Hinduism was the state religion, and the number of Buddhists was very small.
But Hinduism, understood even in this wide sense, represents only one of many creeds and races found within Bengal.
They are Hindus, but their Hinduism is held to be of a non-Aryan type.
In the light of facts such as these, who could venture to say what the future of Hinduism is likely to be ?
The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.
Excrescence upon Hinduism, in so far as the bands of secret assassins were sworn together by an oath based on the rites of the bloody goddess Kali.
The noblest survivals of Buddhism in India are to be found, not among any peculiar body, but in the religion of the people; in that principle of the brotherhood of man, with the reassertion of which each new revival of Hinduism starts; in the asylum which the great Hindu sects afford to women who have fallen victims to caste rules, to the widow and the out-caste; in the gentleness and charity to all men, which takes the place of a poor-law in India, and gives a high significance to the half satirical epithet of the " mild " Hindu.
This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
His cult survived the metamorphosis of the ancient Vedic nature-worship into modern Hinduism, and there still are in India fire-priests (agnihotri) whose duty is to superintend his worship. The sacred fire-drill for procuring the temple-fire by friction - symbolic of Agni's daily miraculous birth - is still used.
Further, it is probably in the mixture of Greek, Persian and Indian deities which characterizes the pantheon of the Kushan kings that are to be sought many of the features found in Mahayanist Buddhism and Hinduism (as distinguished from the earlier Brahmanism).
The prevailing religion is Hinduism, 84% of the people being Hindus and only 6% Mahommedans.
In Hinduism the various implements of sacrifice are similarly personified and worshipped, especially the sacrificial post to which the victim is bound, and which, under the name of vanaspall and svaru, is deified and invoked.
Besides these matters which concerned Hinduism there was the problem of converting sixty million Mahommedans.
A counter reformation can also be traced which attempts to revive Hinduism by purging it of its grossness and allegorizing its fables and legends.
On the other hand there are various offshoots from orthodox Hinduism, the distinguishing feature of which, in their earlier history at least, is the obliteration of caste distinctions and the rejection of the Brahmanical hierarchy.
It is doubtful if Buddhism, and still more so if Jainism and Sikhism, all of which are commonly recognized as distinct religions, ever differed from Hinduism to a greater extent than did the tenets of the earlier followers of Chaitanya in Bengal or those of the Lingayats in Mysore; and yet these latter two are regarded only as sects of Hinduism.
The bewildering diversity of religious beliefs collected under the name of Hinduism has no counterpart amongst the Mahommedans, who are limited as to their main tenets by the teaching of a single book, the Koran.
But, though one may at times find it convenient to speak of "Brahmanism and Hinduism," it must be clearly understood that the distinction implied in the combination of these terms is an extremely vague one, especially from the chronological point of view.
The origin of this form of Hinduism is lost in antiquity, but it is probable that it represents a pre-Aryan religion, more or less modified in various parts of south India by Brahmanical influence.
Wilkins, Modern Hinduism (London, 1887); J.
Hinduism, which was once the religion of Java, but has been extinct there for four centuries, is still in vogue in the islands of Bali and Lombok, where the cruel custom of widow-burning (suttee) is still practised, and the Hindu system of the four castes, with a fifth or Pariah caste (called Chandala), adhered to.
For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.
In the islands of Bali and Lombok the people still profess a form of Hinduism, and Hindu remains are to be found in many other parts of the archipelago, though their traces do not extend to the peninsula.
Hinduism has now supplanted Buddhism, and the Brahman fills the place of the monk.
Impressed with the perversions and corruptions of popular Hinduism, Ram Mohan Roy investigated the Hindu Shastras, the Koran and the Bible, repudiated the polytheistic worship of the Shastras as false, and inculcated the reformed principles of monotheism as found in the ancient Upanishads of the Vedas.
His views were further defined in Christianity and Hinduism (Cambridge, 1856), an expansion of the Muir prize essay which he had won in 1848.
The next time (1014), he advanced to Thanesar, another noted stronghold of Hinduism,, between the Sutlej and the Jumna.
They are descended from Hindus of Sind and Kach, who were converted from Hinduism to the Ismaili form of the Shiah faith in the 15th century of the Christian era.
In this way both Buddhism (q.v.) and Jains have almost been swallowed up by Hinduism; Sikhism (q.v.) is only preserved by the military requirements of the British, and even the antagonism between Hindu and Mahommedan is much less acute than it used to be.
The classes most receptive of Christianity are those who are outside the Hindu system, or whom Hinduism regards as degraded.
In the Deccan their place is taken by Lingayats from the south, who again follow their own form of Hinduism, which is an heretical species of Siva worship. Throughout Mysore, and in the north of Madras, Lingayats are still found, but along the eastern sea-board the predominating classes of traders are those named Chetties and Komatis.
Buddhism 800) and modern Hinduism is the joint product of and Brahma both.
Its extinction is contemporaneous with the rise of Hinduism, and belongs to a subsequent part of this sketch.
18 79); Hinduism (London, 1877); Sir Alfred C. Lyall, Asiatic Studies '(2 series, London, 1899); "Hinduism" in Religious Systems of the World (London, 1904); "Brahminism" in Great Religions of the World (New York and London, 1902); W.
Robson, Hinduism and Christianity (Edinburgh and London, 3rd ed., 1905); J.
Murray Mitchell, Hinduism Past and Present (2nd ed., London, 1897); Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya, Hindu Castes and Sects (Calcutta, 1896); A.
Hinduism first made its encroachments among their kings and.
Hinduism has also impressed its language upon the province, and the vernacular Assamese possesses a close affinity to Bengali, with the substitution of s for the Bengali ch, of a guttural h for the Bengali h or sh, and a few other dialectic changes.
The conversion of their king Chuchengpha to Hinduism took place in the year A.D.
As in India, after the expulsion of Buddhism, the degrading worship of Siva and his dusky bride had been incorporated into Hinduism from the savage devil worship of Aryan and of non-Aryan tribes, so, as pure Buddhism died away in the north, the Tantra system, a mixture of magic and witchcraft and sorcery, was incorporated into the corrupted Buddhism.
His name does not occur in the Vedas, but in later Hinduism he is an important divinity.
The transition from this crude form of religion to popular Hinduism is comparatively easy.
HINDUISM, a term generally employed to comprehend the social institutions, past and present, of the Hindus who form the great majority of the people of India; as well as the multitudinous crop of their religious beliefs which has grown up, in the course of many centuries, on the foundation of the Brahmanical scriptures.
The Chinese travellers, Fa Hien in the 5th century, and Hsiian Tsang in the 7th century, found the Buddhist religion prevailing throughout Bengal, but already in a fierce struggle with Hinduism - a struggle which ended about the 9th or 10th century in the general establishment of the latter faith.
It seemed to meet the feeling of many educated natives whose faith in current Hinduism was undermined, but who were predisposed against any foreign religious influence.
Not only are his sayings proverbial: his doctrine actually forms the most powerful religious influence in present-day Hinduism; and, though he founded no school and was never known as a guru or master, but professed himself the humble follower of his teacher, Narhari-Das, 2 from whom as a boy in Sukar-khet he heard the tale of Rama's doings, he is everywhere accepted as an inspired and authoritative guide in religion and conduct of life.
In the Atharvaveda he is lord of life and death, and in later Hinduism one of the Hindu trinity, the god Siva.
The headquarters of Hinduism, the Ganges valley, was occupied by the Baptists, the Church Missionary Society and the London Missionary Society, these entering Benares in 1816, 1818 and 1820 respectively.
Cool, With the Dutch in the East (Amsterdam and London, 1897), in Dutch and English, is a narrative of the events sketched above, and contains many particulars about the folklore and dual religions of Lombok, which, with Bali, forms the last stronghold of Hinduism east of Java.
Such traces, introduced with Hinduism, are present in all the cultivated languages of Malaysia at the present day.
In fact the whole Samaj movement is as distinct a product of the contest of Hinduism with Christianity in the 19th century, as the Panth movement was of its contest with Islam 300 years earlier.
But despite the artificial character of the Trimurti, it has retained to this day at least its theoretical validity in orthodox Hinduism, whilst it has also undoubtedly exercised considerable influence in shaping sectarian belief, in promoting feelings of toleration towards the claims of rival deities; and in a tendency towards identifying divine figures newly sprung into popular favour with one or other of the principal deities, and thus helping to bring into vogue that notion of avatars, or periodical descents or incarnations of the deity, which has become so prominent a feature of the later sectarian belief.
Nanak was born in the province which then formed the borderland between Hinduism and Islam.
MonierWilliams, Brahmanism and Hinduism, iii.
In Gujarat the predominant religion is Hinduism, though petty Mahommedan kingdoms have left their influence in many parts of the province.
JAINS, the most numerous and influential sect of heretics, or nonconformists to the Brahmanical system of Hinduism, in India.