Heretics Sentence Examples
In matters of doctrine the pope supported Bernard of Clairvaux in his prosecution of Abelard and Arnold of Brescia, whom he condemned as heretics.
His apologists explain that his action was merely "official," but Bonner was one of those who brought it to pass that the condemnation of heretics to the fire should be part of his ordinary official duties.
Among the principal events of that reign must be reckoned the foundation of the two orders, Franciscan and Dominican, who were destined to form a militia for the holy see in conflict with the empire and the heretics of Lombardy.
He saw Jews, Saracens, heretics and apostates roaming through Spain unmolested; and in this lax toleration of religious differences he thought he saw the main obstacle to the political union of the Spains, which was the necessity of the hour.
In the next year he ceded to Diego Deza, a Dominican, his office of confessor to the sovereigns, and gave himself up to the congenial work of reducing heretics.Advertisement
But he did not forget his favourite work of ferreting out heretics; and his ministers of the faith made great progress over all the kingdom, especially at Toledo, where merciless severity was shown to the Jews who had lapsed from Christianity.
In accordance with the consistent policy of inclusion and toleration by which the whole of his official life was characterized, he induced the council to call the assembly of notables, which met at Fontainebleau in August 1560 and agreed that the States General should be summoned, all proceedings against heretics being meanwhile suppressed, pending the reformation of the church by a general or national council.
Reckless of consequences, he swept away the venerated ceremonial formalities which his ancestors had scrupulously observed, openly scoffed at ancient usage, habitually dressed in foreign costume, and generally chose foreign heretics as his boon companions.
Though expected to take part in the negotiations which led in 1648 to the peace of Westphalia, he refused to deliberate with heretics, and protested against the treaties when completed.
Here he held several councils for the discussion of the affairs of the church, especially for grave questions as to the rebaptism of heretics, and the readmission into the church of the lapsi, or those who had fallen; away through fear during the heat of the persecution.Advertisement
Cyprian, although inspired by lofty notions of the prerogatives of the church, and inclined to severity of opinion towards heretics, and especially heretical dissentients from the belief in the divine authorship of the episcopal order and the unity of Christendom, was leniently disposed towards those who had temporarily fallen from the faith.
While in this question he went hand in hand with Cornelius, bishop of Rome, his strict attitude in the matter of baptism by heretics brought him into serious conflict with the Roman bishop Stephen.
His method was to travel over the country on foot and barefooted, in extreme poverty, simplicity and austerity, preaching and instructing in highways and villages and towns, and in the castles of the nobility, controverting and discussing with the heretics.
Only by the preaching of pure doctrine would he overcome heretics....
Stokesley opposed all changes in the doctrines of the Church and was very active in persecuting heretics.Advertisement
Other canons treat of intercourse with heretics, admission of penitent heretics, baptism, fasts, Lent, angel-worship (forbidden as idolatrous) and the canonical books, from which the Apocrypha and Revelation are wanting.
We have more in the Latin translation of Rufinus; but this translation in by no means trustworthy, since Rufinus, assuming that Origen's writings had been tampered with by the heretics, considered himself at liberty to omit or amend heterodox statements.
Nominalism was a doctrine of sceptics and suspected heretics, such as Berengar of Tours and Roscellinus.
In revenge the hermit brought up the former accusations concerning the relations to the Inquisition, and proclaimed Ignatius and his friends to be false, designing men and no better than concealed heretics.
The condemnation of the " heretics " by the Patriarch led to their repudiation by the community of Vatopedi, and at the instance of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople the refractory monasteries were subjected to a rigorous blockade.Advertisement
In the interests of self-preservation against the world, the state and the heretics, the Christian communities had formed themselves into compact societies with a definite creed and constitution, and they felt that their existence was threatened by the white heat of religious subjectivity.
He burned Patrick Hamilton and other heretics, and died at St Andrews in September 1539.
For Zoroaster they sink to the rank of spurious deities, and in his eyes their priests and votaries are idolaters and heretics.
Agen changed hands more than once in the course of the Albigensian wars, and at their close a tribunal of inquisition was established in the town and inflicted cruel persecution on the heretics.
He is the first to bring all the culture of the Greeks and all the speculations of the Christian heretics to bear on the exposition of Christian truth.Advertisement
Equally minute is his knowledge of the systems of the Christian heretics.
And in all cases it is plain that he not merely read but thought deeply on the questions which the civilization of the Greeks and the various writings of poets, philosophers and heretics raised.
When in 1326 Louis of Bavaria saw the arrival in Nuremberg of the two authors of the book dedicated to him, startled by the boldness of their political and religious theories, he was at first inclined to treat them as heretics.
For his treatment of heretics see the church histories of the period.
For writings that stood wholly without the pale of sacred books such as the books of heretics or Samaritans they used the designation Hisonim, Sanh.
He now obtained a settled home for many years, and, taught by his numerous brushes with the authorities, he began and successfully carried out that system of keeping out of personal harm's way, and of at once denying any awkward responsibility, which made him for nearly half a century at once the chief and the most prosperous of European heretics in regard to all established ideas.
The tumults against the Paterine heretics (1244-1245), among whom were many Ghibelline nobles favoured by the podestd Pace di Pesamigola, indicate a successful Guelphic reaction; but Frederick II., having defeated his enemies both in Lombardy and in the Two Sicilies, appointed his natural son, Frederick of Antioch, imperial vicar in Tuscany, who, when civil war broke out, entered the city with 1600 German knights.
Dirck Coornhert argued, in private conferences and public disputations, that it was wrong to punish heretics, and his great opponents were, as a rule, the ministers, who maintained that there was no room for more than one religion in a state.
Coornhert could not plead for the toleration of heretics without assailing the dominant Calvinism, and so he opposed a conditional to its unconditional predestination.
Between 1581 and 1776 as many as fifty-nine heretics were burned at Lima, and there were twenty-nine " autos "; but the Inquisition affected Europeans rather than natives, for the Indians, as catechumens, were exempted from its terrors.
While severely condemning, both Irenaeus and Tertullian distinguished schismatics from heretics."
Though we are by no means entitled to say that they acknowledged orthodox schismatics they did not yet venture to reckon them simply as heretics.
Cyprian was the first to proclaim the identity of heretics and schismatics by making a man's Christianity depend on his belonging to the great episcopal church confederation.
The validity of heretical baptism was denied by the church of Asia Minor as well as of Africa; but the practice of the Roman Church was to admit without second baptism heretics who had been baptized with the name of Christ, or of the Holy Trinity.
The controversy his intolerance provoked was closed by Augustine's controversial treatise De Baptismo, in which the validity of baptism administered by heretics is based on the objectivity of the sacrament.
Having traced the history of opinion in the Christian churches on the subject of heresy, we must now return to resume a subject already mentioned, the persecution of heretics.
According to the Canon Law, which "was the ecclesi- Pers f - astical law of medieval Europe, and is still the law of heretics.
We order that the adherents of this faith be called Catholic Christians; we brand all the senseless followers of the other religions with the infamous name of heretics, and forbid their conventicles assuming the name of churches.
In 385 Maximus, his rival and colleague, caused seven heretics to be put to death at Treves (Trier).
While Chrysostom disapproved of the execution of heretics, he approved "the prohibition of their assemblies and the confiscation of their churches."
Even the Dominicans, who began as a preaching order to convert heretics, soon became persecutors.
On the question of the baptism of heretics see Smith and Cheetham's Dict.
Hale, as quoted by Phillimore (Ecc. Law), says that before the time of Richard II., that is, before any acts of Parliament were made about heretics, it is without question that in a convocation of the clergy or provincial synod" they might and frequently did here in England proceed to the sentencing of heretics."But later writers, while adhering to the statement that Convocation might declare opinions to be heretical, doubted whether it could proceed to punish the offender, even when he was a clerk in orders.
It was at this juncture that Tertullian, the most famous theologian of the West, left the Church whose cause he had so manfully upheld against pagans and heretics.
The Pauline doctrine of " grace " has been perverted to lasciviousness, as by the heretics whom Polycarp opposes Polyc. vii.), and this doctrine is taught for " hire " (vv.
At Treves, in 385, he entreated that the lives of the Priscillianist heretics should be spared, and he ever afterwards refused to hold ecclesiastical fellowship with those bishops who had sanctioned their execution.
A valuable controversy followed on the question of executing heretics, in which Beza (for), Mino Celsi (against), and several caustic anonymous writers (especially Castellio) took part.
The emperor Frederick II.'s edicts and the so-called etablissements of St Louis provide that the civil officers should search out suspected heretics and deliver them to the ecclesiastical judges.
Two years later political reverses forced the pope to sanction the existence of the council, which not only concluded a treaty with the Bohemian heretics but abolished the papal fees for appointments, confirmation and consecration - above all, the annates - and greatly reduced papal reservations; it issued indulgences, imposed tenths, and established rules for the government of the papal states.
While the evangelical party still hoped that some form of religion might be agreed upon which would prevent the disruption of the Church, the conservatives were confident that the heretics would soon be suppressed, as they had so often been in the past.
The diet of Spires (1529) had received a letter from the emperor directing it to look to the enforcement of the edict of Worms against the heretics.
During the three or four years which followed the signing of the Augsburg Confession in 1530 and the formation of the Schmalkaldic League, England, while bitterly dep ouncing and burning Lutheran heretics in the name of the Holy Catholic Church, was herself engaged in severing the bonds which had for well-nigh a thousand of years bound her to the Apostolic See.
The following year, 1532, parliament presented a petition to the king (which had been most carefully elaborated by the monarch's own advisers) containing twelve charges against the bishops, relating to their courts, fees, injudicious appointments and abusive treatment of heretics, which combined to cause an unprecedented and " marvellous disorder of the godly quiet, peace and tranquillity" of the realm.
It had also furnished its due quota of heretics, although no one so conspicuous as Wycliffe or Huss.
The parlement appointed a commission to discover and punish heretics; the preachers of Meaux fled to Strassburg, and Lefebvre's translation of the Bible was publicly burned.
The parlements issued a series of edicts against the heretics, culminating in the very harsh general edict of Fontainebleau, sanctioned by the parlement of Paris in 1543.
The " dogma " or " dogmas " of heretics are frequently mentioned by orthodox writers.
He was burnt simply because he could not change his religion with the law and would not pretend that he could; and his execution is a complete refutation of the idea that Mary only persecuted heretics because and when they were traitors.
Everywhere, and especially in the district round Toulouse, heretics were keenly prosecuted, and before the continued zeal of persecution the Waldenses slowly disappeared from the chief centres of population and took refuge in the retired valleys of the Alps.
Little settlements of heretics dispersed throughout Italy and Provence looked to the valleys as a place of refuge, and tacitly regarded them as the centre of their faith.
The regent displayed her religious zeal by restoring image-worship (842) and persecuting the Paulician heretics, but she entirely neglected the education of her son.
He wrote polemical words directed against the pagans, the Jews and heretics.
The consecration took place on the 10th of April 428, and then, almost immediately afterwards, in what is said to have been his first patriarchal sermon, Nestorius exhorted the emperor in the famous words - "Purge me, 0 Caesar, the earth of heretics, and I in return will give thee heaven.
Stand by me in putting down the heretics and I will stand by thee in putting down the Persians."
This pseudonym served to protect the book against the fate that overtook the writings of heretics, and in a Syriac version it was preserved in the Euphrates valley where the followers of Nestorius settled.
He is praised and quoted (as Joannes Witlingius) for his judgment against applying the death penalty to anabaptists or other heretics in the De Haereticis, an sint persequendi (1554), issued by Sebastian Castellio under the pseudonym of Martinus Bellius.
The Polish king was always ready enough to support the Czechs against Sigismund; but the necessity of justifying his own orthodoxy (which the Knights were for ever impugning) at Rome and in the face of Europe prevented him from accepting the crown of St Wenceslaus from the hands of heretics.
The old Calvinist nobility of Lithuania were speedily reconverted; a Uniate Church in connexion with Rome was established; Greek Orthodox congregations, if not generally persecuted, were at least depressed and straitened; and the Cossacks began to hate the Pans, or Polish lords, not merely as tyrants, but as heretics.
The priests who had refused to submit to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy perambulated these retired districts, and stigmatized the revolutionists as heretics.
In this original scheme it is clearly marked out "that this entire Society and all its members fight for God under the faithful obedience of the most sacred lord, the pope, and the other Roman pontiffs his successors"; and Ignatius makes particular mention th4t each member should "be bound by a special vow," beyond that formal obligation under which all Christians are of obeying the pope, "so that whatsoever the present and other Roman pontiffs for the time being shall ordain, pertaining to the advancement of souls and the propagation of the faith, to whatever provinces he shall resolve to send us, we are straightway bound to obey, as far as in us lies, without any tergiversation or excuse, whether he send us among the Turks or to any other unbelievers in being, even to those parts called India, or to any heretics or schismatics or likewise to any believers."
The Church when it had once conquered the world allowed such precepts to lapse and fall into the background, and no one save monks or Manichaean heretics remembered them any more; indeed modern divines affect to believe that marriage rites and family ties were the peculiar concern of the Church from the very first; and few moderns will fail to sympathize with the misgivings of the barbarian chief who, having been converted and being about to receive Christian baptism, paused as he stepped down into the font, and asked the priests if in the heaven to which their rites admitted him he would meet and converse with his pagan ancestors.
The works of Tertullian, on the chronology of which a great deal has been written, and which for the most part do not admit of being dated with perfect certainty, fall into three classes - the apologetic, defending Christianity against paganism and Judaism; the polemical dogmatic, refuting heresies and heretics; and the ascetic or practical, dealing with points of morality and church discipline.
Others Followed The Example Of The Jews, And Adhered To The 4Th Of The Moon; But These, As Usually Happened To The Minority, Were Accounted Heretics, And Received The Appellation Of Quartodecimans.
Should The 14Th Of The Moon, Which Is Regarded As The Day Of Full Moon, Happen On A Sunday, The Celebration Of Easter Was Deferred To The Sunday Following, In Order To Avoid Concurrence With The Jews And The Above Mentioned Heretics.
In character and interests he was rather Provencal than Spanish, a favourer of the troubadours, no enemy of the Albigensian heretics, and himself a poet in the southern French dialect.
At the same time, as he could not be suspected of any sympathy with Lutheran or Wickliffite heretics, he might fairly be regarded as qualified to lead the party which aimed at reform in State and Church within the limits of Catholic orthodoxy.
The Apologye of Syr Thomas More, written in 1533, is a defence of his own polemical style and of the treatment of heretics by the clergy.
Concerning the Bogomils something can be gathered from the information collected by Euthymius Zygadenus in the 12th century, and from the polemic Against the Heretics written in Slavonic by St Kozma during the 10th century.
These were noted heretics and were persecuted by the Greek Church with fire and sword.
The popes in Rome whilst leading the Crusade against the Albigenses did not forget their counterpart in the Balkans and recommended the annihilation of the heretics.
The Hungarians undertook many crusades against the heretics in Bosnia, but towards the close of the 15th century the conquest of that country by the Turks put an end to their persecution.
The synod grounded its procedure against the rival popes on a fact, ostensibly patent to all, but actually believed by none - that they were both supporters of the schism, and not merely this, but heretics in the truest and fullest sense of the word, since their attitude had impugned and subverted the article of faith concerning the one Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.
Then France, freed from the fear of domestic enemies, arose to help the heretics to harry the house of Habsburg.
Their author Milaraspa (unless the work should be attributed to his disciples), often called Mila, was a Buddhist ascetic of the I ith century, who, during the intervals of meditation travelled through the southern part of middle Tibet as a mendicant friar, instructing the people by his improvisations in poetry and song, proselytizing, refuting and converting heretics, and working manifold miracles.
On the one hand the archbishop was obliged to contend against the heretics or against fanatical reformers who found a following among the people; and on the other, since the archbishop was the real power in the city, the emperor, the nobles and the people each desired that he should be of their party; and to whichever party he did belong he was certain to find himself violently opposed by the other two.
Once more, Gregory is remembered as a great organizer of missionary enterprise for the conversion of heathens and heretics.
The singing of this is followed by bidding prayers for the peace and unity of the church, for the pope, the clergy, all ranks and conditions of men, the sovereign, for catechumens, the sick and afflicted, heretics and schismatics, Jews and heathen.
Already, in St Francis's lifetime, his friars had grown into an order dedicated to spiritual ministrations among the poor, the sick, the ignorant, the outcasts of the great cities; while by the very conception of their institute the Dominicans were dedicated to the special work of preaching, especially to heretics and heathens.
The penalty of excommunication ipso facto is only maintained for reading books written by heretics or apostates in defence of heresy, or books condemned by name under pain of excommunication by pontifical letters (not by decrees of the Index).
Queen Mary being now on the throne, Story was one of her most active agents in prosecuting heretics, and was one of her proctors at the trial of Cranmer at Oxford in 1555.
Not sixty years after the accession of Akhenaton, his city was abandoned, its rulers branded as heretics, and the old religion restored in Thebes as completely as if the Aton.
Akhenatons reform had not reached deep amongst the masses of the population; they probably retained all their old religious customs and superstitions, while the priesthoods throughout the country must have been fiercely opposed to the heretics work, even if silenced during his lifetime by force and bribes.
He therefore took counsel merely with his interest as a temporal prince, threw in his lot with France, supported the duke of Nevers in the Mantuan Succession, and, under stress of ' fear of Habsburg supremacy, suffered himself to be drawn into closer relations with the Protestants than beseemed his office, and incurred the reproach of rejoicing in the victories of heretics.
This failing, he ejected suspected prelates, and occasionally persecuted them, though with far less severity than that applied to the heretics of a deeper dye, such as Montanists or even Arians.
As no preceding sovereign had been so much interested in church affairs, so none seems to have shown so much activity as a persecutor both of pagans and of heretics.
Doctrine, too, was endangered by heretics, one of whom, a Hussite named Paul Crawar, was burned at Perth in 1433.
In James's absence, Scottish heretics fled to England, while Henry's heretics fled to Scotland.
About this date occurs the legend of a list of hundreds of heretics, whom the clergy asked James to proscribe.
Save for the fact that the ministers were as intolerant as ever of Nonconformists, Catholics and heretics, this is a just view, but Charles II.
In May, William, in London, took the coronation oath, but firmly refused to accept, except in some sense of his own not easily understood, the clause, " to be careful to root out all heretics."
In order that his work might fairly stand beside that of the old Latin writers, Severus ignored the allegorical methods of interpreting sacred history to which the heretics and the orthodox of his.
Throughout north-western India he found Buddhist convents and monks surrounded by " swarms of heretics."
The persecutions to which heretics were exposed during this reign were due mainly to the excessive influence exercised by the ecclesiastics, especially by David Beaton, archbishop of St Andrews.
The new dogmas promulgated by the Holy See from time to time have been the outcome of the slow growth of ages, built up from precedent to precedent, and only defined at last when the accumulated weight of evidence in their favour, or the necessity for precise definition to meet the contradictions of heretics, seemed to demand a decision.
So far as jurisdiction is concerned, however, those ' Thus sacraments administered by validly ordained or consecrated priests and bishops are regarded as valid, even when those who administer them are heretics or schismatics.
Not as heretics, by burning, but as traitors, by hanging, drawing and quartering.
Nor were the rationalistic opinions of the Averroists without their value, though the church condemned these deviators from her discipline as heretics.
But these people were rendered licentious in revolt or impotent for salutary action by ignorance, by terror, by uneasy dread of the doom declared for heretics and rebels.
In 441 a synod of sixteen bishops was held at Orange under the presidency of St Hilary of Arles, which adopted thirty canons touching the reconciliation of penitents and heretics; the ecclesiastical right of asylum, diocesan prerogatives of bishops, spiritual privileges of the defective or demoniac, the deportment of catechumens at worship, and clerical celibacy (forbidding married men to be ordained as deacons, and digamists to be advanced beyond the sub-diaconate).
Again not only was the church doctrine itself more or less consciously influenced by the Manichaean tenet of the diabolical origin of all matter, including the human body, but churchmen were also naturally tempted to compete in asceticism with the many heretics who held this tenet, and whose abstinence brought them so much popular consideration.
His contemporary St Bonaventura complained publicly that he himself and his fellow-friars were often compelled to hold their tongues about the evil clergy; partly because, even if one were expelled, another equally worthless would probably take his place, but "perhaps principally lest, if the people altogether lost faith in the clergy, heretics should arise and draw the people to themselves as sheep that have no shepherd, and make heretics of them, boasting that, as it were by our own testimony, the clergy were so vile that none need obey them or care for their teaching."
This conservative attitude was inevitably strengthened by the attacks first of Lollard and then of Lutheran heretics; and Sir Thomas More was driven to declare, in answer to Tyndale, that the marriage of priests, being essentially null and void, "defileth the priest more than double or treble whoredom."
Thus the Roman edition contains (of metrical works) exegetical discourses, hymns on the Nativity of Christ, 65 hymns against heretics, 85 on the Faith against sceptics, a discourse against the Jews, 85 funeral hymns, 4 on free-will, 76 exhortations to repentance, 12 hymns on paradise, and 12 on miscellaneous subjects.
While at Viterbo his rule was firm but mild; and no charge of persecuting heretics is made against him.
At his first convocation he exhorted the bishops to use gentleness rather than rigour in their dealings with heretics; and Pole, in himself, was true to his principle.
In the sixth examination of John Philpot (1516-1555) in 1555 we are told that Lord Riche said to him, "All heretics do boast of the Spirit of God, and every one would have a church by himself, as Joan of Kent and the Anabaptists."
About this time, indeed, there was in Scotland a remarkable approximation to that solution of the toleration difficulty which later ages have approved; for the regent was understood to favour the demand of the "congregation" that at least the penal statutes against heretics "be suspended and abrogated," and "that it be lawful to us to use ourselves in matters of religion and conscience as we must answer to God."
Having meanwhile become archbishop of Canterbury Courtenay summoned a council, or synod, in London, which condemned the opinions of Wycliffe; he then attacked the Lollards at Oxford, and urged the bishops to imprison heretics.
His reign was marked by a troublesome war with the Paulician heretics, an inheritance from his predecessor; the death of their able chief Chrysochir led to the definite subjection of this little state, of which the chief stronghold was Tephrice on the upper Euphrates, and which the Saracens had helped to bid a long defiance to the government of Constantinople.
He now believed himself in a position to crush not only the Lutheran heretics, but also his humanist critics.
Ochino, in the twenty-eighth of his Dialogi XXX., 1563 has a colloquy on the treatment of heretics, between Pius IV.
They further declared that all who affirmed that heresy existed in Bohemia were " liars, vile traitors and calumniators of Bohemia and Moravia, the worst of all heretics, full of all evil, sons of the devil."
On the following day a council, presided over by Trolle, solemnly pronounced judgment of death on the proscribed, as manifest heretics.
The crowd greeted their arrival with mockery and derision, and being treated as the envoys of heretics they escaped without having obtained a hearing.
In advocacy of this baptism, we are told, there was composed by the same heretics a book which was inscribed the Preaching of Paul.
But, if the end in view with the Fathers had been the attainment of truth, instead of the branding of heretics, they could not possibly have accepted the Great Declaration, which contains, as we have seen, the story of Helen, with its references to the Gospels, as the work of Simon 1 See H.E.
This was to be the true Catholic faith; the adherents of other creeds were to be reckoned as heretics and punished.
As a religious man, he wrote and strove in favour of tolerance, being decidedly against capital punishment for heretics.
Louis was gradually recognized by the whole of Germany, especially after his victory at Miihldorf (1322), and gained numerous adherents in Italy, where he supported the Visconti, who had been condemned as heretics by the pope.
Ranuccio was a reserved and gloomy bigot; he instituted savage persecutions against supposed witches and heretics, and lived in perpetual terror of plots.
The Roman church already foreshadowed the change and gave a peculiar salience to confirmation as early as the 3rd century, when it decreed that persons already baptized by heretics, but reverting to the church should not be baptized over again, but only have hands laid on them.
It is not confined to German affairs, as the author digresses to tell of the preaching of Bernard of Clairvaux, of his zeal against the heretics, and of the condemnation of Abelard; and discourses on philosophy and theology.
The first instance of the application of the Theodosian law against heretics had the approval of the synod which met at Treves in the same year, but Ambrose of Milan and Martin of Tours can claim the glory of having in some measure stayed the hand of persecution.
The Hungarian government left much liberty to the Croatian nobles, a turbulent and fanatical class, ever ready for civil war, rebellion or a campaign against the Bosnian heretics.
Thenceforward he devoted himself to the foundation of the Frankish monarchy by driving the exhausted and demoralized heretics out of Gaul, and by putting himself in the place of the now enfeebled emperor.
It was the ideas of Cluniac monks that freed the Church from feudal supremacy, and in the 11th century produced a Pope Gregory VII.; the spirit of free investigation shown by the heretics of Orleans inspired the rude Breton, Abelard, in the 12th century; and with Gerbert and Fulbert of Chartres the schools first kindled that brilliant light which the university of Paris, organized by Philip Augustus, was to shed over the world from the heights of Sainte-Genevive.
But the deputies of the third estate did not support the other two orders, and the latter in their turn refused the king money for making war Sixth War on the heretics, desiring, they said, not war but the and destruction of heresy.
Persistent Donatists were no longer merely heretics; they were rebels and incurred the confiscation of their church property and the forfeiture of their civil rights.
Violent persecutions of heretics and of the numerous Jews brought in new elements of discord.
His attack on the Quakers drew forth William Penn's book, The New Witnesses proved old Heretics (1672).
The clergy were freed from taxation and from lay jurisdiction, the ban of the Empire was to follow the ban of the Church, and heretics were to be severely punished.
Although at times he persecuted heretics with great cruelty, he tolerated Mahommedans and Jews, and both acts appear rather to have been the outcome of political considerations than of religious belief.
Failing a more exact designation, the name of Apostolici has been given to certain groups of Latin heretics of the 12th century.
The heretics of whom Heribert speaks condemned riches, denied the value of the sacraments and of good works, ate no meat, drank no wine and rejected the veneration of images.
Alarmed by the number of the sectaries and the extent of their influence, Pope Martin V., who had encouraged the Observants, and particularly Bernardine of Siena, fulminated two bulls (1418 and 1421) against the heretics, and entrusted different legates with the task of hunting them down.
He taught and wrote vigorously against the Arians and other heretics, and although just after his death (373) the emperor Valens banished the orthodox from Edessa, they returned on the emperor's death in 378.
The first Catharist heretics appeared in Limousin between 1012 and 1020.
But, protected by William IX., duke of Aquitaine, and soon by a great part of the southern nobility, the heretics gained ground in the south, and in 1119 the council of Toulouse in vain ordered the secular powers to assist the ecclesiastical authority in quelling the heresy.
Moreover, two years afterwards a Catharist synod, in which heretics from Languedoc, Bulgaria and Italy took part, was held at St Felix de Caraman, near Toulouse, and their deliberations were undisturbed.
Henry of Albano attempted an armed expedition against the stronghold of heretics at Lavaur and against Raymond Roger, viscount of Beziers, their acknowledged protector.
The persistent decisions of the councils against the heretics at this period - in particular, those of the council of Tours (1163) and of the oecumenical Lateran council (1179) - had scarcely more effect.
They had to contend not only with the heretics, the nobles who protected them, and the people who listened to them and venerated them, but also with the bishops of the district, who rejected the extraordinary authority which the pope had conferred upon his legates, the monks.
The independence of the princes of the south was at an end, but, so far as the heresy was concerned, Albigensianism was not extinguished, in spite of the wholesale massacres of heretics during the war.
Moreover, the church decreed severe chastisement against all laymen suspected of sympathy with the heretics (council of Narbonne, 1235; Bull Ad extirpanda, 1252).
They are using the police and the law as a cage in which to imprison all dissenters and heretics.
Can't stop to chat, I'm off to burn some heretics.
The Church persecuted heretics, who denied the divinity of Jesus, into extinction.
One of the first heretics went by the name of Marcion.
Since his opponents were Arian heretics, he is claimed as a Catholic martyr.
It is true that certain heretics in the 2nd century like Marcion rejected them.
It may be that there have never been many such formal heretics.
He was a friend of Saint Dominic, and persecuted the Albigensian heretics till his death in 1231.
When governments stopped burning heretics and witches, effigy burning remained as a threatening gesture of the mob.
Heretics Via the mechanism of Marxist irrationalism we have returned once more to the era of burning of heretics and books.
From the very day of Clement's coronation the king had charged the Templars with heresy, immorality and abuses, and the scruples of the weak pope were at length overcome by apprehension lest the State should not wait for the Church, but should proceed independently against the alleged heretics, as well as by the royal threats of pressing the accusation of heresy against the late Boniface VIII.
The social environment of Christians may be inferred from the canons prohibiting marriage and other intercourse with Jews, pagans and heretics, closing the offices of flamen and duumvir to Christians, forbidding all contact with idolatry and likewise participation in pagan festivals and public games.
Heretics were allowed thirty days to declare themselves.
The uppermost stage was reserved for the deacon who sang the gospel (facing the congregation); for promulgating episcopal edicts; reciting the names inscribed on the diptychs (see Diptych); announcing fasts, vigils and feasts; reading ecclesiastical letters or acts of the martyrs celebrated on that day; announcing new miracles for popular edification, professions by new converts or recantations by heretics; and (for priests and deacons) preaching sermons, - bishops as a general rule preaching from their own throne.
A staunch Roman Catholic, but belonging to a school of Augustinian enthusiasts (the Jansenists), whom the Church put down as heretics, he stands pretty much apart from the general currents.
With his father's aspiration of making Holy Russia a homogeneous empire he thoroughly sympathized in principle, but he disliked the systematic persecution of Jews, heretics and schismatics to which it gave rise, and he let it be understood, without any formal order or proclamation, that the severe measures hitherto employed would not meet with his approval.
As regards civil law, Jews were at first allowed to settle disputes between Jew and Jew before their own courts, but Justinian denied to them and to heretics the right to appear as witnesses in the public courts against orthodox Christians.
The city swarmed with Spanish adventurers, assassins, prostitutes and informers; murder and robbery were committed with impunity, heretics and Jews were admitted to the city on payment of bribes, and the pope himself shamelessly cast aside all show of decorum, living a purely secular and I.
In dealing with pagans and heretics Gratian, who during his later years was greatly influenced by Ambrose, bishop of Milan, exhibited severity and injustice at variance with his usual character.
The Roman see reluctantly consented to the presence of heretics at this council, but indignantly rejected the suggestion of the Hussites that members of the Greek Church, and representatives of all Christian creeds, should also be present.
As even" the Christian virtues of the heretics were described as hypocrisy Heretical .
During the middle ages they were popularly looked upon as cretins, lepers, heretics and even as cannibals.
On the Roman Catholic side the employment of compulsion against heretics has never been acknowledged as a blunder; and this method of silencing opposition has found champions in the bosom of the Church down to the most recent years.
At the diet of Piotrkow in 1562, indeed, the king's sore need of subsidies induced him, at the demand of the szlachta, to abolish altogether the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts in cases of heresy; but, on the other hand, at the diet of 1564 he accepted from Commendone the Tridentine decrees and issued an edict banishing all foreign, and especially Anti-trinitarian, heretics from the land.
Taking the Articles of Marburg (see Marburg, Colloquy Of) and of Schwabach as the point of departure, he repudiated all connexion with heretics condemned by the ancient church.
It is an age of conscious selection as between ideal systems. Instead of necessitating a wasteful and precarious elimination of inadequate customs by the actual destruction of those who practise them - this being the method of natural selection, which, like some Spanish Inquisition, abolishes the heresy by wiping out the heretics one and all - progress now becomes possible along the more direct and less Comte's own term " fetishism " was most unfortunately misleading (see Fetishism).
On the one hand, indeed, orthodoxy and heresy are symbolized to his mind by the wheat and the tares respectively; he clings to the naive opinion of Catholicism, that contemporary orthodoxy has prevailed within the Church from the first; he recognizes the true faith only in the mystery of the Trinity; he judges heretics who have been already condemned as interlopers, as impudent innovators, actuated by bad and self-seeking motives; he apologizes for having so much as treated of Arianism at all in his history of the Church; he believes in the inspiration of the ecclesiastical councils as much as in that of the Scriptures themselves.
He was of course a persecutor of heretics.
On the 1st of July 1416 Chicheley directed a halfyearly inquisition by archdeacons to hunt out heretics.
In the very earliest centuries we find the episcopate, united in council,, drawing up symbols of faith, which every believer was bound to accept under pain of exclusion, condemning heresies, and casting out heretics.
Civil war was raging in France, and Clement became an ardent partisan of the League; his mind appears to have become unhinged by religious fanaticism, and he talked of exterminating the heretics, and formed a plan to kill Henry III.
Here, too, he published, in 1531, his most important work, the Chronica, Zeitbuch and Geschichtsbibel, largely a compilation on the basis of the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493), and in its treatment of social and religious questions connected with the Reformation, exhibiting a strong sympathy with heretics, and an unexampled fairness to all kinds of freedom in opinion.
The enforcement of the first Book of Common Prayer had also been part of his official duties; and the fact that Bonner made no such protest against the burning of heretics as he had done in the former case shows that he found it the more congenial duty.
Esprit Flechier, bishop of Nimes, in this Histoire du cardinal Jimenes (Paris, 1693), says that Torquemada made her promise that when she became queen she would make it her principal business to chastise and destroy heretics.
Designed to protect heretics from the secret and summary methods of the Inquisition, it certainly had his sympathy and approval.
The cruel persecutions instituted by the authorities with a view to securing conformity increased the number and fanaticism of the schismatics and heretics, and created among them a widespread belief that the reign of Antichrist, foretold in the Apocalypse, was at hand.
Honorius was equally severe on heretics, such as the Donatists and Manichaeans.
He is not opposed to penalties against heretics, but he would have them pronounced only by civil tribunals.
He exhibited severity and injustice when dealing with pagans and heretics.
The story of the persecution of heretics by the state must be briefly sketched.
While Constantine at the beginning of his reign (313) declared complete religious liberty, and kept on the whole to this declaration, yet he confined his favours to the orthodox hierarchical church, and even by an edict of the year 326 formally asserted the exclusion from these of heretics and schismatics.
When this devout maiden began to denounce the ungodly cardinal who was allied with heretics, her confessor - in Richelieu's service - succeeded in inducing her to become a nun.