Historians Sentence Examples
The historians call this activity of the historical figures "the reaction."
This latter sense has been adapted and extended by modern historians concerned with the frontiers of the Roman Empire.
The historians quite falsely represent Napoleon's faculties as having weakened in Moscow, and do so only because the results did not justify his actions.
He left Batavia on what has been designated by Dutch historians the " Happy Voyage," on the 14th of August 1642.
It is too much to call him "the first of German historians"; he is a forerunner of Gottfried Arnold, with more vigour and directness of purpose.Advertisement
Modern historians began with politics.
The Bohemian historian, Palacky, fifty years ago thoroughly disproved this accusation, and, though it has recently been revived by German historians, it must undoubtedly be considered as a calumny.
Napoleon's historian Thiers, like other of his historians, trying to justify his hero says that he was drawn to the walls of Moscow against his will.
So it is impossible to understand by what reasoning the historians reach the conclusion that this maneuver was a profound one.
All historians agree that the external activity of states and nations in their conflicts with one another is expressed in wars, and that as a direct result of greater or less success in war the political strength of states and nations increases or decreases.Advertisement
So say the third class of historians who regard all historical persons, from monarchs to journalists, as the expression of their age.
Dryden, while compelled to honour him as an upright judge, overwhelmed his memory with scathing, if venal, satire; and Dryden's satire has been accepted as truth by later historians.
The second element of the name is that of the traditional founder Shapur, or Sapor of the Western historians.
He destroyed the royal palace by fire, an act which has been variously estimated by historians.
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Less favourable is the view taken by non-Catholic historians, which seems in some measure to be confirmed by St Francis himself.
Freinsheim's literary activity was chiefly devoted to the Roman historians.
Thus early commenced the separation between what were long called mathematical and political geography, the one subject appealing mainly to mathematicians, the other to historians.
The numbers of Jewish families driven out of the country by Torquemada is variously stated from Mariana's 1,700,000 to the more probable 800,000 of later historians.
In the heyday of the Athenian democracy, citizens both conservative and progressive, politicians, philosophers and historians were unanimous in their denunciation of "tyranny."Advertisement
This work for the first time made possible the existence of the modern school of scientific historians of medieval Germany.
Tiridates adopted the name of his brother Arsaces, and after him all the other Parthian kings (who by the historians are generally called by their proper names), amounting to the number of about thirty, officially wear only the name Arsaces.
If these things, however, indicate Prescott's deficiencies from the point of view of ideal history, few historians have had in a higher degree that artistic feeling in the broad arrangement of materials which ensures popular interest.
Fustel de Coulanges was the most conscientious of men, the most systematic and uncompromising of historians.
In general, one may often observe that freedom which is characteristic of early and unscientific historians.Advertisement
To external evidence one must look, therefore, for that which did not fall within the scope or the horizon of the religious historians.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about historians.
We must include the pioneers of the historical school, the economic historians, the socialists, the statisticians, and others whose contributions to economics are now appreciated, and without whose labours the science as we know it now would have been impossible.
This determination closes the first chapter of his life; the second, from 1304 to 1314, is occupied by his contest for the kingdom, which was really won at Bannockburn, though disputed until the treaty of Northampton in 1328; the last, from 1314 to his death in 1329, was the period of the establishment of his government and dynasty by an administration as skilful as his generalship. It is to the second of these that historians, attracted by its brilliancy even amongst the many romances of history and its importance to Scottish history, have directed most of their attention, and it is during it that his personal character, tried by adversity and prosperity, gradually unfolds itself.
Mounds of bones marked his road, witnesses of devastations which other historians record in detail; Christian prisoners, from Germany, he found in the heart of "Tartary" (at Talas); the ceremony of passing between two fires he was compelled to observe, as a bringer of gifts to a dead khan, gifts which were of course treated by the Mongols as evidence of submission.
According to Aimoin of SaintGermain-des-Pres, and the chronicler, Richer, he was a Saxon, but historians question this statement.
To this was appended a critical dissertation on the historians who had dealt with the period (Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtschreiber), which, showing as it did how untrustworthy was much of traditional history, was to be for modern history as epoch-marking as the critical work of Niebuhr had been in ancient history.
At the time of his death Ranke was, not in his own country alone, generally regarded as the first of modern historians.
The leader of modern historians, he was in truth a man of the ancien regime.
The legend has been followed by modern historians; but in point of fact Peter is a figure of secondary importance.
Prutz has also a short account of some of the historians of the Crusades (Kulturgeschichte, pp. 453-4 6 9).
From Egypt Hadrian returned through Syria to Europe (his movements are obscure), but was obliged to hurry back to Palestine (spring, 133) to give his personal attention (this is denied by some historians) to the revolt of the Jews, which had broken out (autumn, 131, or spring, 132) after he had left Syria.
Constantine has been described by the orthodox historians of his time as a.
Abbad makes extensive quotations from early historians of Spanish America.
The history, Tarikh Bulgar, said to have been written in the 12th century by an Arabian cadi of the city Bolgari, has not yet been discovered; but the Arabian historians, Ibn Foslan, Ibn Haukal, Abul Hamid Andalusi, Abu Abdallah Harnati, and several others, who had visited the kingdom, beginning with the 10th century, have left descriptions of it.
Among historians who looked upon geography as an important aid in their work are numbered Polybius (c. 210-120 B.C.), Diodorus Siculus (c. 30 B.C.) and Agathachidus of Cnidus (c. 120 B.C.) to whom we are indebted for a valuable account of the Erythrean Sea and the adjoining parts of Arabia and Ethiopia.
It was only the chronologists and historians of the church who, following Julius Africanus, made use of apocalyptic numbers in their calculations, while court theologians like Eusebius entertained the imperial table with discussions as to whether the dining-hall of the emperor - the second David and Solomon, the beloved of God - might not be the New Jerusalem of John's Apocalypse.
Various animals, apparently indigenous, that are described by the early historians of the conquest, have disappeared.
They were men of great culture, and many historians, poets and writers belong to this class.
The war is blamed by Turkish historians as unjustifiable and untimely, the country needing reform.
Such was the opinion held even by experienced diplomatists and by historians.
Contemporary historians, however, state that Zobeide was actually buried in Kazemain, and moreover, early writers, who describe the neighbouring tomb and shrine of Ma`ruf Karkhi, make no reference to this monument.
Copies of it are rare, however, and it has been too much neglected by historians.
Historians differ much on these matters.
It is evidently this Marcomeres, the chief of these tribes, who is regarded by later historians as the father of the legendary Faramund (Pharamund) although in fact Marcomeres has nothing to do with the Salian Franks.
It is at this point that Van Buren's connexion began with so-called "machine politics," a connexion which has made his name odious to some historians of the period.
As an authority on the Inquisition he stood in the highest rank of modern historians, and distinctions were conferred on him by the universities of Harvard, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Giessen and Moscow.
Retrospectively, later historians have given this name to the kingdom of Theuderich (511-534), of his son Theudebert (534-548), and of his grandson Theudebald (J48555); then, after the death of Clotaire to the kingdom of Sigebert (561-575), and of his son Childebert (575-597).
They appear to be different articles, purporting to refer to different persons, and have been generally so received by the editors of Suidas and by modern legal historians.
The earliest prophetic books have a quite different standpoint; otherwise indeed the books of northern prophets and historians could never have been admitted into the Jewish canon.
The best Sienese historians belong to the 16th century.
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
Among the many historians of Magyar literature Francis Toldy alias Schedel holds the foremost place.
Like the Scyths they were pressed towards the west by yet newer swarms, and with the coming of the Huns Scythia enters upon a new cycle, though still keeping its old name in the Byzantine historians.
This reconciliation of the internal and the external evidence, countenanced as it is by Theophrastus, one of the best informed of the ancient historians, and approved by Zeller, one of the most learned of the modern critics, is more than plausible; but there is something to be said on the contrary part.
The elaborate collections made by Daremberg of medical notices in the poets and historians illustrate the relations of the profession to society, but do little to prepare us for the Hippocratic period.
Three hundred medical writers in Arabic are enumerated by Ferdinand Wiistenfeld (1808-1899), and other historians have enlarged the list (Haser), but only three have been printed in the original; a certain number more are known through old Latin translations, and the great majority still exist in manuscript.
The historians of the Roman Empire have left us some particulars of the visits of emperors and generals to Britain, but little or nothing about what happened in London, and we should be more ignorant than we are of the condition of Londinium if it had not been that a large number of excavations have been made in various parts of the city which have disclosed a considerable amount of its early history.
This silence has been taken by some historians of weight to imply that London practically ceased to exist.
C. Coote in his Romans of Britain elaborated a description of the survival of Roman influence in English institutions, but his views did not obtain much support from London historians.
The view originated by Gomme certainly explains many difficulties in the history of the transition from Roman to English London, which have hitherto been overlooked by historians.
Hindu Kush is the Caucasus of Alexander's historians.
He was also known as the author of sacred poems. Gottfried Arnold has rightly been classed with the pietistic section of Protestant historians (Bibliotheca Sacra, 1850).
One of the most important works of this " First Dynasty of Babylon," as it was called by the native historians, was the compilation of a code of laws (see Babylonian Law).
Thus all historians are agreed with regard to the Babylonian chronology back to the year 747 B.C., and with regard to that of Assyria back to the year 911 B.C. It is in respect of the periods anterior to these two dates that different writers have propounded differing systems of chronology, and, as might be imagined, the earlier the period we examine the greater becomes the discrepancy between the systems proposed.
Messerschmidt, editor of the best collection of Hittite texts up to date, made a tabula rasa of all systems of decipherment, asserting that only one sign out of two hundred the bisected oval, determinative of divinity - had been interpreted with any certainty; and in view of this opinion, coupled with the steady refusal of historians to apply the results of any Hittite decipherment, and the obvious lack of satisfactory verification, without which the piling of hypothesis on hypothesis may only lead further from probability, there is no choice but to suspend judgment for some time longer as to the inscriptions and all deductions drawn from them.
Historians have expressed divergent views regarding the early relations of the craftsmen and their fraternities to the gild merchant.
It was, and still is, the custom of Arabian historians to begin with the creation of the world and tell the history from then to the time of which they are writing.
The Arabian historians relate their conflict with Zenobia.
A just estimate of the relative value of the historians can only be reached by careful comparison in detail.
These later historians had valuable help from the biographies of famous men and special histories of countries and cities, dynasties and princes, on which much labour was spent from the 4th century from the Flight onwards.
The chief historians after Tabari may be briefly mentioned in chronological order.
Of Sakhawi we possess a bibliographical work on the historians.
Even Moslem historians speak favourably of the Norman rule in Africa; but it was brought to an early end by the Almohade caliph Abd ul-Mumin, who took Mandia in 1160.
Four of the medieval historians from whom he quotes most frequently are Sigebert of Gembloux, Hugh of Fleury, Helinand of Froidmont, and William of Malmesbury, whom he uses for Continental as well as for English history.
The ancient historians invariably note the profligacy of the inhabitants of Byzantium.
Military historians point out that he sometimes sacrificed great advantages to impetuosity; naval experts that he sometimes threw away great opportunities by indifference.
Indeed, but for the unceasing simultaneous struggle with the Teutonic knights, the burden of which was heroically borne by Kiejstut, Russian historians frankly admit that Lithuania, not Muscovy, must have become the dominant power of eastern Europe.
In the satisfaction they afforded to the commemorative and patriotic instincts they anticipated an office afterwards performed by the national epics and the works of regular historians.
Coelius Antipater, who wrote a narrative of the second Punic war about 120, and Sempronius Asellio, who wrote a history of his own times, have a better claim to be considered historians.
Lutatius Catulus (consul 102 B.C.), and P. Rutilius Rufus, which formed the sources of future historians.
He was the first of the purely artistic historians, as distinct from the annalists and the writers of personal memoirs.
He imitated the Greek historians in taking particular actions - the Jugurthan War and the Catilinarian Conspiracy - as the subjects of artistic treatment.
Among later historians who were deceived by the Historia Britonum it is only needful to mention Higdon, Hardyng, Fabyan (1512), Holinshed (1580) and John Milton.
This V Olkerwanderung, as it is called by German historians, again transformed the face of Europe, resulting in the establishment of independent kingdoms and a great mixture of races and institutions.
This is only one of many cases where the investigations of the archaeologist have proved not iconoclastic but reconstructive, tending to restore confidence in classical traditions which the scientific historians of the age of Niebuhr and George Cornewall Lewis regarded with scepticism.
The explanation is found, so the Assyriologist assures us, in the fact that both Hebrew and Greek historians, writing at a considerable interval after the events, and apparently lacking authentic sources, confused the peaceful occupation of Babylon by Cyrus with its siege and capture by a successor to that monarch, Darius Hystaspes.
These traditions, finding their clearest delineation in the lines of Homer, had been subjected to the analysis of the critical historians of the early decades of the 19th century, and their authenticity had come to be more than doubted.
Cautious historians had come to regard the so-called "Heroic Age" as a prehistoric period regarding which nothing definite was known, or in all probability could be known.
Notwithstanding the allurements of the subject, such conservative historians as Grote were disposed to regard the problems of early Grecian history as inscrutable, and to content themselves with the recital of traditions without attempting to establish their relationship with actual facts.
Historians have found it hard to dispel the idea that civilization in Greece was a very late development, and that the culture of the age of Solon sprang, in fact, suddenly into existence, as it seems to do in the records of the historian.
The researches of the archaeologist are, in short, tending to reconstruct the primitive classical history; and here, as in the Orient, it is evident that historians of the earlier day were constantly blinded by a misconception as to the antiquity of civilization.
But it is necessary to notice here the different Eras and Periods that have been employed by historians, and by the different nations of the world, in recording the succession of time and events, to fix the epochs at which the eras respectively commenced, to ascertain the form and the initial day of the year made use of, and to establish their correspondence with the years of the Christian era.
Porcius Cato places it in the first year of the seventh Olympiad, that is, in 3963 of the Julian period, and 751 B.C. (4) Verrius Flaccus places it in the fourth year of the sixth Olympiad, that is, in the year 3962 of the Julian period, and 752 B.C. (5) Terentius Varro places it in the third year of the sixth Olympiad, that is, in the year 3961 of the Julian period, and 753 B.C. A knowledge of these different computations isnecessary, in order to reconcile the Roman historians with one another, and even any one writer with himself.
The consulate is the date employed by the Latin historians generally, and by many of the Greeks, down to the 6th century of our era.
Some of the Greek historians have assumed as a chronological epoch the death of Alexander the Great, in the year 325 B.C. The form of the year is the same as in the preceding era.
It is necessary to remember that by astronomers and by some historians the era is assigned to the preceding day, July 15.
But though his work is thus, like that of many historians, coloured by his opinions, this was not the outcome of a conscious purpose, and he was scrupulously conscientious in collecting and weighing his materials.
German historians have not made matters more clear by treating the Letters on the principle of "the higher criticism" of Homer and the Bible.
But the last of these was part of a much wider struggle by land, known to Continental historians as the Dutch War of 1672-78, and the second part of this article deals with their struggle on the various frontiers of France, which was illustrated by the genius of Turenne and Conde.
His life throws light on some phases of the ancien regime which are often overlooked by historians.
The tone of the "Panegyric" certainly lends itself to the supposition of some historians that Trajan was inordinately vain.
It should be observed that this last circumstance is ignored by all the historians, and that St Athanasius, who knew all the notable bishops of the period, never mentions Nicholas, bishop of Myra.
Thus the two great Italian historians of the 16th century, who had been friends for several years, were brought into relations of close intimacy.
This Unc was in fact the prince of the Kerait, called by the Chinese Tuli, and by the Persian historians of the Mongols Toghral, on whom the Kin emperor of north China had conferred the title of "wang" or king, whence his coming to be known as Awang or Ung Khan.
He espoused now one side, and now the other, but on the whole supported Rome, so that orators and historians could speak of him as "a most faithful ally of the Roman people."
Zimmer's conclusions are of more interest to literary critics than to historians.
The historians of this period were numerous and prolific. Many of them, e.g.
Building upon the foundations laid by Hasak and other Catholic writers who have been too much neglected by Protestant historians, Janssen produced a monumental work in defence of the German Church before Luther's defection.
This large class of " dissenters " found themselves as little at home under a Protestant as under a Catholic regime, and have until recently been treated with scant sympathy by historians of the Church.
It is impossible that Palestine should have remained untouched by the external movements in connexion with the Delta, the Levant and Asia Minor, and it is possible that the course of internal history in the age immediately before and after 1000 B.C. ran upon lines different from the detailed popular religious traditions which the biblical historians have employed.
Columbian, or i 5thcentury material, still exists in museums of Europe and America, and good descriptions are to be found in the writings of contemporary historians.
It means that historians recognize the peculiar importance of those beliefs which are constitutive of church agreement; and it finds some support from the philosophical and political associations of ancient " dogma."
In confirmation of this view, it may be noted that the authority of Herodotus for the circumstances of the great Persian war, and for all local and other details which come under his immediate notice, is accepted by even the most sceptical of modern historians, and forms the basis of their narratives.
Cicero calls his style "copious and polished," Quintilian, "sweet, pure and flowing"; Longinus says he was "the most Homeric of historians"; Dionysius, his countryman, prefers him to Thucydides, and regards him as combining in an extraordinary degree the excellences of sublimity, beauty and the true historical method of composition.
Duncker's eminent position among German historians rests mainly on his Geschichte des Alterthums (1st ed., 1852-1857); 5th ed.
There has been much controversy among historians with regard both to the facts and to the significance of Leisler's brief career as ruler in New York.
Much discussion has taken place on this question, and several of the most eminent of German historians, Ranke among them, have taken part therein, but no certain decision has been reached.
But its authenticity is doubtful, since it is based upon the authority of Cleitarchus, one of the least trustworthy of the historians of Alexander.
At the time of the Arab invasion it was the capital of the exarch Gregorius, and outside its walls the battle was fought in which he was slain; his daughter, who is said by the Arab historians to have fought by the side of her father, became the wife of one of the Arab leaders.
More serious was the conflict under Dhu-Nu'as (DhuI uwas of the Arab historians) in the beginning of the 6th century; it ended in the overthrow of the Himyarite king and the subjugation of Yemen, which was governed by a deputy of the Axumite king, till (about 570) the conquerors were overthrown by a small band of Persian adventurers.
The characteristic feature of the post-exilic age was the re-shaping of older tradition in the interest of parenetic and practical purposes, and for this object a certain freedom of literary form was always allowed to ancient historians.
The impressions of these early years laid the foundation of the ardent attachment to Prussia which distinguished him, like so many other historians of his generation.
It is true that he is sometimes swayed by prejudice, but this is the common lot of great historians; they cannot altogether avoid sharing in the feelings of the past, for they live in it, and Freeman did so to an extraordinary degree.
Of the many historians of the middle ages, besides the authors of biographies, chronicles, cloister annals, &c., may be mentioned Haymo, Anastasius, Adam of Bremen, Ordericus Vitalis, Honorius of Autun, Otto of Freising, Vincent of Beauvais and Antoninus of Florence.
Other notable Roman Catholic historians of the 17th and 18th centuries were Natalis Alexander, Bossuet, Tillemont, Fleury, Dupin and Ceillier.
At the very threshold of the .Czech renaissance men of science were among the first pioneers of national thought, as for example Dobrovsky the philologist, and in the ensuing generation Purkyne (Purkinje) the physiologist, and Palacky the greatest of Czech historians.
In all, Stobaeus quotes more than five hundred writers, generally beginning with the poets, and then proceeding to the historians, orators, philosophers and physicians.
This partitional period, as Polish historians generally call it, lasted from 1138 to 1305, during which Poland lost all political significance, and became an easy prey to her neighbours.
Conrad has been loudly blamed by Polish historians for introducing this foreign, and as it ultimately proved, dangerous element into Poland.
Many Russian historians even maintain that, but for the fact that Witowt had simultaneously to cope with the Teutonic Order and the Tatars, that energetic prince would certainly have extinguished struggling Muscovy altogether.
The text-books to be used at Harrow in 1590 included Hesiod and some of the Greek orators and historians.
Soraluce, and other historians, has examined, catalogued and indexed the municipal archives of all the towns, without which no true history can be written.
Perhaps Gertz deserved his fate for "unnecessarily making himself the tool of an unheard-of despotism," but his death was certainly a judicial murder, and some historians even regard him as a political martyr.
Great importance has been attached to the determination of this frontier by some historians, who consider that it coincided with the dividing line between the Teutonic and Romance races and languages; but nothing is known of the bases upon which the negotiations were effected, and the situation created by this treaty came to an end in 879.
But to his wide, deep and accurate learning, to his conscientious and impartial examination of the facts and the authorities at first hand, and to "his exact quotation of the sources and works illustrating them, and careful discussion of the most minute details," all succeeding historians are indebted.
Why Neoplatonism succumbed in the conflict with Christianity is a question which the historians have never satisfactorily answered.
Geographers are practically helpless as historians, and problems of the former elevation and distribution of the land and sea masses depend for their solution chiefly upon the palaeontologist.
It is further related by the Mexican historians that the Toltec nation all but perished in the 11th century by years of drought, famine and.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about French historians.
He has not only the fault of diffuseness, which is common to so many of the best-known historians of his century, but others as serious or more so.
And,, secondly, with a laborious zeal then less common than now among, n 2 (I - K 2) = 2 n 2 = n 2 = I historians, he sought to bring to light fresh historical material by patient search for letters, diaries and other manuscripts of value which had escaped the notice of previous students.
He also assisted in August Bekker's edition of the Byzantine historians, and delivered courses of lectures on ancient history, ethnography, geography, and on the French Revolution.
It appears certain that they were brought to France, only much later, as a present to Mme de Pompadour, although the de Goncourts, the historians of the mistresses of Louis XV., have failed to trace any records of this event.
Apart from modern European savants and historians, and the more strictly Oriental chroniclers who have written in Persian, Turkish or Arabic, the following authorities may be cited - Laonicus Chalcondylas, Joannes Leunclavius, Joachimus Camerarius, Petrus Perondinus, Lazaro Soranzo, Simon Mairlus, Matthew Michiovius.
Mani himself composed a large number of works and epistles, which were in great part still known to the Mahommedan historians, but are now mostly lost.
The Christian and Mahommedan historians could learn little of the Manichaean mysteries and "sacraments," and hence the former charged them with obscene rites and abominable usages.
Swedish historians have too often ignored the fact that Koniecpolski's superior strategy neutralized all the efforts of the Swedish king, whom he defeated again and again, notably at Homerstein (April 1627) and at Trzciand (April 1629).
For nowhere could he have had a better means of consulting the works of historians, geographers and astronomers, such as Eratosthenes, Posidonius, Hipparchus and Apollodorus.
The old historians, from Herodotus to Tacitus, were familiar to him, and the accuracy of his historical knowledge is astonishing.
The racial affinities of the Teutoni have formed a matter of dispute amongst historians.
Strabo and Velleius, moreover, classify them as Germani, and this is perhaps the more probable view, although apparently the distinction between Celt and Teuton was not clearly realized by some of the earlier historians.
But his political insight and his impartiality entitle him to a high place among the historians of the 12th century.
He also brought out editions of the Byzantine historians, John Cinnamus and John Zonaras, as Joannis Cinnami historiarum de rebus gestis a Joanne et Manuele Comnenis (Paris, 1670) and Joannis Zonarae Annales ab exordio mundi ad mortem Alexii Comneni (Paris, 1686).
Ferishta is reputed one of the most trustworthy of the Oriental historians, and his work still maintains a high place as an authority.
In many cases the apparent cause may be of a nobler character, but historians have seldom been content to accept the allegations of those who have claimed to carry on war from disinterested motives.
It may have been he who, as a "presbyter christiani ritus," conducted negotiations with Valens before the battle of Adrianople; but that he headed a previous embassy asking for leave for the Visigoths to settle on Roman soil, and that he then, for political motives, professed himself a convert to the Arian creed, favoured by the emperor, and drew with him the whole body of his countrymen - these and other similar stories of the orthodox church historians appear to be without foundation.
From the fact that Aurelius was always devoted to her and was heartbroken at her death, it has been inferred that the unfavourable estimate of the historians is prejudiced or at least mistaken.
She did so, but complained that this heathen writer said nothing about ecclesiastical affairs and stopped with the accession of the emperor Valens in 364; consequently Paulus interwove extracts from the Scriptures, from the ecclesiastical historians and from other sources with Eutropius, and added six books, thus bringing the history down to 553.
Nor must it be forgotten that, in the eyes of contemporaries, the scene at Venice had none of that humiliating character which later historians have attributed to it.
But this must be rejected, for it is a common explanation of heretical movements with the early church historians, and there is no evidence for it in the original sources.
The work was based upon the writings of Greek historians, such as Theopompus (also the author of a Philippica), Ephorus, Timaeus, Polybius.
Chiefly on the ground that such a work was beyond the powers of a Roman, it is generally agreed that Trogus did not gather together the information from the leading Greek historians for himself, but that it was already combined into a single book by some Greek (very probably Timagenes of Alexandria).
The contemporary historians Cantacuzenus and Nicephorus Gregoras deal very copiously with this subject, taking the Hesychast and Barlaamite sides respectively.
From 970 to 772 B.C. the bare outline of events is supplied by extracts from two Hellenistic historians, Menander of Ephesus and Dius (largely dependent upon Menander), which have been preserved by Josephus, Ant.
By some writers Ghana city is, however, identified with Walata, which town is mentioned by Arab historians as the capital of Ghanata.
But it is the general opinion of historians that he had a high sense of his responsibilities and a strong love of justice; despite the looseness of his personal morals, he commanded the affection and respect of Gilbert Foliot and Hugh of Lincoln, the most upright of the English bishops.
This story made Regulus to the later Romans the type of heroic endurance; but most historians regard it as insufficiently attested, Polybius being silent.
Political History and Modern State of the Inhabitants of the Alps.-We know practically nothing of the early dwellers in the Alps, save from the scanty accounts preserved to us by Roman and Greek historians and geographers.
In respect of his character, while most historians agree that he was a really great man, some deny that he was also a great saint.
The early history of the thesmothetae is not clear, but this much is certain that there is no adequate reason for supposing, as many historians do, that in early times, they, with the three chief archons, constituted a collective or collegiate magistracy.
Little is known of the personal part played by Philip in the events associated with his name, and later historians have been divided between the view which regards him as a handsome, lethargic nonentity and that which paints him as a master of statecraft who, under a veil of phlegmatic indifference and pious sentiment, masked an inflexible purpose, of which his ministers were but the spokesmen and executors.
They are written in an alphabet derived from an Aramaic source and recount the history of the northern branch of the Turks or Tu-kiue of Chinese historians.
The explanation, according to some historians, is that the people looked forward with alarm to the union of Germany with Italy.
This feeling was deliberately fostered by publicists and historians, and was intensified by commercial rivalry, since in the struggle for colonial expansion and trade Germans naturally came to look on Great Britain, who held the field, as their rival.
In 1886 he combined with other leading historians to found the English Historical Review, of which he was editor for five years.
Tradition identifies Epidaurum, whence the majority came, with the neighbouring village of Ragusavecchia; but some historians, including Gelcich, place it on the shores of the Bocche di Cattaro.
Some writers consider that it submitted to Venice in 998, with the rest of Dalmatia; but this is generally denied by the native historians.
Among the earlier Genoese historians the most important are Bartolommeo Fazio and Jacopo Bracelli, both of the 15th century, and Paolo Partenopeo, Jacopo Bonfadio, Oberto Foglietta and Agostino Giustiniano of the 16th.
It was first used during the 16th century because of the belief held by Camden and other older historians, that during this period there were exactly seven kingdoms in England, these being Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex.
The great days of the Norman conquest and the Norman reigns have been worthily recorded by contemporary historians.
All historians of Merovingian institutions and law have treated of the antrustions, and each one has his different system.
According to Thucydides the war, which was ' Some historians prefer to call it the Second Peloponnesian War, the first being that of 457, which ended with the Thirty Years' Peace.
Local historians assert that a village existed on the site of Rostock as early as A.D.
The best translation is that by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson, in his series of Church Historians of England (1853).
A pillar of earth before the dam is called the Bride of the Nile, and Arab historians relate that this was substituted, at the Moslem conquest, for a virgin whom it was the custom annually to sacrifice, to ensure a plentiful inundation.
The three officials of importance whose nomination is mentioned by the historians in addition to that of the governor were the commander of the bodyguard, the minister of finance and the judge.
One of the historians represents his appointment to Egypt as effected by bribery and even forgery.
His system of persecution was not abandoned till in the last year of his reign (1020) he thought fit to claim divinity, a doctrine which is perpetuated by the Druses, called after one DarazI, who preached the divinity of Ijakim at the time; the violent opposition which this aroused among the Moslems probably led him to adopt milder measures towards his other subjects, and those who had been forcibly converted were permitted to return to their former religion and rebuild their places of worship. Whether his disappearance at the beginning of the year 1021 was due to the resentment of his outraged subjects, or, as the historians say, to his sisters fear that he would bequeath the caliphate to a distant relative to the exclusion of his own son, will never be known.
Two historians of more definite claim on our attention are Peter Frederik Suhm (1728-1798), whose History of Denmark (II vols., Copenhagen, 1782-1812) contains a mass of original material, and Ove Guldberg (1 731-1808).
Swedish historians have been excusably indulgent to the father of their greatest ruler.
For this resolution he is often abused still by historians, and at the time he had the approval of hardly any one out of Prussia.
So long as the various state archives remained largely inaccessible historians relied upon this as their chief authority.
It is somewhat remarkable that, although Justinian is so much more familiar to us by his legislation than by anything else, this sphere of his imperial labour is hardly referred to by any of the contemporary historians, and then only with censure.
It only remains to say something regarding Justinian's personal character and capacities, with regard to which a great diversity of opinion has existed among historians.
This view was accepted by Yorkist chroniclers and Tudor historians, who had no reason to speak well of a Pole.
The first portion of his Histoire de la Reformation, which was devoted to the earlier period of the movement in Germany, gave him at once a foremost place amongst modern French ecclesiastical historians, and was translated into most European tongues.
As to the nature of Malcolm's homage, whether for Scotland (Freeman), or for manors and a subsidy in England(Robertson), historians disagree.
It is not possible here to unravel the problem, but documents at St Andrews, now printed, demonstrate the error of the historians who regard Graham as a holy man, persecuted because he was half a premature Protestant.
The truth of this matter is obscure; our early historians of this age, Protestants like Knox and Pitscottie, with Buchanan and the Catholic Lesley, are seldom to be trusted without documentary corroboration.
Historians do not usually seem to perceive that Charles was faced by the old quarrel of church and state, in which " fair means " were seen to be unavailing, while " unfair means " only succeeded, after some thirty years, in breaking down the old Presbyterian spirit so much that, after 1688, the state could hold her own.
Of the guard that defended Holyrood " the gentlemen and the rabble, when they saw all danger over, killed some and put the rest in prison, where many of them died of their wounds and hunger," a parallel to the Dunottar cruelties not usually mentioned by historians (" Balcarres Memoirs ").
The setting up in 1895 in the market-place in Altdorf of a fine statue (by the Swiss sculptor Richard Kissling) of Tell and his son, and the opening in 1899 just outside Altdorf of a permanent theatre, wherein Schiller's play is to be represented every Sunday during the summer months, show that the popular belief in the Tell legend is still strong, despite its utter demolition at the hands of a succession of scientific Swiss historians during the 19th century.
He owed little to the historians of feudalism who knew what feudalism was, but not how it came about.
Bactria was long a province of the empire which Alexander the Great left to his successors, but the Greek historians give very little information of the Oxus basin and its inhabitants.
Meanwhile the preparation for Don Carlos had interested Schiller in history, and in 1788 he published the first volume of his chief historical work, Geschichte des Abfalls der vereinigten Niederlande von der spanischen Regierung, a book which at once gave him a respected position among the historians of the 18th century.
Historians of the north have distinguished as the " Viking Age " (Vikingertiden) the time when the Scandinavian folk first by their widespread piracies brought themselves forcibly into the notice of all the Christian peoples of western Europe.
In the historians of Normandy, especially in Dudo of St Quentin, much incidental matter may be found.
Perhaps no celebrated character of that age has been the subject of so much ill-merited abuse at the hands of popular historians.
In Poland the title was used of certain administrative officials; Polish historians latinized it by palatinus.
It is from Suleiman's time that historians date the rise of that occult influence of the harem which has so often thwarted the best efforts of Turkey's most enlightened statesmen.
The word "doubt" has made historians think of intellectual difficulties - of the "theological scepticism" taught by Occam and Biel, of the disintegrating criticism of Humanism.
Its strength and popularity, especially among the artizan classes, have been very much underrated by most historians.
But the Judaean historians have successfully concealed the course of events, although, as has long been recognized, there was some movement upwards from the south of Judah of groups closely tion of related to Edomite and kindred peoples of South New Palestine and Northern Arabia.
These centuries represent an age which the Jewish historians have partly ignored (as regards Samaria) and partly obscured (as regards the return from exile and the reconstruction of Judah); but since this age stands at the head of an historical development which leads on to Christianity and Rabbinical Judaism, it is necessary to turn from Palestine as a land in order to notice more particularly certain features of the Old Testament upon which the foregoing evidence directly bears.
But the historians give them a legendary descent from Zohak, which is no Afghan genealogy.
Further, since Socrates and the Socratics were educators, they too might be, and in general were, regarded as sophists; but, as they conceived truth - so far as it was attainable - rather than success in life, in the law court, in the assembly, or in debate, to be the right end of intellectual effort, they were at variance with their rivals, and are commonly ranked by historians, not with the sophists, who confessedly despaired of knowledge, but with the philosophers, who, however unavailingly, continued to seek it.
For this he waited impatiently five years, keeping himself posted by spies of every stage of the king's last illness, and thus laying himself open to the accusation, believed in by Charles himself, that he had hastened the end by poison, a charge which modern historians deny.
The historians who chronicled his march, and the Greek ambassador Megasthenes, who succeeded them (300 B.C.) in their literary labours, bear witness to the predominance of the old faith in the period immediately preceding Asoka.
India to the east of the Indus was first made known in Europe by the historians' and men of science who accompanied Alexander the Great in 327 B.C. Their narratives, although now lost, are condensed in Strabo, Pliny and Arrian.
Their historians spoke of two classes of Indians - certain mountainous tribes who dwelt in northern Afghanistan under the Caucasus or Hindu Kush, and a maritime race living on the coast of Baluchistan.
Lake's campaign in Hindustan was no less brilliant, though it has received less notice from historians.
Elliot, History of India as told by its own Historians (1867).
They were in fact chroniclers or annalists - not historians.
Their writings were much used by historians, as well as by the scholiasts and grammarians.
The essential questions that are involved are so old that historians commonly speak of the "Eastern Question" in reference to events that happened long before the actual phrase was coined.
The precise character of the kingdom or empire to which allusion is made has been the subject of much discussion, and some modern historians have gone so far as to relegate the monomotapa to the realm of myth.
Her Cite des dames contains many interesting contemporary portraits, and her Livre des trois vertus contains details of domestic life in the France of the early 15th century not supplied by more formal historians.
The Arabic historians are so entirely preoccupied with the internal events that they have no eye for the war at the frontier.
When his descendants had ascended the throne and he had become a demi-saint, the historians did their best to excuse his conduct.
The Arabic historians are still absorbed by the events in Irak and Khorasan.
Moawiya seems to have done his best to gain that approbation, but the details given by the historians are altogether unconvincing.
His death has been falsely imputed by some historians to the caliph Suleiman.'
Some historians say that he was falsely accused of rebellion.
The Greek historians say nothing about Constantine having been made prisoner.
Abu Ja`far was, according to the historians, older than Abu`l-Abbas, but while the mother of the latter belonged to the powerful Yemenite tribe of alHarith b.
Some historians say that he had already given orders for his execution, when he himself was killed (September r4th, 786) by his mother Khaizoran, who had systematically and successfully intrigued against him with the object of gaining the real power for herself.
At the end of some months, however, he was calumniously accused of conspiracy, and the caliph, seizing the opportunity of ridding himself of a possible rival, threw him into prison, where he died, according to the majority of the historians, of starvation.
The historians bring no open accusation against Mamun, but it seems clear that the opportune removal of these men was not due to chance.
In 445 B.C. an unfair decision by the Romans in a frontier dispute with Aricia led, according to the Roman historians, to a rising; the town became a Latin colony 442 B.C., and shortly afterwards it appears as the place of exile of Camillus.
This was an official recognition of Diimmler's leading position among German historians.
The Armenian historians render the name Astyages by Ashdahak, i.e.
This fact led Parsons and other Catholic historians to state that she actually recanted, but she refused to sign Bonner's form without qualification.
He professed to have obtained from the monastery of Icolmkill, through the good offices of the earl of Argyll, and his brother, John Campbell of Lundy, the treasurer, certain original historians of Scotland, and among the rest Veremundus, of whose writings not a single vestige is now to be found.
Treaties are recorded on the monuments of Egypt and Assyria; they occur in the Old Testament Scriptures; and questions arising under vvvBijrcar, and foedera occupy much space in the Greek and Roman historians.'
The outbreaks of 1361 and 1368, known as the second and third plagues of the reign of Edward III., were doubtless of the same disease, though by some historians not called the black death.
Did its author follow the plan adopted by all historians of his age, or is he an Speeches.
Ancient historians (like many of modern t i mes) used the liberty of working up in their own language the speeches recorded by them.
There is no evidence that any speech in Acts is the free composition of its author, without either written or oral basis; and in general he seems more conscientious than most ancient historians touching the essentials of historical accuracy, even as now understood.
The forms of the Danish king's name given by the Frankish historians are corruptions of the name of which the primitive Germanic form was Hugilaikaz, and which by regular phonetic change became in Old English Hygelac, and in Old Norse Hugleikr.
Papal monarchy and Holy Roman Empire were not the only political phenomena of their age, and it is possible that their vast pretensions have somewhat blinded historians as to their real importance.
Scholasticism, which absorbed the attention of most thinkers from about the 11th to about the 15th centuries, is so easily marked off and played so considerable a role in the academic history of that time, that historians often refer to it as the only intellectual interest of "medieval" men.
There is a legend, current among historians from the days of Robertson and Hallam, that as the year 1000 approached mankind prepared for the Last Judgment; that the earth "clothed itself with the white mantle of churches," and like a penitent watched in terror and in prayer for the fatal dawn.
Then by the genius of their work they fastened their mistaken perspective upon historians and the cultured world at large.
As for the claim that the "Renaissance" delivered men from that blind reliance upon authority which was typical of "medieval" thought, that is a fallacy cherished by those who themselves rely upon the authority of historians, blind to the most ordinary processes of thought.
The literary form which preserved the works of the great historians was unfortunately wanting, or was not sufficiently valued, in the case of the grammarians.
In the 6th century B.C. Van passed into the hands of the Persians, and shortly before it fell to Alexander the Great it was rebuilt, according to Armenian historians, by a native prince called Van.
It remains the most solid monument of the Italian reason in the 16th century, the final triumph of that Florentine school of philosophical historians which included Machiavelli, Segni, Pitti, Nardi, Varchi, Francesco Vettori and Donato Giannotti.
Here the sequence of the reigns in the Biblical writer and in the profane historians - in the one, Cyrus, Ahasuerus, Artaxerxes, Darius; in the other, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius - led in the past (Ewald, &c.) to the identification of Ahasuerus with Cambyses (529-522 B.e.), son of Cyrus.
After much indecisive fighting, Ali found his position so unsatisfactory that according to some historians he made an agreement with Moawiya by which each retained his own dominions unmolested.
The Greek historians early directed their attention to the ideas and customs of the peoples with whom they were brought into contact; and Herodotus has been called the " first anthropologist of religion."
Burgundian historians even openly accused the Dauphin, afterwards Louis XI., of her death, and later the enemies of Jacques Coeur, in their search for crimes to be brought against him, used this rumour to charge him with the one crime most likely to turn the king against him.
The Greek historians name it Ake (Josephus calls it also Akre); but the name was changed to Ptolemais, probably by Ptolemy Soter, after the partition of the kingdom of Alexander.
The chief historians were Sven Lagerbring (1707-1787), author of a still valuable history of Sweden down to 1457 (Svea Rikes historia, 4 vols., 1769-1783); Olof Celsius (1716-1794), bishop of Lund, who wrote histories of Gustavus I.
Geijer and Strinnholm prepared the way for the most popular of all Swedish historians, Anders Fryxell (1795-1881), whose famous Berdttelser ur svenska historien appeared in parts during a space of nearly sixty years, and awakened a great interest in Swedish history and legend.
The province represents the bulk of the territories once comprised in the ancient prince-bishopric of the same name, het Stiehl (the see) of Dutch historians.
The statements of the Armenian historians as to this period are also absolutely worthless.
Modern Persian Literature.Persian historians are greatly at variance about the origin of their national poetry.
Historians have been at a loss to know what Solomon could give in exchange for the gold of Ophir and the costly gifts of the queen of Sheba.
It has received very small consideration at the hands of German historians of ethics.
The historians of the city have for the most part described these as unjust and tyrannical exactions, but, looking at the representative and municipal character of the companies, and the purposes to which their contributions were applied, we may regard them as a rough but not unfair mode of taxation.
He read Homer in twenty-one days, and then went through all the other Greek poets, orators and historians, forming a grammar for himself as he went along.
Rebello da Silva and the voluminous and brilliant publicists, Latino Coelho and Pinheiro Chagas, wrote at second hand and rank higher as stylists than as historians.
Mather's worth has been under-estimated by Josiah Quincy, Justin Winsor and other historians out of sympathy with his ecclesiastical spirit, who represent him as only an ambitious narrow-minded schemer.
The extremity of the peninsula is called Ras Mandia or Cape Africa - Africa being the name by which Mandia was designated by Froissart and other European historians during the middle ages and the Renaissance.
Some ecclesiastical historians have fondly imagined that after the sack of Rome the bishop Innocent returned to a position of predominance.
It is noteworthy that Rutilius speaks of the crime of Stilicho in terms far different from those used by Orosius and the historians of the lower empire.
The Christian historians assert that Stilicho designed to restore paganism.
It is held by some historians that there was at the time on the part of many of the Roman nobles a determination to raise themselves to power, despite the opposition of the senate; others with "greater probability maintain that Catiline's object was simply the cancelling of the huge debts which he and his friends had accumulated.
For after the death of himself and of his wives Buddhism gradually decayed, and was subjected by succeeding kings to cruel persecutions; and it was not till more than half a century afterwards, under King Kir Song de Tsan, who reigned 740-786, that true religion is acknowledged by the ecclesiastical historians to have become firmly established in the land.
According to very ancient traditions accepted by the modern historians of Bohemia, the Boii, whose capital was called Boiohemum, were weakened by continual warfare with neighbouring tribes, and finally subdued by the Teutonic tribe of the Marcomanni (about 12 B.C.).
Besides the writers of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, we meet at this period with three historians of merit.
One of the historians of the brotherhood, Wenceslas Bfezan, wrote a History of the House of Rosenberg, of which only the biographies of William and Peter of Rosenberg have been preserved.
Yet we must notice besides Comenius two other writers, both historians, whose works belong to a date later than 1620.
Francis Palacky (1798-1876) is undoubtedly the greatest of Bohemian historians.
And this is naturally true in an especial sense of the Roman historians; the long list of annalists begins at the moment when the great struggle with Carthage had for the first time brought Rome into direct connexion with the historic peoples of the ancient world, and when Romans themselves awoke to the importance of the part reserved for Rome to play in universal history.
The Roman historians, from Fabius Pictor to Tacitus, cared for none of these things.
She is much praised by historians for her modesty and prudence, and is said to have brought about by her example a considerable improvement in the morals of her nation.
He gathered round him distinguished literary men - philosophers, poets, and historians.
Die deutsche Philologie im Grundriss (1836) was at the time of its publication a valuable contribution to philological research, and historians of German literature still attach importance to his Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes bis auf Luther (1832; 3rd ed., 1861), Unsere volkstiimlichen Lieder (3rd ed., 1869) and Die deutschen Gesellschaftslieder des 16.
The criticism lavished on Cattley and Townsend's edition led to a new one (1846-1849) under the same editorship. A new text prepared by the Rev. Josiah Pratt was issued (1870) in the "Reformation Series" of the Church Historians of England, with a revised version of Townsend's Life and appendices giving copies of original documents.
At the same time, the Latin orators, historians and poets were venerated by him as depositories of a tradition only second in importance to revelation.
Sotion, Hermippus and Satyrus were historians rather than philosophers.
On the other hand, history the science has developed so that it has not only gained recognition among historians as a distinct subject, but it has raised with it a group of auxiliary sciences which serve either as tools for investigation or as a basis for testing the results.
Such family archives were perhaps the main source for Roman historians.
The first historians were the logographi of these Ionian cities;.
Unfortunately Polybius, like most modern scientific historians, was no artist.
It should be noted before we pass to Rome that with the expansion of Hellenism the subject of historians expanded as well.
But his gossip of the court became the model for historians, whose works, now lost, furnish the main source for the Historia Augusta.
But from Leibnitz until the 19th century German national historiography made little progress, - although church historians like Mosheim and Neander stand out among the greatest historians of all time.
France had not paralleled the activity of Maximilian's Renaissance historians.
Few of those in the audiences of Moliere, returning home under the grey walls of St Germaindes-Pres, knew that within that monastery the men whose midnight they disturbed were laying the basis for all scientific history; and few of the later historians of that age have been any wiser.
But when Luc d'Achery turned from exegetics to patristics and the lives of the saints, as a sort of Christian humanist, he led the way to that vast work of collection and comparison of texts which developed through Mabillon, Montfaucon, Ruinart, Martene, Bouquet and their associates, into the indispensable implements of modern historians.
Dom Bouquet's Historiens de la Gaule et de la France - the national repertory for French historians - is but one of a dozen tasks of similar magnitude.
But while there are foreshadowings of the evolutionary theory in this work, neither the philosophe historians nor Hume nor Gibbon arrived at a constructive principle in history which could take the place of the Providence they rejected.
Yet his challenge, not only to the theologian, but also to those "historians whose indolence of thought" or "natural incapacity" prevented them from attempting more than the annalistic record of events, called out a storm of protest from almost every side.
Among historians, however, Buckle's theory received but little favour for another generation.
Meanwhile the economists had themselves taken up the problem, and it was from them that the historians of to-day have learned it.
Historians no longer attempt to write world histories; they form associations of specialists for the purpose.
According to the German chronicle - which French historians doubt - the king of France declined the combat and fled from Ivois during the night.
Historians have sometimes confused her with Maud (or Matilda),the emperor Conrad II.'s daughter, to whom Henry was affianced in 1033, but who died before the marriage.
On the second day the issue was doubtful till, if we may trust the concurrent testimony of all the contemporary church historians, a sudden gust of wind blew back the enemy's arrows on themselves.
The chief authorities for the age of Theodosius are Ammianus Marcellinus, Zosimus, Eunapius and the ecclesiastical historians (Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret).
Ivan was made to distribute beakers of wine to his sister's adherents with his own hands, but subsequently, beneath the influence of his uncle Prozorovsky, he openly declared that "even for his sister's 1 Ivan V., if we count from the first grand duke of that name, as most Russian historians do; Ivan II., if, with the minority, we reckon from Ivan the Terrible as the first Russian tsar.
His philosophical treatises abound with incoherent formulae to which, according to their inventor, every demonstration in every science may be reduced, and posterity has ratified Bacon's disdainful verdict on Lull's pretensions as a thinker; still the fact that he broke away from the scholastic system has recommended him to the historians of philosophy, and the subtle ingenuity of his dialectic has compelled the admiration of men so far apart in opinion as Giordano Bruno and Leibniz.
The first of these historians was probably Cadmus of Miletus (who lived, if at all, in the early part of the 6th century), the earliest writer of prose, author of a work on the founding of his native city and the colonization of Ionia (so Suidas); Pherecydes of Leros, who died about 400, is generally considered the last.
The essentially practical character of his administration has led many historians to tax him with avarice, but later research on the fiscal system of the papacy of the period, particularly the joint work of Samaran and Mollat, enables us very sensibly to modify the severe judgment passed on John by Gregorovius and others.
Wells, Journal of Hellenic Studies (1905), p. 1 93 ff., who assigns the Argive expedition to the outset of the reign, whereas nearly all historians have dated it in or about 495 B.C.
From the 6th to the 12th century, wave after wave of barbarian conquerors, Goths, Tatars, Sla y s and others, passed over the country, and, according to one school of historians, almost obliterated its original Daco-Roman population; the modern Vlachs, on this theory, representing a later body of immigrants from Transdanubian territory.
Rumanian historians have striven, by Vlachs piecing together the stray fragments of evidence which survive, to prove that their Vlach ancestors had not, as sometimes alleged, been reduced to a scattered community of nomadic shepherds, dwelling among the Carpathians as the serfs of their more powerful neighbours.
The researches of HaSdeu, Xenopol and other historians tend to show the existence of a highly organized Vlach society in Transylvania, Oltland and certain districts of Hungary and Moldavia; of a settled commonalty, agricultural rather than pastoral; and of a hereditary feudal nobility, bound to pay tribute and render military service to the Hungarian crown, but enjoying many privileges, which were defined by a distinct customary law (jus valahicum) .
Radu dies in 1310, and is succeeded by a series of voivodes whose names and dates are duly given; but this early chapter of Walachian history has been rudely handled by critical historians.
His style shows an immense superiority to that of the previous historians.
The historians of the time under pressure of political exigencies did not scruple to invent treaties between the Porte and the Rumanian principalities.
Three historians had been partly educated in Rome under the protection of Prince Borgia and the influence of the Jesuit Minotto and the College of the Propaganda; they were Samuel Klain, Petru Maior and George Sincai.
Education was in the hands of rhetoricians and grammarians; historians were read for their style, not for their matter, and since the days of Tacitus, none had arisen worth a schoolmaster's notice.
They write as advocates rather than historians.