti whose titles are respectable, and even illustrious, from their historic associations.
The United Free Church claims no buildings of much historic interest, but St George's Free was the scene of the ministrations of Dr Robert S.
They are held in the public square, the curious and historic Piazza del Campo (now Piazza di Vittorio Emanuele) in shape resembling an ancient theatre, on the 2nd of July and the 16th of August of each year; they date from the middle ages and were instituted in commemoration of victories and in honour of the Virgin Mary (the old title of Siena, as shown by seals and medals, having been "Sena vetus civitas Virginis").
It contains some good pictures by Pacchia and other works of art, but is chiefly visited for its historic interest and as a striking memorial of the characteristic piety of the Sienese.
Doveri and erected in 1816, although modern, has an historic interest as the work of an academy dating from the 16th century, called the Congrega de' Rozzi, that played an important part in the history of the Italian comic stage.
Bird, The Annals of Natal, 1 495 to 1845 (2 vols., Maritzburg, 1888), a work of permanent value, consisting of official records, &c.; Shepstone, Historic Sketch of Natal (1864).
As authors of special works on philosophy, we find Samuel Koteles, John Imre, Joseph Ruszek, Daniel Ercsei and Paul Sarvari; as a theologian and Hebraist John Somossy; as an historian and philologist Stephen Horvath, who endeavoured to trace the Magyar descent from the earliest historic times; as writers on jurisprudence Alexander Kovy and Paul Szlemenics.
Another historic site is Horace Street near Edgware Road, formerly Cato Street, from which the conspiracy which bore that name was directed against the ministry in 1820.
Meanwhile, in order to give Kruger a final chance of making concessions with a good grace, and for the purpose of stating the Uitlander case to the world, Charles Leonard, as chairman of the National Union, issued a historic manifesto, which concluded as follows: We have now only two questions to consider: (a) What do we want?
Though an ardent supporter of the historic Right, and, as such, entrusted by the Lanza cabinet with the defence of the law of guarantees in 1870, he was no respecter of persons, his caustic tongue sparing neither friend nor foe.
In these his language is vigorous and dignified; he states the results of his labour and thought with freshness and lucidity; tells numberless stories in a most delightful manner, and exhibits a wonderful talent for the representation of personal character; the many portraits of historic persons of all orders which he draws in these prefaces are as brilliant in execution as they are exact and convincing.
Its importance and historic associations naturally marked it out as the residence of the Roman praetor or governor of Sicily.
Another historic part filled by Amyraut was in the negotiations originated by Pierre le Gouz de la Berchere (1600-1653), first president of the parlement of Grenoble, when exiled to Saumur, for a reconciliation and reunion of the Catholics of France with the French Protestants.
The powers of Phrygia and Lydia rose successively out of its ruins, and continued to offer westward passage to influences of Mesopotamian culture till well into historic times.
Few cities are as rich as Florence in collections of works of artistic and historic interest, although the great majority of them belong to a comparatively limited period - from the 13th to the 16th century.
Grape-stones have been found among the remains of Swiss and Italian lake dwellings of the Bronze period, and others in tufaceous volcanic deposits near Montpellier, not long before the historic era.
But these have also some forms in common with the " Aeolic " dialect of Boeotia and Thessaly, which in historic times was spoken also in Doris; Locris and Elis present similar northern " Achaean-Doric " dialects.
Sparta in particular remained, even after the reforms of Lycurgus, and on into historic times, simply the isolated camp of a compact army of occupation, of some s000 families, bearing traces still of the fusion of several bands of invaders, and maintained as an exclusive political aristocracy of professional soldiers by the labour of a whole population of agricultural and industrial serfs.
Even in northern and westcentral Greece, all vestige of any former prevalence has been obliterated by the spread of " Aeolic " dialects akin to those of Thessaly and Boeotia; even the northern Doris, for example, spoke "Aeolic" in historic times.
Alone the Pan-Polish party reverted irreconcilably to the historic solution of union or federation with Poland.
In their withdrawal, by a historic disregard of fair play, the Germans not merely refused to put at the disposal of the Lithuanian authorities the necessary means of defence, but under a military convention allowed the Bolshevist troops to march into evacuated zones at a mean distance of io kilometres.
The principal towns besides Temuco are Lautaro (3139) and Nueva Imperial (2179), both of historic interest because they were fortified Spanish outposts in the long struggle with the Araucanians.
The ruins, of the castle, and the remains of the Grey Friars' monastery, founded in 1218, at the west end of the town, and Dunbar House in High Street, formerly a mansion of the Lauderdales, but now used as barracks, are of historic interest.
In the young historian's eyes these good brethren were of much value as living and breathing historic material.
The Nicene Creed is the baptismal creed of an eastern church enlarged in order to combine theological interpretation with the facts of the historic faith.
Westcott, The Historic Faith (1882); J.
It was connected in historic times with its western port of Lechaeum by two continuous walls, with Cenchreae and Schoenus on the east by chains of fortifications.
Though ultimately conquered by the invaders it probably retained much of its former "Ionian" population, whose god Poseidon continued to be worshipped at the national Isthmian games throughout historic times; of the eight communal tribes perhaps only three were Dorian.
All these writers in one form or other revert to the historic tradition against the licence of innovators.
In the immediate vicinity of the city are several points of historic interest and natural beauty.
The "annihilation" of the Guard at St Privat has become historic. Yet, heavy as were the losses of the 1st Guard division they were not excessive compared to those previously endured.
In this latter capacity he was the author of the historic saying "Order reigns at Warsaw."
In the earlier chansons de geste he is invariably a majestic figure and represents within limitations the grandeur of the historic Charles.
The Chanson de Roland relates the historic defeat of Roncesvalles on the 15th of August 778, and forms the very crown of the whole Carolingian legend.
Polished rocks outside the cavern and pictographs in the vicinity indicate the work of a prehistoric race earlier than the Osage Indians, who were the historic owners previous to the advent of the white man.
historic (1611, 4 parts); Beschryvinghe van Out Batavien (Arnheim, 1612); Het oude gontsche Chronycxken van Hollandt, edited by him, and printed at Amsterdam in 1663; Principes Hollandiae Zelandiae et Frisiae (Haarlem, 1650), translated (1678) into Dutch by Pieter Brugman.
796), a Welsh writer to whom we owe the Historic Britonum, lived and wrote in Brecknock or Radnor.
Lumby (Cambridge, 1883); Horace Walpole, Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of Richard III.
No attempt will be made to follow the historic order of development, but the present theory will be set out in its most logical form and order.
The Boston public library, exceeded in size in the United States by the library of Congress at Washington - and probably first, because of the large number of duplicates in the library of Congress - and the largest free municipal library in the world; the library of Harvard, extremely well chosen and valuable for research; the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1791); the Boston Athenaeum (1807); the State Library (1826); the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1845); the Congregational Library; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); and the Boston Society of Natural History (1830), all in Boston, leave it easily unrivalled, unless by Washington, as the best research centre of the country.
Oude Trecht or Old Ford, rendered in Latin documents Vetus Trajectum) is a city of great antiquity and much historic interest, especially as illustrating the growth of civic liberties during the middle ages.
historic tribes makes plain the motives in gorgeous Mexican sculptures.
of the National Museum and the American Museum; Archer Butler Hulbert, Historic Highways of America, 16 vols.
When the Lambeth articles put forward as a basis of union were discussed, it was evident that all the free churches were agreed in accepting the three articles dealing with the Bible, the Creed and the Sacraments as a basis of discussion, and were also agreed in rejecting the fourth article, which put the historic episcopate on the same level as the other three.
The difficulty stated in the foregoing quotation, although now mainly of historic importance, exerted great influence upon the development of the American census prior to 1900.
Kennedy, Historic Camden (Columbia, S.C., 1905).
John omits, at the last supper, its central point, the great historic act of the holy eucharist, carefully given by the Synoptists and St Paul, having provided a highly doctrinal equivalent in the discourse on the living bread, here spoken by Jesus in Capernaum over a year before the passion (vi.
Thus man's spirit, ever largely but potential, can respond actively to the historic Jesus, because already touched and made hungry by the all-actual Spirit-God who made that soul akin unto Himself.
9) probably reads " He was the true Light coming into the world, that enlighteneth every man," so that the writer would everywhere concentrate his mind upon the grace attendant upon explicit knowledge of the incarnate, historic Christ.
The original work nowhere identifies this disciple with any particular historic figure.
Only in the appendix do we find any deliberate identification with a particular historic person: " this is the disciple who witnessed to and who wrote these things " (24) refers doubtless to the whole previous work and to " the disciple whom Jesus loved," identified here with an unnamed historic personage whose recent death had created a shock, evidently because he was the last of that apostolic generation which had so keenly expected the second coming (18-23).
In his zeal for the historic episcopacy he published in 1807 An Apology for Apostolic Order and its Advocates, a series of letters to Rev. John M.
A.) The following is a list of his principal works: - The Naval Operations of the War between Great Britain and the United States-1812-1815 (1882), written to correct the history of James; Thomas Hart Benton (1887) and Gouverneur Morris (1888), both in the American Statesmen Series; New York City (1891; revised 1895) in the Historic Towns Series; Hero Tales, from American History (1895) with H.
The degree of historic claim which these various writings have to rank as the works' of Apostolic Fathers varies greatly on any definition of "apostolic."
Both bodies of exposition represent the traditional principle at work in the sub-apostolic age, making for the preservation in relative purity, over against merely subjective interpretations - those of the Gnostics in particular - of the historic or original sense of Christ's teaching, just as Ignatius stood for the historicity of the facts of His earthly career in their plain, natural sense.
Within historic times much of this marsh was covered by the sea, and the valley of the river Rother, which forms part of the boundary of Kent with Sussex, entering the sea at Rye harbour, was represented by a tidal estuary for a considerable distance inland.
It is of historic interest as the birthplace and ',capital of Alompra, the founder of the last Burmese dynasty.
In early historic times Argos had obtained the predominance.
At a far later date, probably almost within historic times, the true Malay race, a combination of Mongol and Caucasic elements, came into existence and overran the archipelago, in time becoming the dominant race.
Sixteen churches and 4000 houses were burnt down, and the historic buildings on the Grand Place were seriously injured, the houses of the Nine Nations on the eastern side being completely destroyed.
True historic life is only to be found within the church of the Empire.
the historic frontiers of the Czechoslovak State it would indeed have been difficult, with justice, to deduce a right of self-determination, that is to say, the right, in this case, of retaining all the fruits of misused power.
It is presented as a historic document rather than as a current physics resource.
He wrote: Life and Letters of George Cabot (1877); Alexander Hamilton (1882), Daniel Webster (1883) and George Washington (2 vols., 1889), in the "American Statesmen" series; A Short History of the English Colonies in America (1881); Studies in History (1884); Boston (1891), in the "Historic Towns" series; Historical and Political Essays (1892); with Theodore Roosevelt, Hero Tales from American History (1895); Certain Accepted Heroes (1897); The Story of the American Revolution (2 vols., 1898); The War with Spain (1899); A Fighting Frigate (1902); A Frontier Town (1906); and, with J.
Professor Zimmer, in his examination of the story, sees reason to believe that the main incidents may repose on a genuine historic tradition, dating back to the 9th or 10th century, the period of Viking rule in Ireland.
The elaborately carved chair of the lieutenant-governor in the senate chamber, made of wood from the historic Charter Oak, and the original charter of 1662 (or its duplicate of the same date) are preserved in a special vault in the Connecticut state library.
In Italy Latin verse had been felicitously applied to historic themes by William of Apulia (fl.
They opened the doors of their schools to the Greek and Latin classics, but they represented the ancient masterpieces dissevered from their original historic environment, as impersonal models of taste, as isolated standards of style.
McClellan's advance was opposed by a small force of Confederates under General Magruder, which, gradually reinforced, held the historic position of Yorktown for a whole month, and only evacuated it on the 3rd of May.
We now pass on to consider the growth of literary and historic criticism, which constitute the Higher Criticism as already explained.
is no exception to this statement: archaeology has made probable the historic reality of Chedorlaomer, which some critics had previously divined; it has not proved the historical reality of the patriarch Abraham or the part played by him in the story, which some critics, whether rightly or wrongly, had questioned.
The Micronesians then are probably of Malay stock much modified by early Polynesian crossings, and probably, within historic times, by Papuan and even Japanese and Chinese migrations.
To these springs in prehistoric and historic times came annually great numbers of animals for salt, and in the marshes and swamps around some of them, especially Big Bone Lick (in Boone county, about 20 m.
Recent grail researches have made it most probable that that mysterious talisman was originally the vessel of the ritual feast held in honour of a deity of vegetation, - Adonis, or another; if the Round Table also, as Dr Mott suggests, derives from a similar source, we have a link between these two notable features of Arthurian tradition, and an additional piece of evidence in support of the view that behind the Arthur of romance there lie not only memories of an historic British chieftain, but distinct traces of a mythological and beneficent hero.
He had well employed the short time at his disposal for training his men, and on the first field of Bull Run they won for themselves and their brigadier, by their rigid steadiness at the critical moment of the battle, the historic name of "Stonewall."
9, .99, 999 In the preceding résumé only those publications have been mentioned which are of historic importance or interest.'
I.-First Historic Period The scientific recognition of fossils as connected with the past history of the earth, from Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) to the beginning of the 19th century, in connexion with the rise of comparative anatomy and geology.
II.-Second Historic Period Invertebrate palaeontology founded by Lamarck, vertebrate palaeontology by Cuvier.
The history of invertebrate palaeontology during the second period is more closely connected with the rise of historic geology and stratigraphy, especially with the settlement of the great and minor time divisions of the earth's history.
While establishing the historic divisions of the Silurian in Bohemia, Barrande also propounded his famous theory of " colonies," by which he attempted to explain the aberrant occurrence of strata containing animals of a more advanced stage among strata containing earlier and more primitive faunas; his assumption was that the second fauna had migrated from an unknown neighbouring region.
- Third Historic Period Beginning with the publication of Darwin's great works, " Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of H.M.S.
The military school in the capital occupies a part of the historic castle..
Hence it has come about that Schelling remains for the philosophic student but a moment of historical value in the development of thought, and that his wor for the most part ceased now to have more than historic interest.
Apart from the historic interest of the site, as the only Greek colony in Egypt in early times, the chief importance of the excavations lies in the rich finds of early pottery and in the inscriptions upon them, which throw light on the early history of the alphabet.
No other Polish town possesses so many old and historic buildings, none of them contains so many national relics, or has been so closely associated with the development and destinies of Poland as Cracow.
When the two lowlands are traced eastward they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of Mohawk Valley, an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south; forming a pathway of great historic and economic importance between the Atlantic seaports and the interior.
The iron-producing area of the country may be divided, with regard to natural geographic, historic and trade considerations, into four districts: (1) the Lake Superior district, embracing the states of Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin; (2) the southern district, embracing the triangle tipped by Texas, Maryland and Georgia; (3) the northern district, embracing the triangle tipped by Ohio, New Jersey and Massachusetts, plus the states of Iowa and Missouri; (4) the western district, which includes the states of the Rocky Mountain region and Pacific coast.
This tale, which still finds a place in Burke's Peerage in the account of the baron Kingsale, a descendant of the de Courci family, is a legend without historic foundation which did not obtain currency till centuries after John de Courci's death.
The St Lawrence is far the most important Canadian river from the historic and economic points of view, since it provided the main artery of exploration in early days, and with its canals past rapids and between lakes still serves as a great highway of trade between the interior of the continent and the seaports of Montreal and Quebec. It is probable that politically Canada would have followed the course of the States to the south but for the planting of a French colony with widely extended trading posts along the easily ascended channel of the St Lawrence and the Great Lakes, so that this river was the ultimate bond of union between Canada and the empire.
Whether there was an historic Arthur has been much debated; undoubtedly for many centuries after the appearance of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Britonum (circ. 1136), the statements therein recorded of a mighty monarch, who ruled over Britain in the 5th-6th centuries, and carried his conquests far afield, even to the gates of Rome, obtained general, though not universal, credence.
But into the figure of Arthur as we know him, other elements have entered; he is not merely an historic personality, but at the same time a survival of pre-historic myth, a hero of romance, and a fairy king; and all these threads are woven together in one fascinating but bewildering web.
Historic: - Nennius, Historia Britonum; H.
His little edition of the Paragraph Psalter (1879), arranged for the use of choirs, and his admirable lectures on the Apostles' Creed, entitled Historic Faith (1883), are reminiscences of his vacations spent at Peterborough.
Toffteen, The Historic Exodus; fuller information is given in L.
Historic facts illustrative of the labours and sufferings of its members in the 16th and 17th centuries, 1877 (i.
Poli, Testacea utriusque Siciliae, eorumque historic et anatome, tabulis aeneis 49 illustrate, vols.
Hotchkin, History of Western New York (New York, 1845); and the sketch in Lyman P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Middle States (New York, 1901).
The very name of his historic treatise, De jure belli ac pacis (1625), shows the subordination of peace to the main subject of war.
The old town has a threefold interest: first as a very ancient seat of Jain worship; secondly for its example of palace architecture of the best Hindu period (1486-1516); and thirdly as an historic fortress.
Hodge in Historic Towns of the Western States (New York, 1901), edited by Lyman P. Powell; H.
The death of his mother in 1762 having deprived him of his means of support, he went in 1763 on the invitation of the pastor of the Lutheran community, Anton Friedrich Biisching, the founder of the modern historic statistical method of geography, to teach natural history in the Lutheran academy, St Petersburg.
See Victoria County History, Essex; Charters and Letters Patent granted to the Borough of Colchester (Colchester, 1903); Morant, History of Colchester (1748); Harrod's Report on the Records of Colchester (1865); Cutts, Colchester (Historic Towns) 1888; J.
van Muyden and others, Lausanne d travers les ages (Lausanne, 1906); Meredith Read, Historic Studies in Vaud, Berne and Savoy (2 vols., 1897); M.
Memorable services were held in City Road Chapel, which was restored and rendered more worthy of its historic position.
Apart from its historic interest there is little to be said for the Plymouth porcelain.
P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Western States (New York, 1901); "The Capture of Vincennes by George Rogers Clark," Old South Leaflets, No.
be made to Colmeiro's Curso de derecho politico segun la historic de Leon y de Castilla (Madrid, 1873); to Schafer's Geschichte von Spanien, ii.
The Italian shore is generally low, merging, in the north-west, into the marshes and lagoons on either hand of the protruding delta of the river Po, the sediment of which has pushed forward the coast-line for several miles within historic times.
He was an enthusiastic advocate of church disestablishment, and had a historic newspaper duel with Dr John Owen (afterwards bishop of St David's) on this question.
The character and work of Christ were, he held, the ultimate proof and the best defence of Christianity; and his tendency was to concentrate attention somewhat narrowly on the historic Jesus.
The turkey, so far as we know, was first described by Oviedo in his Sumario de la natural historic de las Indias 2 (cap. xxxvi.), said to have been published in 1527.
Other lives are: Van Brandt, Historic van het Leven H.
For the historic antagonism between the Catalans and the other inhabitants of Spain was strengthened by the industrial development of Barcelona.
Assisted by the assumption that combination always takes place in the simplest possible way, he thus arrived at the idea that chemical combination takes place between particles of different weights, and this it was which differentiated his theory from the historic speculations of the Greeks.
Even in late historic time it was employed in some of the old wheel-lock guns.
The defence of the country is based on the historic principle of concentrating the people and their resources in the heart of the country, covered by a wide belt of inundations.
1898); Grammar of Greek Art (1905); Exploratio Evangelica (1899), on the origin of Christian belief; A Historic View of the New Testament (1901); Growth of Christianity (1907).
But the indispensable qualities of iron did not shape man's evolution, because its great usefulness did not arise until historic times, or even, as in case of magnetism, until modern times.
No volcanic eruptions are known to have taken place in these mountains within the historic period, though Livy sometimes speaks of it " raining stones in the Alban hills " (i.
Numerous isolated palaeolithic objects of the Mousterian type have been found in the neighbourhood of Rome in the quaternary gravels of the Tiber and Anio; but no certain traces of the neolithic period have come to light, as the many Pre" flint implements found sporadically round Rome pro- historic bably belong to the period which succeeded neolithic (called by Italian archaeologists the eneolithic period) inasmuch as both stone and metal (not, however, bronze, but copper) were in use.
It was the first attempt at a comprehensive treatment of historic facts, the first to introduce the social and literary aspects of a nation's life as only second in importance to its political fortunes, and the first historical writing in an animated yet refined and polished style.2 While the History was in process of publication, Hume did not entirely neglect his other lines of activity.
Deists, though raising doubts regarding the historic narratives of the Christian faith, had never disputed the general fact that belief in one God was natural and primitive.
See Rafael Floranes, "Vida literaria de Pedro Lopez de Ayala," in the Documentos ineditos Para la historic de Espana, vols.
"Among the medieval literatures of Europe, that of Iceland is unrivalled in the profusion of detail with which the facts of ordinary life are recorded, and the clearness with which the individual characters of numberless real persons stand out from the historic background" (Origines Islandicae).
Again, on account of the great value of the diamond, much of the romance of precious stones has centred round this mineral; and the history of some of the great diamonds of historic times has been traced through many extraordinary vicissitudes.
- Boetius de Boot, Gemmarum et lapidum historic (1609); D.
From the earliest historic times few animals have been better known to man than the lion.
Even within the historic period the geographical range of the lion covered the whole of Africa, the south of Asia, including Syria, Arabia, Asia Minor, Persia and the greater part of northern and central India.
His collections of original materials were vast; beginning with his residence in England, he brought together at enormous pains and expense the authenticated copies of archives, family papers, and personal journals written by historic personages, which now constitute an invaluable treasure in the New York public library.
His best prose work is the Historic Proof of the Doctrinal Calvinism of the Church of England (London, 1774).
Besides the ordinary waste of the shores, there have been extensive inundations by the sea within the historic period, the gulf of the Doliart having been so caused in the year 1276.
Lammergeier, Lamm, lamb, and Geier, vulture), or bearded vulture, the Falco barbatus of Linnaeus and the Gypaetus barbatus of modern ornithologists, one of the grandest birds-of-prey of the Palaearctic region - inhabiting lofty mountain chains from Portugal to the borders of China, though within historic times it has been exterminated in several of its ancient haunts.
From Santiago in1518-1519departed the historic expeditions of Juan de Grijalva, Hernan Cortes and Pamfilo de Narvaez - the last of 18 vessels and 110o men of arms, excluding sailors.
The indispensable preliminary to a really historic view of these writings is some solution of the problem of their mutual relations.
The main trade of Salem is along the coast, principally in the transhipment of coal; and the historic Crowninshield's or India wharf is now a great coal pocket.
Each of the territories was a separate political unit with a separate history, and some of them had a historic claim to a large amount of selfgovernment; in many the old feudal estates had survived till 1848.
historic rights of the Bohemian as of the Hungarian crown, and in 1865 the constitution of 1861 had been superseded, while the territorial diets remained.
where over three-fifths of the population were Czech, racial feeling was supported by the appeal to historic law.
They laid much stress on the historic task of Austria in bringing German culture to the half-civilized races of the east.
For this reason, too, Sicily was never in historic times (nor, it seems, in prehistoric times either) the land of a single nation: her history exists mainly in its relation to the history of other lands.
There are signs of settlement at Halstead (Halsteda,Halgusted, Halsted) in the Bronze Age; but there is no evidence of the causes of its growth in historic times.
There are many buildings in the city which are rich in historic associations.
Whatever may have been the origin of Hera, to the historic Greeks (except a few poets or philosophers) she was a purely anthropomorphic goddess, and had no close relation to any province of nature.
The area of alluvial land has probably not changed greatly in historic times.
Whence the population of Egypt as we trace it in prehistoric and historic times came, is not certain.
In practical administration this historic distinction was sometimes observed, at others ignored, but in religious tradition it had a firm hold.
As to legal instruments: contracts agreed to in public or before witnesses and written on papyrus are found as early as the Middle Kingdom and perhaps belong to all historic times, but are very scarce until the XXVth Dynasty.
Here dim historic recoijections often~ determined features of the story, and in one famous legend that knits ~ther a group of gods all seemingly local in origin we can faintly trace how the tale arose, was added to, and finally tallized in a coherent form.
In historic times his cult was celebrated at Tanis Ind Ombos.
The innumerable reliefs of the XIXthXXth Dynasty temples are only of historic interest, and are all despicable in comparison with earlier works.
In historic times the chisels are about I X3/4, X6 to Sin, long (34).
Fishing nets were common in all historic times, and the lead sinkers (83) and stone sinkers (84) are often found under the XVIIIth-XXth Dyiiasties.
(5) Papyri concerning daily affairs which throw light on history; or which give historic detail, as the great papyrus of Rameses III., and the trials under Rameses X.
Even in historic times it has vastly changed the aspect and configuration of the country.
Fortaellinger af Nordens Historic (Copenhagen, 1892).
SaXO, Gesta Danorum (Strassburg, 1886); Repertorium diplomaticum regni Danici mediaevalis (Copenhagen, 1894); Ludvig Holberg, Konge og Danehof (Copenhagen, 18 95); Poul Frederik Barford, Danmarks Historic 1319-1536 (Copenhagen, 1885); ib.
Philip P. Munch, Kobstadstyrelsen i Danmark (Copenhagen, 1900); Peter Edvard Holm, Danmark Norges indre Historic, 1660-1720 (Copenhagen, 1885-1886); ib.
Danmark Norges Historic, 1720-1814 (Copenhagen, 1891-1894); Soren Bloch Thrige, Danmarks Historic i vort Aarhundrede (Copenhagen, 1888); Marcus Rubin, Frederick VI.'s Tid fra Kielerfreden (Copenhagen, 1895) Christian Frederick von Holten, Erinnerungen; Der deutsch-deinische Krieg (Stuttgart, 1900); Niels Peter Jensen, Den anden slesvigske Krig (Copenhagen, 1900); S.
Mouritsen, Vor Forfatnings Historic (Copenhagen, 1894); Carl Frederik Vilhelm Mathildus Rosenberg, Danmark!
Under the auspices of Archbishop Absalon the monks of Sorb began to compile the annals of Denmark, and at the end of the 12th century Svend Aagesen, a cleric of Lund, compiled from Icelandic sources and oral tradition his Compendiosa historic regum Daniae.
&c.) that the Caspian and Aral existed as separate seas before and during all the historic period, and that the main course of the rivers Jaxartes and Oxus was determined in a prehistoric era.
Of the free imperial cities of central Germany, none had a greater historic fame or a more settled and patriotic government.
about 30 B.C. The date at least can be recognized as historic; the fact that Hillel took a leading position in the council can also be established.
It was well known to builders in the earliest historic times that certain limes would, when set, resist the action of water, i.e.
llwch, lake), and in the Ogham inscribed stones found at Glanusk, Trallwng and Trecastle, and probably surviving into historic times around the Beacon range and farther south even to Gower and Kidwelly.
The temple, which (as inscriptions show) was dedicated to Artemis, had been half-buried by a landslip from the acropolis hill in the historic earthquake of 17 A.D.
If the Picts had been able to win and hold Scotland as far south as the historic border, the fortunes of the country would probably have been more or less like those of Ireland.
In later days the Celtic kings of northern and western Scotland succeeded in holding, on vague conditions of homage to the English crown, the English-speaking region of historic Scotland.
On the west of the northern part of the English kingdom of Bernicia, severed from that by the Forest of Ettrick, and perhaps by the mysterious work of which traces remain in the " Catrail," was the Brython or Welsh kingdom of Strathclyde, which then included the territory and population, later anglicized, of Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, and, south of the historic border, Cumberland and Westmoreland to the Derwent.
A marriage of the daughter of Kenneth MacAlpine with the Welsh prince of Strathclyde gives Scotland a footing in that region; in short, Scotland slowly advances towards and even across the historic border.
In Europe the Iron Age may be said to cover the last years of the prehistoric and the early years of the historic periods.
With regard to the ancient Egyptians, however, we learn that the huntsmen Historic constituted an entire sub-division of the great second Field dresses and furniture were ornamented with similar subjects.2 The game pursued included the lion, the wild ass, the gazelle and the hare, and the implements chiefly employed seem to have been the javelin and the bow.
On both these subjects he availed himself largely of the aid of others, and threw himself with characteristic energy and entire success into the task of rescuing from neglect and preserving from decay the treasure of historic monuments in which the abbey is so rich.
Thence at a date within historic times a migration eastward took place.
115), a huge limestone edifice in the late Gothic style, covering an area of 34 acres, erected in 1883-1902; the Academy, in Renaissance style, erected in 1862-1864, containing a lofty reception room, a library, a historic picture gallery, and a botanic collection; the Redoute buildings, a large structure in a mixed Romanesque and Moorish style, erected for balls and other social purposes; the extensive custom-house at the lower end of the quays, and several fine hotels and insurance offices.
To the north of Pest lies the historic Rakos field, where the Hungarian diets were held in the open air from the 10th to the 14th century; and 23 m.
p. 356; Steenstrup and others, Danmarks Riges Historic, bk.
The historic importance of this event gave rise to the phrase "crossing the Rubicon" for a step which definitely commits a person to a given course of action.
Students of international politics are familiar with the claims of nations to a position of preference in certain regions, based upon historic, economic or geographical considerations.
In 1829, after short pastorates at Bedford (New Meeting) and Newport, Isle of Wight, he accepted a call to the historic Weigh House chapel, London.
26 (1902), and 27 (1903); and, for history and antiquities, the Historic general de las islas Canarias, by A.
The borough includes the parish of Clerkenwell (q.v.), a locality of considerable historic interest, including the former priory of St John, Clerkenwell, of which the gateway and other traces remain.
See Merrill and Merrill, Sketches of Historic Bennington (Cambridge, Mass., 1898).
This story is probably the historic basis of the legend of the " Pied Piper of Hamelin."
His historic fame came from the Christian Schoolmen, whom he almost initiated into the system of Aristotle, and who, but vaguely discerning the expositors who preceded, admired in his commentaries the accumulated results of two centuries of labours.
Formerly, and into historic times, a lake occupied a considerable part of the depression, and the thick deposits of clay and sand then laid down now form the bulk of the cultivated lands of the oasis.
ARGOS, the name of several ancient Greek cities or districts, but specially appropriated in historic times to the chief town in eastern Peloponnese, whence the peninsula of Argolis derives its name.
The kingdom of Kabul is the historic Afghanistan; the link which unites it to Kandahar, Herat and the other outlying provinces having been frequently broken and again restored by amirs of sufficient strength and capability.
g P systems. may have been effective within historic times in changing the climate and the agricultural prospects of this part of Central Asia.
The principal cotton-growing tracts are the plains of Gujarat and Kathiawar, whence Indian cotton has received in the Liverpool market the historic name of " Surat "; the highlands of the Deccan, and the valleys of the Central Provinces and Berar.
On the 1st of January 1877 Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India at a durbar of great magnificence, held on the historic "Ridge" overlooking the Mogul capital Delhi.
He developed four well-defined characters in the process - a country farmer, Ezekiel Biglow, and his son Hosea; the Rev. Homer Wilbur, a shrewd old-fashioned country minister; and Birdofredum Sawin, a Northern renegade who enters the army, together with one or two subordinate characters; and his stinging satire and sly humour are so set forth in the vernacular of New England as to give at once a historic dignity to this form of speech.
Then came an Aeolo-Minyan immigration, which apparently extended to Messenia, though the Pylos of Nestor almost certainly lay in Triphylia, and not at the site which in historic times bore that name.
But in 1890 a great stir was created by the publication, under his editorship, of Lux Mundi, a series of essays by different writers, being an attempt "to succour a distressed faith by endeavouring to bring the Christian Creed into its right relation to the modern growth of knowledge, scientific, historic, critical; and to modern problems of politics and ethics."
With this possible exception there are no active volcanoes in Korea, and the region has also been remarkably free from earthquakes throughout historic times.
There are no certain historic records of any eruption.
The prince's intellectual and artistic leanings were well known; in particular, he has made a magnificent collection of historic Italian coins, on which subject he became a recognized authority.
P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Middle States (New York, 1899).
In Tuscany, the historic role of the cities, with the exception of Pisa, begins at a later date, largely owing to the overlordship of the powerful margraves of the house of Canossa and their successors, who here represented the emperor.
It is not implied that in the formation of the " natural " religions individuals were not of great importance, nor, on the other hand, that in individual religions the founder formed his faith independently of the community of which he was a part; but only that as undoubted historic facts certain religions, in tracing their lines to individuals, thereby acquired a distinctive character, and retain the impress of their founder.
Speculation and hyperspiritualization were ever tending to obscure this fundamental religious fact: in the interest of a higher doctrine of God his true presence in Jesus was denied, and by exaggeration of Paul's doctrine of " Christ in us " the significance of the historic Jesus was given up. The Johannine writings, which presupposed the Pauline movement, are a protest against the hyperspiritualizing tendency.
This same purpose, namely, to hold fast to the historic Jesus, triumphed in the doctrine of the Trinity; Jesus was not to be resolved into an aeon or into some mysterious tertium quid, neither God nor man, but to be recognized as very God who redeemed the soul.
The historic and religious values of the doctrine of the Trinity may be illustrated by way of contrast.
The historic Buddha - the man Gautamais taught as only one of a limitless series of incarnations or (better) appearances.
In the Mahayana gnosticism was triumphant, and the historic values of Gautama's teaching and personality are lost.
The Mahayana illustrates in part what would have followed the .triumph of gnosticism in Christianity, for not only would the historic value of the life and teaching of Jesus have been lost, but with it the significance of humanity.
With these the historic manifestation of Jesus becomes only a guide to lead us to that immediate apprehension of God which is the end of theology, and to that immediate union with God which is the end of religion.
On the other hand some seek the essential Christianity in a life beneath and separable from the historic forms. In part under the influence of the Hegelian philosophy, and in part because of the prevalent evolutionary scientific world-view, God is represented under the form of pure thought, and the world process as the unfolding of himself.
Such truth can be apprehended by the multitude only in symbols which guide the will through the imagination, and through historic facts which are embodiment of ideas.
The Trinity is the essential Christian doctrine, the historic facts of the Christian religion being the embodiment of religious ideas.
The chief critical difficulty felt by this school is in identifying any concrete historic fact with the unchanging idea, that is, in making Jesus of Nazareth the incarnation of God.
It studies the historic development of the Church, noting how element after element has been introduced into the simplicity of the gospel, and from all these it would turn back to the Bible itself.
This school also represents historic Christianity, and maintains the continuity of its life through all the ages past with Christ himself.
But these unions, at all events in historic times, were mainly concerned with religion, and the authority of the councils did not seriously affect the autonomy of the individual states.
Judging from the historical evidence of their late continuance, and from the character of the relics found in them, the crannogs may be included among the latest prehistoric strongholds, reaching their greatest development in early historic times, and surviving through the middle ages.
It is therefore evident that the personality of Hygelac, and the expedition in which, according to Beowulf, he died, belong not to the region of legend or poetic invention, but to that of historic fact.
This noteworthy result suggests the possibility that what the poem tells of Hygelac's near relatives, and of the events of his reign and that of his successor, is based on historic fact.
Probably the singer was always himself an original poet; he might often be content to reproduce the songs that he had learned, but he was doubtless free to improve or expand them as he chose, provided that his inventions did not conflict with what was supposed to be historic truth.
Thorkelin's edition (1815) is of merely historic interest.
P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Southern States (New York, 1900); William V.
Even in the earliest form known to us this legend is probably the complex growth of centuries, and any claim to the discovery of the first germ can hardly approve itself to the historic sense.
Up to 1870 he remained an agitator, but, after the liberation of Rome, seceded from the historic left, and became leader of the extreme left, a position held until his death on the 30th of April 1886.
Galvani had made in 1790 his historic observations on the muscular contraction produced in the bodies of recently killed frogs when an electrical machine was being worked in the same room, and described them in 1791 (De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius, Bologna, 1791).
The origin of the electromotive force in the pile has been much discussed, and Volta's discoveries gave rise to one of the historic controversies of science.
Tudno, Afan, Padarn, &c. To the second division - those place-names which have been corrupted by English usage - belong most of the older historic towns, in striking contrast with the rural villages and parishes, which in nearly all cases have retained unaltered their original Celtic names.
At the castle of Cardigan in 1176, Prince Rhys held a historic bardic entertainment, or eisteddfod, wherein the poets and harpists of Gwynedd and Deheubarth contended in amicable rivalry.
This enthusiastic priest at once began to re-assert the ancient metropolitan claims of the historic Welsh see, and between the years1199-1203paid three visits to Rome in order to obtain the support of Pope Innocent III.
Plutarch also implies the historic existence of Lelegian serfs at Tralles in the interior.
Certain phases of thought may be more or less clearly indicated; certain elements of race, of local condition, of foreign contact, may be distinguished with more or less historic probability; but no single key can explain all the wide diversity of phenomena.
Pfleiderer, Religion and Historic Faiths (1907), p. 88, recognizes more clearly the difficulty of carrying almost any division through the whole field, without frequent breach of historical connexions.
trans., Religion and Historic Faiths (London, 1907); Haarlem Series, Die Voornaamste Godsdiensten, beginning with Islam, by Dozy (1863 onwards); Soc. for Promotion of Christian Knowledge, Non-Christian Religions; Hibbert Lectures on The Origin and Growth of Religion (15 vols., beginning with F.
Thwaites, "Madison" in Historic Towns of the Western States (New York, 1900), and his "Story of Madison" in The University of Wisconsin (Madison, 1900).
Among country palaces or mansions that of Gripsholm is notable, overlooking Lake Malar, the shores of which are specially rich in historic sites and remains In ecclesiastical architecture Sweden possesses the noble cathedrals of Lund, Upsala and Linkoping; while that of Skara, near the southern shore of Lake Vener, dates originally from 1150, and that of Strengn: s on Lake Molar was consecrated in 1291.
Sweeping past the historic rock of Trichinopoly, it breaks at the island of Seringam into two channels, which enclose between them the delta of Tanjore, the garden of southern India.
As secretary of the academy he was instrumental in assisting the publication of the collections of historic documents made by Hurmuzaki (30 vols., Bucharest, 1876-1897), and other acts and documents (Bucharest, 1900 sqq.), besides a number of minor political pamphlets of transitory value.
Owing to its historic interest the village of Lexington is visited by thousands of persons annually, for it was on the green or common of this village that the first armed conflict of the American War of Independence occurred.
(1623-1644), a purist who unfortunately tampered with the text of the hymns, injuring both their literary charm and their historic worth.
In historic times it was situate on the lower slopes of the hills, Coressus and Prion, which rise out of a fertile plain near the mouth of the river Cayster, while the temple and precinct of Artemis or Diana, to the fame of which the town owed much of its celebrity, were in the plain itself, E.N.E.
Society may have at one time been matrilinear in the communities that become the historic Hellenes; but of this there is no trace in the worship of Zeus and Hera.18 In fact, the whole of the family morality in Hellas centred in Zeus, whose altar in the courtyard was the bond of the kinsmen; and sins against the family, such as unnatural vice and the exposure of children, are sometimes spoken of as offences against the High God.I" He was also the tutelary deity of the larger organization of the phratria; and the altar of Zeus c Pparpcos was the meetingpoint of the phrateres, when they were assembled to consider the legitimacy of the new applicants for admission into their circle.20 His religion also came to assist the development of certain legal ideas, for instance, the rights of private or family property in land; he guarded the allotments as Zein KAdpcos,2' and the Greek commandment " thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark " was maintained by Zeus " Opcos, the god of boundaries, a more personal power than the Latin Jupiter Terminus.22 His highest political functions were summed up in the title IIoXtfin, a cult-name of legendary antiquity in Athens, and frequent in the Hellenic world.23 His consort in his political life was not Hera, but his daughter Athena Polias.
Among the historic personages who were buried within its walls was Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale, the competitor for the throne of Scotland with John Baliol, and the grandfather of King Robert the Bruce.
On the clay stoppers of wine jars of the remote age which goes by the name of the pre-dynastic period, and which preceded the historic period of the first Pharaohs, there are seal impressions which must have been produced from matrices, like those of Babylonia and Assyria, of the cylinder type, the impress of the design having been repeated as the cylinder was rolled along the surface of the moist clay.
Probably, next to the Origin of Species, no single work has done so much to promote clear understanding of natural selection and confidence in its truth; for in addition to these two historic essays, there are others in which the new theory is applied to the interpretation of certain classes of facts.
Mills, Historic Houses of New Jersey (Philadelphia, 1902); William Nelson, The New Jersey Coast in Three Centuries (2 vols., New York, 1902); Isaac S.
Germanicus proceeded by easy stages to his province, halting on his way in Dalmatia, and visiting the battlefield of Actium, Athens, Ilium, and other places of historic interest.
The opening lines of Hecataeus of Miletus begin the history of the true historic spirit in words which read like a sentence from Voltaire.
The Renaissance marked the first great gain in the historic sense, in the efforts of the humanists to realize the spirit of the antique world.
Biblical criticism is a part of the historic process.
Medieval archaeology has, since Quicherat, revealed how men were living while the monks wrote chronicles, and now cathedrals and castles are studied as genuine historic documents.
Religion, though false, might be a real historic force.
Several small coal-fields rise through the Red rocks - the largest, between Stafford and Birmingham, forms the famous " Black Country," with Wolverhampton and Dudley as centres, where the manufacture of iron has preserved a historic continuity, for the great Forest of Arden supplied charcoal until the new fuel from the pits took its place.
The historic castles, the sites of ancient battles, and the innumerable mansions of the wealthy, combine to give to central England a certain aesthetic interest which the more purely manufacturing districts of the west and north fail to inspire.
The distinction between the low grounds of the Jurassic belt and the Chalk country is not always very apparent on the surface, and from the historic point of view it is important to recognize the individuality of the Eastern plain which extends from the Vale of York across the Humber and the Wash into Essex.
Early in the 10th century the Victoria History of the Counties of England (dedicated to Queen Victoria) began to appear; its volumes deal with each county from every aspect - natural history, prehistoric and historic antiquities, ethnography, history, economic conditions, topography and sport being dealt with by authorities in all branches.
Stanley's book is of historic importance, describing the work he and his helpers accomplished on the Congo between 1879 and 1884; and Chapaux's volume gives the best general account of the Free State in convenient size.
In order to understand the events of his life and the influence of his opinions, we must endeavour to get some impression of the China that existed in his time, in the 5th and 6th centuries B.C. The dynasty of Chow, the third which within historic time had ruled the country, lasting from 1122 to 256 B.C., had passed its zenith, and its kings no longer held the sceptre with a firm grasp. The territory under their sway was not a sixth part of the present empire.
The dynasty of Chow finally perished two centuries and a quarter after the death of the sage at the hands of the first historic emperor of the nation, - the first of the dynasty of Ts'in, who swept away the foundations of the feudal system.
northern Asia, and till lately the forest regions of central Europe, has not inhabited Britain during the historic period, but its remains have been found in cave deposits of Pleistocene age.
Sociology and the science of culture are concerned with the origin and development of arts and sciences, opinions, beliefs, customs, laws and institutions generally among mankind within historic time; while beyond the historical limit the study is continued by inferences from relics of early ages and remote districts, to interpret which is the task of pre-historic archaeology and geology.
This expectation has hardly been fulfilled, but of late years the notion of a variety of the human race, geologically ancient, differing from any known in historic times, and with characters approaching the simian, has been supported by further discoveries.
From the combination of these considerations, it will be seen that the farthest date to which documentary or other records extend is now generally regarded by anthropologists as but the earliest distinctly visible point of the historic period, beyond which stretches back a vast indefinite series of prehistoric ages.
P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Middle States (New York, 1899); G.
The waters of City Creek were at first diverted and a canal was built; and the results were encouraging, though in the summer of 1848 crops were destroyed by a swarm of black crickets; but in turn this pest was devoured by sea-gulls, and the phrase " gulls and crickets " has become one of peculiar historic significance in Utah.
Canning and Lawrence, at opposite ends of the disaffected districts, alike perceived that Delhi was the centre of peril, and that all other considerations must be subordinated to striking a decisive blow at that historic city.
Meanwhile Lucknow, the capital of Oudh, was the scene of a historic defence.
The eastern crescent includes by far the largest as well as the oldest portion of Naples - the ports, the arsenal, the principal churches, &c. The best-known thoroughfare is the historic Toledo (as it is still popularly called, though the official name is Via Roma) which runs almost due north from the Piazza (Largo) del Plebiscito in front of the Palazzo Reale, till, as Strada Nuova Di Capodimonte, crossing the Ponte della Sanita (constructed by Murat across the valley between Santa Teresa and Capodimonte), it reaches the gates of the Capodimonte palace.
It is important for our purpose to notice that the condition of coloni was developed as a result of historic necessity by the working of economic and social agencies in the first centuries of the Roman empire and was made the subject of regular legislation in the 4th and 5th centuries.
The most important temples of Surrentum were those of Athena and of the Sirens (the latter the only one in the Greek world in historic times); the former gave its name to the promontory.
Although from the very conditions of their creation they regarded the country as a field for exploitations, they were themselves often men of education and ability, and unquestionably made some praiseworthy attempts to promote the general culture and well-being of their subjects, In this respect, even the Phanariote regime was preferable tc mere pasha rule, while it had the further consequence of preserving intact the national form of administration and the historic offices of Moldavia.
In the extreme west the borough includes within its bounds the historic Tower of London, the Royal Mint and the fine Tower Bridge over the Thames.
York Powell) (1879) furnishes the English student with a pleasant and trustworthy path to a sound knowledge of Icelandic. The Grimm Centenary Papers (1886) give good examples of the range of his historic work, while his Appendix on Icelandic currency to Sir G.