How to use Hind-wings in a sentence
The hind-wings, when developed, are characteristic in form, possessing a sub-costal nervure with which the reduced radial nervure usually becomes associated.
In many Carabidae the hind-wings are reduced or absent, and the elytra fused together along the suture.
Wing-covers and hind-wings are alike absent, and the latter are represented by a pair of little knobbed organs, the halteres or balancers, which have a controlling and directing function in flight.
Great diversity exists in the texture and functions of fore and hind-wings in different in sects; these differences are discussed in the descriptions of the various orders.
When wings are present, the fore-wings are small firm elytra, beneath which the delicate hind-wings are complexly folded.Advertisement
Forewings similar in shape and texture to hind-wings, which do not fold.
Wings usually developed; the fore-wings much larger than the hind-wings.
Fore-wings modified into firm elytra, beneath which the membranous hind-wings (when present) can be folded.
Fore-wings well developed; hind-wings reduced to stalked knobs (" halteres ").
The latter has established, for all the Palaeozoic insects, an order Palaeodictyoptera, there being a closer similarity between the fore-wings and the hind-wings than is to be seen in most living orders of Hexapoda, while affinities are shown to several of these orders - notably the Orthoptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Hemiptera.Advertisement
The Neuroptera, with their similar foreand hind-wings and their campodeiform larvae, seem to stand nearest to the presumed isopteroid ancestry, but the imago and larva are often specialized.
The order must therefore be ancient, and as no evidence is forthcoming as to the mode of reduction of the hind-wings, nor as to the stages by which the suctorial mouth-organs became specialized, it is difficult to trace the exact relationship of the group, but the presence of cerci and a degree of correspondence in the nervuration of the forewings suggest the Mecaptera as possible allies.
In the hind-wings - on account of their reduced size - the nervures are even more reduced than in the fore-wings.
The fore-wings are sometimes membranous like the hind-wings, usually they are firmer in texture, but they never show the distinct areas that characterize the wings of Heteroptera.
On the other hand, the reduced feelers, the numerous Malpighian tubes (40), the large complex eyes, the vestigial condition of the jaws, the excessive size of the fore-wings as compared with the hind-wings and their complex neuration with an enormous number of crossnervules are all specializations.Advertisement
The winged insects resemble the May-flies in their short feelers and in the large number (50 to 60) of their Malpighian tubes, but differ most strikingly from those insects in their strong wellarmoured bodies, their powerful jaws adapted for a predaceous manner of life, and the close similarity of the hind-wings to the forewings.
The curious Nemopteridae have slender feelers and very long strap-shaped hind-wings.
So are the tiny Coniopterygidae, which are covered with a white powdery secretion, and have very small hind-wings.
The underside of the hind wings is generally mottled green tho somewhat yellowish on the female.