In the reign of Hezekiah, the kingdom of Judah became tributary to the Assyrians, who attempted the capture of Jerusalem.
Hezekiah improved the defences and arranged for a good water supply, preparatory to the siege by Sennacherib, the Assyrian general.
sqq.), Hezekiah (2 Chron.
When Aaron himself is connected with the worship of the golden calf, and when to Moses is attributed a brazen serpent which the reforming king Hezekiah was the first to destroy, it is evident that religious conceptions developed in the course of ages.
In all probability the reformation instituted in the reign of Hezekiah, to which 2 Kings xviii.
This falls into three equal divisions, of which the first ends with Jehoash's temple-reforms and the second with Hezekiah's death.
Hezekiah and Sennacherib (xviii.
Under his son Hezekiah there were fresh disturbances in the southern states, and anti-Assyrian intrigues began to take a more definite shape among the Philistine cities.
Hezekiah was besieged and compelled to submit (70r).
If the impression left upon current thought can be estimated from certain of the utterances of the court-prophet Isaiah and the Judaean countryman Micah, the light which these throw upon internal conditions must also be used to gauge the real extent of the religious changes ascribed to Hezekiah.
From the standpoint of the popular religion, the removal of the local altars, like Hezekiah's destruction of the brazen serpent, would be an act of desecration, an iconoclasm which can be partly appreciated from the sentiments of 2 Kings xviii.
The account of Josiah's work, like that of Hezekiah, is written by one of the Deuteronomic school: that is to say, the writer describes the promulgation of the teaching under which he lives.
The period under review, with its relations between Judah and Egypt, can be illustrated by prophecies ascribed to a similar situation in the time of Hezekiah.
- After the departure of Caesar, Antipater warned the adherents of Hyrcanus against taking part in any revolutionary attempts, and his son Herod, who, in spite of his youth, had been appointed governor of Galilee, dealt summarily with Hezekiah, the robber captain who was overrunning the adjacent part of Syria.
Elsewhere the occasion tempted many to play at being king - Judas, son of Hezekiah, in Galilee; Simon, one of the king's slaves, in Peraea.
Hezekiah (c. 1040) was the last Babylonian exilarch, though the title left its traces in later ages.
The same heading already referred to gives us our only traditional information as to the period during which Isaiah prophesied; it refers to Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah as the contemporary kings.
His campaign against Hezekiah of Judah was as much a failure as his policy in Babylonia, and in his murder by his sons on the 10th of Tebet 681 B.C. both Babylonians and Jews saw the judgment of heaven.
Testament of Hezekiah.
24 sqq.), and even to Moses himself was attributed the bronze-serpent whose cult at Jerusalem was destroyed in the time of Hezekiah (2 Kings xviii.
The editorial title of the book of Micah declares that Micah prophesied "in the days of Jotham (739-734), Ahaz (733-721) and Hezekiah (720-693), kings of Judah."
This prophetic activity of Micah under Hezekiah is confirmed by the direct statement of Jer.
17 seq., both directly, in the recorded effect on Hezekiah and the people; and indirectly, in the fact that the impression created was remembered a century afterwards.
9), and this was the judgment which Hezekiah's repentance averted.
1 does not cover a prophecy which certainly falls after Hezekiah's death, and the style has nothing in common with the earlier part of the book.
The larger plaques are richly ornamented with emeralds and sapphires, and the smaller plaques have each an enamelled figure of Our Lord, David, Solomon, and Hezekiah respectively.
Farther south came the turn of Ascalon, Lachish and Libnah; Judah under " Hezekiah suffered severely, and its western cities were transferred to the faithful vassals of Ekron, Ashdod and Gaza.
The immediate subsequent events are obscure (see further Hezekiah).
to all honest leaders in State, as well as in Church, as it was in Israel when a king like Hezekiah restored the Covenant and then set about enforcing obedience to it.
His subsequent works were dissertations on the origin of alphabetical writing (Die Erfindung der Buchstabenschrift, 1801), on the antiquity of the Codex Vaticanus (1810), and on ancient mythology (Ober den Mythos der alten Volker, 1812); a new interpretation of the Song of Solomon (Das hohe Lied in einer noch unversuchten Deutung, 1813), to the effect that the lover represents King Hezekiah, while by his beloved is intended the remnant left in Israel after the deportation of the ten tribes; and treatises on the indissoluble character of the matrimonial bond (De conjugii christiani vinculo indissolubili commentatio exegetica, 1816) and on the Alexandrian version of the Pentateuch (1818).
2); it has changed Hezekiah's submission (2 Kings xviii.) into a brave resistance (2 Chron.
Similarly, Hezekiah's reforms are dated in his first year (2 Chron.
3), against all probability; see Hezekiah (end).
8-15, 18 seq.); reforms of Hezekiah (2 Chron.
Its various constituents, however, and of these there were three - the Martyrdom of Isaiah, the Testament of Hezekiah and the Vision of Isaiah - circulated independently as early as the 1st century.
The Vision of Isaiah is important for the knowledge it affords us of 1st-century beliefs in certain circles as to the doctrines of the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection, the Seven Heavens, &c. The long lost Testament of Hezekiah, which is, in the opinion of R.
The book was written in Greek, though not improbably the middle portion, the Testament of Hezekiah, was originally composed in Semitic. The Greek in its original form, which we may denote by G, is lost.
(ii.) The Testament of Hezekiah =iii.
We may, in short, put this complex matter as follows: The conditions of the problem are sufficiently satisfied by supposing a single editor, who had three works at his disposal, the Martyrdom of Isaiah, of Jewish origin, and the Testament of Hezekiah and the Vision of Isaiah, of Christian origin.
(b) The Testament of Hezekiah was written between A.D.
vi.) having reference to the condition of Judah and Israel, and the movements of the Assyrians during the reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah.
with the addition of Hezekiah's song (xxxviii.
If these dates are correct, there must be some error in the ages assigned to Ahaz and Hezekiah at their accession, viz.
The date 728 for Hezekiah's accession rests upon the assumption that of the two inconsistent dates in 2 Kings xviii.
10 (which places the fall of Samaria in Hezekiah's 6th year) is correct; but some scholars (as Wellhausen, Kamphausen, and Stade) suppose that the date in ver.
10 (which places Sennacherib's invasion in Hezekiah's 14th year) is correct, and assign accordingly Hezekiah's accession to 715.
But when we proceed to add up similarly the regnal years in the two kingdoms from the division after Solomon's death to the fall of Samaria in the sixth year of Hezekiah (2 Kings xviii.
It never passed for long into Israelite hands, though subject for a while to Hezekiah of Judah; from him it passed to Assyria.
From Assyrian inscriptions it has been gathered that Padi, king of Ekron, was for a time the vassal of Hezekiah of Judah, but regained his independence when the latter was hard pressed by Sennacherib.
Even Moses himself is said to have made a brazen serpent which, down to Hezekiah's time, continued to be worshipped at Jerusalem.
The "Nehushtan" broken in pieces under Hezekiah (2 Kings xviii.
Hezekiah's time may have been selected by the author of the title (or by the tradition which he represents) as being the next great literary period in Judah after Solomon, the time of Micah and Isaiah, or the selection may have been suggested by the military glory of the period (the repulse of the Assyrian army) and by the fame of Hezekiah as a pious monarch and a vigorous reformer of the national religion.
But to regard Hezekiah as a Jewish Pisistratus is to ascribe to the time a literary spirit of which the extant documents give no hint; the literature of the age was wholly occupied with the past history, the religious conditions and the political fortunes of the nation, subjects alien to the book of Proverbs.
The object, however, was no temporary device; centuries later, 250 years after the founding of the temple of Jerusalem, the Brazen Serpent was regarded as unorthodox by the reforming king Hezekiah, and the historian who relates its overthrow ascribes its origin to the founder of Israelite national religion (2 Kings xviii.
Next in date amongst Semitic records of the Phoenician type to the bowl of Baal-Lebanon and the Moabite stone comes the Hebrew inscription found in the tunnel at the Pool of Siloam in 1881, which possibly dates back to the reign of Hezekiah (700 B.C.).
3 Sennacherib completely routed them at Eltekeh (a Danite city), and thence turned against Hezekiah, who had been in league with Ekron and had imprisoned its king Padi, an Assyrian vassal.
Hezekiah was imprisoned "like a bird in a cage" 4 - to quote Sennacherib, and the Urbi (Arabian?} troops in Jerusalem laid down their arms. Thirty talents of gold, eight hundred of silver, precious stones, couches and seats of ivory - "all kinds of valuable treasure", - the ladies of the court, male and female attendants (perhaps "singers") were carried away to Nineveh.
Marduk)- Baladan sent his embassy to Hezekiah is disputed.
youthful Hezekiah at his succession or is to be associated with the later widespread attempt to remove the Assyrian yoke.'
The brief account of the Assyrian invasion, Hezekiah's submission, and the payment of tribute in 2 Kings xviii.
2 This thoroughly historical fragment is followed by two narratives which tell how the king sent an official from Lachish to demand the submission of Hezekiah and conclude with the unexpected deliverance of Jerusalem.
It is not certain whether Hezekiah's conflict with the Philistines as far as Gaza or his preparations to secure for Jerusalem a good water supply (xviii.
idolatry (necromancy, tree-worship) which the contemporary prophets denounce, do not support the view that the apparently radical reforms of Hezekiah were extensive or permanent, and Jer.
Hezekiah was succeeded by his Son Manasseh.
Here, with Manning as president and Hezekiah Smith (1737-1805), his class-mate at Princeton, as financial agent and influential supporter, the institution (since 1804 known as Brown University) was for many years the only degree-conferring institution controlled by Baptists.
Hezekiah Smith was a highly successful evangelist, and through his labours scores of churches were constituted in New England.
3 On the events that followed see Ahaz; Hezekiah; Philistines.
The Rabbi HILLEL, who in the 4th century made the remarkable declaration that Israel need not expect a Messiah, because the promise of a Messiah had already been fulfilled in the days of King Hezekiah (Babli, Sanhedrin, 99a), is probably Hillel, the son of Samuel ben Nahman, a well-known expounder of the scriptures.
Brandt), in which the date of the Deuteronomic law book is placed earlier than in his book on the legislation of Moses - shortly before or at the beginning of the reign of Hezekiah; and his Alttestamentliche Theologie (1889, ed.
14) to his great-grandfather Hezekiah, who may, in spite of 2 Kings xx.
Ahaz was succeeded by his son Hezekiah.
In spite of his youth he soon found an opportunity of displaying his mettle; for he arrested Hezekiah the arch-brigand, who had overrun the Syrian border, and put him to death.
Herod was cited in the name of Hyrcanus to appear before the Sanhedrin, whose prerogative he had usurped in executing Hezekiah.
4, continued down to the time of Hezekiah.
Hezekiah Linthicum Bateman >>
11 This petty prince, therefore, sees no harm in having a band of Arabians for his garrison, as indeed Hezekiah long afterwards had his Urbi to help him against Sennacherib.
B.C.), son of Hezekiah, and king of Judah (2 Kings xxi.
Ashdod, Ammon, Moab and Edom now submitted, but Hezekiah of Judah with the dependent Philistine princes.
of Ashkelon and Ekron defied the Assyrian army, trusting to the fortifications of Jerusalem and Egyptian help. Hezekiah, however, was forced to restore the anti-Jewish Padi to the government of Ekron, from which he had been removed by the Jewish party, and, after the defeat of his Egyptian allies at Eltekeh, to see his country wasted with fire and sword, forty-six fortresses being taken and 200,150 persons carried into captivity.
reformation of religion in the reign of King Hezekiah.
tithing organized by Hezekiah, according to the Chronicler.
Smith was fortunate to meet Hezekiah Burkitt, a knowledgeable black man, who taught him secrets of the fur trapper trade.
It seems Hezekiah was at first a faithful vassal of the Assyrians whom he assisted.
Hezekiah had to set Padi of Ekron free and he was reinstalled as an Assyrian vassal.
2 In the composite work Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah (dating after the post-exilic Levitical legislation) a peculiar interest is taken in the Levites, more particularly in the singers, and certain passages even reveal With this development in Israelite religion, observe that Judaean cult included the worship of a brazen serpent, the institution of which was ascribed to Moses, and that, according to the compiler of Kings, Hezekiah was the first to destroy it when he suppressed idolatrous worship in Judah (2 Kings xviii.
13) during which Hezekiah endeavoured to make terms with him: the campaign is commemorated by bas-reliefs found in Nineveh, now in the British Museum (see G.
These events are related in Sennacherib's inscription; the biblical records preserve their own traditions (see Hezekiah).
The action of the Sanhedrin and the presence of the women suppliants in the Temple suggest, if the y do not prove, that this Hezekiah who harassed the Syrians was a Jewish patriot, who could not acquiesce and wait with Sameas.
The male and female singers (if the reading be correct) whom Sennacherib carried off from Jerusalem in Hezekiah's time, may well have belonged to an old foundation (A.
xxx., Hezekiah; xxxv.
1-8 may preserve a tradition of the account of the city's wonderful deliverance mentioned in _Kings (see Hezekiah), and the details of the invasion of Judah in the time of Joash differ essentially from those in the earlier source.
It was also known as the Vision of Isaiah and finally as the Testament of Hezekiah (see Charles, The Ascension of Isaiah, pp. xii.-xv.).
Reducing now both the Assyrian and Biblical dates to a common standard, 2 and adopting for the latter the computations of Ussher, we obtain the following singular series of discrepancies: Manifestly all the Biblical dates earlier than 733-732 B.C. are too high, and must be considerably reduced: the two events, also, in Hezekiah's reign-the fall of Samaria and the invasion of Sennacherib-which the compiler of the book of Kings treats as separated by an interval of eight years, were separated in reality by an interval of twenty-one years.4 1 See George Smith, The Assyrian Eponym Canon (1875), pp. 2 9 ff., 57 ff.; Schrader, Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek (transcriptions and translations of Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions), i.
i (" These are proverbs of Solomon, that the men of Hezekiah king of Judah transcribed ") is too circumstantial to be merely a late tradition or scribal guess.
Judah, towards the close of the 8th century, was obviously very closely bound up with Philistia, Edom and Egypt; and this and Hezekiah's dealings with the anti-Assyrian party at Ekron do not indicate that any feeling of national exclusiveness, or any abhorrence of the 4 W.
5 It is commonly believed that Hezekiah constructed the conduit of Siloam, famous for its Hebrew inscription (see Inscriptions, Jerusalem).
I, Hezekiah was a patron of literature (see PROVERBS).
ii.), the prayer of Habakkuk (iii.), the prayer of Hezekiah (Isaiah xxxviii.) and other similar Old Testament passages, and, from the New Testament, the Magnificat, the Benedictus and the Nunc dimittis, are admitted as psalms.
Micah 's preaching brought about a reformation of religion in the reign of King Hezekiah.
Joshua 12.9 Back to top Jerimoth was an assistant of Conaniah; overseer of the tithing organized by Hezekiah, according to the Chronicler.
During the reign of Sargon II, Hezekiah continued to accept Judah 's vassal status.
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