Hind-limbs Sentence Examples
As a sub-order, the Paucituberculata are characterized by the presence of four pairs of upper and three of lower incisor teeth; the enlargement and forward inclination of the first pair of lower incisors, and the presence of four or five sharp cusps on the cheek-teeth, coupled with the absence of "syndactylism" in the hind limbs.
The broad molars are either bluntly tuberculated or transversely ridged; the outer side of the hind part of the lower jaw has a deep pocket; and the hind-limbs are generally very long, with the structure of the foot similar to that of the bandicoots.
The kangaroo and most of its congeners show an extraordinary disproportion of the hind limbs to the fore part of the body.
In the members of the typical genus Lemur, as well as in the allied Hapalemur and Lepidolemur, none of the toes or fingers are connected by webs, and all have the hind-limbs of moderate length, and the tail long.
The hind limbs appear as buds at the base of the tail, and gradually attain their full development during the tadpole life.Advertisement
Thus it has come to pass that the muscles of the hind limbs are, like their framework, more easily compared with those of reptiles and mammals than are the wings, whilst within the class of birds they show an enormous amount of variation in direct correlation with their manifold requirements.
Of the muscles of the hind-limbs likewise only a few can be mentioned.
Many of these birds, to judge from the enormous size of their hind-limbs, were undoubtedly flightless, e.g.
To these succeeded forms where the down had developed into body feathers for warmth, not flight, whilst the fore-limbs had become organs of prehension, the hind-limbs of progression.
The fore-limbs have four toes and a rudimentary thumb, all with claws; the hind limbs are larger, with five distinct toes, united by short webs at their bases.Advertisement
The pelvic girdle and the hind-limbs show the least reduction found in any recent snakes, ilia, pubes and ischia being still distinguishable, the last even retaining their symphysis, and there are small vestiges of the femurs.
There are no vestiges of hind-limbs or of the pelvis.
In the fore feet the three inner toes have large claws, while the two outer ones are rudimentary and clawless; in the hind-limbs the first toe is wanting, as in Megatherium, but the second and third are clawed.
The pelvis and hind-limbs much resemble those of a running bird, such as those of an emu or the extinct moa; but the basal bones (metatarsals) of the three-toed foot remain separate throughout life, thus differing from those of the running birds, which are firmly fused together even in the young adult.
Footprints prove that when on land it walked habitually on its hind-limbs.Advertisement
The hind limbs are very strong; the massive femur has a large pneumatic foramen; the tibia has a bony bridge on the anterior surface of the lower portion, a character in which the moas agree only with Apteryx amongst the other Ratitae.
Some have functional fore-limbs but mere vestiges of hind-limbs; in others this condition is reversed.
The vermiform body is covered with cycloid imbricating scales, devoid of osteoderms. Limbs and even their arches are absent, excepting a pair of flaps which represent the hind-limbs in the males.
Forelimbs absent; hind-limbs transformed into a pair of scale-covered flaps.
Lialis burtoni, of similar size and distribution, has the hind-limbs reduced to very small, narrow appendages.Advertisement
In size they may be compared with cats; the long slender limbs are connected by a broad fold of skin extending outwards from the sides of the neck and body, the fingers and toes are webbed, and the hind-limbs joined by an outer membrane as in bats.
The members of both Coelogenys and Dasyprocta are terrestrial in their habits, and have the foreand hind-limbs subequal, hoof-like claws,.
In the true cavies, or couies, Cavia, the foreand hind-limbs are short and of subequal length, the ears are short and there is no tail.
The family, Chinchillidae, typified by the wellknown chinchilla, includes a small number of South American rodents with large ears and proportionately great auditory bullae in the skull, elongated hind-limbs, bushy tails, very soft fur and perfect clavicles.
They are small rodents with complete clavicles, foreand hind-limbs of nearly equal length, no external tails and short ears.Advertisement
From the picas the hares and rabbits (Leporidae) are distinguished by the imperfect clavicles, the more or less elongated hind-limbs, short recurved tail (absent in one case) and generally long ears.
In colour the sides of the face are puce, and the neck and most of the body purplish, but the buttocks and upper part of both fore and hind limbs are transversely barred with black and white, while their lower portion is mainly white with black fetlock-rings, and in the front pair a vertical black stripe on the anterior surface.
In the forelimbs the bones corresponding to the third and fourth metacarpals of the pig's foot are fused into a cannon-bone; and a similar condition obtains in the case of the corresponding metatarsals in the hind-limbs.
The shoulders and fore-limbs are feebly developed, and the hind-limbs of disproportionate strength and magnitude, which give the animals a peculiarly awkward appearance when moving about on all-fours, as they occasionally do when feeding.
Rapid progression is, however, performed only by the powerful hind-limbs, the animals covering the ground by a series of immense bounds, during which the fore part of the body is inclined forwards, and balanced by the long, strong and tapering tail, which is carried horizontally backwards.
Hind-limbs very long and strongly made.
The muzzle is naked, the fur on the nape of the neck directed more or less completely forward, and the hind-limbs are less disproportionately elongated.
The hind-limbs are comparatively feeble, and must have been of very little use for walking.
They have elongated hind-limbs and long hairy tails; and progress by leaps, in the same manner as jerboas, from which they differ in having five hind-toes.
The fore-limbs may, however, be modified, as in moles, for burrowing, or, as in bats, for flight, or finally, as in whales and dolphins, for swimming, with the assumption in this latter instance of a flipper-like form and the complete disappearance of the hind-limbs.
Below the carpal and tarsal joints, the fore and hind limbs correspond almost exactly in structure as well as function.
Among these may be mentioned the hairy frog of West Africa, Trichobatrachus robustus, some specimens of which have the sides of the body and of the hind limbs covered with long villosities, the function of which is unknown, and its ally Gampsosteonyx batesi, in which the last phalanx of the fingers and toes is sharp, claw-like and perforates the skin.
In most of the Caudata, the eggs are deposited singly in the axils of water plants or on leaves which the female folds over the egg with her hind limbs.
Seals either use no limbs for moving on land or solely their front flippers, using their hind limbs for swimming.
In fact, its strong hind limbs suggest it normally walked on two legs with its tail held aloft.
The parachute is supported by a cartilage attached to the wrist or carpus; in addition to the lateral membrane, there is a narrow one from the cheek along the front of each shoulder to the wrist, and in the larger species a third (interfemoral) connecting the hind-limbs with the base of the long tail.
Vestiges of the pelvis and hind-limbs are small, but they terminate in claw-like spurs which protrude FIG.
The hind-limbs are elongated, with four toes, of which the metatarsals are separate; the tibia and fibula are welded in old age; the calcaneum and astragalus of the tarsus are elongated; and there is a perforation on the inner side of the lower end of the humerus (see Jumping-Hare).
Its more immediately striking characteristics are a wasting of the leg muscles - in beasts the hind limbs.