We have seen the end of hereditary monarchy.
There were no hereditary or formally elected chiefs, nor was there any vestige of monarchy.
By the time of the jurists it had become hereditary and compulsory.
If it's hereditary, then the mutation has been hidden from us for, like, maybe even hundreds of thousands of years.
With the crystallization of the feudal system in the 12th century the office of vidame, like that of avoue, had become an hereditary fief.
She has a hereditary blood anomaly that makes her immune to all but the oldest of our kind.
He no longer seemed stout, though he still had the appearance of solidity and strength hereditary in his family.
James Hepburn succeeded in 1556 to his father's titles, lands and hereditary offices, including that of lord high admiral of Scotland.
This office did not become hereditary, however, and his descendants bore simply the title of counts of Scheyern until about 1116, when the emperor Henry V.
Three centuries later, it became a hereditary right and came with a daily ration of two pounds of bread ("Hey, you don't expect us to cook the free grain, do you?") and occasionally included meat, olive oil, and salt.
" Character," says George Sand, " is in a great measure hereditary: if my readers wish to know me they must know my father."
The greater part of the district consists of state land, the cultivators being tenants of government, but there is a certain amount of hereditary freehold.
In 1879 he was made hereditary member of the Upper House.
It was of the nature of a contract, entered into by mutual promise, the clasping of hands, and exchange of an agreement in writing (tabula hospitalis) or of a token (tessera or symbolum), and was rendered hereditary by the division of the tessera.
In the region east of KroIa the Mat tribe, which occupies the upper valley of the Matia, presents an 'entirely different organization; their district is governed by four wealthy families, possessing hereditary rank and influence.
The endless tergiversations and depredations of the emperor speedily induced Matthias to declare war against him for the third time (1481), the Magyar king conquering all the fortresses in Frederick's hereditary domains.
Still there was a wide difference between the duke of the Normans and the duke of Apulia, between an hereditary prince of a hundred and fifty years' standing and an adventurer who had carved out his duchy for himself.
Their hereditary chiefs, or capidans, belong to the family known as Dera e Jon Markut (the house of John Marco), which has ruled for 200 years and is supposed to be descended from Scanderbeg.
The former existence of so many separate sovereignties and fountains of honor gave nse to a great many hereditary titles of nobility.
About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
As a whole, the Malays are, however, a remarkably healthy people, and deformity and hereditary diseases are rare among them.
Many cases occur where such an office was hereditary; thus the family of Callias at Athens were proxeni of the Spartans.
Besides many hundreds of princes, dukes, marquesses, counts, barons and viscounts, there are a large number of persons of patrician rank, persons with a right to the designation nobile or signor-i, and certain hereditary knights or cavalieri.
The Breisgau, originally a pagus or gau of the Frankish empire, was ruled during the middle ages by hereditary counts.
The word thane was used in Scotland until the 15th century, to describe an hereditary non-military tenant of the crown.
The peer holds a great position, endowed with substantial powers and privileges, and those powers and privileges are handed on by hereditary succession.
Nobility thus implies the vesting of some hereditary privilege or advantage in certain families, without deciding in what such privilege or advantage consists.
They do really seem to engender a kind of hereditary capacity in their members.
The tendency of modern times has been towards the breaking down of formal hereditary privileges.
the Bald, whose daughter Judith he had abducted, on receiving the hereditary title of count of Flanders.
The device of hereditary coat-armour, a growth of the 12th century, did much to define and mark out the noble class throughout Europe.
As the non-privileged order increased in numbers, while the privileged order, as every exclusive hereditary body must do, lessened, the larger body gradually put on the character of the nation at large, while the smaller body put on the character of a nobility.
This was the grandfather of the fifteenth duke, earl of Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk, and hereditary earl marshal of England.
krene-te) who form a council and, like the baryaktar, hold their office by hereditary right; they preside over the assemblies of the tribesmen, which exercise the supreme legislative power.
In Italy, divided between feudal nobles and almost hereditary ecclesiastics, of foreign blood and alien sympathies, there was no national feeling.
In 1705 he supported a motion that the church was in danger, and in 1710 in Sacheverell's case spoke in defence of hereditary right.'
It is clear, however, that an equal quantitative division and distribution of the chromatin to the daughter cells is brought about; and if, as has been suggested, the chromatin consists of minute particles or units which are the carriers of the hereditary characteristics, the nuclear division also probably results in the equal division and distribution of one half of each of these units to each daughter cell.
In the next place, the antagonism of the popes to the emperors, whicl became hereditary in the Holy College, forced the former tc - assume the protectorate of the national cause.
Once more, it must be borne in mind that, while it is essential to the idea of nobility that it should carry with it some hereditary privilege, the nature and extent of that privilege may vary endlessly.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
Adaptive characters are often hereditary, for instance, the seed of a parasite will produce a parasite, and the same is true of a carnivorous plant.
Its head, the duke of Norfolk, is the first of the dukes and the hereditary earl marshal of England, while the earls of Suffolk, Carlisle and Effingham and the Lord Howard of Glossop represent in the peerage its younger lines.
In 1497 he attacked and gained possession of Samarkand, to which he always seems to have thought he had a natural and hereditary right.
In England, the royal almonry still forms a part of the sovereign's household, the officers being the hereditary grand almoner (the marquess of Exeter), the lord high almoner, the sub-almoner, and the secretary to the lord high almoner.
Though a strong Tory and supporter of the hereditary principle, James's attacks on Protestantism soon drove him into opposition.
His views on church polity were dominated by his implicit belief in the divine right of kings (not of course the divine hereditary right of kings) which the Anglicans felt it necessary to set up against the divine right of popes.
Early in the 10th century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, known eventually as the counts of Tusculum, who almost succeeded in rendering the office hereditary, and in uniting the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member of their house.
In Tuscany, where the Guelph party was very strongly organized, and the commercial constitution of Florence kept the nobility in check, the communes remained as yet free from hereditary masters.
to his grandson Thomas, a lunatic living at Padua, on whose death in 1677 it passed to this Thomas's brother, Henry Frederick, who had been created earl of Norwich and hereditary earl marshal of England in 1672.
The hereditary oligarchy of Venice was established by a series of changes which took place between the years 1297 and 1319.
The office was hereditary and carried with it considerable power.
Birds came at his call, and forgot their hereditary fear of man; beasts lipped and caressed him; the very fish in lake and stream would glide, unfearful, between his hands.
Abandoned first by England and then by Holland, the emperor, notwithstanding these desertions, still wished to maintain the war in Germany; but Eugene was unable to relieve either Landau or Freiburg, which were successively obliged to capitulate; and seeing the Empire thus laid open to the armies of France, and even the Austrian hereditary states themselves exposed to invasion, the prince counselled his master to make peace.
So intensely aristocratic (hence his nickname 6 AoXoiSopos, "he who rails at the people") was his temperament that he declined to exercise the regal-hieratic office of 1 3avLAeus which was hereditary in his family, and presented it to his brother.
What added to the practical difficulties of this arrangement was that the post of grand-prince was not an hereditary dignity in the sense of descending from father to son, but was always to be held by the senior member of the dynasty; and in the subordinate principalities the same principle of succession was applied, so that reigning princes had to be frequently shifted about from one district to another, according as they could establish the strongest claim to vacant principalities.
Instead of conforming to abstract principles of public law and hereditary succession, they strove to enlarge their territories at the expense of their rivals, and to leave them at their death to their sons rather than to their brothers, nephews and more distant relations.
It always had a prince, no doubt, but he was engaged by formal contract without much attention being paid to hereditary rights, and he was merely leader of the troops, while all the political power remained in the hands of the civil officials and the Vetche, a popular assembly which was called together in the market-place, as occasion required, by the tolling of the great bell.
Those of them who lived on the outskirts of the pacified territory adopted a mode of life similar to that of their hereditary opponents, and constituted a peculiar class known as Cossacks, living more by flocks and The h e rds and by marauding expeditions than by a ri y g p ?'
Nor was his hereditary title so good as that of the Mortimers.
O'Neill, grandson of Neill, or Niall, the name O'Neill becoming about this time an hereditary family surname 2), whose grandson, Flaherty, became renowned for piety by going on a pilgrimage to Rome in 1030.
The adoption of hereditary names became general in Ireland, in obedience, it is said, to an ordinance of Brian Boru, about the end of the Loth century.
They belong to an area which merges itself in the west into Egypt, and Egypt in fact had a hereditary claim upon it.
They are bold and skilful sailors and fishermen; other trades, as boat and house building, carving, cooking, net and mat making, are usually hereditary.
These were the hereditary counsellors and companions of the chiefs, and conveyed to the people the decisions formed at their assemblies.
In 1904 the financial and legal administration was put into the hands of the British High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. The native king is assisted by a legislative assembly consisting, in equal numbers, of hereditary nobles and popular (elected) representatives.
To say that it is due to hereditary experience is generally regarded as inadmissible.
For modern interpretation hereditary modes of behaviour afford experience; in no other sense can it be said that experience is inherited.
Granted that instinctive modes of behaviour are hereditary and definite within the limits of congenital variation, the question of their manner of genesis is narrowed to a clear issue.
not transmitted as hereditary instincts.
This plasticity is, however, itself hereditary.
Bosnia was regarded by successive sultans as the Turkish gateway into Hungary; hatred of the Hungarians and their religion was hereditary among the Bogomils.
Their yearly visits to Serajevo assumed in time the character of an informal parliament, for the discussion of national questions; and their rights tended always to increase, and to become hereditary, in fact, though not in law.
But this resulted in so heavy a: burden upon the public that the law had again to be altered to extend hereditary rights, and to admit a system of mortgage which was assimilated to that for emiriye; but the evils were little more than palliated.
The fiefs were not hereditary, and were held directly from the sultan.
Karageorge, who had fled to Austria in 1812, was induced to return, but Milosh caused him to be murdered, and in 1817 was by a popular vote named hereditary prince of Servia.
According to this instrument Greece was to be erected into a tributary state, but autonomous, and governed by an hereditary prince chosen by the powers.
The intervention of the powers, based on the convention of London of the i 5th of July 1840, led to the withdrawal of Ibrahim from Syria, and the establishment by the firman of the 13th of February 1841 of Mehemet Ali as hereditary pasha of Egypt under conditions intended to safeguard the sovereign rights of the Ottoman sultan.
Though clad, armed and organized in European fashion, the soldiers retained in a marked degree the traditions of their Mongolian forerunners, their transport wagons were in type the survival of ages of experience, and their care for their animals equally the result of hereditary habit.
presented the lordship to his minister, Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, and in 1625 raised it to the rank of an hereditary duchy in his favour.
As in the rest of Indo-China, there is no hereditary nobility, but there exist castes founded on blood relationship - the members of the royal family within the fifth degree (the Brah-Vansa) those beyond the fifth degree (BrahVan), and the Bakou, who, as descendants of the ancient Brahmans, exercise certain official functions at the court.
(1772-1844), king of the Netherlands, born at the Hague on the 24th of August 1772, was the son of William V., prince of Orange and hereditary stadtholder of the United Netherlands by Sophia Wilhelmina, princess of Prussia.
After the peace of Amiens he had an interview with Napoleon at Paris, and received some territory adjoining the hereditary domains of the house of Nassau in Westphalia as a compensation for the abandonment of the stadtholderate and the domains of his house.
Sigismund, king of the Romans, had, by the death of his brother Wenceslaus without issue, acquired a claim on the Bohemian crown; though it was then, and remained till much later, doubtful whether Bohemia was an hereditary or an elective monarchy.
Among other buildings are the town hall (built 1899-1900), the palace of the hereditary prince, the theatre, the administration offices, the law courts, the Amalienstift, with a picture gallery, several high-grade schools, a library of 30,000 volumes and an excellently appointed hospital.
It was garrisoned at the period of the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745, fell into decay early in the 19th century, and is now the property of the crown, the duke of Argyll being hereditary keeper.
They are all termed the brotherhood of the rao or Bhayad, and supposed to be his hereditary advisers, and their possessions are divided among their male children.
The count's office was not yet a dignity, nor hereditary; he was not independent nor appointed for life, but exercised the royal power by delegation, as under the Merovingians.
In Germany the change from the official to the territorial and hereditary counts followed at the outset much the same course as in France, though the later development of the title and its meaning was different.
In the 10th century the counts were permitted by the kings to divide their benefices and rights among their sons, the rule being established that countships (Grafschaften) were hereditary, that they might be held by boys, that they were heritable by females and might even be administered by females.
He adopted a plan which had been organiza- found to succeed well in Madeira and the Azores, tion in dividing the country into hereditary captaincies, and Sao Vicente Piratininga, in the present province of Sao Paulo.
Further immunities and privileges were granted by James III.; and by a precept of 1482, known as the Golden Charter, he bestowed on the provost and magistrates the hereditary office of sheriff, with power to hold courts, to levy fines, and to impose duties on all merchandise landed at the port of Leith.
Outer Mongolia, the remainder of the territory, has 4 aimaks, three of which are under hereditary khans.
The succession to the throne is hereditary in the order of primogeniture in the male line of the house of Habsburg-Lorraine; and failing this, in the female line.
The House of Magnates is composed as follows: princes of the royal house who have attained their majority (16 in 1904); hereditary peers who pay at least £250 a year land tax (237 in 1904); high dignitaries of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches (42 in 1904); representatives of the Protestant confessions (13 in 1904); life peers appointed by the crown, not exceeding 50 in number, and life peers elected by the house itself (73 altogether in 1904); members ex officio consisting of state dignitaries and high judges (19 in 1904); and three delegates of Croatia-Slavonia.
The title of count (grof) was assumed later (15th century) by those nobles who had succeeded, in spite of the Golden Bull, in making their authority over whole counties independent and hereditary.
Bela endeavoured to strengthen his own monarchy by introducing the hereditary principle, crowning his infant son Emerich, as his successor during his own lifetime, a practice followed by most of the later Arpads; he also held a brilliant court on the Byzantine model, and replenished the treasury by his wise economies.
This is especially clear from clause xvi., which decrees that the title and estates of the lords-lieutenant of counties should not be hereditary, thus attacking feudalism at its very roots, while clause xiv.
Indeed, Ferdinand regarded his narrow strip of Hungarian territory as simply a barrier behind which he could better defend the hereditary states.
But, stimulated by the representations of Pope Innocent XI., who, well aware of the internal weakness of the Turk, was bent upon forming a Holy League to drive them out of Europe, and alarmed, besides, by the danger of Vienna and the hereditary states, Leopold reluctantly contracted an alliance with John III.
The ruthless suppression of the Magyar malcontents, in which there was little discrimination between the innocent and the guilty, had so crushed the spirit of the country that Leopold considered the time ripe for realizing a long-cherished ideal of the Habsburgs and changing Hungary from an elective into an hereditary monarchy.
To this weakened and terrorized assembly the emperorking explained that he had the right to treat Hungary as a conquered country, but that he was prepared to confirm its constitutional liberties under three conditions: the inaugural diploma was to be in the form signed by Ferdinand I., the crown was to be declared hereditary in the house of Habsburg, and the 31st clause of the Golden Bull, authorizing armed resistance to unconstitutional acts of the sovereign, was to be abrogated.
The adherence to type, the favourite conception of the transcendental morphologist, was seen to be nothing more than the expression of one of the laws of thremmatology, the persistence of hereditary transmission of ancestral characters, even when they have ceased to be significant or valuable in the struggle for existence, whilst the so-called evidences of design which was supposed to modify the limitations of types assigned to Himself by the Creator were seen to be adaptations due to the selection and intensification by selective breeding of fortuitous congenital variations, which happened to prove more useful than the many thousand other variations which did not survive in the struggle for existence.
By some writers the word " mutation " is applied only to large and suddenly appearing variations which are found to be capable of hereditary transmission, whilst the term " fluctuation " is applied to small variations whether capable of transmission or not.
Instincts, or the inherited structural mechanisms. of the nervous centres, are in antagonism to the results of the reasoning process, which are not capable of hereditary transmission.
The stock may be destroyed, killed out by adverse conditions, but its quality is not directly affected, and if removed to more favourable conditions it will show no hereditary results of the previous adversity; indeed it will probably have been strengthened in some ways by the destruction in severe conditions of its weaker members and the survival of the stronger individuals.
His own family was of great antiquity, his ancestors having been hereditary ministerials of the bishop of Worms since the time of Ekbert the chamberlain, who founded in i 119 the Augustinian monastery of Frankenthal and died in 1132.
the realm of Denmark as a purely hereditary kingdom.
After 1828 the Laos became entirely subject to Siam, and were governed partly by khiao, or native hereditary princes, partly by mandarins directly nominated by the Bangkok authorities.
The first count was Hermann I., who ruled from 945 to 996, and although the office was not hereditary it appears to have been held mainly by his descendants until the death of Count Hermann III.
He then journeyed to Wittenberg, where he was advised by Martin Luther to cast aside the senseless rules of his order, to marry, and to convert Prussia into an hereditary duchy for himself.
The deleterious influence of high bloodpressure has engaged the attention of physicians and pathologists in later years, and the conclusion arrived at is, that although it may arise from accidental causes, such as malcomposition of the blood, yet that in many instances it is a hereditary or family defect, and is bound up with the tendency to gout and cirrhotic degeneration of the kidney.
The tendencies to disease are in great part hereditary.
At a convivial gathering on the, 8th of November he supported a toast to "the speedy abolition of all hereditary titles and feudal distinctions," and gave proof of his zeal by expressly repudiating his own title - a performance for which he was dismissed from the army.
1577, which has remained ever since the centre of the Sikh religious worship. From this time onward the office of guru became hereditary, but the practice of primogeniture was not followed, each guru selecting the relative who seemed most fitted to succeed him.
But Florence was torn by factions - the Ottimati the signory was abolished, Alessandro created gonfaloniere for life, and his lordship made hereditary in his family by imperial patent.
The queen, Marie Antoinette, was especially attracted by the grace and wit of le beau Fersen, who had inherited his full share of the striking handsomeness which was hereditary in the family.
Probably the sovereignty again became hereditary.
In some islands hereditary autocracy prevailed; in others the government was elective.
10, &c.), was hereditary among the descendants of Hillel.
About the end of the 9th century Fezensac (comitatus Fedentiacus), in circumstances of which no trustworthy record remains, was erected into an hereditary countship. This latter was in its turn divided, the south-western portion becoming, about 960, the countship of Armagnac (pages Armaniacus).
His old ally having deserted him, he accepted the aid of his hereditary foe.
Of these rights, which included the hereditary right to a seat in the estates, the most valued is that of Ebenbiirtigkeit (equality of birth),which, for purposes of matrimonial alliance, ranks the mediatized princes with the royal houses of Europe.
There are various degrees of hereditary chiefships, and a supreme chief recognized by all.
Forming at once a church and a nation, they own allegiance to their hereditary patriarch, Mar Shimun, Catholicus of the East, who resides at Qudshanis, a village about 7000 ft.
From 1631 to 1702 the office of Bey was hereditary in the descendants of Mural, a Corsican renegade, and their rivalry with the Deys and internal dissensions kept the country in constant disorder.
'Ali, the son of a Cretan renegade, was proclaimed sovereign by the troops under the title of "Bey," and, being a prince of energy and ability, was able to establish the hereditary sovereignty, which has lasted without change of dynasty to the present time.2 Frequent wars with Algiers form the chief incidents in the internal history of Tunisia under the Beys.
The office of curaca or cacique was made hereditary, and its possessor enjoyed several privileges.
Wearied of their importunities, yet revolting at the idea of submission to any member of the opposite sex, Christina settled the difficulty by appointing Charles her successor, and at the Riksdag of 1650 the Swedish crown was declared hereditary in Charles and his heirs male.
The hereditary sultan of the archipelago is tributary to the British government of Ceylon.
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1852, modified in 1874.
The government of Baden is an hereditary monarchy, with the executive power vested in the grand-duke, while the legislative authority is shared by him with a representative assembly (Landtag) consisting of two chambers.
Spencer welcomed the Darwinian theory, and enriched it with the phrase" survival of the fittest "; but he did not give up the (Lamarckian) belief in the hereditary transmission of the modifications of organisms by the exercise of function.
On the other hand, he advances too easily from the maxim that function is prior to, and makes, structure to the conclusion that the results of use and disuse are therefore immediately incarnated in structural adaptations capable of hereditary transmission.
Of his daughters, the princess Charlotte was married to Bernard, hereditary prince of Meiningen; the princess Victoria to Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe; the princess Sophie to the duke of Sparta, crown prince of Greece; and the princess Margaretha to Prince Friedrich Karl of Hesse.
1184), sire de Joinville, who accompanied Henry the Liberal, count of Champagne, to the Holy Land in 1147, received from him the office of seneschal, and this office became hereditary in the house of Joinville.
Emden (Emuden, Emetha) is first mentioned in the 12th century, when it was the capital of the Eemsgo (Ernsgau, or county of the Ems), one of the three hereditary countships into which East Friesland had been divided by the emperor.
The name Eupatridae survived in historical times, but the Eupatridae were then excluded from the cult of the "Semnae" at Athens, and also held the hereditary office of "expounder of the law" (7yii-r17s) in connexion with purification from the guilt of murder.
These included hereditary succession to tenements, exemption from sullage, the right to elect a reeve (praepositus) if the grantor thought one necessary and the right to marry without the lord's interference.
Having in general shared the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods, Agenais next became an hereditary countship in the part of the country now called Gascony (Vasconia).
It was included in Charlemagne's empire and was divided by him into counties, which evolved there as elsewhere into hereditary fiefs; but after the break-up of Charlemagne's empire, the Burgundian kingdom revived and Savoy was again absorbed in it.
By his victory at St Quentin over the French in 1557 he proved himself one of the first generals of the day, and by the terms of the subsequent treaty of Cateau Cambresis he was reinstated in most of his hereditary possessions (1559).
Another relic was the saint's staff or crozier, which became known as the coygerach or quigrich, and was long in the possession of a family of the name of Jore or Dewar, who were its hereditary guardians.
He then made what had hitherto been an elective a hereditary throne by crowning his infant son Emerich his successor.
This study, however, did not check his hereditary taste for geometry.
He soon returned to Sparta to mature plans for overthrowing the hereditary kingship and substituting an elective monarchy open to all Heraclids, or even, according to another version, to all Spartiates.
His services were rewarded in 1498 when Maximilian bestowed upon him the title of hereditary governor (potestat) of Friesland, but he had to make good his claim by force of arms. He had I.
In 1809 the conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire.
In the Lebanon both the Christian clans and the Druses are ruled by hereditary amirs.
In the Habsburg hereditary dominions the traditional policy and Catholic fervour of the ruling house resulted, after a long struggle, in the restoration of the supremacy of Rome; while in Hungary the national spirit of independence kept Calvinism alive to divide the religious allegiance of the people.
The fact that the conservative princes, especially the dukes of Bavaria, were opposed to any strengthening of the emperor's power, and were in some cases hereditary enemies of the house of; Habsburg, served to protect the Protestant princes.
Frederick, however, did not neglect his hereditary lands.
The position was simplified when, in 1220, Albert van Cuyck, the last of the hereditary burgraves, sold his rights to the bishop. These ecclesiastical princes were churchmen in little but name, and their desire to be absolute rulers found itself confronted by the determination of the burghers to secure greater independence.
The gilds and burgher militia were deprived of all voice in the government, and the town council became an hereditary body.
The headship of the clan was sometimes hereditary, sometimes elective, but each clan had a totemic name, and the clans together constituted the tribe, the bond being not land, but blood.
Throughout the 9th and 10th centuries, as the life-benefices of the later Carolingian kings were gradually transformed into hereditary fiefs, the insecurity of life and property increased, for there was no central power to curb the warring local magnates.
Such were the Orebro concilium of 1537, the diet of 1540 in which the crown was declared hereditary, and that of 1810 when Bernadotte was elected crown prince.
He was born on the 2nd of December 1817 at Dusseldorf, where his father held important posts in the public service both under the French and the Prussians; in 1831 he had been raised to the hereditary nobility.
The inscriptions seem to indicate that the monarchies of South Arabia were hereditary, the son generally following the father, though not seldom the brother of the deceased came between, apparently on the principle of seniority, which we find also in North Arabia.
1739), public executioner of Paris from 1788 to 1795, was the son of Charles Sanson or Longval, who received in 1688 the office of executeur des hautes oeuvres de Paris, which became hereditary in his family.
The crown is hereditary in the Albertine line of the house of Wettin, with reversion to the Ernestine line, of which the duke of Saxe-Weimar is now the head.
With the exception of the hereditary and some of the ex-officio members of the first chamber, the members of the diet are entitled to an allowance for their daily expenses, as well as their travelling expenses.
In 1791 Frederick declined the crown of Poland, although it was now offered as hereditary even in the female line.
The governorship of the pashalik was long hereditary in the originally Christian family of the `Abd-al-Jalil, until the Porte, during the course of the 19th century, succeeded after a long and severe contest in establishing a more centralized system of government.
1863), an hereditary member of the House of Lords, and chairman of the Committee of Privileges in it, had been head of the Ministry of Agriculture from Oct.
In 1899 her grandson, the hereditary prince of Coburg, had succumbed to phthisis, and in 1900 his father, the duke of Coburg, the queen's second son, previously known as the duke of Edinburgh, also died (July 30).
In 1712 the family received the dignity of hereditary marshals of the Church and guardians of the conclaves, which gave them a very great importance on the death of every pope.
There are no hereditary titles, those in use being conferred for life only and being attached to some particular office.
The montons consist of groups of the old rural provinces (muang); the hereditary chiefs of which, except in the Lao country in the north and in the Malay States, have been replaced by governors trained in administrative work and subordinate to the high commissioner.
In especial he vindicates the propriety of resistance to kingly oppression or misrule, upholds the existence of an hereditary nobility interested in their country's good as the firmest barrier against such oppression, and maintains the authority of parliaments.
Such estates have increased greatly in number and extent, not only in Java but elsewhere, since the agrarian law of 1870, under which it became possible for settlers to obtain waste lands on hereditary lease for 75 years.
It is only when we remember the extensive and mischievous influence on science which hypotheses about aethers used formerly to exercise, that we can appreciate the horror of aethers which sober-minded men had during the 18th century, and which, probably as a sort of hereditary prejudice, descended even to John Stuart Mill.
Even the Hanse Towns, the hereditary enemies of Denmark, regarded the situation with disquietude.
The Romans, it need hardly be said, had no hereditary priests.'
For further details as to the development of the priestly caste and wisdom in India the reader must refer to Brahminism; here it is enough to observe that among a religious people a priesthood which forms a close and still more an hereditary corporation, and the assistance of which is indispensable in all religious acts, must rise to practical supremacy in society except under the strongest form of despotism, where the sovereign is head of the Church as well as of the state.
Zoroastrianism is not a nature religion, but the result of a reform which never, under the old empire, thoroughly penetrated the masses; and the priesthood, as it was not based on family tradition, did not form a strict hereditary caste.
We find therefore no trace of a sacrificial priesthood, but each temple had one or more doorkeepers (sadin, hajib), whose office was usually hereditary in a certain family and who had the charge of the temple and its treasures.
That at least the greater offices were hereditary - as in the case of the sons of Zadok, who succeeded to the royal priesthood in Jerusalem after the fall of Abiathar - was almost a matter of course as society was then constituted, but there is not the slightest trace of an hereditary hierarchy officiating by divine right, such as existed after the exile.
36, a passage written after the hereditary dignity of the sons of Zadok at Jerusalem was well established.
Further details respecting priestly offices and hereditary priesthoods and the relation of Aaronids to Zadokids will be found briefly discussed in Ency.
Thus the hereditary priests of IKozah (KoM were the chief dignitaries in Idumaea at the time of the Jewish conquest of the country (Jos.
His education at the Spanish court and an hereditary tendency to insanity, however, made him haughty, suspicious and consequently very unpopular, while even in his best days the temper of his mind was that of a recluse rather than of a ruler.
When things came to a deadlock the king tactfully intervened and voluntarily relinquished his hereditary title to Lithuania, thus placing the two countries on a constitutional equality and preparing the way for fresh negotiations in the future.
He was not to use the word haeres, not being an hereditary sovereign.
clung to his hereditary rights to the Swedish Crown involved Poland in a quite unnecessary series of wars with Charles IX.
The revolution of the 3rd .of May 1791 converted Poland into an hereditary 3 limited monarchy, with ministerial responsibility and duennial parliaments.
Cobenzl, the Austrian minister at St Petersburg, writing to his court immediately after the reception of the tidings at the Russian capital, describes the empress as full of consternation at the idea that Poland under an hereditary dynasty might once more become a considerable power.
Wallenstein was interred at the neighbouring Carthusian monastery, but in 1639 the head and right hand were taken by General Baner to Sweden, and in 1702 the other remains were removed by Count Vincent of Waldstein to his hereditary burying ground at Miinchengratz.
In this he attacked the immoralities of the Maharajas or hereditary high priests of the Vallabhacharya sect of Vaishnavism to which the Bhatias belong.
By the act of survivance passed in 1631 the offices and dignities held by Frederick Henry were made hereditary in his family.
Elizabeth thus lost all hereditary title to the throne, and her early years of childhood can hardly have been happier than Mary's.
Of these two kinds of genetic and adaptive resemblance, homogeny is the warp composed of the vertical, hereditary strands, which connect animals with their ancestors and their successors, while analogy is the woof, composed of the horizontal strands which tie animals together by their superficial resemblances.
Homogeny, in contrast, the " special homology " of Owen, is the supreme test of kinship or of hereditary relationship, and thus the basis of all sound reasoning in phylogeny.
All are contained in the broad generalization that every part of an animal, however minute, has its separate and independent basis in the hereditary substance of the germ cells from which it is derived and may enjoy consequently a separate and independent history.
The essence of Waagen's law is orthogenesis, or evolution in a definite direction, and, if there does exist an internal hereditary principle controlling such orthogenetic evolution, there does not appear to be any essential contradiction between its gradual operation in the " mutations of Waagen " and its occasional hurried operation in the " mutations of de Vries," which are by their definition discontinuous or saltatory (Osborn, 1907).
The only inkling of possible underlying principles in this orderly process is that there appears to be in respect to certain characters a potentiality or a predisposition through hereditary kinship to evolve in certain definite directions.
In other words, a balance appears to be always sustained between the internal (hereditary and ontogenetic) and the external (environmental and selectional) factors of evolution.
In Tunis "bey" has become the hereditary title of the reigning sovereigns (see Tunisia).
It is probable that the first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most cases a development from it due to (i.) the influence of other individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iii.) the influence of chieftainship, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical ideas connected therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of function or to a philosophic unification, (vi.) the desire to do honour to the species in the person of one of its members, and possibly other less easily traceable causes.
Thus true hereditary infection of a succeeding generation of gnats may be brought about.
B.C.), Greek poet, physician and grammarian, was born at Claros, near Colophon, where his family held the hereditary priesthood of Apollo.
In the following year the archduke Ferdinand, on assuming the government of his hereditary dominions, issued an edict of banishment against Protestant preachers and professors.
Alexander, son of Donald, resumed the hereditary warfare against the Scottish crown; and in 1462 a treaty was concluded between Alexander's son and successor John and Edward IV.
By the death of his father he was also left hereditary head of the Berlas.
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on a law of 1857.
appointed both Robert II., earl of Leicester, and Hugh Bigod, earl of Norfolk, to be his honorary hereditary stewards; and at the Christmas festival of 1186 the successors in title of these two earls, with William, earl of Arundel, who held the similar honorary office of hereditary butler, are described as serving the king at the royal banqueting table.
On Charles's death in 1788 Henry issued a manifesto asserting his hereditary right to the British crown, and likewise struck a medal, commemorative of the event, with the legend "Hen.
Malik Shah regulated also the affairs of Asia Minor and Syria, conceding the latter province as an hereditary fief to his brother Tutush, who established himself at Damascus and killed Atsiz.
Within the limits of these minor dynasties the same rules were observed, and the same may be said of the hereditary fiefs of Turkish amirs not belonging to the royal family, who bore ordinarily the title of atabeg or atabek (properly "father bey"), e.g.
The province of Kerman was one of the first conquests of the Seljuks, and became the hereditary fief of Kavurd, the son of Chakir Beg.
The governor has a hereditary army for coercive purposes.
On his deathbed Richard, reversing his former arrangements, caused his barons to swear fealty to John (1199), although the hereditary claim of Arthur was by the law of primogeniture undoubtedly superior.
His remaining years were spent in futile plans to make Poland a hereditary monarchy, to weaken the power of the Saxon nobles, and to gain territory for his sons in various parts of Europe.
Under the Old Kingdom the attendance on and services for a dead magnate - the sacrifices and libations at his tomb - were left, together with endowments, to a staff of priests, called "servants of the ko(ka)," whose offices were hereditary.
By hereditary right king of Sicily, by the will of Joanna II.
The chief, whose hereditary title is raja, is a Rajput of the Ponwar clan, whose ancestor dispossessed the descendant of Chhatar Sal, the founder of Bundelkhand independence, towards the end of the 18th century.
The principal parts are usually hereditary in certain families; and are assigned with regard to moral character as well as dramatic ability.
He supposes that this evolution does not remain cosmic, but becomes organic. In accordance with Lamarck's hypothesis, he supposes an evolution of organisms by hereditary adaptation to the environment (which he considers necessary to natural selection), and even the possibility of an evolution of life, which, according to him, is the continuous adjustment of internal to external relations.
Such estates were not strictly hereditary, though as a mark of favour they were not unfrequently re-granted to the sons of deceased holders.
The nature of the distinction between the gesi&und and ceorlisc classes is nowhere clearly explained; but it was certainly hereditary and probably of considerable antiquity.
The distinction between the twelfhynde and sixhynde classes was also in part at least hereditary, but there is good reason for believing that it arose out of the possession of land.
Further, since the grantees as a rule naturally sent their sons into the service of their own lords, such grants tended to become hereditary, and in them we have the origin of the baronage of the middle ages.
Each of these classes was, to a large extent at least, hereditary and had separate rights and privileges of its own.
In the Empire the collapse of the Bohemian revolt led ultimately to the merciless repression of the Evangelicals The in Bohemia (1627), and in the hereditary lands of Counter- Austria (1628), as well as to the transference of the Reformation.
They were as follows: (I) The proclamation of the Infallibility of the Pope on the 18th of July 1870; (2) the fall of the Napoleonic empire and the establishment of the third French republic on the 4th of September 1870; (3) the occupation of Rome by the Italian forces on the 20th of September 1870, resulting in the incorporation of the remaining states of the Church in the kingdom of Italy; and (4) the foundation of the German Empire by the proclamation, on the 18th of January 1871, of the king of Prussia as hereditary German emperor.
There he remained till the visit to that city of the hereditary grand-duke (afterwards Alexander II.), accompanied by the poet Joukofsky, led to his being allowed to quit Viatka for Vladimir, where he was appointed editor of the official gazette of that city.
Each chief appoints a certain number of civil and military officers to assist in the government of the country, and each village has its headman or bese, also an hereditary office.
Another survival in the Armenian church was the hereditary priesthood.
His first plan was a combination against her of Saxony, Denmark and Brandenburg; but, Brandenburg failing him, he was obliged very unwillingly to admit Russia into the partnership. The tsar was to be content with Ingria and Esthonia, while Augustus was to take Livonia, nominally as a fief of Poland, but really as an hereditary possession of the Saxon house.
The mere fact that Catherine II., a small German princess without hereditary claim to the throne, ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796 amid the loyalty of the great mass of the people, and the respect and admiration of her neighbours, is sufficient proof of the force of her character.
Cuenot, in order to explain certain features in the hereditary transmission of coat colour in mice, postulated the hypothesis that the grey colour of the wild mouse (which is known to be a compound of black, chocolate and yellow pigments) may be due either to the interaction of a single ferment and three chromogens, or vice versa, to one chromogenic substance and three ferments.
For, as the facts above described show, albinoes, though apparently identical externally, are yet the carriers of different hereditary characters.
14) whose hereditary privilege it was to keep the statue of Zeus clean.
This was the famous " ash-altar " at which the Iamidae, the hereditary gens of seers, practised those rights of divination by fire in virtue of which more especially Olympia is saluted by Pindar as mistress of truth."
Somewhat later the adoption of hereditary surnames and armorial bearings marked the existence of a large and noble class who either from the subdivision of fiefs or from the effects of the custom of primogeniture were very insufficiently provided for.
On the Continent, however, there are several recorded examples of bannerets who had an hereditary claim to that honour and its attendant privileges on the ground of the nature of their feudal tenure.'
It is a common error to suppose that baronets are hereditary knights.
The Order of the Red Eagle, the second of the Prussian orders, was founded originally as the Order of Sincerity (L'Ordre de la Sincerit y) in 1705 by George William, hereditary prince of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
They held their dignities by hereditary descent in the male line, and in the order of primogeniture.
The crown is hereditary in the house of Wittelsbach, according to the rights of primogeniture, females being excluded from succession so long as male agnates of equal birth exist.
The upper house of the Bavarian parliament (Kammer der Reichsrdte) is composed of (I) the princes of the blood royal (being of full age), (2) the ministers of the crown, (3) the archbishops of Munich, Freising and Bamberg, (4) the heads of such noble families as were formerly "immediate" so long as they retain their ancient possessions in Bavaria, (5) of a Roman Catholic bishop appointed by the king for life, and of the president for the time being of the Protestant consistory, (6) of hereditary counsellors (Reichsreite) appointed by the king, and (7) of other counsellors appointed by the king for life.
The parliament was to consist of two houses; the first comprising the great hereditary landowners, government officials and nominees of the crown; the second, elected on a very narrow franchise, representatives of the small land-owners, the towns and the peasants.
Instead of settling in Italy, as he intended, Lessing accepted in 1770 the office of librarian at Wolfenbiittel, a post which was offered to him by the hereditary prince of Brunswick.
In 1143 Heribert of Bierum, bishop of Utrecht, converted the office into an hereditary fief in favour of his brother Liffert, on the extinction of whose male line it was partitioned between the families of Koevorden (or Coevorden) and van den Hove.
assigned Groningen to Albert of Saxony, hereditary podestat of Friesland, but the citizens preferred to accept the protection of the bishop of Utrecht; and when Albert's son George attempted in 1505 to seize the town, they recognized the lordship of Edzart of East Frisia.
The crown is hereditary in both the male and the female line according to primogeniture; but it is only in default of male heirs that females can come to the throne.
Such was his popularity and the confidence he inspired that in 1631 his great offices of state were declared hereditary, in favour of his five-year-old son, by the Acte de Survivance.
In 1672 the stadholdership in five provinces had been made hereditary in the family of the prince of Orange, but William died childless, and the republican burgher party was strong enough to prevent the posts being filled up. William had wished that his cousin, Count John William Friso of Nassau, stadholder of Friesland and Gron- - ingen, should succeed him, but his extreme youth and the jealousy of Holland against a " Frisian " stood in the way of his election.
Finally the States-General (May 4) appointed the prince, who was the first member of his family to be stadholder of all the seven provinces, captain and admiral-general of the Union, and a little later these offices were declared hereditary in both the male and female lines.
the constitution of the worn-out republic of the United Netherlands work smoothly, and in all probability it would have been within a very short time replaced by an hereditary monarchy, had not the cataclysm of the French Revolution swept it away from its path, never to be revived.
Under the constitution the king, as hereditary sovereign, possessed full executive powers, and the initiative in proposing laws.
The grand duchy, being hereditary only in the male line, passed to the nearest agnate, the duke of Nassau.
The chiefs of the clans, with a few sub-chiefs having hereditary rights, formed the King's Council, and the king, unless of exceptionally strong character, often exercised less power than the council of chiefs, each of whom kept his little court, making a profuse display of barbaric pomp. Land is held in common by the tribes, lands unallotted being attached to the office of head chief or king and called "stool lands."
These negotiations would probably have succeeded but for the malign influence of another Goth, Sarus, the hereditary enemy of Alaric and his house.
Another source of revenue was afforded by Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt, who paid heavily in bakshish for the firman of 1866, by which the succession to the khedivate was made hereditary from father to son in direct line and in order of primogeniture, as well as for the subsequent firmans of 1867, 1869 and 1872 extending the khedive's prerogatives.
On that occasion, apparently by way of protest against the decree of the diet of Vesteras (r 5th of January 1 544), declaring the Swedish crown hereditary in Gustavus's family, the Danish king caused to be quartered on his daughter's shield not only the three Danish lions and the Norwegian lion with the axe of St Olaf, but also "the three crowns" of Sweden.
Four days later the diet passed a resolution confirming the hereditary right of Gustavus's son, Prince Eric, to the throne.
The constitution originally contained one hundred and thirty-nine articles, and decreed in the first place that the government was to be " a constitutional, representative and hereditary monarchy."
The hereditary feud between the houses of Austria and Bavaria induced the elector to take the side of France, and he was nominated by Philip V.
On the of the 10th of November the National Congress, consisting of 200 deputies, met at Brussels and came to three important decisions: (I) the independence of the country - carried unanimously; (2) a constitutional hereditary monarchy - 174 votes against 13; (3) the perpetual exclusion of the Orange-Nassau family-161 votes against 28.
In his reign the grand-duchy of Muscovy became practically hereditary, and asserted its supremacy over all the surrounding principalities.
He resisted, but unsuccessfully, the abolition of the hereditary peerage.
Other routes there are, open to trade, between Herat and northern India, either following the banks of the Hari Rud, or, more circuitously, through the valley of the Helmund to Kabul; or the line of hills between the Arghandab and the Tarnak may be crossed close to Kalat-i-Ghilzai; but of the two former it may be said that they are not ways open to the passage of Afghan armies owing to the hereditary hostility existing between the Aeimak and Hazara tribes and the Afghans generally, while the latter is not beyond striking distance from Kandahar.
1400), one of the Almoravides, in whose family is the hereditary governorship of the city.
His politics might therefore have been described as Toryism tempered by sympathy, or as Radicalism tempered by hereditary scorn of subject races.
In 1716 Sloane was created a baronet, being the first medical practitioner to receive an hereditary title, and in 1719 he became president of the College of Physicians, holding the office sixteen years.
Before the young man left the university, his hereditary malady had broken forth in a singularly cruel form.
The imperial dignity is hereditary in the line of Hohenzollern, and follows the law of primogeniture.
The emperors idea was that, as church lands and offices could not be hereditary, their holders would necessarily favor the crown.
In Saxony the people were quickly forgetting their hereditary connection with the successors of Henry the Fowler; in Bavaria, after the death of Duke Henry in 995, the nobles, heedless of the royal power, returned to the ancient German custom and chose Henrys son Henry as their ruler.
He was fully occupied in restoring order in Saxony, in the diocese of Salzburg and elsewhere; in adding to his hereditary lands; in negotiating for a better understanding with France and England; and in reminding the vassal states, Hungary, Poland and Bohemia, of their duties towards the Empire.
Returning from another visit to Sicily, the emperor was now so powerful that, in pursuance of his plan for making himself the head of a great world monarchy, he put forward the suggestion that the- imperial crown should be declared hereditary in his family.
several occasions it had seemed as if the German crown would become hereditary, but it had been kept elective by a variety of causes, among them being the jealousy of the Papacy and the ~owing strength of the aristocracy.
Until the time of the interregnum the territories of a prince were rarely divided among his descendants, the reason being that, although the private fiefs of the nobles were Divisions hereditary, their officesmargrave, count and the like of the were in theory at the disposal of the king.
It was thus practically settled that the offices and territories, as well as the private fiefs, of the princes were hereditary, to be disposed of by them at their pleasure.
Rudolph had all the sympathies and prejudices of the noble class, and the supreme object of his life was not to increase the power of the state but to add to the greatness of his !Iabsburg own family, a policy which was perhaps justified by family, the condition of the German kingdom, the ruler of which had practically no strength save that which he derived from his hereditary lands.
object of his reign to increase the power of his house, but he failed in his attempts to add Bohemia and Thuringia to the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, and he was equally unsuccessful in his endeavour to seize the countries of Holland and Zealand as vacant fiefs of the Empire.
After Henrys death the electors, again fearing lest the German crown should become hereditary, refused to choose the late outs the kings young son, John of Bohemia, as their ruler, ~avarian although the candidature of this prince was supported and by the powerful archbishops Baldwin of Trier and Frederick Peter of Mainz.
Having in 1490 driven the Hungarians from Vienna ane recovered his hereditary lands, and having ordered the affair of the Netherlands, Maximilian turned his attention to Italy whither he was drawn owing to the invasion of that country by Charles VIII.
William was completely crushed; Gelderland was added to the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, while the league of Schmalkalden impotently watched the proceedings.
The Union being destroyed and the Bohemian revolution crushed, attention was turned to the hereditary lands of the elector palatine.
(1745-1765), an amiable nonentity, with the instincts ~ of a shopkeeper, made no pretence of discharging ranc important imperial duties, and the task of ruling the hereditary possessions of the house of Habsburg fell wholly to the empressqueen.
in 1792 and in 1804 had proclaimed himself hereditary emperor of Austria, as Francis I., now resigned the imperial crown, and thus the Holy koman Empire and the German kingdom came to an end.
It was revised in a democratic sense, but the imperial title was maintained, and a narrow majority decided that it should be hereditary.
It was arranged that the headship of the confederation should be hereditary, that it should belong to the king of Prussia, and that legislative functions should be exercised by a federal council (Bundesrat), representative of the various governments, and by a diet (Bundestag) elected by the whole people.
In 1615 a mission among these Indians was founded by the Recollet friars, and carried on with great success and devotion by the Jesuits, but in1648-1650the Huron nation was almost utterly destroyed by an invasion of their hereditary foes, the Iroquois.
Not content with this tie, however, which was personal to himself alone, the king planned to make them hereditary possessions of his family, and to transfer the headquarters of the Habsburgs from the Rhine to the Danube.
In 1364 Carniola was made into an hereditary duchy; in 1374 part of Istria came under the rule of the Habsburgs; in 1382 Trieste submitted voluntarily to Austria, and at various times during the century, other smaller districts were added to the lands of the Habsburgs.
Soon after his election as king of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian attacked the Hungarians, and in 1490 he had driven them from Austria, and recovered his hereditary lands.
At the diet of Pressburg (1687-1688) the Hungarian crown had been made hereditary in the house of Habsburg, and the crown prince Joseph 'had been crowned hereditary king of Hungary.
Yet, though the War of Spanish Succession had proved a heavy drain on the resources of the hereditary dominions of the Austrian crown, Charles VI..
Important as these gains were, the treaty none the less once more illustrated the perpetual sacrifice of the true interests of the hereditary dominions of the house of Habsburg to its European entanglements.
hereditary End of the 5' y Holy emperor of Austria.
Since that year the empire had been the subject of numerous experiments in government; by the last, which began in 1860, Landtage or diets have been instituted in each of the territories on a nearly uniform system and with nearly identical powers, and by the constitution published in February 1861 (the February Constitution, as it is called), which is still the ultimate basis for the government, there was instituted a Reichsrath or parliament for the whole empire; it consisted of a House of Lords (Herren- haus), in which sat the archbishops and prince bishops, members of the imperial family, and other members appointed for life, besides some hereditary members, and a Chamber of Deputies.
visited Sicily to promote the union of the church, and he granted to the count those special ecclesiastical powers held by the counts and kings of Sicily as hereditary legates of the Holy See which grew into the famous Sicilian monarchy (Geoff.
AHMAD SHAH (1724-1773), founder of the Durani dynasty in Afghanistan, was the son of Sammaun-Khan, hereditary chief of the Abdali tribe.
On a conical hill above the pier stand the remains of Dunoon Castle, the hereditary keepership of which was conferred by Robert Bruce on the family of Sir Colin Campbell of Loch Awe, an ancestor of the duke of Argyll.
Constitution and AdministrationEgypt is a tributary state of the Turkish empire, and is ruled by an hereditary prince with the style of khedive, a Persian title regarded as the equivalent of king.
He was also the dispenser of office, confirmer of hereditary titles and estates and the fountain of justice.
No siege engines are depicted, even in the time of the Empire,, and the absence of original representations after the XXth Dynasty renders it difficult to judge the advances made in the art of war during the first half of the last millennium Bc. The inscription of Pankhi, however, proves that in the 8th century approaches and towers were raised against the walls of besieged cities Priesthood.The priesthood was in a great degree hereditary, though perhaps not essentially so.
Offices, with new Byzantine names, were now almost hereditary in.
At this time he obtained hereditary rights for his family in the government of that country and Syria.
The government 0 the pashalik of Egypt was made hereditary in the family of Mehemet Ali.i A map showing the boundaries of Egypt accompanied the firman granting Mehemet Ali the pashalik, a duplicate copy being retained by the Porte.
Its history, however, is obscure until, in 823, it appears as a lordship ruled by hereditary hypati or consuls.
He was one of the Toske tribe, and his ancestors had for some time held the hereditary office of bey of Tepeleni.
The later dynasties of Brabant and Lorraine, when these fiefs became hereditary, bore only the title of duke.
gave the countship to the bishop and chapter of Utrecht, who governed it through the burgrave, or chatelain, of Koevorden, a dignity which became hereditary after 1143 in the family of Ludolf or Roelof, brother of Heribert of Bierum, bishop of Utrecht (1138-1150).
His descendants held that office, which was declared hereditary, until the French conquest in 1795.
Most of the land is freehold and cultivated by the owner himself, and comparatively little land is let on lease except very large holdings and glebe farms. The independent small farmer (bonder) maintains a hereditary attachment to his ancestral holding.
Moreover, the old distinction between the king's private estate and crown property henceforth ceases; all such property was henceforth regarded as the hereditary possession of the Danish crown.
The great powers of the late 16th and early 17th centuries were to be the strong, highly centralized, hereditary monarchies, like France, Spain and Sweden.
On the 8th of October the two burgomasters, Hans Nansen and Kristoffer Hansen, proposed that the realm of Denmark should be made over to the king as a hereditary kingdom, without prejudice to the privileges of the Estates; whereupon they proceeded to Brewer's Hall, and informed the Estate of burgesses there assembled of what had been done.
The so-called " Instrument," now signed by the Lower Estates, offered the realm to the king and his house as a hereditary monarchy, by way of thank-offering mainly for his courageous deliverance of the kingdom during the war; and the Rigsraad and the nobility were urged to notify the resolution to the king, and desire him to maintain each Estate in its due privileges, and to give a written counterassurance that the revolution now to be effected was for the sole benefit of the state.
On the 13th of October it signed a declaration to the effect that it associated itself still with the Lower Estates in the making over of the kingdom, as a hereditary monarchy, to his majesty and his heirs male and female.
Thus the ancient constitution was transformed; and Denmark became a monarchy hereditary in Frederick III.
But although hereditary sovereignty had been introduced, the laws of the land had not been abolished.
Hereditary sovereignty per se was not held to signify unlimited dominion, still less absolutism.
On the following day the king, seated on the topmost step of a lofty tribune surmounted by a baldaquin, erected in the midst of the principal square of Copenhagen, received the public homage of his subjects of all ranks, in the presence of an immense concourse, on which occasion he again promised to rule " as a Christian hereditary king and gracious master," and, " as soon as possible, to prepare and set up " such a constitution as should secure to his subjects a Christian and indulgent sway.
The sovereign hereditary king stood in exactly the same relations to both kingdoms; and 1660.
A commission appointed in 1757 worked zealously for the repeal of many agricultural abuses; and several great landed proprietors introduced hereditary leaseholds, and abolished the servile tenure.
was his alliance with the German Evangelical princes, as a counterpoise to the persistent hostility of Charles V., who was determined to support the hereditary claims of his nieces, the daughters of Christian II., to the Scandinavian kingdoms. War was actually declared against Charles V.
He knew well that Maria Theresa would not, if she could help it, allow him to remain in Silesia; accordingly, in 1744, alarmed by her victories, he arrived at a secret understanding with France, and pledged himself, with Hesse-Cassel and the palatinate, to maintain the imperial rights of Charles VII., and to defend his hereditary Bavarian lands.
NIZAM, the hereditary title of the reigning prince of Hyderabad in India, derived from an Arabic word meaning order, or administration.
Financial necessities compelled retrenchment, so that a certain number of offices were suppressed altogether, much to the disgust of the office-holding class, which was numerous and wealthy, and had almost come to look on the civil service as its hereditary possession.
When the dignity of nasi became afterwards hereditary among them, Hillel's ancestry, perhaps on the ground of old family traditions, was traced back to David.
On the departure of the Romans, the Goidelic hill-tribes, probably with help from Gower and Ireland, seem to have regained possession of the Usk valley under the leadership of a chieftain of their own race, Brychan, who became the ancestor of one of the three chief tribes of hereditary Welsh saints.
Thus the largest estates remain in the hands of the old hereditary families.
Stewartries ceased with the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions in 1748, though Kirkcudbrightshire still bears the designation.
In addition to royal burghs, there were burghs of nobles and of bishops, and the provostship was apt to become, by custom, almost hereditary in a local noble family, which protected the burgesses.
The family probably came from England with the FitzAlans, the hereditary Stewards of Scotland.
ASAPH, the eponym of the Asaphite gild of singers, one of the hereditary choirs that superintended the musical services of the temple at Jerusalem in post-exilic times.
The people were divided into clans, many of them governed as republics, more or less aristocratic. In a few cases several of such republics had formed confederations, and in four cases such confederations had already become hereditary monarchies.
At one end of the scale were certain outlying tribes and certain hereditary crafts of a dirty or despised kind.
In some cases they take hereditary titles and hold high offices.
Offices and titles are seldom hereditary in our sense of the term, as descending from father to son.
The principal priests were a particular order, the priesthood being hereditary.
A year after his marriage he had been stricken down by severe illness, from the effects of which he was never completely to recover; financial cares followed, which were relieved unexpectedly by the generosity of the hereditary prince of Holstein-Augustenburg and his minister, Graf Schimmelmann, who conferred upon him a pension of moo talers a year for three years.
Genoa and Venice, the term was applied to the hereditary aristocracy (patrizio), and in the free cities of the German Empire it was borne by distinguished citizens (patrizier).
In Italy it is still used for the hereditary nobility.
From these specific uses the word has come into general use as a synonym of "aristocrat" or "noble," and implies the possession of such qualities as are generally associated with long descent, hereditary good breeding and the like.
Instead of the old hereditary nobility, consisting of the members of the patrician clans, there arose a nobility of office, consisting of all those families, whether patrician or plebeian, which had held curule office.
The dignity was not hereditary and belonged only to individuals; thus a patrician family was merely one whose head enjoyed the rank of patricius.
Later the overlordship was claimed by the archbishops of Mainz, on the strength of charters granted by the emperor Otto I., and their authority in Erfurt was maintained by a burgrave and an advocatus, the office of the latter becoming in the 12th century hereditary in the family of the counts of Gleichen.
Arabistan, which is under the hereditary government of the Sheikh of Mohammerah, is exclusively Shiah.
In December 1774 the young "hereditary prince" of Weimar, Charles Augustus, passing through Frankfort on his way to Paris, came into personal touch with Goethe, and invited the poet to visit Weimar when, in the following year, he took up the reins of government.
Aleander had no difficulty in persuading Charles, while both were still in the Netherlands, to put Luther under the ban within his hereditary dominions, and the papal nuncio expected that the decree would be extended to the whole German empire.
For 88 turbulent years this feudal kingdom was imposed on the country, and then it disappeared as suddenly as it came, leaving no trace but the ruins of castles and churches, a few place-names, and an undying hereditary hatred of Christianity among the native population.
This book of the Old Testament, which, as we now read it, constitutes a sequel to the book of Joshua, covering the period of history between the death of this conqueror and the birth of Samuel, is so called because it contains the history of the Israelites before the establishment of the monarchy, when the government was in the hands of certain leaders who appear to have formed a continuous succession, although the office was not hereditary.
It was the work of members of the Otho family, among whom the goldsmith's and coiner's crafts appear to have been long hereditary.
The best English metal-worker, on the contrary, is probably not often quite satisfied with the results he attains, perhaps because in Great Britain the pursuit of art has for centuries been fitful and individual, while in France art traditions are hereditary.
The executive officer is the Amin, a kind of mayor, elected from some influential family in which the dignity is often in practice hereditary.
The hereditary caste known as Marabouts are frequently in open.
This is some symbolic object, stick or what not, which passes between the parties to a contract, the obligations under which, if not fulfilled by the contracting parties during their lives, become hereditary.
The government of Afghanistan is an absolute monarchy under the amir, and succession to the throne is hereditary.
The sirdars are hereditary nobles, the khans are representatives of the people, and the mullahs of Mahommedan religion.
They are themselves subdivided into many classes, which in their devotion to hereditary occupations are scarcely to be distinguished from Hindu castes.
At the same time the operation of the revenue sale law had introduced a new race of zamindars, who were bound to their tenants by no traditions of hereditary sympathy, but whose sole object was to make a profit out of their newly purchased property.
The kingly government is portrayed almost as described in Manu, with its hereditary castes of councillors and soldiers.
In theory it was an aristocracy based only upon military command; but practically it accomplished the object at which it aimed by incorporating the hereditary chiefships of Rajputana among the mushroom creations of a Mahommedan despotism.
Thenceforth the Great Mogul became a mere name, though the hereditary succession continued unbroken down to the time of the Mutiny.
Thenceforth these two important provinces paid no more tribute to Delhi, though their hereditary rulers continued to seek formal recognition from the emperor on their succession.
The Mahrattas were in possession of the entire west and great part of the centre of the peninsula; while the rich and unwarlike province of Bengal, though governed by an hereditary line of nawabs founded by Murshid Kuli Khan in 1704, still continued to pour its wealth into the imperial treasury.
The Carnatic, or the lowland tract between the central plateau and the eastern sea, was ruled by a deputy of the nizam, known as the nawab of Arcot, who in his turn asserted claims to hereditary sovereignty.
The hereditary succession was broken in 1740 by Ali Vardi Khan, who was the last of the great nawabs of Bengal.
All real power passed into the hands of the peshwa, or Brahman minister, who founded in his turn an hereditary dynasty at Poona, dating from the beginning of the 18th century.
Zamindars, or government farmers, whose office always tended to become hereditary, were recognized as having a right of some sort to collect the revenue from the actual cultivators.
He won pitched battles at Aligarh and Laswari, and captured the cities of Delhi and Agra, thus scattering the French troops of Sindhia, and at the same time coming forward as the champion of the Mogul emperor in his hereditary capital.
Multan had previously fallen; and the Afghan horse under Dost Mahommed, who had forgotten their hereditary antipathy to the Sikhs in their greater hatred of the British name, were chased back with ignominy to their native hills.
Walad Michael,the hereditary ruler of Bogos, fought as ally of King John at Gundet and of the Egyptians at Gura.
Legaspi's conquest of the islands was facilitated by the fact that there were no established native states, but rather a congeries of small clan-like groups, the headship of which was hereditary.
It was led by what may be called the spiritual noblesse of Islam, which, as distinguished from the hereditary nobility of Mecca, might also be designated as the nobility of merit, consisting of the "Defenders" (Ansar), and especially of the Emigrants who had lent themselves to the elevation of the Koreish, but by no means with the intention of allowing themselves thereby to be effaced.
The leadership with the Arabic tribes was as a rule hereditary, the son succeeding his father, but only if he was personally fit for the position, and was acknowledged as such by the principal men of the tribe.
The hereditary principle had not been recognized by Islam in the cases of Abu Bekr, Omar and Othman; it had had some influence upon the choice of Ali, the husband of Fatima and the cousin of the Prophet.
Meanwhile Harun did not forget the hereditary enemy of Islam.
In spite of these manifold activities Mamun did not forget the hereditary enemy of Islam.
i.) Motasim had just returned to Samarra when a serious revolt broke out in Tabaristan, Maziyar, one of the hereditary chiefs of that country, refusing to acknowledge the authority ofAbdallah Ibn Tahir, the governor of Khorasan, of which Tabaristan was a province.
Under the Carolingians the functions of the dukes remained substantially the same; but with the decay of the royal power in the 10th century, both dukes and counts gained in local authority; the number of dukes became for the time fixed, and finally title and office were made hereditary, the relation to the crown being reduced to that of more or less shadowy vassalage.
Many were Rajput chiefs, ruling over their tribesmen by ancient hereditary right; while others were officials or court favourites, who had acquired power and property during the long period of native misrule.
The priestly office is hereditary, and no one can become a priest who was not born such; but the son of a priest may become a layman.
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach is a limited hereditary monarchy, and was the first state in Germany to receive a liberal constitution.
After a number of attempts to establish a hereditary dukedom, Duke Domenico Flabianico in 1032 passed a law providing that no duke was to appoint his successor or procure him to be elected during his own lifetime.
The grand vizier, in the sultan's name, wrote beseeching him to avoid the further shedding of Mussulman blood, offering him a free pardon, the highest honours of the state, the hereditary pashalik of Egypt for himself, and Syria for Ibrahim until he should succeed his father in Egypt.
For nearly a year the diplomatic pourparlers continued without an agreement being reached; France insisted on Mehemet Ali's receiving the hereditary pashalik of Syria as well as that of Egypt, a proposition to which Palmerston, though sincerely anxious to preserve the Anglo-French entente, refused to agree.
As to the terms to be offered, it was arranged that, in the event of Mehemet Ali yielding within ten days, he should receive the hereditary pashalik of Egypt and the administration for life of southern Syria, with the title of Pasha of Acre and the possession of the fortress of St Jean d'Acre.
In accordance with this Palmerston instructed Ponsonby to press upon the sultan, in the event of Mehemet Ali's speedy submission, not only to withdraw the sentence of deprivation but to confer upon him the hereditary pashalik of Egypt.
Nine days earlier Sir Charles Napier had appeared with a British squadron off Alexandria and, partly by persuasion, partly by threats, had induced Mehemet Ali to submit to the sultan and to send back the Ottoman fleet, in return for a guarantee of the hereditary pashalik of Egypt.
The Ancient Court of Verderers was also revived, consisting of an hereditary lord warden together with four verderers elected by freeholders of the county.
Splendid military triumphs crushed the hereditary national foe.
A federation was then organized with the king of Prussia as president, under the hereditary title of German emperor.
Ecclesiastically Riigen is divided into 75 parishes, in which the pastoral succession is said to be almost hereditary.
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt is a limited hereditary monarchy, its constitution resting on laws of 1854 and 1870.
On the one hand, it seemed to follow from the existence of such a family that Homer was a mere " eponymus," or mythical ancestor; on the other hand, it became easy to imagine the Homeric poems handed down orally in a family whose hereditary occupation it was to recite them, possibly to add new episodes from time to time, or to combine their materials in new ways, as their poetical gifts permitted.
threshold of the textual criticism of Homer and accordingly enters into a full discussion, first of the external evidence, then of the indications furnished by the poems. Having satisfied himself that writing was unknown to Homer, he is led to consider the real mode of transmission, and finds this in the Rhapsodists, of whom the Homeridae were an hereditary school.
Each was an independent establishment controlled entirely by its own abbot and apparently divided into two sections, one priestly and the other lay and even marriedAt St Andrews about the year lioo there were thirteen Culdeesholding office by hereditary tenure and paying more regard tQ their own prosperity and aggrandizement than to the services of the church or the needs of the populace.
order, there seems no reason to believe that the other two upper classes were not equally interested in seeing their hereditary privileges thus perpetuated by divine sanction.
Or was it rather that the status and duties of existing offices and trades came to be determined and made hereditary by some such artificial system as that by which the Theodosian Code succeeded for a time in organizing the Roman society in the 5th century of our era ?"
At the beginning of the 14th century Sir Alexander Percy claimed the hereditary right of buying and selling in Whitby without payment of toll.
The Society of the Cincinnati, an organization composed of officers of the late war, chose him as its first president; but he insisted that the Society should abandon its plan of hereditary membership, and change other features of the organization against which there had been public clamour.
The general result was to place all the privileges, rights and possessions of these inferior chiefs under the guarantee or protection of the British government, to whom all disputes between the superior and inferior states must be referred, and whose decision is final upon all questions of succession to hereditary rights or rulership. The states have no general ethnological affinity, such as exists in Rajputana.
Roughly there are four great sections of the population: the Mahratta section, who belong to the ruling circles; the Rajputs, who are also hereditary noblemen; the trading classes, consisting chiefly of Marwaris and Gujaratis; and lastly, the jungle tribes of Dravidian stock.
Stubbs considers that the English form of the office is to be accounted for by the king's desire to prevent the administration falling into the hands of an hereditary noble.
The early justiciars were clerics, in whom the possession of power could not become hereditary.
Having been occupied by the papal forces in 1512, it was in 1545 united with Parma (q.v.) to form an hereditary duchy for Pierluigi Farnese, son of Paul III.
2 Nor did the only difficulty lie in such secret breaches of the law; in many districts the priesthood tended to become a mere hereditary caste, to the disadvantage of church and state alike.
ments as hereditary fiefs, their consequent worldliness and (it must be added) their vices, aroused the indignation of two very remarkable men in the latter half of the 11th century.
A decisive " moment " in the evolution of chiefship is the recognition of hereditary mana, bound up as this is with the handing on of ceremonies and cult-objects.
all the vices and errors exemplified which lie in wait for absolute hereditary rule which has survived the period of its usefulness.
orders, or estates, was promoted by Magnus Ladulas, who extended the privileges of the clergy and founded an hereditary nobility (Ordinance of Alsno, 1280).
Not till the 6th of March 1604, however, after Duke John, son of John III., had formally renounced his hereditary right to the throne, did Charles IX.
the stimulating leadership of the anti-aristocratic " Prince Charming," and becoming more and more inoculated with French political ideas, drifted into an antagonism not merely to hereditary nobility, but to hereditary monarchy likewise.
The bishop had no hereditary or dynastic interest in his land, and, as a temporal ruler, his powers were limited by the necessity of having to secure the goodwill of the higher clergy, of the nobles and of the cities, and also because of his relations to the German king and the pope as an ecclesiastical prince of the empire.
The governors and chiefs, excepting those possessing hereditary rights, are frequently changed; appointments are for one year only and are sometimes renewed, but it does not often occur that an official holds the same government for longer than that period, while it happens rarely that a province is governed by the same person for two or three years.
At all events, they play here not merely the role of the Fire-kindlers (aihravan) in the Avesta, but are become an hereditary sacerdotal caste, acting an important part in the stateadvisers and spiritual guides to the king, and so forth.
The conditions were that the crown should be hereditary in his family, that the claim of the Safawids was to be held for ever extinct, and that measures should be taken to bring the Shiites to accept uniformity of worship with the Sunnites.
ForemOst among these was MahomPurt her med Ilasan Khan, hereditary chief of those Kajars Confusion.
The Persian~ then carried all before them; and the hereditary chiefs of Shirvan, Sheki and Baku returned from exile to co-operate with the shahs general in the south.
When the steamers were ready to do the work they had been intended for, the farmer, or farmers, of the Gulf customs raised difficulties and objected to pay the cost of maintaining the Persepolis; the governor of Muhamrah would not allow any interference with what he considered his hereditary rights of the shipping monopoly on the Karun, and the objects for which the steamers had been brought were not attained.
Consisting of forty-two articles, the Instrument placed the legislative power in the hands of "one person, and the people assembled in parliament"; the executive power was left to the lord protector, whose office was to be elective and not hereditary, and a council of state numbering from thirteen to twenty-one members.
And in the same generation Heraclitus, probably a descendant of Codrus, quitted his hereditary magistracy in order to devote himself to philosophy, in which his name became almost as great as that of any Greek.
The capitalists gradually assumed the lead in the various societies, the richer members engrossed the power and the companies tended to become hereditary and exclusive.
Meanwhile he had been designated by Celsus (in whose family the see of Armagh had been hereditary for many years) to succeed him in the archbishopric; in the interests of reform he reluctantly accepted the dignity, and thus became involved for some years in a struggle with the so-called heirs.
Works by Galton bearing on eugenics are: Hereditary Genius (2nd ed., 1892), Human Faculty (1883), Natural Inheritance (1889), Huxley Lecture of the Anthropol.
Up to October 1910 the government was an hereditary and constitutional monarchy, based on the constitutional charter which was granted by King Pedro IV.
Up to 1885 some members sat in the House of Peers by hereditary right, while others were nominated for life.
It was then decided that such rights should cease, except in the case of princes of royal blood and members then sitting, and that when all the hereditary peerages had lapsed the house should be composed of the princes of the royal blood, the archbishops and bishops of the continental dioceses, a hundred legislative peers appointed by the king for life, and fifty elected every new parliament by the Commons.
Tithes, many hereditary privileges and all monopolies were abolished; every convent was closed and its property nationalized; the Jesuits, who had returned after the death of Pombal, were again expelled; the charter of 1826 was restored.
A law of the 8th of August 1901 regulated the conditions of election to the lower house, thus ending a long series of parliamentary reforms. The most important of these had provided for the gradual extinction of the right of hereditary peers to sit in the upper house (July 24, 1885), had reduced the number of deputies and fixed the qualifications required for the exercise of the franchise (March 28, 1895); and had abolished the elective branch in the upper house (Sept.