How to use Herder in a sentence
Fine goat herder you are.
Herder was thus an evolutionist, but an evolutionist still under the influence of Rousseau.
While much that Herder produced after settling in Weimar has little value, he wrote also some of his best works, among others his collection of popular poetry on which he had been engaged for many years, Stimmen der Volker in Liedern (1778-1779); his translation of the Spanish romances of the Cid (1805); his celebrated work on Hebrew poetry, Vom Geist der hebrdischen Poesie (1782-1783); and his opus magnum, the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (1784-1791).
Herder's writings were for a long time regarded as of temporary value only, and fell into neglect.
Lessing was the exponent of German classicism; Herder, on the contrary, was a pioneer of the romantic movement.Advertisement
This historical idea was carried by Herder into the regions of poetry, art, religion, language, and finally into human culture as a whole.
Herder's works may be arranged in an ascending series, corresponding to the way in which the genetic or historical idea was developed and extended.
Herder had a genuine appreciation for early German painters, and helped to awaken the modern interest in Albrecht Diirer.
By his work on language Uber den Ursprung der Sprache (1772), Herder may be said to have laid the first rude foundations of the science of comparative philology and that deeper science of the ultimate nature and origin of language.
Herder's services in laying the foundations of a comparative science of religion and mythology are even of greater value than his somewhat crude philological speculations.Advertisement
Herder's masterpiece, the Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, has the ambitious aim of explaining the whole of human development in close connexion with the nature of man's physical environment.
Herder defines human history as " a pure natural history of human powers, actions and propensities, modified by time and place."
The Ideen shows us that Herder is an evolutionist after the manner of Leibnitz, and not after that of more modern evolutionists.
It is worth noting, however, that Herder in his provokingly tentative way of thinking comes now and again very near ideas made familiar to us by Spencer and Darwin.
With this may be compared a passage in the Ursprung der Sprache, where there is a curious adumbration of Spencer's idea that intelligence, as distinguished from instinct, arises from a growing complexity of action, or, to use Herder's words, from the substitution of a more for a less contracted sphere.Advertisement
Herder is more successful in tracing the early developments of particular peoples than in constructing a scientific theory of evolution.
Of Herder's properly metaphysical speculations little needs to be said.
Herder's Spinozism, which is set forth in his little work, Vom Erkennen and Empfinden der menschlichen Seele (1778), is much less logically conceived than Lessing's.
Herder was much attracted by Schelling's early writings, but appears to have disliked Hegelianism because of the atheism it seemed to him to involve.
The publication of the Allgemeine and General-Reformation der ganzen weiten Welt (Cassel, 1614), and the Fama Fraternitatis (Cassel, 1615) by the theologian Johann Valentin Andrea (1586-1654), caused immense excitement throughout Europe, and they not only led to many re-issues, but were followed by numerous pamphlets, favourable and otherwise, whose authors generally knew little, if anything, of the real aims of the original author, and doubtless in not a few cases amused themselves at the expense of the public. It is probable that the first work was circulated in MS. about 1610, for it is said that a reply was written in 1612 (according to Herder), but if so, there was no mention of the cult before that decade.Advertisement
Herder is especially eulogistic. In the Adrastea he pronounces the Moralists to be a composition in form well-nigh worthy of Grecian antiquity, and in its contents almost superior to it.
Of the churches the Stadtkirche (parish church), of which Herder became pastor in 1776, is a Gothic building dating from about 1400, but much altered in detail under "classical" influences.
Herder, whose passion for all that is Greek inspires him with almost a hatred of Latin.
In literature, its leading names were Winckelmann, Lessing and Voss, and Herder, Goethe and Schiller.
On account of its delightful situation and the many objects of interest it contains, Dresden is often called "German Florence," a name first applied to it by the poet Herder.Advertisement
It was speedily translated into many European languages, and Herder and Goethe (in his earlier period) were among its profound admirers.
Here he was much influenced by intercourse with Johann Gottfried Herder, who frequently examined at the school.
Goethe was then in Italy, and the duke of Weimar was absent from Weimar; but the poet was kindly received by Herder and Wieland, by the duchess Amalie and other court notabilities.
In 1826 a formal festival was got up by some of his admirers, one of whom, Herder, spoke of his categories as new gods; and he was presented with much poetry and a silver mug.
The second moment of importance in Goethe's Strassburg period was his meeting with Herder, who spent some weeks in Strassburg undergoing an operation of the eye.Advertisement
In this thinker, who was his senior by five years, Goethe found the master he sought; Herder taught him the significance of Gothic architecture, revealed to him the charm of nature's simplicity, and inspired him with enthusiasm for Shakespeare and the Volkslied.
Even more than Herder's precept and example, this passion showed Goethe how trivial and artificial had been the Anacreontic and pastoral poetry with which he had occupied himself in Leipzig; and the lyrics inspired by Friederike, such as Kleine Blumen, kleine Blcitter and Wie herrlich leuchtet mir die Natur!
An intelligent patron of literature and art, he attracted to his court the leading scholars in Germany; Goethe, Schiller and Herder were members of this illustrious band, and the little state, hitherto obscure, attracted the eyes of all Europe.'
Lessing, Goethe, Herder, Novalis and Schleiermacher, not to mention philosophers like Schelling and Hegel, united in recognizing the unique strength and sincerity of Spinoza's thought, and in setting him in his rightful place among the speculative leaders of mankind.
In other directions he laid under tribute Herder and Lessing; yet all the while he cast severe imputations of plagiarism upon Hume and others.Advertisement
Of the recent erections, the polytechnic, the exchange, the monument of the German writer, Johann Gottfried von Herder, who lived at Riga towards the end of the 18th century, the gymnasiums (schools) of Lomonosov and Alexander I.
Wieland was appointed tutor to her son; and the names of Herder, Goethe and Schiller shed an undying lustre on her court.
Through his philosophical writings he became acquainted with many distinguished persons - Goethe, Herder, Princess Amalia of Gallitzin, and especially Jacobi, with whom he had much in common.
Reid and Malebranche first attracted him among the philosophers, and after these he turned to Hegel, Kant and Herder.
Of these, among the most remarkable was his review of Herder's Philosophy of History, which greatly exasperated that author, and led to a violent act of retaliation some years after in his Metakritik of Pure Reason.Advertisement
Hamann, the friend of Herder and Jacobi, who was thus a mediator between Kant and these philosophical adversaries.
With this may be coupled the review of Herder in 1785.
We may define these courses by the terms esoteric and exoteric - the former the philosophy of the school, cultivated principally at the universities, trying to systematize everything and reduce all our knowledge to an intelligible principle, losing in this attempt the deeper meaning of Leibnitz's philosophy; the latter the unsystematized philosophy of general culture which we find in the work of the great writers of the classical period, Lessing, Winkelmann, Goethe, Schiller and Herder, all of whom expressed in some degree their indebtedness to Leibnitz.
In the region of poetry Herder sought to persuade his countrymen, both by example and precept, to return to a natural and spontaneous form of utterance.
His own poetry has but little value; Herder was a skilful verse-maker but hardly a creative poet.Advertisement
The views on art contained in Herder's Kritische Wader (1769), Plastik (1778), &c., are chiefly valuable as a correction of the excesses into which reverence for Greek art had betrayed Winckelmann and Lessing, by help of his fundamental idea of national idiosyncrasy.
Besides mentioning the encouragement bestowed by leading Germans like Goethe, Herder, Raumer, etc., on Czech poets and scholars, the book gives an appreciative account of the Emperor Joseph.
At Gotha he heard Goethe read his I phigenie auf Tauris, and made the acquaintance of the dignified Herder and "fat little Wieland."
The compositions belonging to the period of his residence at Weimar comprise two pianoforte concertos, in E flat and in A, the " Todtentanz," the " Concerto pathetique " for two pianos, the solo sonata " An Robert Schumann," sundry " Etudes," fifteen " Rhapsodies Hongroises," twelve orchestral " Poemes symphoniques, " " Eine Faust Symphonie," and " Eine Symphonie zu Dante's ` Divina Commedia,' " the " 13th Psalm " for tenor solo, chorus and orchestra, the choruses to Herder's dramatic scenes " Prometheus," and the " Missa solennis " known as the " Graner Fest' Messe."
The great series of German thinkers, Lessing, Herder, Kant, Hegel, Fichte, Schleiermacher and their 1 This does not, of course, preclude the possibility of degeneration in particular instances.Advertisement
In his works on aesthetics he combined the views of Schelling with those of Winckelmann, Lessing, Kant,, Herder, Schiller and others.
In the controversial, groundbreaking film, he plays a sheep herder who falls in love with another cowboy, played by Heath Ledger.
In his Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, Herder adopts Leibnitz's idea of a graduated scale of beings, at the same time conceiving of the lower stages as the conditions, of the higher.
Here he lived in close intercourse with Schiller, Goethe, Herder and the most distinguished literary men of the time.
After holding minor educational posts, he obtained in 1791, through the influence of Herder, the appointment of rector of the gymnasium at Weimar, where he entered into a circle of literary men, including Wieland, Schiller, and Goethe.
Taking up the idea of a divine education of the human race, which Lessing and Herder had made so familiar to the modern mind, and firmly believing that to each of the leading nations of antiquity a special task had been providentially assigned, Ewald felt no difficulty about Israel's place in universal history, or about the problem which that race had been called upon to solve.
Like his contemporary Lessing, Herder had throughout his life to struggle against adverse circumstances.
There he came under the influence of Kant, who was just then passing from physical to metaphysical problems. Without becoming a disciple of Kant, young Herder was deeply stimulated to fresh critical inquiry by that thinker's revolutionary ideas in philosophy.
This writer had already won a name, and in young Herder he found a mind well fitted to be the receptacle and vehicle of his new ideas on literature.
There he enjoyed the society of Goethe, Wieland, Jean Paul (who came to Weimar in order to be near Herder), and others, the patronage of the court, with whom as a preacher he was very popular, and an opportunity of carrying out some of his ideas of school reform.
Yet while presenting these unlovely traits, Herder's character was on the whole a worthy and attractive one.
In the Kalligone (1800), work directed against Kant's Kritik der Urteilskraft, Herder argues for the close connexion of the beautiful and the good.
Herder founded the Kritische Wader in 1766.
Hermann Hettner says that not only Leibnitz, Voltaire and Diderot, but Lessing, Mendelssohn, Wieland and Herder, drew the most stimulating nutriment from Shaftesbury.
In front of the church is a statue of Herder, whose house still serves as the parsonage.
The interior is very fine, and in one of the wings is a series of rooms dedicated to the poets Goethe, Schiller, Herder and Wieland, with appropriate mural paintings.
The murder of Kotzebue by Karl Sand, however, shocked him out of his extreme revolutionary views, and from this time he tended, under the influence of the writings of Hamann and Herder, more and more in the direction of conservatism and romanticism, until at last he ended, in a mood almost of pessimism, by attaching himself to the extreme right wing of the forces of reaction.
Herder does this, and in doing so shows a far deeper understanding of Shakespeare's genius than his predecessor had shown.