Hellenism Sentence Examples
Greek culture had been the product of the city-state, and Hellenism could not be dissevered from the city.
Soter tried to introduce Hellenism into Persis.
In the country-side of Judaea, Judaism - and no longer Hellenism - was propagated by force.
But that ability was largely due to his whole-hearted Hellenism, which was shown by the Greek cities which he founded in Palestine and the buildings he erected in Jerusalem.
It was not till the great colonizing epoch of the 8th and 7th centuries B.C., when the name " Hellene " came into use as the antithesis of " barbarian," that the Greek race came to be conscious of itself as a peculiar people; it was yet some three centuries more before Hellenism stood fully declared in art and literature, in politics and in thought.Advertisement
Such slight notices in Western literature do not give us any penetrating view into the operation of Hellenism among the Iranians.
An Athenian came to be the missionary of Hellenism and to direct its ceremonies, which were established by force up and down the country.
He spent lavishly on public buildings at home and in the older centres of Hellenism, like Athens.
How anxious the Pergamene kings, with their ardent Hellenism, were to avoid offence is shown by the elaborate forms by which, in their own capital, they sought to give their real control the appearance of popular freedom (Cardinali, Regno di Pergamo, p. 281 seq.).
It was a centre not only of Hellenism but of Semitism, and the greatest Jewish city in the world.Advertisement
Both of these powers were interested in preventing any possible accession of territory to the Bulgarian kingdom; and Rumania (q.v.) had for many years been a formidable opponent of Hellenism among the Macedonian Vlachs.
All in all the study of oriental costume down to the days of Hellenism proves to be something more than that of mere apparel, and any close survey of the evidence speedily raises questions which concern old oriental history and thought.
As in glyptic so in poetic art, the Hellenism of the time was decadent and Alexandrine rather than Attic of the best period.
A new-born Hellenism, or divine cultus of beauty presented itself before his inspired soul."
They were present when the believers in Mahomet held sway in the Asiatic and African provinces which Alexander had once brought under the intellectual influence of Hellenism; while the Lombards, the West Goths, the Franks and the AngloSaxons had established kingdoms in Italy, Spain, Gaul and Britain.Advertisement
It suffered severely from the earthquake of the 16th-17th of January 188g, It is a prosperous place with an enlightened Greek element in its population (hence the numerous families called "Spartali" in Levantine towns); and it is, in fact, the chief inland colony of Hellenism in Anatolia.
There, under the monuments of its glorious past, Hellenism found its last retreat.
The works of Proclus, as the last testament of Hellenism to the church and the middle ages, exerted an incalculable influence on the next thousand years.
In the rustic parts a knowledge of Greek begins to spread in the 3 rd century; but only in the 4th and 5th centuries, after the transference of the centre of government first to Nicomedia and then to Constantinople placed Galatia on the highway of imperial communication, was Hellenism in its Christian form gradually diffused over the country.
Under the Seleucids Babylon was moved across the Hellenism.Advertisement
Besides Tyndaris and Tauromenium, the foundation of Halaca marks another step in Sicel progress towards Hellenism, while the Carthaginians founded their strong town and fortress of Lilybaeum in place of Motya.
The term " Hellenism " is ambiguous.
Gr eek culture had, however, both in " Hellenic " and " Hellenistic " times, a common essence, just as light is light whether in the original luminous body or in a reflection, and to describe this by the term Hellenism seems most natural.
But it will be first necessary to indicate briefly what Hellenism in itself implied.
When Hellenism came to stand in the world for something concrete and organic, it was, of course, no mere abstract principle, but embodied in a language, a literature, an artistic tradition.Advertisement
Already in the 7th century B.C., when Hellenism was still in a rudimentary stage, the citizens of the Greek city-states had been known to the courts of Babylon and Egypt as admirable soldiers, combining hardihood with discipline, and Greek mercenaries came to be in request throughout the Nearer East.
But as Hellenism developed, its social and intellectual life began to exercise a power of attraction.
In Athens the Hellenic genius was focussed, its tendencies drawn together and combined; nor was it a circumstance of small moment that the Attic dialect attained, for prose, a classical authority; for if Hellenism was to be propagated in the world at large, it was obviously convenient that it should have some one definite form of speech to be its medium.
The Phoenician element seems to have been dominant in the island when Evagoras made himself king of Salamis in 412, and restored Hellenism with a strong hand.
On the other hand it must be taken into account that Hellenism had as yet only been a very short while in the world.
From our present point of view we may therefore regard this work of Hellenism as one continuous process, initiated by the Macedonians and carried on under Roman protection, and ask in the first place what the institution of a Greek city implied.
Hellenism had been the product of the free life of the Greek city-state, and after Chaeronea the great days of the city-state were past.
Just as the Macedonian conquest, whilst increasing the domain of Greek culture, had straitened Greek liberty, so Rome, whilst bringing Hellenism finally into secure possession of the nearer East, extinguished Greek freedom altogether.
The inter-action of Christianity and Hellenism opens large fields of inquiry.
What influence did Hellenism during the centuries in which it was in contact with India exert upon the native mind?
If certain statements of classical authors were true, Hellenism in India flourished exceedingly.
The history of these Greek dynasties is for us almost a blank, and for estimating the amount and quality of Hellenism in Bactria during the 180 years or so of Macedonian and Greek rule, we are reduced to building hypotheses upon the scantiest data.
In Babylonia, also, in Susiana and Mesopotamia, Hellenism had been established in a system of cities for 200 years before the coming of the Parthian.
This single instance need not, it is true, show a Hellenism of any profundity; still it does show that certain parts of Hellenism had become so essential to the lustre of a court that even an Arsacid could not be without them.
It is enough then here to observe that Iran and Babylonia do, as a matter of fact, continually yield the explorer objects of workmanship either Greek or influenced by Greek models, belonging to the age after Alexander, and that we may hence infer at any rate such an influence of Hellenism upon the tastes of the richer classes as would create a demand for these things.
If any vestige of Hellenism still survived under the Sassanian kings, our records do not show it.
But the account of Chosroes' mode of action makes it plain that the Hellenism once planted in Iran had withered away; representatives of Greek learning and skill have all to be imported from across the frontier.
To Droysen and Kaerst it accords with the historical conditions; to Grote and to Beloch it is a betrayal of the prerogative of Hellenism.
It ends with the destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of the Roman Empire, which was, like Alexander, at once the masterful pupil and the docile patron of Hellenism.
When Alexander invaded the interior of the Eastern world, which had hitherto remained inviolable, he came as the champion of Hellenism.
The emperor Julian went to him by the advice of Aedesius, and subsequently invited him to come to court, and assist in the projected resuscitation of Hellenism.
For the detailed accounts of the separate dynasties into which it was divided after Alexander's death, see Seleucid Dynasty, Antigonus, Pergamum, &C., and for its effect on the spread of Hellenic culture see Hellenism.
We certainly find among those members of the Persian aristocracy, who came by residence in Asia Minor into closer contact with the Greeks, some traces of interest in the more ideal side of Hellenism.
The Macedonian chiefs found their pride in being champions of Hellenism.
How important an element the Greek population of their realm seemed to the Parthian kings we can see by the fact that they claimed to be themselves champions of Hellenism.
In Asia Minor, we have seen how, even before Alexander, Hellenism had begun to affect the native races and Persian nobility.
While new Greek cities were rising in the interior, the older Hellenism of the western coast grew in material splendour under the munificence of Hellenistic kings.
But Hellenism in Cappadocia was for centuries to come still confined to the castles of the king and the barons, and the few towns.
But inland, in Phrygia, Hellenism had as yet made little headway outside the Greek cities.
Among the villages of the north and east of Phrygia, Hellenism " was only beginning to make itself felt in the middle of the 3rd century A.D."
Even in the 4th century its Hellenization was still far from complete; but Christianity had assimilated so much of the older Hellenic culture that the Church was now a main propagator of Hellenism in the backward regions.
Epiphanes (175-164), a fresh impulse was given to Syrian Hellenism.
Under Roman protection, the cities were soon rebuilt and Hellenism secured from the barbarian peril.
Not only were such marks of Hellenism as a theatre introduced by Herod the Great (37-34 B.C.) at Jerusalem, but in the work of city-building this dynasty showed itself active.
In Syria, too, Hellenism under the Romans advanced upon new ground.
But where Greek gave place to Syriac, Hellenism was not thereby effaced.
The Mosaic Law was respected, but Hellenism still found an entrance in various forms. The first Hasmonaean " king," Aristobulus I.
And even at Alexandria Hellenism was not allowed full development.
Probably in no other country, except Judaea, did Hellenism encounter as stubborn a national antagonism as in Egypt.
From the Ptolemaic kingdom Hellenism early travelled up the Nile into Ethiopia.
Even before Alexander, as we saw, Hellenism had affected the peoples of Italy, but it was not till the Greeks of south Italy and Sicily were brought under the supremacy of Rome in the 3rd century B.C. that the stream of Greek influence entered Rome in any volume.
In the middle of the 2nd century Roman Hellenism centred in the circle of Scipio Aemilianus, which included men like Polybius and the philosopher Panaetius.
The visit of the three great philosophers, Diogenes the " Babylonian," Critolaus and Carneades in 155, was an epoch-making event in the history of Hellenism at Rome.
With the Renaissance and the new learning, Hellenism came in again in flood, to form a chief part of that great river on which the modern world is being carried forward into a future, of which one can only say that it must be utterly unlike anything that has gone before.
During the dark ages, in the Byzantine East, as well as in the West, Hellenism had become little more than a dried and shrivelled tradition, although the closer study of Byzantine culture in latter years has seemed to discover more vitality than was once supposed.
Later, however, the history of Hellenism, the provincial history of the Roman empire, the rise of Christianity and the triumph of Islam successively receive brilliant illustration in Egypt.
The comic poets satirized them, and Plato and Demosthenes inveighed against them; but they continued to spread, with all their fervid enthusiasm, their superstition and their obscene practices, wide among the people, whose religious cravings were not satisfied with the purely external religions of Hellenism.
It was different when the Jews who wished to be men of the world took their Hellenism from the Seleucid court and courted the favour of Antiochus Epiphanes.
Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.) succeeded to the throne, Jason - whose name betrays a leaning towards Antio- Hellenism - the brother of Onias, offered the king chus IV.
Jerusalem was suddenly occupied by one of his captains, and a garrison was planted in a new fortress on Hellenism.
Gem-engraving and jewelry follow similar lines; pottery-painting for the most part remains geometrical throughout, with crude survivals of Mycenaean curvilinear forms. Those Aegean influences, however, which had been predominant in the later Bronze Age, and had never wholly ceased, revived, as Hellenism matured and spread, and slowly repelled the mixed Phoenician orientalism.
The occasion of the siege of Idalium by Persians (which is commemorated in an important Cypriote inscription) is unknown."' Throughout this period, however, Athens and other Greek states maintained a brisk trade in copper, sending vases and other manufactures in return, and bringing Cyprus at last into full contact with Hellenism.
In Asia Minor and Phoenicia we can clearly trace the progress of Hellenism, especially by the coinage.
Thus the cities became the main factors in the diffusion of Hellenism, the Greek language and the Greek civilization over all Asia as far as the Indus.
While Hellenism was thus gaining a firm footing in all the East, thenative population remained absolutely passive.
But how For the whole of this period see further ANTIGONUS; ANTIOCHUS I.IV.; SELEUCID DYNASTY; HELLENISM.
For they were all Orientals and, consciously or unconsciously, representatives of a reaction against that Hellenism which had become the heritage of Rome.
But to these Oriental elements must be added that of Hellenism, the dominant world-culture which had penetrated into Parthia Relation and Media.
The further the Arsacids expanded the deeper they penetrated into the province of Hellenism; the first Mithradates himself assumed, after his great conquests, the title of Phithellen, the protector of Hellenism, which was retained by almost all his successors.
The Hellenism of Seleucia was now attacked with greater determination.
The downfall of the great Greek city sealed the fate of Hellenism in the countries east of the Euphrates.
In the intellectual life and literature of the Sassanid era the main characteristic is the complete disappearance of Hellenism and the Greek language.
Over the higher classes especially Hellenism had cast its spell.
The object of our author was the defence and exposition of Judaism from the Pharisaic standpoint of the 2nd century B.C. against the disintegrating effects of Hellenism.
With the approval of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Sadducean section embraced the outward forms of Hellenism, and out of the persecution of the orthodox which followed was born the hope of a future life which was in the circumstances the necessary corollary of God's righteousness and was discovered to be latent in Scripture.
It should be noted before we pass to Rome that with the expansion of Hellenism the subject of historians expanded as well.
The whole book is a queer mixture of Hellenism and Hebraism, in which the same method of allegory is applied to Homer and Hesiod as to Moses.
The treatise is conclusive evidence as to the mutual influence of Christianity and Hellenism in the 4th century.
Hellenism soon disappeared and the Arabs adopted the language and civilization of the Aramaeans.
In fact, by the middle of the 6th century, and increasingly down to the period of the Persian Wars, Sparta had come to be acknowledged as the leading state of Hellas and the champion of Hellenism.
Although influenced by Hellenism, he is a loyal Jew, earnestly desirous that all who profess the same faith should adhere to it in spite of either Greek allurements or barbaric persecution.
While in his zeal for legalism he virtually adopts the standpoint of Pharisaism, he is at one with Jewish Hellenism in substituting belief in the soul's immortality for the doctrine of a bodily resurrection.
His empire is thus quite different in character from the Parthian kingdom of the Arsacids, which had no national and religious basis but leant towards Hellenism, and whose organization had always been very loose.
The reason is that Christianity was one of thousands of sects arising in late Hellenism.
Treatises " Concerning Kingship " were produced as a regular thing by philosophers, and kings who claimed the fine flower of Hellenism, could not but peruse them.
But whilst using the term in the larger sense, this article, in deference to the associations which have come to be specially connected with it, will devote its principal attention to Hellenism as it appeared in the world after the Macedonian conquests.
In the East it is popularly thought that Hellenism, as an exotic, withered altogether away.
Bactria became a province of the Macedonian empire, and soon came under the rule of Seleucus, king of Asia (see Seleucid Dynasty and Hellenism).
In southern Asia Minor the Seleucids founded Antioch, Apamea, Attalia, the La.odiceas and Seleuceias, and other cities as centres of commerce, some of which afterwards played an important part in the Hellenization (see Hellenism) of the country, and in the spread of Christianity.
The `EAXnvucwv OEpairEvruo lraen,uhTwv (De Curandis Graecorum Affectionibus) - written before 438 - is of an historical and apologetic character, very largely indebted to Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius; it aims at showing the advantages of Christianity as compared with " the moribund but still militant " Hellenism of the day, and deals with the assaults of pagan adversaries.
The coins demonstrate that Hellenism had become quite extinct in Persis, while the old historical and mythical traditions and the Zoroastrian religion were supreme.
The influence of Hellenism over them is shown by finds in the tombs and the fact that they spoke the Greek language as well as their own (bilingues in Ennius).
But by the courts alone Hellenism could never have been propagated far.