In other parts of the empire there were four cities each having over too,000 inhabitants in that year, namely, Baku, Tiflis, Tashkent and Helsingfors.
Finland has a university of its own at Helsingfors.
Palmen, Uber paarige Ausfiihrungsgange der Geschlechtsorgane bei Insekten (Helsingfors, 1884); H.
by rail from Kuivola junction on the Helsingfors railway, on an island of the same name at the mouth of the Kymmene river.
Thomsen of Copenhagen Inscriptions de l'Orkhon (Helsingfors, 1900).
Palmen's memoirs Zur Morphologie des Tracheensystems (Leipzig, 1877) and Cber paarige Ausfuhrungsgange der Geschlechtsorgane bei Insekten (Helsingfors, 1884), contain important observations on may-flies.
5 (Helsingfors 1918), noticed in Nature Aug.
Thomsen, Inscriptions de l'Orkhon (Helsingfors, 1900) they are dried before they reach north-western Mongolia.
For further details regarding the formation of Sumerian and Babylonian-Assyrian proper names, as well as for an indication of the problems involved and the difficulties still existing, especially in the case of Sumerian names,' see the three excellent works now at our disposal for the Sumerian, the old Babylonian, and the neoBabylonian period respectively, by Huber, Die Personennamen den Keilschrifturkunden aus der Zeit der Konige von Ur and Nisin (Leipzig, 1907); Ranke, Early Babylonian Proper Names (Philadelphia, 1905); and Tallqvist, Neu-Babylonisches Namenbuch (Helsingfors, 1905).
Lagus, Helsingfors, 1854) (on the Seljuks of Asia Minor exclusively, but of little value).
It is connected by railway with Helsingfors and Tammerfors, and is the centre of the Finnish butter export, which now amounts to over 1,000,000 yearly.
See also Paavo Snellman, Der Anfang des arianischen Streites (Helsingfors, 1904); Sigismund Rogala, Die Anfange des arianischen Streites (Paderborn, 1907).
Borga, was once a city of great dignity and importance, but the rapid growth of Helsingfors has somewhat eclipsed it.
On the 9th of August he reached Helsingfors.
Helsingfors followed the example of Sveaborg.
The leading cities of Finland are: Helsingfors, capital of the grand-duchy and of the province (Ian) of Nyland, principal seaport (111,654 inhabitants); Abo, capital of the Abo-BjOrneborg province and ancient capital of Finland (42,639); Tammerfors, the leading manufacturing town of the grand-duchy (40,261); Viborg, chief town of province of same name, important seaport (34,672); Ulea.- borg, capital of province (1 7,737); Vasa, or Nikolaistad, capital of Vasa Ian (18,028); Bjorneborg (16,053); Kuopio, capital of province (13,519); and Tavastehus, capital of province of the same name (5545).
The first railway was opened in 1862, and the next, from Helsingfors to St Petersburg, in 1870 (cost only £4520 per mile).
The chief articles of export are: timber and wood articles (£5,250,000), paper and paper pulp, some tissues, metallic goods, leather, &c. The chief ports are Helsingfors, Abo, Viborg, Hanger and Vasa.
For higher education there is the university of Helsingfors (formerly the Abo Academy), which in 1906 had 1921 students (328 women) and 141 professors and docents.
Besides the Helsingfors polytechnic there are a number of higher and lower technical, commercial and navigation schools.
War and foreign affairs were entirely in the hands of Russia, and a Russian governor had his residence in Helsingfors.
The province of Viborg was reunited to Finland in 1811, and Abo remained the capital of the country till 1821, when the civil and military authorities were removed to Helsingfors, and the university in 1827.
at Helsingfors in 1863.
Finland was on the whole prosperous and progressive, and his statue in the great square in front of the cathedral and the senate house in Helsingfors testifies to the regard in which his memory is cherished by his Finnish subjects.
Helsingfors was without tramcars, cabs, gas and electricity; no shops except provision shops were open; public departments, schools and restaurants were closed.
Palmen, Helsingfors, 1882, and K.
The Statistical Annual for Finland - Statistisk Arsbok for Finland - published annually by the Central Statistical Bureau in Helsingfors, gives the necessary figures.
A valuable handbook of Finnish history was published at Helsingfors in 1869-1873, by Yrjo Koskinen, and has been translated into both Swedish and German.
Dr Otto Donner's Comparative Dictionary of the FinnoUgric Languages (Helsingfors and Leipzig) is in German.
Palmen, L'Ouvre demi-seculaire de la Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 1831-81 (Helsingfors, 1882); J.
Krohn, Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden waiheet (Helsingfors, 18 97); F.
Pipping, Forteckning ofver bucker pd finska spretket (Helsingfors, 1856-1857); E.
Vasenius, Ofversigt of Finlands Litteraturhistoria for skolor (Helsingfors, 1893).
By the time that the " tacit truce " had come to an end the Swedish forces were so demoralized that the mere rumour of a hostile attack made them retire panic-stricken to Helsingfors; and before the end of the year all Finland was in the hands of the Russians.
When the Estates of Finland seceded from Sweden and accepted the Emperor Alexander of Russia as their grand duke at the Diet of Borg, in 1809, Abo became the capital of the new state, and so remained till 1819 when the seat of government was transferred to Helsingfors.
The university has since been removed to Helsingfors.
The city is second only to Helsingfors for its trade; sail-cloth, cotton and tobacco are manufactured, and there are extensive saw-mills.
The capital of the government is Uleaborg, a seaport on the Gulf of Bothnia, now connected by railway with Helsingfors (49 8 m .); pop. (1904), 17,737.
Donner, Lieder der Lappen (Helsingfors, 1876); Poestion, Lappldndische Mi rchen, &c. (Vienna, 1885).
HELSINGFORS (Finnish Helsinki), a seaport and the capital of Finland and of the province of Nyland, centre of the administrative, scientific, educational and industrial life of Finland.
Helsingfors is handsome and well laid out with wide streets, parks, gardens and monuments.
Some of the scientific societies of Helsingfors have a wide repute, such as the academy of sciences, the geographical, historical, Finno-Ugrian, biblical, medical, law, arts and forestry societies, as also societies for the spread of popular education and of arts and crafts.
Helsingfors displays great manufacturing and commercial activity, the imports being coal, machinery, sugar, grain and clothing.
3 (Helsingfors, 1898); (32) A.
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