The Hemiptera are especially interesting as an order from the variety of aquatic insects included therein.
Other genera of the family are parasitic on Hemiptera - bugs and frog-hoppers - but nothing is known as to the details of their life-history.
Injurious insects occur among the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera (both heteroptera and homoptera), Orthoptera, Neuroptera and Thysanoptera.
By far the most destructive insects in warm climates belong to the Hemiptera, especially to the Coccidae or scale insects.
Insects a remark - able concentration of the trunk-ganglia takes place, all the nerve-centres of the thorax and abdomen in the chafers and in the Hemiptera, for instance, being represented by a single mass situated in the thorax.
In aquatic insects various devices for obtaining or entangling air are found; these modifications are described in the special articles on the various orders of insects (Coleoptera, Hemiptera, &c.).
In Hemiptera only eleven and in Collembola only yolk, and that the mesenteric epithelium becomes reinforced by six abdominal segments have been detected.
In Hemiptera this telson is absent, and the anal orifice is placed quite at the termination of the eleventh segment.
His classification was founded mainly on the nature of the wings, and five of his orders - the Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, &c.), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (two-winged flies), Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), and Hemiptera (bugs, cicads, &c.) - are recognized to-day with nearly the same limits as he laid down.
Includes the family of the Lice (Pediculidae), often reckoned as Hemiptera (q.v.).
In the Jurassic rocks are found Ephemeroptera and Odonata, as well as Hemiptera, referable to existing families, some representatives of which had already appeared in.
The Hemiptera, with their piercing mandibles and first maxillae and with their second maxillae fused to form a jointed beak, stand far apart from them.
This order can be traced with certainty back to the early Jurassic epoch, while the Permian fossil Eugereon, and the living order - specially modified in many respects - of the Thysanoptera indicate steps by which the aberrant suctorial and piercing mouth of the Hemiptera may have been developed from the biting mouth of primitive Isopteroids, by the elongation of some parts and the suppression of others.
Orders: Aptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera.
Orders: Myriapoda, Thysanura, Parasita, Suctoria, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Rhipiptera, Diptera.
Orders: Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Rhipiptera, Anopleura, Thysanura.
Orders: Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Isoptera, Corrodentia, Ephemoptera, Odonata, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Anoplura.
Lus), a term applied to small wingless insects, parasitic upon birds and mammals, and belonging strictly speaking to the order Anoplura, often included among the Hemiptera, though the term is frequently extended to the bird-lice constituting the suborder Mallophaga, formerly included among the Neuroptera.
Vestigial palps have been described in various species of Hemiptera, but the true nature of these structures is doubtful.
R and 2, V.) in Hemiptera is large and free, and the mesothoracic scutellum is usually extensive.
Sub-orders, but an interesting peculiarity of the Hemiptera is the occasional presence of winged and wingless races of the same species.
Eleven abdominal segments can be recognized, at least in the early stages; as the adult condition is reached, the hinder segments become reduced or modified in connexion with the external reproductive organs, and show, in some male Hemiptera, a marked asymmetry.
The digestive system has a slender gullet, a large crop and no gizzard; in some Hemiptera the hinder region of the mid-gut forms a twisted loop with the gullet.
The order of the Hemiptera affords, ` therefore, some interesting transition stages towards the complete metamorphosis of the higher insects.
- Hemiptera are widely distributed, and are plentiful in most quarters of the globe, though they probably have not penetrated as far into remote and inhospitable regions as have the Coleoptera, Diptera and Aptera.
This family of Hemiptera (the Hydrometridae) and the Saldidae contain several insects that are marine, haunting the tidal margin.
The Hemiptera are remarkable for the variety of their stridulating organs.
The number of described species of Hemiptera must now be nearly 20,000.
The Anoplura or lice should not be included among the Hemiptera, but it has been thought convenient to refer briefly to them at the close of this article.
14) forming an order distinct from the Hemiptera, their sucking and piercing mouth-organs being apparently formed on quite a different plan from those of the Heteroptera and Homoptera.
Enderlein has recently shown that the jaws of the Hemiptera can be recognized in a reduced condition in connexion with the louse's proboscis, the modification is so excessive that the group certainly deserves ordinal separation.
A recent standard work on the morphology of the Hemiptera by R.
Fossil Hemiptera are described by S.
European Hemiptera have been dealt with in numerous papers by A.
Saunders's Hemiptera-Heteroptera of the British Isles (London, 1892); J.
Edwards's Hemiptera-Homoptera of the British Isles (London, 1896); J.
Aquatic Hemiptera are described by L.
For marine Hemiptera (Halobates) see F.
CUCKOO-SPIT, a frothy secretion found upon plants, and produced by the immature nymphal stage of various plant-lice of the familiar Cercopidae and Jassidae, belonging to the homopterous division of the Hemiptera, which in the adult condition are sometimes called frog-hoppers.
The cockroaches, grasshoppers, crickets and other insects that are included in this order were first placed by C. Linne (1735) among the Coleoptera (beetles), and were later removed by him to the Hemiptera (bugs, &c.).
Sometimes Lepidoptera mimic protected members of other orders of insects - such as Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera; but perhaps the most singular illustrations of the phenomenon known in the order are exemplified by the larvae of the hawk-moth Chaerocampa, which imitate the heads of snakes.
Since many of the insects of the order Hemiptera are distasteful, the mimicry of the bug (Megapetus) is in this case probably Mullerian or synaposematic; the grasshopper (Myrmecophana), on the other hand, is probably edible and the mimicry is Batesian or pseudaposematic. This is a simple case consisting of a small number of component species.
The same style of coloration is found in Coleoptera of the families Cetoniidae and Cantharidae; in Diptera of the families Asilidae, Bombylidae, Tabanidae and Tachinidae; in Hemiptera of the family Reduviidae and in Lepidoptera of the family Zygaenidae.
Towards this Lycoid centre have converged Coleoptera (beetles) of the sub-order Lamellicornia (Copridae), Phytophaga; Heteromera (Cantharidae) and Longicornia; Hemiptera of the families Pyrrhocoridae, Lygaeidae and Reduviidae; Lepidoptera of the families Arctiidae and Zygaenidae; Diptera of the family Asilidae; and lastly Hymenoptera of the families Braconidae, Pompilidae, Crabronidae and Eumenidae.
Among the insects we find the Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera represented; cockroaches were particu.
It consists of the females of Coccus cacti, an insect of the family Coccidae of the order Hemiptera, which feeds upon various species of the Cactaceae, more especially the nopal plant, Opuntia coccinellifera, a native of Mexico and Peru.
SCALE INSECT, a name given to insects belonging to the family Coccidae of the homopterous division of the Hemiptera and deriving their name from the formation by the females of a waxy secretion which often hardens into a protective scale beneath which the insects live.
For a general account of the structure, development and relationships of insects, see Arthropoda and Hexapoda, while details of the form, habits and classification of insects will be found in articles on the various orders or groups of orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, Dipteria,Hemiptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera,Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Thysanoptera), and in special articles on the more familiar divisions (ANT, BEE, Dragon-Fly, Earwig, &c.).
CICADA (Cicadidae), insects of the homopterous division of the Hemiptera, generally of large size, with the femora of the anterior legs toothed below, two pairs of large clear wings, and prominent compound eyes.
"plant-lice," "blight," and "green-fly," belonging to the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera, with long antennae and legs, two-jointed, two-clawed tarsi, and usually a pair of abdominal tubes through which a waxy secretion is exuded.
The nervous system is remarkably concentrated in some beetles, the abdominal ganglia showing a tendency to become shifted forward and crowded together, and in certain chafers all the thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused into a single nervecentre situated in the thorax, - a degree of specialization only matched in the insectan class among the Hemiptera and some muscid flies.