Herod Philip >>
Archelaus, Herod's successor, had far less authority than Herod, and the real power of government at Jerusalem was assumed by the Roman procurators, in the time of one of whom, Pontius Pilate, Jesus Christ was condemned to death and crucified outside Jerusalem.
Even Iranian kings in the last century B.C. found pleasure in composing, or listening to, Greek tragedies, and Herod the Great kept Greek men of letters beside him and had spasmodic ambitions to make his mark as an orator or author (Nicol.
He was the father of Herod the Great, whose family thus was Idumaean in origin.
not later than the earlier half of the 7th century B.C. In the next century Aegina is one of the three principal states trading at the emporium of Naucratis, and it is the only state of European Greece that has a share in this factory (Herod.
the thirty years that were to elapse between the dedication of the precinct to Aeacus and the final victory of Athens (Herod.
of the Temple and probably formed the basis of the citadel built by Simon Maccabaeus, which again was succeeded by the fortress of Antonia, constructed by Herod the Great, and one of the most important positions at the time of the siege by Titus.
At the corner stood the residence of the Babylonian governor, near the site upon which King Herod afterwards built his magnificent palace.
The Asmonean dynasty lasted a few years longer, but finally came to an end when Herod the Great, with the aid of the Romans, took possession of Jerusalem and became the first king of the Idumaean dynasty.
Herod again raised the city to the position of an important capital, restoring the fortifications, and rebuilding the Temple from its foundations.
At some period between the time of the Maccabees and of Herod, a second or outer wall had been built outside and north of the first wall, but it is not possible to fix an accurate date to this line of defence, as the references to it in Josephus are obscure.
Herod adorned the town with other buildings and constructed a theatre and gymnasium.
He doubled the area of the enclosure round the Temple, and there can be little doubt that a great part of the walls of the Haram area date from the time of Herod, while probably the tower of David, which still exists near the Jaffa Gate, is on the same foundation as one of the towers adjoining his palace.
Herod Agrippa, who succeeded to the kingdom, built a third or outer wall on the north side of Jerusalem in order to enclose and defend the buildings which had gradually been constructed outside the old fortifications.
The wall of Herod Agrippa was planned on a grand scale, but its execution was stopped by the Romans, so that it was not completed at the time of the siege of Jerusalem by Titus.
After the capture, Titus ordered the Temple to be demolished and the fortifications to be levelled, with the exception of the three great towers at Herod's palace.
Before Herod its inhabitants ran away (ib.
It was rebuilt by Pompey, and restored by Aulus Gabinius: but it was to Herod that it owed much of its later glory.
But from then only the inhabitants of Persis proper were considered as the rulers of the empire, and remained therefore in the organization of Darius free from taxes (Herod.
But Carmania, with the Sagartians, the Utians (called by Darius Yautiya), and other tribes, formed a satrapy and paid tribute (Herod.
- Ancient: Herod.
Its wealth is shown by the fact that several of its temples belong to the first half of the 6th century B.C. Its government was at first oligarchical, but about 510 B.C. a short-lived despotism was maintained by Peithagoras and, after him, Euryleon (Herod.
Herod the Great.
- After the departure of Caesar, Antipater warned the adherents of Hyrcanus against taking part in any revolutionary attempts, and his son Herod, who, in spite of his youth, had been appointed governor of Galilee, dealt summarily with Hezekiah, the robber captain who was overrunning the adjacent part of Syria.
Complaint was made to Hyrcanus that Herod had violated the law which prohibited the execution of even an evil man, unless he had been first condemned to death by the Sanhedrin.
So Herod was summoned to stand his trial.
Being a Pharisee he faced the facts of Herod's power and warned the tribunal of the event, just as later he counselled the people to receive him, saying that for their sins they could not escape him.
Herod put his own profit above the Law, acting after his kind, and he also was God's instrument.
It is to be remembered that, in this and all narratives of the life of Herod, Josephus was dependent upon the history of Herod's client, Nicolaus of Damascus, and was himself a supporter of law and order.
When Cassius demanded a tribute of 700 talents from Palestine, Antipater set Herod, Phasael and this Malichus, his enemy, to collect it.
Herod thought it imprudent to secure the favour of Rome by the sufferings of others.
Soon after this (43 B.C.) Malichus succeeded, it is said, in poisoning Antipater as he dined with Hyrcanus, and was assassinated by Herod's bravoes.
Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, made a raid and was with difficulty repulsed by Herod.
So Herod and Phasael continued to be virtually kings of the Jews: Antony's court required large remittances and Palestine was not exempt.
Hyrcanus and Phasael were trapped: Herod fled by way of Egypt to Rome.
The senate of Rome under the influence of Antony and Octavian ratified the claims of Herod, and after some delay lent him the armed force necessary to make them good.
This development of Judaism was eminently to the mind of the rulers; and Herod did much to encourage it.
Herod had put down Jewish rebels and Herod appointed the high priests.
Herod's nominees were not the men to extend the prestige of the high-priesthood at the expense of these rabbis: even in Jerusalem the synagogue became of more importance than the Temple.
So long as Herod lived there was no insurrection.
In return for her kindness, being entrusted with foreknowledge by the visitation of God, they prophesied that God had decreed an end of rule for Herod and his line and that the sovereignty devolved upon her and Pheroras and their children.
Towards the end of Herod's life two rabbis attempted to uphold by physical force the cardinal dogma of Judaism, which prohibited the use of images.
Herod was stricken with an incurable disease.
A report that Herod was dead co-operated with their exhortations to send the iconoclasts to their appointed work.
But Herod was not dead yet, and the instigators and the agents of this sacrilege were burned alive.
On the death of Herod in 4 B.C. Archelaus kept open house for mourners as the Jewish custom, which reduced many Jews to beggary, prescribed.
When he presented himself before the emperor - apart from rival claimants of his own family - there was an embassy from the Jewish people who prayed to be rid of a monarchy and rulers such as Herod.
On this the insurgents were joined by some of Herod's army and besieged the Romans in Herod's palace.
Augustus apportioned Herod's dominions among his sons in accordance with the provisions of his latest will.
where Augustus had a temple built by Herod the Great.
So the Jews of Judaea obtained the settlement for which they had pleaded at the death of Herod; and some of them beg2 n to regret it at once.
In Galilee the Jews predominated over the heathen and their ruler Herod Antipas had some sort of claim upon their allegiance.
He conciliated his subjects by his deference to the observances of Judaism, and - the case is probably typical of his policy - he joined in protesting, when Pilate set up a votive shield in the palace of Herod within the sacred city.
At the passover of 36 Vitellius came to Jerusalem and pacified the Jews by two concessions: he remitted the taxes on fruit sold in the city, and he restored to their custody the high priest's vestments, which Herod Archelaus and the Romans had kept in the tower Antonia.
The vestments had been stored there since the time of the first high priest named Hyrcanus, and Herod had taken them over along with the tower, thinking that his possession of them would deter the Jews from rebellion against his rule.
Agrippa, the grandson of Herod the Great, was an avowed partisan of the new emperor and had paid penalty for a premature avowal of his preference.
king over all the territories of Herod the Great.
The emperor granted the petition, which indeed the procurator had permitted them to make, and further transferred the nomination of the high priest and the supervision of the temple from the procurator to Agrippa's brother, Herod of Chalcis.
The Jews claimed that the city was theirs, because King Herod had founded it.
From this inscription we learn that the rebellion of Cyrus (who seems to have become king in 558 B.C., as Herod.
In the rebellion the Persian tribes of the Maraphians and Maspians joined the Pasargadae (Herod.
633 C), Cyrus is the son of a poor Mardian bandit Atradates (the Mardians are a nomadic Persian tribe, Herod.
It is probable that Cyrus had fought more than one war against the peoples of eastern Iran; according to Ctesias he had, before the war with Croesus, defeated the Bactrians and the Sacae (in Ferghana; their king Amorges is the eponym of the Amyrgian Sacae, Herod.
In this war he was killed (Herod.) or mortally wounded (Ctesias).
He destroyed no town nor did he put the captive kings to death; in Babylonia he behaved like a constitutional monarch; by the Persians his memory was cherished as "the father of the people" (Herod.
HEROD AGRIPPA, I.
44), king of Judea, the son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great, was born about io B.C. His original name was Marcus Julius Agrippa.
After a brief seclusion, Herod the Tetrarch, his uncle, who had married Herodias, his sister, made him Agoranomos (Overseer of Markets) of Tiberias, and presented him with a large sum of money; but his uncle being unwilling to continue his support, Agrippa left Judea for Antioch and soon after returned to Rome, where he was welcomed by Tiberius and became the constant campanion of the emperor Gaius (Caligula), then a popular favourite.
37 Caligula, having ascended the throne, heaped wealth and favours upon Agrippa, set a royal diadem upon his head and gave him the tetrarchy of Batanaea and Trachonitis, which Philip, the son of Herod the Great, had formerly possessed.
39 he returned to Rome and brought about the banishment of Herod Antipas, to whose tetrarchy he succeeded.
The emperor, in acknowledgment, gave him the government of Judea, while the kingdom of Chalcis in Lebanon was at his request given to his brother Herod.
Thus Agrippa became one of the greatest princes of the east, the territory he possessed equalling in extent that held by Herod the Great.
Libowitz, Herod and Agrippa (New York, 2nd ed., 1898); Gratz, Geschichte d.
Herod Agrippa II >>
SALOME, in Jewish history the name borne by several women of the Herod dynasty.
(r) Sister of Herod the Great, who became the wife successively of Joseph, Herod's uncle, Costobar, governor of Idumaea, and a certain Alexas.
(2) Daughter of Herod by Elpis, his eighth wife.
(3) Daughter of Herodias by her first husband Herod Philip. She was the wife successively of Philip the Tetrarch and Aristobulus, son of Herod of Chalcis.
Owing to the despotic rule of Cambyses and his long absence in Egypt, "the whole people, Persians, Medes and all the other nations," acknowledged the usurper, especially as he granted a remission of taxes for three years (Herod.
His death was annually celebrated in Persia by a feast called "the killing of the magian," at which no magian was allowed to show himself (Herod.
The reign of Herod, a period of despotism and terror, and of strife between Jewish religious parties, is preferred by some scholars (Gratz, Cheyne and others) as best answering to the social situation depicted in the book, while still others (as Renan) decide for the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (10478 B.
HEROD ANTIPAS, son of Herod the Great by the Samaritan Malthace, and full brother of Archelaus, received as his share of his father's dominions the provinces of Galilee and Peraea, with the title of tetrarch.
In the gospels he is mentioned as Herod.
Meantime his Arabian wife discovered the plan and escaped to her father, who made war on Herod, and completely defeated his army.
By degrees the inhabited area began to comprise the open ground to the north-west, the nearer portion of the later Ceramicus, or " potters' field " (afterwards divided by the walls of Themistocles into the Inner and Outer Ceramicus), and eventually extended to the north and east of the citadel, which, by the beginning of the 5th century B.C., had become the centre of a circular or wheel-shaped city, 7rOXtos TpOXOEU OS ciKpa Kapnva (Oracle apud Herod.
Hecataeus was probably the author of the " bronze tablets upon which was engraved the whole circuit of the earth, the sea and rivers " (Herod.
It was at first an outpost of Selinus (Herod.
All the so-called " giant cities of Bashan " without exception are now known to be Greco-Roman, not earlier than the time of Herod, and, though in themselves of very high architectural and historical interest, have no connexion whatever with the more ancient periods.
There is more than one meaning of Herod Agrippa discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
The country was overrun several times by Darius and his generals, and the Thracian Greeks contributed 120 ships to the armament of Xerxes (Herod.
These were the "red" Thracians of Greek writers, and they differed not merely in physique and complexion, but also in their customs and religion from the native Thracians (Herod.
70; for, as Cohn has shown, the exact date of the fall of Herod's temple is predicted.
According to the Cyrenaeans (Herod.
As trousers were distinctively Persian - though the Persians had the reputation for borrowing Median and foreign dress (Herod.
In the late usage at Harran the worshipper, after purifying his garments and his heart, was advised to put on the clothing of the particular god he addressed (de Goeje, Oriental Congress, Leiden, 1 Herod.
3 Superfluous clothing was both weakening and deteriorating; this formed the point of the advice of Croesus to Cyrus (Herod.
In embalming their dead the Egyptians filled the cavity of the belly with every sort of spicery except frankincense (Herod.
He also measured out their territories in parasangs and assessed their tributes accordingly (Herod.
In the expedition of Xerxes, ten years later, he was in command of the Lydians and Mysians (Herod.
xxii., where Elizabeth fleeing from Herod's assassins cried: "Mount of God, receive a mother with her child," and suddenly the mountain was divided and received her).
The duration of John's ministry cannot be determined with certainty: it terminated in his imprisonment in the fortress of Machaerus, to which he had been committed by Herod Antipas, whose incestuous marriage with Herodias, the Baptist had sternly rebuked.
They were used by the inhabitants of Arbela as a place of refuge from the army of Bacchides, general of Demetrius king of Syria, and were the resort of bandits in the reign of Herod the Great.
of Herod (Acts xxiii.
It certainly maintained strong Phoenician sympathies, for it was its refusal to join the phil-Hellene league of Onesilas of Salamis which provoked the revolt of Cyprus from Persia in 500-494 B.C. (Herod.
is possible that, to gain adherents, the Herodian party may have been in the habit of representing that the establishment of a Herodian dynasty would be favourable to the realization of the theocracy; and this in turn may account for Tertullian's (De praescr.) allegation that the Herodians regarded Herod himself as the Messiah.
The sect was called by the Rabbis Boethusians as being friendly to the family of Boethus, whose daughter Mariamne was one of Herod the Great's wives.
27, and received the tetrarchy of Chalcis and the oversight of the Temple on the death of his uncle Herod, A.D.
In the war which Vespasian carried on against the Jews Herod sent him 2000 men, by which it appears that, though a Jew in religion, he was yet entirely devoted to the Romans, whose assistance indeed he required to secure the peace of his own kingdom.
He was the seventh and last king of the family of Herod the Great.
Of the first ten years of the league's history we know practically nothing, save that it was a period of steady, successful activity against the few remaining Persian strongholds in Thrace and the Aegean (Herod.
Who for our salvation descended from heaven, was conceived of the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered by suffering under Pontius Pilate, under Herod the King, crucified, buried, descended into hell, trod down the sting of death, rose again the third day, appeared to the apostles.
NICOLAUS DAMASCENUS, Greek historian and philosopher of Damascus, flourished in the time of Augustus and Herod the Great, with both of whom he was on terms of friendship. He instructed Herod in rhetoric and philosophy, and had attracted the notice of Augustus when he accompanied his patron on a visit to Rome.
Later, when Herod's conduct aroused the suspicions of Augustus, Nicolaus was sent on a mission to bring about a reconciliation.
He survived Herod, and it was through his influence that the succession was secured for Archelaus; but the date of his death, like that of his birth, is unknown.
1), but soon regained its power, and was strong enough in the next century to resist the assaults of Psammetichus, king of Egypt, for twenty-nine years (Herod.
io), it was presented by Augustus to Salome, the sister of Herod.
In the time of Cambyses Arabs were settled at Jenysos south of Gaza (Herod.
after 449 B.C.), on the strength of Herod.
From the gathering of crowds from all parts and appointment of the Twelve to the sending forth of the Twelve to extend Christ's work and the alarm of Herod (iii.
When the Jews in Jerusalem, stirred to revolt by the outrages of the Roman procurators, had seized the fortress of Masada and treacherously murdered the garrison of the palace of Herod, Gallus set out from Antioch to restore order.
While in this Sepulchre," he wrote his Latin poetical version of the book of Job, and his tragedy of Herod in the same language.
CAESAREA PALAESTINA, a town built by Herod about 25-13 B.C., on the sea-coast of Palestine, 30 m.
Remains of all the principal buildings erected by Herod existed down to the end of the 19th century; the ruins were much injured by a colony of Bosnians established here in 1884.
After the death of Herod the Great (4 B.C.) his realm was shared among his three sons: the chief part, including Judaea, Samaria and Idumaea, fell to Archelaus (Matt.
II, 4); Philip received the north-east of the realm and was called tetrarch; and Galilee was given to Herod Antipas, who bore the same title (Luke iii.
These three sovereignties were reunited under Herod Agrippa from A.D.
Among the Zoroastrian Iranians, as among the Indian Aryans, the aid of a priest to recite the sacrificial liturgy was necessary at every offering (Herod.
From the foundation of the Hasmonean state to the time of Herod the history of the high-priesthood merges in the political history of the nation; from Herod onward the priestly aristocracy of the Sadducees lost its chief hold over the nation and expired in vain controversy with the Pharisees.
- The birth of Christ took place before the death of Herod, and the evidence of Josephus fixes the death of Herod, with some approach to certainty, in the early spring of 4 B.C. Josephus, indeed, while he tells us that Herod died not long before Passover, nowhere names the exact year; but he gives four calculations which serve to connect Herod's death with more or less known points, namely, the length of Herod's own reign, both from his de jure and from his de facto accession, and the length of the reigns of two of his successors, Archelaus and Herod Philip, to the date of their deposition and death respectively.
The various calculations are not quite easy to harmonize, but the extent of choice for the year of Herod's death is limited to the years 4 and 3 B.C., with a very great preponderance of probability in favour of the former.
How long before this the Nativity should be placed the Gospel does not enable us to say precisely, but as Herod's decree of extermination included all infants up to two years of age, and as a sojourn of the Holy Family in Egypt of unknown length intervened between the massacre and Herod's death, it is clear that it is at least possible, so far as the evidence of this Gospel goes, that the birth of Christ preceded Herod's death by as much as two or three years.
Against this account it has been urged that we know that the governorship of Syria from io or 9 B.C. down to and after Herod's death was held successively by M.
But the confusion in question would only be possible, or at any rate likely, if there really was a census at the time of the Nativity; and it is no more improbable that Herod should have held, or permitted to be held, a local census than that Archelaus of Cappadocia in the reign of Tiberius (Tacitus, Ann.
- A terminus ad quem for the Baptism is the synchronism of the first Passover mentioned after it with the forty-sixth year of the building of Herod's Temple.
Herod began the Temple in the eighteenth year of his reign, probably 20-19 B.C., and the Passover of the forty-sixth year is probably that of A.D.
Caiaphas was appointed before Pilate's arrival, and was deposed at a Passover apparently not later than that of the year of Herod Philip's death, A.D.
These are the death of Herod Agrippa I.
The death of Herod Agrippa I.
This prince, son of Aristobulus and grandson of Herod the Great, was made (i.) king over the tetrarchy which had been Herod Philip's, " not many days " after the accession of Gaius, 16th of March A.D.
Of these the three last extend respectively from the death of Herod to the start for Europe in the second missionary journey (A.D.
To sum up: an attempt has been made, it is hoped with some success, to provide a framework of history equipped with dates from the time of St Peter's arrest by Herod Agrippa I.
the absolute values being fixed by artaba = 51 Attic choenices (Herod.
Macan (on Herod.
In 41 B.C. he was practically superseded by Antony's appointment of Herod and Phasael to be tetrarchs of Judaea; and in the following year he was taken prisoner by the Parthians, deprived of his ears that he might be permanently disqualified for priestly office, and carried to Babylon.
229, &c.; Herod.
Indirectly, however, the Phoenicians rendered one great service to literature; they took a large share in the development and diffusion of the alphabet which forms the foundation of Greek (Herod.
to displace the Chaldaean supremacy; he defeated Tyre and Sidon, and terrorized the other cities into submission (Herod.
of Egypt occupied Cyprus (Herod.
Under the Persians a federal bond was formed comprising Sidon, Tyre and Aradus, whose duty it was to contribute 300 triremes to the Persian fleet (Herod.
At this period Sidon occupied the position of leading state; in the fleet her king ranked next to Xerxes and before the king of Tyre (Herod.
The Minoan sea-power was at last broken up by invaders from the north, and a Carian rule became dominant in the Aegean (Herod.
It was they who distributed to the rest of the world the wares of Egypt and Babylonia (Herod.
Though there were never any regular colonies of Phoenicians in Egypt, the Tyrians had a quarter of their own in Memphis (Herod.
The Arabian caravan-trade in perfume, spices and incense passed through Phoenician hands on its way to Greece and the West (Herod.
21) remind us of the two pillars which Herodotus saw in the temple of Melqarth at Tyre (Herod.
570); it was regarded as a patriotic act when Hamilcar threw himself upon the pyre after the disastrous battle of Himera (Herod.
corner of Phocis, in Greece, famous in early times for its oracle of Apollo, one of those consulted by Croesus (Herod.
It was rich in treasures (Herod.
Of these the most remarkable is the advice, praised by Herodotus, which he gave to his fellowcountrymen " before Ionia was ruined " - " that the Ionians should constitute one general council in Teos, as the most central of the twelve cities, and that the remaining cities should nevertheless be governed as independent states " (Herod.
ACHAEMENES (HAKHAMANI), the eponymous ancestor of the royal house of Persia, the Achaemenidae, "a clan Opi rprt of the Pasargadae" (Herod.
According to Darius in the Behistun inscription and Herod.
After the death of Herod, Archelaus became ethnarch of Samaria, Idumea and Judaea, and when he was deposed Judaea was merged in Syria, being governed by a procurator whose headquarters were in Caesarea.
ARCHELAUS, king of Judaea, was the son of Herod the Great.
After the return of Peter to Jerusalem the most important events were the famine at Jerusalem, and the persecution of the Church by Herod.
The persecution of Herod seems to have been in his last year, which was probably A.D.
probably began before the death of Herod, but it continued after his death, and the relief sent by the church at Antioch to Jerusalem through Paul and Barnabas probably arrived about the year 45.
SHAMMAI, a Jewish scribe of the time of King Herod, whom tradition almost invariably couples with Hillel, with whom he stood in striking contrast, not merely in legal-religious decisions and discussions, but also in character and temperament.
But .the united power of Gelo and Thero, whose daughter Damarete Gelo had married, crushed the invaders in the great battle of Himera, won, men said, on the same day as Salamis, and the victors of both were coupled as the joint deliverers of Hellas (Herod.
The stories of Anacharsis and Scylas (Herod.
Not only were such marks of Hellenism as a theatre introduced by Herod the Great (37-34 B.C.) at Jerusalem, but in the work of city-building this dynasty showed itself active.
Sebaste (the old Samaria), Caesarea, Antipatris were built by Herod the Great, Tiberias by Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - A.D.
The reclaiming of the wild district of Hauran for civilization and Hellenistic life was due in the first instance to the house of Herod (Scharer, Gesch.
Herod, who supplanted the Hasmonaean dynasty (37-34 B.c,) made, outside Judaea, a display of Phil-hellenism, building new Greek cities and temples, or bestowing gifts upon the older ones of fame.
Galerius, who succeeded Diocletian in the government of the ~ast, implacably pursued his policy, and this great persecution lid not end until the persecutor, perishing, it is said, of the dire isalady of Herod and Philip II.
In like manner the ancient trade between the Aegean and the coasts of southern Russia was largely dependent on the salt pans at the mouth of the Dnieper and on the salt fish brought from this district (Herod.
So high was the reputation of the Parians that they were chosen by the people of Miletus to arbitrate in a party dispute (Herod.
Shortly before the Persian War Paros seems to have been a dependency of Naxos (Herod.
It was at a temple of Demeter Thesmophorus in Paros that Miltiades received the wound of which he afterwards died (Herod.
Paros also sided with Xerxes against Greece, but after the battle of Artemisium the Parian contingent remained in Cythnos watching the progress of events (Herod.
For this unpatriotic conduct the islanders were punished by Themistocles, who exacted a heavy fine (Herod.
The Roman client, King Herod, erected a long stow on the east, and Agrippa encouraged the growth of a new suburb south of this.
HILLEL, Jewish rabbi, of Babylonian origin, lived at Jerusalem in the time of King Herod.
44) by command of Herod Agrippa (Acts xii.
There can be traced in Asia Minor an ancient road-system, to which belongs the "royal road" from Sardis to the Persian capital, Susa (Herod.
The name originally belonged to one of the tribes of the Persians, which included the clan of the Achaemenidae, from which sprang the royal family of Cyrus and Darius (Herod.
12.5; a Pasargadian Badres is mentioned, Herod.
another story about Cyaxares and a Scythian host in Herod.
After the destruction of the Scythians Cyaxares regained the supremacy, renewed his attack on Assyria, and in 606 B.C. destroyed Nineveh and the other capitals of the empire (Herod.
Syennesis of Cilicia and Nebuchadrezzar (in Herodotus named Labynetus) of Babylon interceded and effected a peace, by which the Halys was fixed as frontier between the two empires, and Alyattes's daughter married to Cyaxares's son Astyages (Herod.
Hillel and Shammai, the contemporaries of Herod, were mentioned without any title.
30) expects at the end of all things, possesses, besides the traits of Antiochus IV., those of Herod the Great.
And they went out to make a compact with the followers of the worldly Herod to kill Him, and so to stave off a religious revolution which might easily have been followed by political trouble.
Some thought him Elijah or one of the ancient prophets returned to earth - a suggestion based on popular tradition; others said He was John the Baptist risen from the dead - the superstition of Herod who had put him to death.
The coming of the Child draws Eastern sages to his cradle and fills the court of Herod with suspicious fears.
For the closing scenes at Jerusalem St Luke makes considerable additions to St Mark's narrative: he gives a different account of the Last Supper, and he adds the trial before Herod and the incident of the penitent robber.
He passes on to Galilee, where also He is welcomed, and where He performs His second " sign," healing the son of one of Herod's courtiers.
17, 18), and doubtless continued to be practised some time after by the Jews, though on this point we have no definite information; Herod, who was a despot, and was not a Jew, cannot be taken as an illustration of Jewish custom; the obscure passage, Mal.
In the earlier time marriages between Jewish men and Canaanite women seem to have been not uncommon; whether (outside of Herod's family) there were marriages with foreigners in the Greek period we have no means of determining.
The book has been assigned to most dates between the death of Herod the Great and that of Bar-Cochba.
Herod is already dead (vi.
6), hence it is after 4 B.C.; and Herod's sons are to rule for shorter periods than their father, hence it must have been composed before these princes had reigned thirty-four years - i.e.
The wresting of Tours from Austrasia and the seizure of ecclesiastical property provoked the bitter hatred of Gregory of Tours, by whom Chilperic was stigmatized as the Nero and the Herod of his time.
That it owed its institution to Lycurgus (Herod.
This is still used for curative purposes, as it was in the days of Herod, but it is neglected and dirty.
Ceremonial licentiousness was perhaps of northern origin (Meyer § 345), and as a preliminary to marriage seems to have been known not only in Assyria (Herod.
The sons of Antipater became deputies for their father; and it appears that Galilee, which was entrusted to Herod, fell within his jurisdiction.
But Herod held his ground as governor of Coele-Syria and retained the favour of Cassius and Mark Antony in turn, despite the complaints of the Jewish nobility.
In 42 B.C., however, the tyrant of Tyre encroached upon Galilean territory and in 40 B.C. Herod had to fly for his life before the Parthians.
Even as a landless fugitive Herod could count upon Roman support.
As king of the Jews (37-4 B.C.) Herod was completely subject and eagerly subservient to his Roman masters.
Herod acquiesced and leased Jericho, the most fertile part of his kingdom, from Cleopatra.
In the war between Antony and Octavian Cleopatra prevented Herod from joining Antony and so left him free to pay court to Octavian after Actium (31 B.C.).
Secure of his position, Herod began to build temples and palaces and whole cities up and down Palestine as visible embodiments of the Greek civilization which was to distinguish the Roman Empire from barbarian lands.
Herod the Great enlarged his borders and fostered the Greek civilization of the cities under his sway.
Herod Agrippa (A.D.
When Herod the Great received the territory from Augustus, 20 B.C., he erected here a temple in honour of his patron; but the re-foundation of the town is due to his son, Philip the Tetrarch, who here erected a city which he named Caesarea in honour of Tiberius, adding Philippi to immortalize his own name and to distinguish his city from the similarly-named city founded by his father on the sea-coast.
They are mentioned (Herod.
3), in the service of the tetrarch Herod.
According to Herodotus, he was the son of Cyaxares and reigned thirty-five years (584-550 B.C.); his wife was Aryenis, the daughter of Alyattes of Lydia (Herod.
The captive king was treated fairly by Cyrus (Herod.
31; see Wiedemann on Herod.
Soon after the Persian War this monarchy (dynasty of the Aleuadae, Herod.
(I)The circumstances attending the death of Herod Agrippa I.
3 with Herod.
Such a passage might well have been penned when the idea of Herod's Temple was already in the air.
1B Under Rome Cyprus was at first appended to the province of Cilicia; after Actium (31 B.C.) it became a separate province, which remained in the hands of Augustus and was governed by a legatus Caesaris pro praetore as long as danger was feared from the East."' No monuments 8 Herod.
52.4 The copper mines, which were still of great importance, were farmed at one time by Herod the Great.
LEOTYCHIDES, Spartan king, of the Eurypontid family, was descended from Theopompus through his younger son Anaxandridas (Herod.
ascended the throne (Herod.
Here Herod built a gymnasium, and here the Jews met Petronius, sent to set up statues of the emperor in the Temple, and persuaded him to turn back.
See, for further history, Herod; Jews.4 Although but little is known of the inhabitants of Edom, their close relationship to Judah and their kinship with the surrounding tribes invest them with particular interest.
In them we may trace the original population of these districts; and to the same original population may be assigned the tribes here settled in antiquity: the Paricanii and Gedrosii (Gadrosii), and the Myci (Herod.
68; the Maka of Darius, the modern Mekran), to whom the name Aethiopiansis also occasionally applied (Herod.
The Drangians (Zarankcf in Darius, Sarangians in Herod.
In Herodotus their place is taken by the Pactyans, whose name survives to the present day in the word Pushtu, with which the Afghans denote their language (Herod.
That these were conscious of their Aryan origin is proved by the names Ariantas and Ariapeithes borne by Scythian (Scolot) kings (Herod, iv.
Thus a mans birthday is counted the highest festival (Herod.
Its formal character naturally germinated in the priesthood (Herod.
Cappadocia also fell before Cyaxares; in a war with the Lydian Empire the decisive battle was broken off by the celebrated eclipse of the sun on the, 28th of May 585 B.C., foretold by Thales (Herod.
The Persians swear allegiance to him and pray to Ahuramazda for his life and the welfare of the people, while he vows to protect them against every attack, and to judge and govern them as did his fathers before him (Herod.
the inscription of Darius on the Bosporus, Herod.
the description of the route from Susa to Sardis in Herod.
wrought into vessels (Herod.
So, too, he annexed the Indus valley and the auriferous hill-country of Kafiristan and Cashmir (KiwlrLoL or :~(&(rlretpot, Herod.
In the district of Herat, Darius established a great water-basin, designed to facilitate the cultivation of the steppe (Herod.
He had the course of the Indus explored by the Carfan captain Scylax (q.v.) of Caryanda, who then navigated the Indian Ocean back to Suez (Herod.
Even the circumnavigation of Africa was attempted under Xerxes (Herod.
Such are the Dehwars orDehkans, and the Durzadas (Derusiaei of Herod.
So that the Hap u cavcot (Herod.
In 47 Antipater, who curried favour with Rome, was made procurator of Judaea, and his sons Phasael and Herod governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively.
Thereupon Phasael committed suicide in prison, but Herod effected his escape and with the help of the Romans seated himself on the throne of Judaea (37 B.C.).
2, 3) describes the building of Tiberias by Herod Antipas near a village called Emmaus, where are hot springs.
The probability is that Herod built an entirely new city; in fact, the circumstance that it was necessary to disturb an ancient graveyard proves that there were here no buildings previously.
Owing to this necessity Herod had a difficulty in peopling his city, and, indeed, was compelled to use force (Jos.
According to the legend, he travelled throughout the country, living without food and riding on a golden arrow, the gift of the god; he healed the sick, foretold the future, worked miracles, and delivered Sparta from a plague (Herod.
Berenice, daughter of Salome, sister of Herod I., and wife of her cousin Aristobulus, who was assassinated in 6 B.C. Their relations had been unhappy and she was accused of complicity in his murder.
By Aristobulus she was the mother of Herod Agrippa I.
Her second husband, Theudion, uncle on the mother's side of Antipater, son of Herod I., having been put to death for conspiring against Herod, she married Archelaus.
(2) The father-in-law of Herod Antipas (Jos.
Herod Antipas had married a daughter of Aretas, but afterwards discarded her in favour of Herodias.
making Isagoras despot of Athens, but the opposition of the Corinthian allies and of his colleague Demaratus caused the expedition to break up after reaching Eleusis (Herod.
In revenge Cleomenes accused Demaratus of illegitimacy and secured his deposition in favour of Leotychides (Herod.
About 488 B.C. he was recalled, but shortly afterwards, in a fit of madness, he committed suicide (Herod.
In spite of some failures, largely due to Demaratus's jealousy, Cleomenes strengthened Sparta in the position, won during his father's reign, of champion and leader of the Hellenic race; it was to him, for example, that the Ionian cities of Asia Minor first applied for aid in their revolt against Persia (Herod.
The date of the publication of the entire work Appel assigns to the years immediately following the death of Herod.
When closely pursued by the Athenians she escaped by the stratagem of attacking one of the Persian vessels, whereupon the Athenians concluded that she was an ally, and gave up the pursuit (Herod.
In Herod's temple the altar was again built after the same model.
That in the temple of Herod is referred to in Luke i.
Here Cambyses is made the legitimate son of Cyrus and a daughter of Apries (Herod.
Herod the Great was a native of the city, and added greatly to its beauty; but it suffered severely in the later wars of the Romans and Jews.
4 Among the ancient Egyptians fasting seems to have been associated with many religious festivals, notably with that of Isis (Herod.
HEROD (surnamed THE Great), the son of Antipater, who supported Hyrcanus II.
1.3) asserted that Herod, his royal patron, was descended from the Jews who first returned from the Babylonian Captivity.
At this point Herod appears on the scene as ruler of Galilee (Jos.
Herod was cited in the name of Hyrcanus to appear before the Sanhedrin, whose prerogative he had usurped in executing Hezekiah.
But the governor of Syria had sent a demand for Herod's acquittal, and so Hyrcanus adjourned the trial and persuaded the accused to abscond.
Herod returned with an army, but his father prevailed upon him to depart to Galilee without wreaking his vengeance upon his enemies.
The episode is important for the light which it throws upon Herod's relations with Rome and with the Jews.
In 44 B.C. Cassius arrived in Syria for the purpose of filling his war-chest: Antipater and Herod collected the sum of money at which the Jews of Palestine had been assessed.
With the connivance of Cassius Herod had Malichus assassinated; but the country was in a state of anarchy, thanks to the extortions of Cassius and the encroachments of neighbouring powers.
Herod escaped to Rome: the Arabians, his mother's people, had repudiated him.
In 39 B.C. Herod returned to Palestine and, when the presence of Antony put the reluctant Roman troops entirely at his disposal, he was able to lay siege to Jerusalem two years later.
In 37 B.C. Herod was king of Judaea, being the client of Antony and the husband of Mariamne.
The Pharisees, who dominated the bulk of the Jews, 'were content to accept Herod's rule as a judgment of God.
On the other hand Herod's marriage with Mariamne brought some of his enemies into his own household.
The events of Herod's reign indicate the temporary triumphs of his different adversaries.
But the enthusiasm with which the people received him at the Feast of Tabernacles convinced Herod of the danger; and the youth was drowned by order of the king at Jericho.
Cleopatra had obtained from Antony a grant of territory adjacent to Herod's domain and even part of it.
She required Herod to collect arrears of tribute.
So it fell out that, when Octavian and the Senate declared war against Antony and Cleopatra, Herod was preoccupied in obedience to her commands and was thus prevented from fighting against the future emperor of Rome.
After the battle of Actium (31 B.C.) Herod executed Hyrcanus and proceeded to wait upon the victorious Octavian at Rhodes.
From this time onwards Herod was free to govern Palestine, as a client-prince of the Roman Empire should govern his kingdom.
But Herod found new enemies among the members of his household.
The people still cherished a loyalty to the Hasmonaean lineage, although the young princes were also the sons of Herod.
On his deathbed Herod discovered that his eldest son, Antipater, whom Josephus calls a "monster of iniquity," had been plotting against him.
The father died five days after his son in 4 B.C. He had done much for the Jews, thanks to the favour he had won and kept in spite of all from the successive heads of the Roman state; he had observed the Law publicly - in fact, as the traditional epigram of Augustus says, "it was better to be Herod's swine than a son of Herod."
Herod Antipas >>
And how can we find room for Esther as queen by the side of Amestris (Herod.
HEROD PHILIP, son of Herod the Great by Cleopatra of Jerusalem, received the tetrarchate of Ituraea and other districts to E.
7) were broad enough to let a four-horse chariot turn (Herod.
Herod Agrippa I >>
Under the Roman domination Galilee was made a tetrarchate governed by members of the Herod family.
Herod the Great was tetrarch of Galilee in 47 B.C.; in 4 B.C. he was succeeded by his son Antipas.
The heresy, notwithstanding the severe measures taken against it, continued to spread in France as well as in Spain; in 412 Lazarus, bishop of Aix in Provence, and Herod, bishop of Arles, were expelled from their sees on a charge of Manichaeism.
We find it, accordingly, in the 6th century B.C. contracting for the rebuilding of the Delphic temple after it had been destroyed by fire (Herod.
5.2 with Herod.
The Ulster annalists give a very different estimate of the great Talbot from that of Shakespeare: "A son of curses for his venom and a devil for his evils; and the learned say of him that there came not from the time of Herod, by whom Christ was crucified, any one so wicked in evil deeds " (O'Donovan's Four Masters).
About this time, probably, the Argives, whose territory included the whole east coast of the Peloponnese and the island of Cythera (Herod.
At the head of the state stood two hereditary kings, of the Agiad and Eurypontid families, equal in authority, so that one could not act against the veto of his colleague, though the Agiad king received greater honour in virtue of the seniority of his family (Herod.
iv., when one observes the undeveloped conditions among the Trachonites of the time of Herod the Great (Josephus, Ant.
The Arabic " Book of Maccabees " contained in the Paris and London Polyglotts, and purporting to be a history of the Jews from the affair of Heliodorus (186 B.C.) to the close of Herod's reign, is historically worthless, being nothing but a compilation from i and 2 Macc. and Josephus.
The prostitution whereby the Lydian girls gained their dowries (Herod.
The Lydians were credited with being the inventors, not only of games such as dice, huckle-bones and ball (Herod.
The inns, which the Lydians were said to have been the first to establish (Herod.
Without prosecuting this subject further, it may be enough here to follow out the lines of the Darley Arabian, the Byerly Turk, and the Godolphin Arabian or Barb, the main ancestors of the British thoroughbred of the 18th and 19th centuries, through several famous race-horses, each and all brilliant winners,-Flying Childers, Eclipse, Herod and Matchem,-to whom it is considered sufficient to look as the great progenitors of the race-horse of to-day.
Pot-8-os was the sire of Waxy (1790) out of Maria (1777) by Herod out of Lisette (1772) by Snap. Waxy, who has been not inaptly termed the ace of trumps in the Stud'-Book, begat Whalebone (1807), Web (1808), Woful (1809), Wire (1811), Whisker (1812), and Waxy Pope (1806), all but the last being out of Penelope (1798) by Trumpator (1782) from Prunella (1788) by Highflyer out of Promise by Snap, while Waxy Pope was out of Prunella, dam of Parasol (1800) by Pot-8-os.
Mercury was sire of Gohanna (1790), who was foaled in the same year as Waxy, and the two, who were both grandsons of Eclipse and both out of Herod mares, had several contests, Waxy generally getting the better of his cousin.
The Byerly Turk's line is represented by Herod, the Turk being the sire of Jigg, who was the sire of Partner (1718), whose son Tartar (1743) begat King Herod, or Herod as he was commonly called, foaled in 1758.
Herod's dam was Cypron (1750) by Blaze (1733), son of Flying Childers.
In Herod's pedigree there are fully a dozen dams whose pedigree is unknown.
Herod was a bay horse about 15 hands 3 inches high, possessed both of substance and length,-those grand requisites in a race-horse,-combined with uncommon power and stamina or lasting qualities.
These two horses have transmitted Herod's qualities down to the present day in the direct male line, although in the female line he is represented through some of his other sons and his daughters as well.
This mare was by Eclipse's son Alexander (1782) out of a mare by Highflyer (son of Herod) out of a daughter of Alfred, by Matchem out of a daughter of Snap. Bustard (1813), whose dam was a daughter of Shuttle, and his son Heron (1833), Sultan (1816) and his sons Glencoe (1831) and Bay Middleton (1833) and Middleton's sons Cowl (1842) and the Flying Dutchman (1846), Pantaloon (1824) and his son Windhound (1847), Langar (1817) and his son Epirus (1834) and grandson Pyrrhus the First (1843), are representatives of Castrel and Selim.
It may be added that in the first volume of the Stud-Book there are nearly a hundred Herod and Highflyer mares registered.
He was thus ten years the senior of Herod, representing the Byerly Turk, and sixteen years before Eclipse, though long subsequent to Flying Childers, who represent the Darley Arabian.
Herod: Bridget (0), Faith (0), Maid of the Oaks (0), Phenomenon (L).
Florizel (son of Herod): Diomed (D), Eager (D), Tartar (L), Ninetythree (L).
We append the pedigree of Blair Athol, winner of the Derby and St Leger in 1864, who, when subsequently sold by auction, fetched the then unprecedented sum of 12,000 guineas, as it contains, not only Stockwell (the emperor of stallions, as he has been termed), but Blink Bonny and Eleanor - in which latter animal are combined the blood of Eclipse, Herod, Matchem and Snap, - the mares that won the Derby in 1801 and 1857 respectively, as well as those queens of the stud, Eleanor's greatgranddaughter Pocahontas and Blink Bonny's dam Queen Mary.
South of it is the stronghold of Masada, built by Jonathan Maccabaeus and fortified by Herod in 42 B.C., where the last stand of the Jews was made against the Romans after the fall of Jerusalem, and where the garrison, when the defences were breached, slew themselves rather than fall into Roman hands.
Herod, Royal Ascot (London, 1900).
daring to criticize the King, Herod.
In utter disbelief his asked Herod " Where do you get this audience?
Herod planned to bring Peter before the people for trial after the Passover feast.
The Dream of Herod traces an evolution from dark, brooding introspection to dawning effulgence.
This is a world based on the fear of the seemingly omnipotent male, Herod.
note the plural for 'temple ' in the title alluding to the buildings of Solomon, Zerubabbel and Herod.
ruthless tyrants that kill and murder, like King Herod in Jesus ' day.
He was causing a stir among the people as he exposed the sex scandal in Herod's private life.
Not only are there, and have there been, ruthless tyrants that kill and murder, like King Herod in Jesus ' day.
But on the other hand the very elimination of John could have sparked just the very uprising that Herod feared.
utter disbelief his asked Herod " Where do you get this audience?
The three kings were regal, reminiscent of medieval knights, and wily Herod in black looked suitably villainous and acted accordingly.
It appears to have belonged to the Eretrian league; hence, perhaps, we may explain the war with Samos, a leading member of the rival Chalcidian league in the reign of King Amphicrates (Herod.
At the beginning of the 5th century it seems to have been an entrepot of the Pontic grain trade, at a later date an Athenian monopoly (Herod.
It is the more remarkable that no incidents are recorded in the period between Marathon and Salamis, seeing that at the time of the Isthmian Congress the war is described as the most important one then being waged in Greece (Herod.
This inference is supported by the date of the building of the 200 triremes "for the war against Aegina" on the advice of Themistocles, which is given in the Constitutionof Athens as 483-482 B.C. (Herod.
It was to Aegina rather than Athens that the prize of valour at Salamis was awarded, and the destruction of the Persian fleet appears to have been as much the work of the Aeginetan contingent as of the Athenian (Herod.
To facilitate communication between the city and its suburbs, the Bab ez-Zahire, or Herod's Gate, and a new gate, near the north-west angle of the walls, have been opened; and a portion of the wall, adjoining the Jaffa Gate, has been thrown down, to allow free access for carriages.
The effect of the speech was to goad the Sanhedrin into condemning Herod: Hyrcanus postponed their decision and persuaded him to flee.
But the death of Sejanus in 31 set Tiberius free from prejudice against the Jews; and, when Pilate put up the votive shields in Herod's palace at Jerusalem, the four sons of Herod came forward in defence of Jewish principles and he was ordered to remove them.
Josephus informs us that, after the murder of his father, Herod the Great sent him to Rome to the court of Tiberius, who conceived a great affection for him, and placed him near his son Drusus, whose favour he very soon won.
Herod Antipas, pleased by her dancing, offered her a reward "unto the half of my kingdom"; instructed by Herodias, she asked for John the Baptist's "head in a charger" 1 (see Herod Ii.
Gardiner and Cowley of the earliest Semitic script in the hieroglyphic signs found in Sinai.33 Since the war a new British school of archaeology in Jerusalem has been founded under the direction of Prof. Garstang, who has begun for the Palestine Exploration Fund excavations at Ascalon, which have resulted in the discovery of interesting late buildings 34 and this year (1921) in that of a statue of Herod the Great.
This, however, would imply on the part of the oracle a knowledge of Libya, which was not shared by the rest of Greece (Herod.
According to many interpreters the courtiers or soldiers of Herod Antipas ("Milites Herodis," Jerome) are intended; but more probably the Herodians were a public political party, who distinguished themselves from the two great historical parties of post-exilian Judaism by the fact that they were and had been sincerely friendly to Herod the Great and to his dynasty (cf.
Its mythical foundation was attributed to Heracles, its historical to a colony from Clazomenae in the 7th century B.C. But its prosperity dates from 544 B.C., when the majority of the people of Teos migrated to Abdera after the Ionian revolt to escape the Persian yoke (Herod.
At the beginning of the 7th century B.C. a Phoenician fleet is said to have circumnavigated Africa (Herod.
The only occasion on which the island is mentioned in history is during the expedition of Xerxes (B.C. 480), when the Samothracians sent a contingent to the Persian fleet, one ship of which bore a conspicuous part in the battle of Salamis (Herod.
The polemarch, who was at any rate titular commander down to about 487 B.C. (see above; and Herod.
8, 10, notwithstanding) or of the horse in hunting was known among the Jews during the period covered by the Old Testament history; Herod, however, was a keen and successful sportsman, and is recorded by Josephus (B.J.
8.2; but the latter adds an omen of coming doom, while Acts alone gives a circumstantial account of the occasion of Herod's public appearance.
On his early death she was married to her father's brother, Herod of Chalcis, after whose death (A.D.
(2) The more usual view is that the Scythians (see Herod.
How, too, can a Jewess have been a legal queen (see Herod.
He was causing a stir among the people as he exposed the sex scandal in Herod 's private life.
Now about that time Herod the king stretched forth his hands to vex certain of the church.
Consider adding scenes of King Herod looking for the baby Jesus, and have Mary or Joseph sing a solo prayer of faith, taking the traditional focus off of the manger for a few moments.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.