The gigantic enemies were defeated and consigned to Tartarus, at the gates of which the three brothers were placed (Hesiod, Theog.
EREBUS, in Greek mythology, son (according to Hesiod, Theog.
But this genealogy, though it is attributed to Hesiod, is apparently post-Homeric; and it is clear that the Ionian name had independent and varied uses and meanings in very early times.
His name does not occur in Homer or Hesiod, but he was known in the time of Ibycus (c. 530 B.C.), and Pindar (522-442 B.C.) speaks of him as " the father of songs."
These poems were recited at rhapsodic contests together with those of Homer and Hesiod, and Orphic hymns were used in the Eleusinian mysteries.'
Creuzer's first and most famous work was his Symbolik and Mythologie der alten V dlker, besonders der Griechen (1810-1812), in which he maintained that the mythology of Homer and Hesiod came from an Eastern source through the Pelasgians, and was the remains of the symbolism of an ancient revelation.
This work was vigorously attacked by Hermann in his Briefen fiber Homer and Hesiod, and in his letter, addressed to Creuzer, Ober das Wesen and die Behandlung der Mythologie; by J.
In Hesiod (W.
Scanty information on its agriculture is to be derived from the Works and Days of Hesiod (about the 8th century B.C.), the Oeconomicus of Xenophon (4th century B.C.), the History of Plants and the Origin of Plants of Theophrastus (4th century B.C.).
Besides early work on Aristophanes, Pindar, and Sappho, whose character he vindicated, he edited Alcman (1815), Hipponax (1817), Theognis (1826) and the Theogony of Hesiod (1865), and published a Sylloge epigrammatum Graecorum (Bonn, 1828).
Although mentioned in Hesiod and the Odyssey, he is rather a post-Homeric hero.
Xenophanes in the middle of the 6th century had made the first great attack on the crude mythology of early Greece, including in his onslaught the whole anthropomorphic system enshrined in the poems of Homer and Hesiod.
and ix.), but they are mentioned by Hesiod (Works and Days, 168) and Pindar (01.
According to Hesiod (Theog.
Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch's contemporary, declares that neither Homer nor Hesiod sang of the chariot and horses of Zeus so worthily as Zoroaster, of whom the Persians tell that, out of love to wisdom and righteousness, he withdrew himself from men, and lived in solitude upon a mountain.
Hephaestus (or Prometheus) subsequently split open his head with a hatchet, and Athena sprang forth fully armed, uttering a loud shout of victory (Hesiod, Theogony, 886; Pindar, Olympia, vii.
She already appears as the goddess of counsel (iroXv)30vXos) in the Iliad and in Hesiod.
As Such she appears in Homer and Hesiod and in post-Homeric legend as the slayer of the Gorgon and taking part in the battle of the giants.
Hesiod has three Fates (Moipac), daughters of Night, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos.
5, speaks of "mare-milkers," and Hesiod, ap. Strabo vii.
Hesiod, Works and Days, 41; Pliny, Nat.
499, and elsewhere) and in Hesiod (Works and Days, 338), there is some uncertainty whether they were incense offerings at all, and if so, whether they were ever offered alone, and not always in conjunction with animal sacrifices.
Descriptions of ploughs found in Hesiod's Works and Days and in Virgil's Georgics i.
In Hesiod it is chiefly confined to those who fought before Troy and Thebes; in view of their supposed divine origin, he calls them demi-gods (µLO€ot).
But neither in Homer nor in Hesiod is there any trace of the idea that the heroes after death had any power for good or evil over the lives of those who survived them; and consequently, no cult.
Greek cosmogonies (the orientalism of which is clear) will be found in Hesiod, Theog.
14, ix, to, II, 17; Hesiod, Shield, 1-56; Pindar, Pythia, ix.
In Hesiod (Theogony, 1013) he is the son of Odysseus and Circe, and ruler of the Tyrsenians; in Virgil, the son of Faunus and the nymph Marica, a national genealogy being substituted for the Hesiodic, which probably originated from a Greek source.
He is acquainted with the poems of the epic cycle, the Cypria, the Epigoni, &c. He quotes or otherwise shows familiarity with the writings of Hesiod, Olen, Musaeus, Bacis, Lysistratus, Archilochus of Paros, Alcaeus, Sappho, Solon, Aesop, Aristeas of Proconnesus, Simonides of Ceos, Phrynichus, Aeschylus and Pindar.
Meteorological phenomena seated more directly in the atmosphere obtained early recognition; thus Hesiod, in his Works and Days, speculated on the origin of winds, ascribing them to the heating effects of the sun on the air.
Personified, Oceanus is in Hesiod (Theog.
PANDORA (the "All-giving") in Greek mythology, according to Hesiod (Theog.
In what appears to be a very early development of her character, Aphrodite also was a war goddess, known under the name of Areia; and in Thebes, the most important seat of the worship of Ares, she is his wife, and bears him Eros and Anteros, Deimos and Phobos, and Harmonia, wife of Cadmus, the founder of the city (Hesiod, Theog.
He also edited Hesiod and Pindar, Euripides and Aristophanes, besides composing brief introductions to the several plays, parts of which are still extant.
The Alexandrian canon of the Greek classics, which probably had its origin in the lists drawn up by Callimachus, Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus, included the following authors: Epic poets (5): Homer, Hesiod, Peisander, Panyasis, Antimachus.
In the time of Photius the poets usually studied at school were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar; certain select plays of Aeschylus (Prometheus, Septem and Persae), Sophocles (Ajax, Electra and Oedipus Tyrannus), and Euripides (Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenissae, and, next to these, Alcestis, Andromache, Hippolytus, Medea, Rhesus, Troades,) also Aristophanes (beginning with the Plutus), Theocritus, Lycophron, and Dionysius Periegetes.
The Greek authors were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar and the dramatists, with Herodotus, Xenophon and Plato, Isocrates and Demosthenes, Plutarch and Arrian.
The text-books to be used at Harrow in 1590 included Hesiod and some of the Greek orators and historians.
Isocrates, Plato, Thucydides, Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Gregory of Nazianzus, Basil and Chrysostom.
Lastly, his Mouseion (a word of doubtful meaning) contained the narrative of the contest between Homer and Hesiod, two fragments of which are found in the 'Agon `Omerou Kai `Esiodou, the work of a grammarian in the time of Hadrian.
Hesiod, Theogony, 214; Lucian, Hermotimus, 20, and especially Deorum Concilium; Philostratus, Epistolae, 37.
Arrived in heaven, Pegasus served Zeus, fetching for him his thunder and lightning (Hesiod, Theog.
In Hesiod she was the last of the nine sisters, but yet enjoyed a supremacy over the others.
The Greek myth (Hesiod, Works and Days, 90) alleged that mortals lived "without ill diseases that give death to men" till the cover was lifted from the box of Pandora.
32) states that they were mentioned in Hesiod and in the Epigoni, an epic of the Theban cycle.
The Greek word is used by Homer as a personal epithet, and by Hesiod for the hard metal in armour, while Theophrastus applies it to the hardest crystal.
As ferryman of the dead he is not mentioned in Homer or Hesiod, and in this character is probably of Egyptian origin.
His name is probably connected with the "triple ploughing" (Tpis, 7roXEiv), recommended in Hesiod's Works and Days and celebrated at an annual festival.
He also lectured upon Hesiod, Anacreon and Pindar, if he did not publish editions of them.
In Hesiod (Theogony, 264) they are the three sons of Uranus and Gaea - Brontes, Steropes and Arges, - storm-gods belonging to the family of the Titans, who furnished Zeus with thunder and lightning out of gratitude for his having released them from Tartarus.
270) and Hesiod (Theog.
Grashof, Ober das Fuhrwerk bei Homer and Hesiod (1846); W.
He is not mentioned in Homer or Hesiod.
It is noticeable that there is no mention of these Heraclidae or their invasion in Homer or Hesiod.
53) maintains that Hesiod and Homer lived not more than 400 years 1 This article was thoroughly revised by Dr D.
The extant lives of Homer (edited in Westermann's Vitarum Scriptores Graeci minores) are eight in number, including the piece called the Contest of Hesiod and Homer.
The importance of Boeotia for Greek civilization is further shown by the ancient worship of the Muses on Mount Helicon, and the fact that the oldest poet whose birthplace was known was the Boeotian Hesiod.
The use of that dialect (instead of Aeolic) by the Boeotian poet Hesiod, in a kind of poetry which was not of the Homeric type, tends to the conclusion that the literary ascendancy of the epic dialect was anterior to the Iliad and Odyssey, and independent of the influence exercised by these poems.
The brief notice in Hesiod (Theog.
According to Suidas, he also wrote a treatise on the poetry of Hesiod and Homer.
53) tried to trace the origin of the beliefs around him, he found his way back to an age before Hesiod or Homer, when the gods were nameless.
4 The Hellenic polytheism of Homer and Hesiod is already at work upon similar ideas, and a whole group of mythic personifications slowly rises into view representing different phases of the same fundamental conception.
Next, Hesiod supplies a significant biography.
Hesiod also mentions (W.
144), "that the first borrowers must have been for the most part men driven to this necessity by the pressure of want, and contracting debt as a desperate resource without any fair prospect of ability to pay; debt and famine run together in the mind of the poet Hesiod.
Among his other productions was an edition of Hesiod's Works and Days, with valuable notes, and a translation in terza rima.
It remained for Zeno to carry this to a much greater extent and to seek out or invent " natural principles " (Xbyoc and moral ideas in all the legends and in the poetry of Homer and Hesiod.
The whole book is a queer mixture of Hellenism and Hebraism, in which the same method of allegory is applied to Homer and Hesiod as to Moses.
She is not mentioned in the Iliad or the Odyssey, but in Hesiod (Theogony, 409) she is the daughter of the Titan Perses and Asterie, in a passage which may be a later interpolation by the Orphists (for other genealogies see Steuding in Roscher's Lexikon).
Mention may also be made of the following: Hecataeus of Miletus (550-476); Acusilaus of Argos, 2 who paraphrased in prose (correcting the tradition where it seemed necessary) the genealogical works of Hesiod in the Ionic dialect; he confined his attention to the prehistoric period, and made no attempt at a real history; Charon of Lampsacus (c. 450), author of histories of Persia, Libya, and Ethiopia, of annals (a)pot) of his native town with lists of the prytaneis and archons, and of the chronicles of Lacedaemonian kings; Xanthus of Sardis in Lydia (c. 450), author of a history of Lydia, one of the chief authorities used by Nicolaus of Damascus (II.
In Homer, notwithstanding the frequent mention of the use of wine, Dionysus is never mentioned as its inventor or introducer, nor does he appear in Olympus; Hesiod is the first who calls wine the gift of Dionysus.
In the oldest usage BEoX6yoc were those who dealt in myths, like Hesiod and like the supposed Orpheus, the OeoX6yos par excellence.
Hesiod increases the number of Gorgons to threeStheno (the mighty), Euryale (the far-springer) and Medusa (the queen), and makes them the daughters of the sea-god Phorcys and of Keto.
Their home is on the farthest side of the western ocean; according to later authorities, in Libya (Hesiod, Theog.
In Greek mythology the most famous sphinx was that of Thebes in Boeotia, first mentioned by Hesiod (Theog.
672; Hesiod, Theog.
2 A people so curious and refined as the Greeks were certain to be greatly perplexed by even such comparatively pure mythical narratives as they found in Homer, still more by the coarser legends of Hesiod, and above all by the ancient local myths preserved by local priesthoods.
As the ancestors of the Greeks, with the Aryans of India, the Egyptians, and others advanced in civilization, their religious thought was shocked and surprised by myths (originally dating from the period of savagery, and natural in that period) which were preserved down to the time of Pausanias by local priesthoods, or which were stereotyped in the ancient poems of Hesiod and Homer, or in the Brahmanas and Vedas of India, or were retained in the popular religion of Egypt.
Another Homeric child of Zeus, or, according to Hesiod (Th.
of primogeniture, while Hesiod is all for the opposite and probably earlier custom of Jiingsten-recht, and makes supreme Zeus the youngest of the sons of Cronus.
From Hesiod we receive a much more elaborate - probably a more ancient, certainly a more barbarous - story of the gods and their origin.
In the beginning the gods (here used in a wide sense to denote an early non-natural race) were begotten by Earth and Heaven, conceived of as beings with human parts and passions (Hesiod, Theog.
Hesiod enumerates the children whom Earth bore " when couched in love with Heaven."
The system of Hesiod is a medley of later physical speculation and of poetic allegory, with matter which we, at least, regard as savage survivals, like the mutilation of Heaven and the swallowmyth.'
Very much later the name was mistaken for a genuine patronymic, In Homer and in Hesiod myths enter the region of literature, and become, as it were, national.
The story is also quoted by Lactantius from Hesiod.
In the Greek myth (Hesiod, Works and Days, 90), men lived without " ill diseases that give death to men " till the cover was lifted from the forbidden box of Pandora.
Stories of the theft of Prometheus are recorded by Hesiod, Aeschylus, and their commentators.
Astrological considerations likewise already regulated in ancient Babylonia the distinction of lucky and unlucky days, which passing down to the Greeks and Romans (dies fasti and nefasti) found a striking expression in Hesiod's Works and Days.
5.10; Hesiod, Theogony, 287; Diod.
His grammatical works are: a commentary on the Works and Days of Hesiod (incomplete); some scholia on Homer; an elementary treatise on the epistolary style, IIEpl E7rurroXLµaiov xapaKT17Aos (Characteres epistolici), attributed in some MSS.
Westermann (1856), Scholia to Hesiod in E.
One of the earliest examples of Greek literature extant, the Theogonia of Hesiod (c. Boo B.C.), appears to be a curious blending of Hellenic and Phoenician thought.
He is not mentioned in Homer; in Hesiod (Theog.
The pedigree and early exploits of Prometheus are given by Hesiod (Theog.
In wrath at this trick, according to Hesiod, or in other versions for the purpose of exterminating the remnants of people who escaped the deluge of Deucalion, Zeus never bestowed, or later withdrew, the gift of fire.
The poet Hesiod tells a fable of Zeus creating a race of bronze men from Ashes.
Homer leaves the question unanswered; Hesiod (cf.
IRIS, in Greek mythology, daughter of Thaumas and the Ocean nymph Electra (according to Hesiod), the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods.
According to Hesiod (Theogony, 215) they were the daughters of Erebus and Night; in later accounts, of Atlas and Hesperis, or of Phorcys and Ceto (schol.
It is as a corn-goddess that Demeter appears in Homer and Hesiod, and numerous epithets from various sources (see Bruchmann, Epitheta Deorum, supplement to Roscher's Lexikon, i.
(b) One of the primary meanings of csai,ucav is that of genius or familiar, tutelary spirit; according to Hesiod the men of the golden race became after death guardians or watchers over mortals.
Even so Homer and Hesiod attributed to the gods all that is a shame and a reproach among men - theft, adultery, deceit and other lawless acts..
LETHE (" Oblivion"), in Greek mythology, the daughter of Eris (Hesiod, Theog.
In the university of Paris, which was originally opposed to this innovation, the statutes of 1598 prescribed the study of Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Theocritus, Plato, Demosthenes and Isocrates (as well as the principal Latin classics), and required the production of three exercises in Greek or Latin in each week.
In literature, from the times of Homer and Hesiod, she played an important part, appearing most frequently as the jealous and resentful wife of Zeus.
BOOTES (Gr.) 30wrns, a ploughman, from soils, an ox), a constellation of the northern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.), and perhaps alluded to in the book of Job (see Arcturus), and by Homer and Hesiod.
Again, there are the numerous works attributed to Hesiod and other 1 Contemporary Review, vol.
Homer calls the God of the lower world Zeus KaraxOovcos, 6 and the title of Zeus XOovcos which was known to Hesiod, occurred in the worship of Corinth;';' and there is reason to believe that Eubouleus of Eleusis and Trophonius of Lebadeia are faded forms of the nether Zeus; in the Phrygian religion of Zeus, which no doubt contains primitive Aryan elements, we find the Thunder-God associated also with the nether powers.8 A glimpse into a very old stratum of Hellenic religion is afforded us by the records of Dodona.
Hesiod expands the Homeric phrase and calls Dodona "seat of Pelasgians" (fr.
In his "philanthropic fashion," Prometheus stole fire, concealed in a hollow fennel stalk (Hesiod, Op. et Di.), and a fennel stalk is still used in the Greek islands as a means of carrying a light (cf.
His career may be studied in Hesiod; in the splendid Prometheus vinctus of Aeschylus, with the scholia; in Heyne's Apollodorus; in the excursus (I) of Schi zius to the Aeschylean drama, and in the frequently quoted work of Kuhn.
There are two sources that are imperative to consult concerning the accounts of the mythological gods - Homer's Iliad and Hesiod's Theogony.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.