Oncken, Athen and Hellas (Leipzig, 1865); U.
Dicaearcus of Messana in Sicily, a pupil of Aristotle (326-296 B.C.), is the author of a topographical account of Hellas, with maps, of which only fragments are preserved; he is credited with having estimated the size of the earth, and, as far as known he was the first to draw a parallel across a map. 4 This parallel, or dividing line, called diaphragm (partition) by a commentator, extended due east from the Pillars of Hercules, through the Mediterranean, and along the Taurus and Imaus (Himalaya) to the eastern ocean.
Gelo's general rule was mild, and he won fame as the champion of Hellas by his great victory over the Carthaginians at Himera.
Thus the great attempt on the part of Athens to lead a harmonious league of free Greek states for the good of Hellas degenerated into an empire which proved intolerable to the autonomous states of Greece.
Herodotus, also in the 5th century, describes them as the typical (perhaps in contrast to Athenians as the only genuine) Hellenes, and traces their numerous wanderings from (I) an original home " in Deucalion's time " in Phthiotis (the Homeric " Hellas ") in south Thessaly, to (2) Histiaeotis " below Ossa and Olympus " in north-east Thessaly (note that the historic Histiaeotis is " below Pindus " in north-west Thessaly): this was " in the days of Dorus," i.e.
Here clearly two traditions are combined: - one, in which the Dorians originated from Hellas in south Thessaly, and so are " children of Hellen "; another, in which they were a " Macedonian people " intruded from the north, from Pindus, past Histiaeotis to Doris and beyond.
Some most archaic inscriptions have been indeed found by the explorers in Crete, but these for the present serve scarcely any other purpose than to prove the antiquity of the art of writing among a people who were closely in touch with the inhabitants of Hellas proper.
But even were direct evidence of the knowledge of the art of writing in Greece of the early day altogether lacking, none but the hardiest sceptic could doubt, in the light of recent archaeological discoveries elsewhere, that the inhabitants of ancient Hellas of the "Homeric Age" must have shared with their contemporaries the capacity to record their thought in written words.
But until recently it had been supposed that Hellas was shut out entirely from this Oriental culture.
European Liberalism, too, gagged and fettered under Metternich's "system," recognized in the Greeks the champions of its own cause; while even conservative statesmen, schooled in the memories of ancient Hellas, saw in the struggle a fight of civilization against barbarism.
In the spring of 1822 two Turkish armies advanced southwards: one, under Omar Vrioni, along the coast of Western Hellas, the other, under Ali, pasha of Drama (Dramali), through Boeotia and Attica.
His colleague, Yussuf Pasha, in East Hellas fared no better; here, too, the Turks gained some initial successes, but in the end the harassing tactics of Kolokotrones and his guerilla bands forced them back into the plain of the Kephissos.
The command of the army that was to operate in west Hellas had been given to Reshid "Kutahia," pasha of Iannina, an able general and a man of determined character.
The fall of Missolonghi, followed as this was by the submission of many of the more notable chiefs, left Reshid free to turn his attention to East Hellas, where Gouras had been ruling Karaa s a practically independent chief and in the s irit P Y P P?
553, "Mark that outcry of despair" for "Hark"; Hellas, 472, "Hold each to the other in loud mockery" for "Told."
So may the Devil I Respite their souls from Heaven!"; Hellas, 657, "Bask in the [deep] blue noon divine"; Julian and Maddalo, 218, where "Moans, shrieks, and curses, and blaspheming prayers" is absent in the earlier editions though required for the rhyme; so lines 299-301 of the Letter to Maria Gisborne.
When the Greeks tried to organize a regular navy he was appointed captain of the frigate "Hellas" in 1826.
On the outbreak of the Greek revolt, he distinguished himself by his courage, tenacity and skill as a partisan leader in the fighting in western Hellas, and was conspicuous in the defence of Missolonghi during the first siege (1822-1823).
Lysias lifted up his voice to denounce Dionysius as, next to Artaxerxes, the worst enemy of Hellas, and to impress upon the assembled Greeks that one of their foremost duties was to deliver Sicily from a hateful oppression.
The Greek of old Hellas came from a land of islands, peninsulas and inland seas.
The history of the Greeks of Sicily is constantly connected with the history of old Hellas, but it runs a separate course of its own.
The intimate connexion be tween old Hellas and Sicily begins with the foundation Y g?
The champion of Hellas against the barbarian.
But .the united power of Gelo and Thero, whose daughter Damarete Gelo had married, crushed the invaders in the great battle of Himera, won, men said, on the same day as Salamis, and the victors of both were coupled as the joint deliverers of Hellas (Herod.
The minuter account of Dionysius belongs to Syracusan history; but his position, one unlike anything that had been before seen in Sicily or elsewhere in Hellas, forms an epoch in the history of Europe.
His only bright side is his championship of Hellas against the Phoenician, and this is balanced by his settlements of barbarian mercenaries in several Greek cities.
And Hellas was cut short by the seizure of Messana by the disbanded Campanian mercenaries of Agathocles (c. 282), who proclaimed themselves a new people in a new city by the name of Mamertines, children of Mamers or Mars.
- To the number of Greek city-states existing before Alexander were now therefore added those which extended Hellas as far as India.
In Byzantine times it became a bishop's seat, and to judge by its later name "Hellas" it served as a refuge for the Greeks from the Slavonic immigrants of the 8th century.
Unger, "Hellas in Thessalien," in Philologus, Suppl.
Properly therefore it stands in marked antithesis to that fairest growth of old Hellas, the Academy, which saw the Stoa rise and fall - the one the typical school of Greece and Greek intellect, the other of the Hellenized East, and, under the early Roman Empire, of the whole civilized world.
Doubtless, it has very ancient and close associations with Thessaly; for most of the leading tribes must have entered Hellas by this route, and remembered the mountain Olympus that dominates this region as the earliest home of his cult, and took with them to their most distant settlements the cult-title 'OXi' trnos.
But to maintain therefore that he originated in Thessaly as the special deity of a single tribe, who were able to impose him upon the whole of Hellas, is against the analogies offered by the study of the special cults of Greek polytheism.
It was found in the worship of many other divinities of Hellas in early times, and no single explanation can be given that would apply to them all.
Society may have at one time been matrilinear in the communities that become the historic Hellenes; but of this there is no trace in the worship of Zeus and Hera.18 In fact, the whole of the family morality in Hellas centred in Zeus, whose altar in the courtyard was the bond of the kinsmen; and sins against the family, such as unnatural vice and the exposure of children, are sometimes spoken of as offences against the High God.I" He was also the tutelary deity of the larger organization of the phratria; and the altar of Zeus c Pparpcos was the meetingpoint of the phrateres, when they were assembled to consider the legitimacy of the new applicants for admission into their circle.20 His religion also came to assist the development of certain legal ideas, for instance, the rights of private or family property in land; he guarded the allotments as Zein KAdpcos,2' and the Greek commandment " thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark " was maintained by Zeus " Opcos, the god of boundaries, a more personal power than the Latin Jupiter Terminus.22 His highest political functions were summed up in the title IIoXtfin, a cult-name of legendary antiquity in Athens, and frequent in the Hellenic world.23 His consort in his political life was not Hera, but his daughter Athena Polias.
3 As the god who brought the people under one government he might be worshipped as Havbnµos; 4 as the deity of the whole of Hellas, `EAXavcos, 5 a title that belonged originally to Aegina and to the prehistoric tribe of the Aeacidae, and had once the narrower application to the " Thessalian Hellenes," but acquired the Pan-Hellenic sense, in fact expanded into the form IIav€XXipnos, perhaps about the time of the Persian wars, when thanksgiving for the victory took the form of dedications and sacrifice to " Zeus the Liberator " - 'EXev8Epcos.
Yet the figure of Zeus had almost faded from the religious world of Hellas some time before the end of paganism; and Lucian makes him complain that even the Egyptian Anubis is more popular than he, and that men think they have done the outworn God sufficient honour if they sacrifice to him once in five years at Olympia.
As professor of philosophy at the newly founded academy of Constantinople he revived the cult of Plato at a time when Aristotle held the field; this, together with his admiration for the old pagan glories of Hellas, aroused suspicions as to his orthodoxy.
The Alexandrian philosopher wavers between the two theories and has to accord to the Logos of Hellas a semiindependent position beside the supreme God of Judaea.
Wherever among her own children the ancient loyalty was yielding to love of pleasure or of base gain, there, above all, it was the duty of Athens to see that the central hearth of Hellas was kept pure.
In fact, by the middle of the 6th century, and increasingly down to the period of the Persian Wars, Sparta had come to be acknowledged as the leading state of Hellas and the champion of Hellenism.
As an ally she was ineffective, nor could she ever rid herself of her narrowly Peloponnesian outlook sufficiently to throw herself heartily into the affairs of the greater Hellas that lay beyond the isthmus and across the sea.
Their city is not built continuously, and has no splendid temples or other edifices; it rather resembles a group of villages, like the ancient towns of Hellas, and would therefore make a poor show" (i.
Oncken, Athen and Hellas, ii.