Hepatitis B, on the other hand, remains prevalent among drug addicts.
Short-term protection against hepatitis A is available from immune globulin, a preparation of antibodies that can be given before exposure for short-term protection against hepatitis A and for persons who have already been exposed to HAV.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), for example, is associated with lymphoma, the hepatitis viruses are associated with liver cancer, HIV is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, and the bacteria Helicobacter pylori is associated with stomach cancer.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that, prior to the launch of the infant HBV immunization program, about 33,000 American children of non-infected mothers acquired hepatitis B by the age of ten.
As with Kawasaki disease, various infectious organisms have been proposed as the cause of IPAN, including hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), various retroviruses, streptococci, and even a virus usually found in cats.
It is recommended that newborns whose mothers are HBsAg-positive receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG)-a preparation of serum containing high levels of antibodies to hepatitis B-as well as HBV within 12 hours of birth.
,:The commonest causes of this chronic hepatitis are alcoholism and syphilis.
Inflammation of the Liver (hepatitis) may also be caused by an attack of micro-organisms which have reached it through the veins coming from the large intestine, or through the main arteries.
But when the hepatitis is of septic origin, suppuration is likely to occur, the result being an hepatic abscess.
The 1990s brought us a hepatitis A vaccine and artificial muscles.