It appears, therefore, that there survived in Palestine to late times a detached Hittite population, with which Hebrews sometimes intermarried (Judges iii.
Modern criticism of the history of Sabbath observance among the Hebrews has done nothing more than follow out these arguments in detail, and show that the result is in agreement with what is known as to the dates of the several component parts of the Pentateuch.
The two sections of the Hebrews who had had so much in common were scarcely severed by a border-line only a few miles to the north of Jerusalem.
But the real Arabic sacrifice of firstlings was called Fara`; it might be sacrificed at any time, as was also the case with the Hebrews (Exod.
author of the epistle to the Hebrews; its use was foreign to the synagogue services on which, and not on those of the temple, the worship of the primitive Christians is well known to have been originally modelled; and its associations with heathen solemnities, and with the evil repute of those who were known as "thurificati," would still further militate against its employment.
The Hebrews of Israel and Judah were, political history apart, men of the same general stamp, with the same cult and custom; for the study of religion and social usages, therefore, they can be treated as a single people.
Day, Social Life of the Hebrews; and, for some comparison of customary usage in the Semitic field, to S.
That full moon as well as new moon had a religious significance among the ancient Hebrews seems to follow from the fact that, when the great agricultural feasts were fixed to set days, the full moon was chosen.
4 The evidence of the worship of Saturn among the oldest Hebrews is doubtful.
Most men do not know that any nation but the Hebrews have had a scripture.
Two goats were provided by the ancient Hebrews on the Day of Atonement; the high priest sent one into the desert, after confessing on it the sins of Israel; it was not permitted to run free but was probably cast over a precipice; the other was sacrificed as a sin-offering.
21); indeed, so long as the Hebrews were an agricultural people, in a land often ravaged by severe famines, the law of the Sabbatical year could not have been observed.
Of his earlier life it was said that he was born in Egypt of Levite parents, and when the Pharaoh commanded that every new-born male child of the Hebrews should be killed, he was put into a chest and cast upon the Nile.
Lastly, the rite of circumcision, which the Hebrews practised in common with their Semitic neighbours as well as the Egyptians, belonged to ages long anterior to the time of Moses.
Now when the Hebrews succeeded to these agricultural conditions and acquired possession of the Canaanite abodes, they naturally fell into the same cycle of religious ideas and tradition.
Similarly in the earlier pre-exilian period of Israel's occupation of Canaanite territory the Hebrews were always subject to this tendency to worship the old Baal or `Ashtoreth (the goddess who made the cattle and flocks prolific).3 A few years of drought or of bad seasons would make a Hebrew settler betake himself to the old Canaanite gods.
But the years 1887 to 1891 opened many eyes to the fact that the Hebrews lived their life on the great highways of intercourse between Egypt on the one hand, and Babylonia, Assyria and the N.
It is now that we find the restless IIabiru, a name which is commonly identified with that of the " Hebrews " (` ibrim).
The traditions which prevailed among the Hebrews concerning their origin belong to a time when Judah and Israel were regarded as a unit.
The one associates itself with the ancestors of the Hebrews and has an ethnic character.
The Rival Kingdoms. - The Palestine of the Hebrews was but part of a great area breathing the same atmosphere, and there was little to distinguish Judah from Israel except when they were distinct political entities.
- The elements of the thought and religion of the Hebrews do not sever them from their neighbours; similar features of cult are met with elsewhere under different names.
He appeals also to many of the lost gospels, such as those of the Hebrews, of the Egyptians and of Matthias.
The writer is more versed than any other New Testament writer except the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and very much more than most of them, in the literary Greek of the period of the rise of Christianity; and he has, also, like other writers, his favourite words, turns of expression and thoughts.
Martin Luther regarded Apollos as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and many scholars since have shared his view.
7; the early Actus Petri Vercellenses; and the late Cypriot Encomium), especially if we might trust the Western ascription to him of the epistle of the Hebrews, which begins with Tertullian (De Pud.
If we could confidently credit him with the authorship of the epistle to the Hebrews, we could conceive his theological standpoint more exactly.
The periods are externally indicated by the successive names by which the chosen people were called - Hebrews, Israelites, Jews.
The latter portion was not much known to the Hebrews, but was vaguely feared as a power in the early days of the monarchy, though not in the later pre-Captivity period.
4 2 seq.), to the kingly priesthood of Jesus, as that idea is worked out at length in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
SABBATH, the day of cessation from work,' which among the Hebrews followed six days of labour and closed the week.
Astrology is in its nature an occult science, and there is no trace of a day of twenty-four hours among the ancient Hebrews.
These are the Epistles of James and Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Apocalypse of John, and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
HEBREW RELIGION (I) Introductory.-To trace the history of the religion of the Hebrews is a complex task, because the literary sources from which our knowledge of that history is derived are themselves complex and replete with problems as to age and authorship, some of which have been solved according to the consensus of nearly all the best scholars, but some of which still await solution or are matters of dispute.
9), 6 marks a new epoch in the religious development of the Hebrews.
Epistle to the Hebrews >>
The Hebrews shared the paradoxes of Orientals, and religious enthusiasm and ecstasy were prominent features.
- Thus the Old Testament, the history of the Jews during the first great period, describes the relation of the Hebrews to surrounding peoples, the superiority of Judah over the faithless (north) Israelite tribes, and the reorganization of the Jewish community in and around Jerusalem at the arrival of Ezra with the Book of the Law.
The -fact that the name of the ant has come down in English from a thousand years ago shows that this class of insects impressed the old inhabitants of England as they impressed the Hebrews and Greeks.
He was the youngest of eight sons,' and spent his youth in an occupation which the Hebrews as well as the Arabs seem to have held in low esteem.
But notwithstanding this, the relation is broken off, and years elapse before David gains hold upon the Hebrews of north Israel, the weakness of the union being proved by the ease with which it was subsequently broken after Solomon's death.
This new procedure, we may imagine, was resented by the northern Hebrews as an encroachment upon their liberties.
The name of the god signifies the "high one" and he was probably a god of the atmospheric region above the earth - perhaps a storm god like Adad, or like Yahweh among the ancient Hebrews.
(1883); Ancient Empires of the East (1884); Introduction to Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther (1885); Assyria (1885); Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion (1887); The Hittites (1889); Races of the Old Testament (1891); Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments (1894); Patriarchal Palestine (1895); The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus (1895); Early History of the Hebrews (1897); Israel and the Surrounding Nations (1898); Babylonians and Assyrians (1900); Egyptian and Babylonian Religion (1903); Archaeology of the Cuneiform Inscr.
As the Hebrews did not mutilate any of their animals, bulls were in common use.
Hauran and the Moabite hills to Horeb and the Midianite Mountains of the Hebrews, which run into Arabia.
The history of Baalism among the Hebrews is obscured by the difficulty of determining whether the false worship which the prophets stigmatize is the heathen worship of Yahweh under a conception, and often with rites, which treated him as a local nature god; or whether Baalism was consciously recognized to be distinct from Yahwism from the first.
de Candolle 3 observes that it was not cultivated by the Hebrews, the Egyptians, the ancient Greeks and the Romans.
Among the Hebrews it was the third and chief of the three annual pilgrimage festivals connected respectively with the harvesting of the barley (Passover), of wheat (Pentecost), and of the vine (Tabernacles).
This interpretation of the popular tales, according to which the career of the hero can be followed in its entirety and in detail in the movements in the heavens, in time, with the growing predominance of the astral-mythological system, overshadowed the other factors involved, and it is in this form, as an astral myth, that it passes through the ancient world and leaves its traces in the folk-tales and myths of Hebrews, Phoenicians, Syrians, Greeks and Romans throughout Asia Minor and even in India.
But when it is granted that the ancient Hebrews, like other primitive peoples, had their own mythical and traditional figures, the story of Cain becomes less obscure.
is adopted by Irenaeus, who tells us that, according to the learned among the Hebrews, the name Jesus contains two letters and a half, and signifies that Lord who contains heaven and earth [rr' = rim ?
Though the early Hebrews (of the time before the 5th century B.C.) must have reflected on life, there is no trace of such reflection, of a systematic sort, in their extant literature.
The Hebrew tradition further connects the revelation of the sacred name of the God of the Hebrews with this festival, which thus combines, in itself, all the associations connecting the Hebrews with their God.
All the stages of the world's history were therefore preparations leading up to this full revelation, and God's care was not confined to the Hebrews alone.
11, Hebrews i.
A collection of the Greek and Latin fragments that have survived, mainly in Origen and Jerome, will be found in Hilgenfeld's NT extra Canonem receptum, Nicholson's Gospel according to the Hebrews (1879), Westcott's lntrod.
According to the most recent investigations we may conclude that the Gospel according to the Hebrews was current among the Nazarenes and Ebionites as early as 100-125, since Ignatius was familiar with the phrase " I am no bodiless demon " - a phrase which, according to Jerome (Comm.
The name " Gospel according to the Hebrews " cannot have been original; for if it had been so named because of its general use among the Hebrews, yet the Hebrews themselves would not have used this designation.
In the cosmogonies of many ancient peoples there was a plurality of heavens, probably among the earlier Hebrews, the idea being elaborated in rabbinical literature, among the Babylonians and in Zoroastrianism.
The Roman Catholics number 16,453 (including 2005 natives) and form 5% of the European population, and the Hebrews 1 5,47 8 or 5.34% of the European inhabitants.
Among the Hebrews the outer garment, as distinct from the inner loin wrapper (ezor) or tunic, evidently took many forms.
He edited and revised Matthew (the 9th ed., 1897), Mark and Luke (the 9th ed., 1901), John (the 9th ed., 1902), Romans (the 9th ed., 1899), the Epistles to Timothy and Titus (the 7th ed., 1902), Hebrews (the 6th ed., 1897), the Epistles of John (the 6th ed., 1900).
The Hebrews who had fled across the Jordan (xiii.
Lebanon was included within the ideal boundaries of the land of Israel, and the whole region was well known to the Hebrews, by whose poets its many excellences are often praised.
Eustace Conway, or the Brother and Sister, a novel (1834); The Kingdom of Christ (1842); Christmas Day and Other Sermons (1843); TheUnity of the New Testament (1844); The Epistle to the Hebrews (1846);.
On a marble block broken away at both ends, which in a second use was a lintel, we read AFS2PHEBP, which can only be o-vvayoxyl) `E/3paiow (synagogue of the Hebrews).
It is the latest writer (P) who mentions Abram (the original form of the name), Nahor and Haran, sons of Terah, at the close of a genealogy of the sons of Shem, which includes among its members Eber the eponym of the Hebrews.
He became to the Hebrews the embodiment of their ideals, and stood at their head as the founder of the nation, the one to whom Yahweh had manifested his love by frequent promises and covenants.
For the history of the Hebrews the life of Abraham is of the same value as other stories of traditional ancestors.
1-4), it is evident that some degree of kinship was felt by the Hebrews with the dwellers of the more distant south, and it is characteristic of the genealogies that the mothers (Sarah, Hagar and Keturah) are in the descending scale as regards purity of blood.
Considering the important part played by the Egyptian sojourn of the Hebrews, as narrated in the Scriptures, it was certainly not an overenthusiastic prediction that the Egyptian monuments when fully investigated would divulge important references to Joseph, to Moses, and to the all-important incidents of the Exodus; but half a century of expectant attention in this direction has led only to disappointment.
But, considering the fulness of the contemporary Egyptian records of the XIXth dynasty that are already known, it becomes increasingly doubtful whether the Hebrews in Egypt played so important a part in history, when viewed from the Egyptian standpoint, as their own records had seemed to imply.
As the forgotten history of Oriental antiquity has been restored to us, it has come to be understood that, politically speaking, the Hebrews were a relatively insignificant people, whose chief importance from the standpoint of material history was derived from the geographical accident that made them a sort of buffer between the greater nations about them.
Only once, and for a brief period, in the reigns of David and Solomon did the Hebrews rise to anything like an equal plane of political importance with their immediate neighbours.
Some recent finds have, indeed, seemed to make inferential reference to the Hebrews, and the marvellous collection of letters of the XVIIIth dynasty found at Tel el-Amarnaletters to which we shall refer later - have the utmost importance as proving a possible early date for the Mosaic accounts.
Temple's essay had treated of the intellectual and spiritual growth of the race, and had pointed out the contributions made respectively by the Hebrews, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, and others.
For attempts to find a mythological interpretation of Isaac's life, see Goldziher, Mythology of the Hebrews; Winckler, Gesch.
It emphasizes more particularly the position of the Hebrews as a religious community, bound together by common aims and by their covenant-relation with the national God, Yahweh.
We may conclude that Balaam was an ancient figure of traditions originally common to all the Hebrews and their allies, and afterwards appropriated by individual tribes; much as there are various St Georges.
As to the external evidence for the book's early date, we must remember that the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Book of Revelation, though admittedly earlier, are of the same school, and, with the great Pauline.
1 Even the Hebrews knew of the good-will of "Him who dwelt in the bush" (Deut.
(1895), History of the Hebrews, ii.
Clement's epistle, indeed, conforms more to the elaborate and treatise-like form of the Epistle to the Hebrews, on which it draws so largely; and the same is true of "Barnabas."
Lightfoot, indeed, dwells on the all-round "comprehensiveness" with which Clement, as the mouthpiece of the early Roman Church, utters in succession phrases or ideas borrowed impartially from Peter and Paul and James and the Epistle to Hebrews.
Geiger (Urschrift and Uebersetzung, p. 305) very unnecessarily supposed that this was everywhere the original reading, and that it had been changed to soften the enormity ascribed to the ancient Hebrews.
The leading varieties of teaching, the Sayings of Jesus, Paul, the Johannine writings, the Epistle to the Hebrews, connect the atonement with Christ especially with His death, and associate it with faith in Him and with repentance and amendment of life.12 These ideas are also common to Christian teaching generally.
Among the nomadic Semites, to whom the Hebrews belonged before they settled in Canaan, there has never been any developed priesthood.
The Hebrews, who made the language of Canaan their own, took also the Canaanite name for a priest.
The Hebrews had already possessed a tent-temple and oracle of this kind in the wilderness (Exod.
The first forms the text of the principal argument in the Epistle to the Hebrews, in which the author easily demonstrates the inadequacy of the mediation and atoning rites of the Old Testament, and builds upon this demonstration the doctrine of the effectual high-priesthood of Christ, who, in his sacrifice of himself, truly " led His people to God," not leaving them outside as He entered the heavenly sanctuary, but taking them with Him into spiritual nearness to the throne of grace.
It was probably known to the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
NAZARITE, or rather Nazirite, the name given by the Hebrews to a peculiar kind of devotee.
Among the Hebrews, as among many other nations, the earliest beginnings of literature were in all probability poetical.
17-26), they form the oldest legislation of the Hebrews that we possess; they consist principally of civil ordinances, suited to regulate the life of a community living under simple conditions of society, and chiefly occupied in agriculture, but partly also of elementary regulations respecting religious observances (altars, sacrifices, festivals, &c.).
This is the first of the three books belonging to the " Wisdom-literature " of the Hebrews, the other two books being Job and Ecclesiastes.
The Wisdomliterature of the Hebrews concerned itself with what we should call the philosophy of human nature, and sometimes also of physical nature as well; its writers observed human character, studied action in its consequences, laid down maxims for education and conduct, and reflected on the moral problems which human society presents.
without perceiving that it is a compilation, and that its author, or authors, has made use of a large variety of older materials," and that " it has probably received its final shape at the hands of Ezra " (Early History of the Hebrews, 129 and 134).
the Assyrian inscriptions have furnished independent evidence of the relations of certain Hebrew kings (Ahab, Jehu, Ahaz) with the Assyrians, and thus supported more or less completely the evidence of the Old Testament on these points: they have also served to clear up in part the confused chronology of the Hebrews as given in the books of Kings.
- Here, perhaps, archaeology has contributed most new material, with the result that religious terms, ideas, institutions, once supposed to be peculiar to Israel, are now seen to be common to them and other nations; in some cases, moreover, priority clearly does not lie with the Hebrews, as, for example, in the case of the materials (as distinct from the spirit in which they are worked up) of the stories of Creation and the Flood.
Attempts have been made to identify the Khabiri, who are mentioned often in the Tel el-Amarna letters as foes, threatening to invade Palestine and bring the Egyptian supremacy over it to an end, with the Hebrews.
There may be some ultimate connexion between the Khabiri and the Hebrews; but the Khabiri of the Tel el-Amarna letters cannot be the Hebrews who invaded Canaan under Joshua.
In the years assigned to the different judges, also, the frequency of the number 40 (which certainly appears to have been regarded by the Hebrews as a round number) is suspicious.
The Epistle to the Hebrews is an epistolary treatise of uncertain date, on the Pauline model, and by a disciple of St Paul or at least a writer strongly influenced by him, though influenced also in no small degree by the Jewish school of Alexandria represented by Philo.
And it is probable that other Gospels of which only fragments have come down to us, like the Gospel according to the Hebrews and the Gospel of Peter, have been built up out of the same materials.
Outside this group would come what are called the Apocryphal Gospels and Acts (Gospel according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians, of Peter, of Truth, of the Twelve [or Ebionite Gospel], the recently recovered so-called Logia; the Gospel of Nicodemus, the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, the Acts of Pilate, Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas; the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter).
There are many indications early in the 2nd century of a tendency towards the recognition of a single Gospel; for instance, there are the local Gospels according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians; Marcion had but one Gospel, St Luke, the Valentinians preferred St John and so on; Tatian reduced the Four Gospels to one by means of a Harmony, and it is possible that something of the kind may have existed before he did this.
The list recognized four Gospels, Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, two epistles of John, Jude, Apocalypse of John and (as the text stands) of Peter; there is no mention of Hebrews or (apparently) of 3 John or Epistles of Peter, where it is possible - we cannot say more - that the silence as to t Peter is accidental; the Shepherd of Hermas on account of its date is admitted to private, but not public, reading; various writings associated with Marcion, Valentinus, Basilides and Montanus are condemned.
Hebrews and James were largely accepted in the East.
At present, both in N and B, Hebrews is placed after 2 Thess., but in B there is also a continuous numeration of sections throughout the epistles, according to which I to 58 cover Romans to Galatians, but Ephesians, the next epistle, begins with 70 instead of 59, and the omitted section numbers are found in Hebrews.
Obviously, the archetype placed Hebrews between Galatians and Ephesians, but the scribe altered the order and put it between 2 Thess.
It contains the whole of the Pauline epistles with a few lacunae, and has a famous stichometric list of books prefixed in another hand to Hebrews.
Luther, like his countrymen of to-day, judged the contents of the New Testament by the light of his leading convictions; and in his German translation, which occupies the same place in Germany as the Authorized Version of 1611 does in English-speaking lands, he even placed four of the books (Hebrews, James, Jude, Apocalypse) in an appendix at the end, with prefaces explanatory of this drastic act of criticism.
The Hebrews had a less narrow conception of the spiritual than we are apt to read into their records.
It has always been the evil fate of the Hebrews to destroy their own highest ideals by attempting to translate them into set forms, and the ideal of a prophetic guidance of the nation of Yahweh could not have been more effectually neutralized than by committing its realization to the kind of state Church of professional prophets, "eating bread" by their trade (Amos vii.
In the older literature of the Hebrews, the nearest approach to the thought of Amos and Hosea is not Gen.
Thenceforth the religion of Yahweh and the religion of the prophets are synonymous; no other reading of Israel's past was possible, and in fact the whole history of the Hebrews in Canaan, as it was finally shaped in the exile, is written from this point of view, and has come down to us, along with the remains of actual prophetic books, under the collective title of "The Prophets."
Whether this system or the Phoenician of 224 grains was that of the Hebrews is uncertain.
(b) Others have advocated the Gospel of the Hebrews as the source of the " sayings," on the ground of the resemblance between the first " saying " of the 1903 series and a well-authenticated fragment of that Gospel.
Clement is exceedingly discursive, and his letter reaches twice the length of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
" The Hebrews," says Robertson Smith (op. cit.
The Hebrews understood the use of the horse in war (Job xxxix.
In this particular they very largely understate the number of Hebrews, whose communicants (0.3%) are heads of families only, and largely of the Protestants; whereas they represent practically the total Roman Catholic population above 9 years of age.
The action of the drug appears to be entirely psychic, and comparable to that of the mandrake of the Hebrews.
The Methodist, Baptist, Roman Catholic and Protestant Episcopal Churches, and the Hebrews of the state also support homes for orphans.
His Commentaries on St John's Gospel (1881), on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1889) and the Epistles of St John (1883) resulted from his public lectures.
The following is a bibliography of Westcott's more important writings, giving the date of the first editions: - Elements of the Gospel Harmony (1851); History of the Canon of First Four Centuries (1853); Characteristics of Gospel Miracles (1859); Introduction to the Study of the Gospels (1860); The Bible in the Church (1864); The Gospel of the Resurrection (1866); Christian Life Manifold and One (1869); Some Points in the Religious Life of the Universities (1873); Paragraph Psalter for the Use of Choirs (1879); Commentary on the Gospel of St John (1881); Commentary on the Epistles of St John (1883); Revelation of the Risen Lord (1882); Revelation of the Father (1884); Some Thoughts from the Ordinal (1884); Christus Consummator (1886); Social Aspects of Christianity (1887); The Victory of the Cross: Sermons in Holy Week (1888); Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1889); From Strength to Strength (1890); Gospel of Life (1892); The Incarnation and Common Life (1893); Some Lessons of the Revised Version of the New Testament (1897); Christian Aspects of Life (1897); Lessons from Work (1901).
The problem is complicated by the fact that, from the Egyptian evidence, not only was there at this time no remarkable emigration of oppressed Hebrews, but Bedouin tribes were then receiving permission to enter Egypt and to feed their flocks upon Egyptian soil.
troubled Palestine in the 15th century are no other than Hebrews (the equation is philologically sound), i.e.
With the rise of the Medici came a rapid increase of prosperity; Cosmo, Francis and Ferdinand erected fortifications and harbour works, warehouses and churches, with equal liberality, and the last especially gave a stimulus to trade by inviting "men of the East and the West, Spanish and Portuguese, Greeks, Germans, Italians, Hebrews, Turks, Moors, Armenians, Persians and others," to settle and traffic in the city, as it became in 1606.
In the primitive church the altars seem to have been so placed that, like those of the Hebrews, they could be surrounded on all sides by the worshippers.
EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS, one of the books of the New Testament.
it bears no other title than "To Hebrews."
Clement himself, taking it for granted that an epistle to Hebrews must have beeen written in Hebrew, supposes that Luke translated it for the Greeks.
32-34), it used generally to be agreed that they were "Hebrews" or Christians of Jewish birth.
Our "Hebrews" had obviously high regard for the ordinances of Temple worship. But this was the case with the dispersed Jews generally, who kept in touch with the Temple, and its intercessory worship for all Israel, in every possible way; in token of this they sent with great care their annual contribution to its services, the Temple tribute.
9 f., is to be taken as "only a symptom of the general retrogression of religious energy" (Jiilicher), and not as bearing directly on the main danger of these "Hebrews."
Milligan, The Theology of the Epistle of the Hebrews (1899), a useful summary of all bearing on the epistle, and in the large New Testament Introductions and Biblical Theologies.
In 1793 he declared himself the apostle of a new religion, "the nephew of the Almighty, and prince of the Hebrews, appointed to lead them to the land of Canaan."
is not arranged upon strict ethnographic principles; perhaps religious antagonism induced the Hebrews to assign to the Canaanites an ancestry different from their own; at any rate the close connexion which existed from an early date between the Phoenicians and the Egyptians may have suggested the idea that both peoples belonged to the same race.
The Phoenician letters in their earlier types are practically identical with those used by the Hebrews (e.g.
With Open Face (Lond., 1896); The Epistle to the Hebrews (Edin., 1899); The Providential Order of the World, and the Moral Order of the World in Ancient and Modern Thought (Gifford Lectures, 1896-1897; Lond., 18 97, 1899).
the Epistle to the Hebrews (Spanheim, Op. miscell.
Harnack's theory is based upon the following arguments: (a) The silence of the genuine Epistles of St Paul and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
The "leaders" who are mentioned three times in Hebrews xiii.
The literature of the ancient Hebrews abounds in allusions to the lion; and the almost incredible numbers stated to have been provided for exhibition and destruction in the Roman amphitheatres (as many as six hundred on a single occasion by Pompey, for example) show how abundant these animals must have been within accessible distance of Rome.
Among the early Hebrews the king could exact a tithe from cornfields, vineyards and flocks (1 Sam.
1890, &c.), Proverbs (1873), Epistle to the Hebrews (1857, Eng.
These are the Jews whom we find contrasted as " Hellenists " with the " Hebrews " in Acts.
Besides the government primary and secondary schools, there are many other schools in the large towns owned by the Moslems, Copts, Hebrews, and by various missionary societies, and in which the education is on the same lines.
Olshausen's commentary, himself writing the volumes on the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Johannine Epistles, and Revelation.
This sort of thought, which appears very early in Egypt (2000 B.C. or earlier), and relatively early among the Greeks (in the sayings of Thales and Solon as reported by Diogenes Laertius), was of late growth among the Hebrews.
It is, however, conventionally used as a name for the territory which, in the Old Testament, is claimed as the inheritance of the pre-exilic Hebrews; thus it may be said generally to denote the southern third of the province of Syria.
Even the convention above referred to is inexact: it includes the Philistine territory, claimed but never settled by the Hebrews, and excludes the outlying parts of the large area claimed in Num.
However, the Hebrews themselves have preserved, in the proverbial expression " from Dan to Beersheba " (Judg.
The lion, which inhabited the country in the time of the Hebrews, is now extinct.
Of exceptional interest are the letters from Jerusalem describing the hostility of the maritime coast and the disturbances of the IIabiru (" allies "), a name which, though often equated with that of the Hebrews, may have no ethnological or historical significance s But Egypt was unable to help the loyalists, even ancient Mitanni lost its political independence, and the supremacy of the Hittites was assured.
Among the Hebrews, Yahweh, some of whose features associate him with thunder, lightning and storm, and with the gifts of the earth, has now become the national god, like the Moabite Chemosh or the Ammonite Milcolm.
72-74) the spread of Assyrian religious ideas among the Hebrews themselves is to be expected.
The Samaritans were prompt to claim like privileges, but were forced to confess that, though they were Hebrews, they were called the Sidonians of Shechem and were not Jews.
According to the highly intricate introduction the Hebrews were oppressed: (a) to familiarize them with warfare - it is assumed that they had intermarried with the Canaanites and worshipped their gods (iii.
From Egypt perhaps was derived the early skill of the Hebrews.
The impetus to the purification of the old Semite religion to which the Hebrews for a long time clung in common with their fellows - the various branches of nomadic Arabs - was largely furnished by the remarkable civilization unfolded in the Euphrates valley and in many of the traditions, myths and legends embodied in the Old Testament; traces of direct borrowing from Babylonia may be discerned, while the indirect influences in the domain of the prophetical books, as also in the Psalms and in the so-called "Wisdom Literature," are even more noteworthy.
31, to a spot in the valley of Ben Hinnom near Jerusalem where the Hebrews in the time of Ahab and Manasseh offered children to Molech and other heathen gods.
The Gospels, in fact, are adaptations or redactions of an older Gospel, such as the Gospel of the Hebrews, of Peter, of the Egyptians, or of the Ebionites.
" For Matthew, after preaching to Hebrews, when about to go also to others, committed to writing in his native tongue the Gospel that bears his name; and so by his writing supplied, for those whom he was leaving, the loss of his presence."
On his retirement he turned to the astronomy of the Hebrews and Babylonians; his earlier results are given in his L' Astronomia nell' antico Testamento (1903), a work which has been translated into English and German, whilst later ones are to be found in various journals, the last being in Scientia (1908).
In St Paul we find the beginnings of explanation, indeed of two explanations, and in the Epistle to the Hebrews the whole sacrificial system is found to culminate in Christ, of whom all priests and sacrifices are symbols, so that they are abolished with the coming of the great reality.
Montefiore, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Hebrews (2nd ed., 1893); W.
The Samaritans alone stuck fast to the old Hebrew as part of their contention that they, and not the Jews, were the true Hebrews.
The Hebrews ascribed the art of wine-making to Noah.
PITHOM, one of the "treasure cities" stated to have been built for Pharaoh by the Hebrews in Goshen during the Oppression (Exod.
After his commentaries (on Romans, the Gospel of John, the Sermon on the Mount and the Epistle to the Hebrews) and several volumes of sermons, his best-known books are Stunden christlicher Andacht (1839; 8th ed., 1870), intended to take the place of J.
It has been suggested, on hardly sufficient grounds, that the Mizpeh where the Hebrews assembled before the extermination of the Benjamites (Judges xx.
Thomas Hyde (1636-1703) studied the religion of the ancient Persians; John Spencer (1630-1693) analysed the laws of the Hebrews; and Lord Herbert of Cherbury (De Religione Gentilium, 1645) endeavoured to trace all religions back to five " truly Catholic truths " of primitive faith, the first being the existence of God.
To the Hebrews it was known as Acco ('Re- vised Version spelling), but it is mentioned only once in the Old Testament, namely Judges i.
His investigations led him to the conclusion that "most of the writings of the Hebrews have passed through several hands."
Heilprin, Historical Poetry of the Ancient Hebrews (New York, 1879), i.
Once more, there is somewhat more parallelism between the fragments of the Gospel according to the Hebrews and this Gospel than is the case with Luke, not to say Mark.
The former, in fifteen books, aims to show that the Christians are justified in accepting the sacred writings of the Hebrews, and in rejecting the religion and philosophy of the Greeks.
His chief works were a Commentary on i Corinthians (1885), the Epistle to the Hebrews (" Expositor's Bible" series, 1888), and The God-Man (" Davies Lecture," 1895).
Since 1881 colonies of Hebrews have been established in the southern part of the state, among them being Alliance (1881), Rosenhayn (2882), Carmel (1883), and, most noted of all, Woodbine, which owes its origin to the liberality of Baron de Hirsch, and contains the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural and Industrial School.
Acquaintance with Hebrews is only slightly less probable, for James ii.
Were we to judge by the contacts with Hebrews, Clement of Rome and Hermas and the similarity of situation evidenced in the last-named, Rome would seem the most natural place of origin.
The history of the epistle's reception into the canon is not opposed to this; for, once it was attributed to James, Syria would be more likely to take it up, while the West, more sceptical, if not better informed as to its origin, held back; just as happened in the case of Hebrews.
see Bacon," Doctrine of Faith in Hebrews, James and Clement of Rome,"in Jour.
In early times, too, the Hebrews had commercial intercourse with the Ethiopians; and according to Abyssinian tradition the queen of Sheba who visited Solomon was a monarch of their country, and from their son Menelek the kings of Abyssinia claim descent.
Among the Semitic peoples (with the notable exception of the Hebrews) a supreme female deity was worshipped under different names - the Assyrian Ishtar, the Phoenician Ashtoreth (Astarte), the Syrian Atargatis (Derketo), the Babylonian Belit (Mylitta), the Arabian Ilat (Al-ilat).
There are other books in the New Testament that bear the same impress, the epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians, and to a much greater degree the epistle to the Hebrews.
The Hebrews divided the shekel into 20 parts, each of which was called a gerah.
22, where ancient texts, including the Gospel of the Hebrews, read, " Thou art my beloved Son, this day have I begotten Thee."
The Hebrews had a notation containing separate signs (the letters of the alphabet) for numbers from t to to, then for multiplies of to up to zoo, and then for multiples of too up to 400, and later up to moo.
He had thought himself into the ideas and points of view of the Hebrews, and his_ work in Old Testament theology is unrivalled.
His Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews is one of a series of handbooks for Bible classes.
On the one hand the Epistle to the Hebrews (vi.
Finding them no less accommodating than their rivals, he gratified the prejudices of his subjects and himself by forcing the Hebrews to quit England.
He revived previous doubts as to the direct Pauline origin of the Epistle to the Hebrews, called in question Peter's authorship of the first epistle, and referred the second epistle to the end of the 2nd century.
The Epistle to Testa- the Hebrews is a parallel to Paulinism, working out ment.
of the Hebrews, i.
Rollock wrote Commentaries on the Epistles tc the Ephesians (1590) and Thessalonians (1598) and Hebrews (1605), the book of Daniel (1591), the Gospel of St John (1599) and some of the Psalms (1598); an analysis of the Epistle to the Romans (1594), and Galatians (1602); also Questions and Answers on the Covenant of God (1596), and a Treatise on Effectual Calling (1597).
These descriptive terms are applied to one of the methods of divination employed by the ancient Hebrews, which, it is now generally agreed, consisted in a species of sacred lot.
It is the first of the five books (the Pentateuch), or, with the inclusion of Joshua, of the six (the Hexateuch), which cover the history of the Hebrews to their occupation of Canaan.
They reflect the ideas and thoughts of the Hebrews, they illustrate their conceptions of God and the universe, and they furnish material for a comparison of the moral development of the Hebrews with that of other early races.
They preserve, in fact, some of the popular philosophy and belief of the Hebrews.
Not, as was at first thought by some, specially the Israelites, but all those tribes of land-hungry nomads (" Hebrews ") who were attracted by the wealth and luxury of the settled regions, and sought to appropriate it for themselves.
According to Hebrews Satan's power over death Jesus destroys by dying (ii.
52-56, and Kuhn's Herabkunft; and see the essays by Steinthal in appendix to English version of Goldziher's Mythology among the Hebrews.
The Hebrews ' lives were made bitter with their hard bondage.
despiset His face like a flint to go up to Jerusalem (Luke 9:51 ), despising the shame (Hebrews 12:2 ).
The whole epistle to the Hebrews is a protest against it.
The writer to the Hebrews contains the fullest exposition of the New Covenant.
first cause of all things is Himself God (John 1:1-3; Hebrews 1:1-3 ).
The writer of Hebrews warned then of a fearful judgment of fiery indignation which would devour God's adversaries.
Hebrews 12, the other great chapter on this subject, says this: No discipline seems pleasant at the time, but painful.
An authority of this kind is clearly presupposed by the letter to the " Hebrews.
Further, the long passage in Hebrews says that Christ entered a perfect tabernacle, that is, in heaven.
Think of all God's servants and prophets who have suffered tribulation, read Hebrews 11.
The second is intertextual: Hebrews adopts Deuteronomy sensitively, and Deuteronomy has vindication in view.
The white garments are emblematical of Faith: see Hebrews xi.
- The later Jewish Sabbath, observed in accordance with the rules of the Scribes, was a very peculiar institution, and formed one of the most marked distinctions between the Hebrews and other nations, as appears in a striking way from the fact that on this account alone the Romans found themselves compelled to exempt the Jews from all military service.
But that it was destitute of any properly religious observance or meaning is inconceivable, for, though many of the religious ideas of the old Hebrews were crude, their institutions were never arbitrary and meaningless, and when they spoke of consecrating the Sabbath they must have had in view some religious exercise of an intelligible kind by which they paid worship to Yahweh.
But for this system hepatoscopy, the theoretic basis of which as above set forth falls within the sphere of ideas that belong to primitive culture, would have passed away as higher stages of civilization were reached; and as a matter of fact it plays no part in the Egyptian culture or in the civilization of India, while among the Hebrews only faint traces of the primitive idea of the liver as the seat of the soul are to be met with in the Old Testament, among which an allusion in the indirect form of a protest against the use of the sacrificial animal for purposes of divination in the ordinance (Exodus xxix.
word /iaXAecv, to play the harp), the name used to designate the religious poems of the Hebrews, which are contained in the Psalter (see Psalms, Book oF).
25) applies the term Antilegomena to the Epistle of James, the Epistle of Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Acts of Paul, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Teaching of the Apostles, the Apocalypse of John, and the Gospel according to the Hebrews.
It would be reasonable to assume that Moab, Ammon, Edom and kindred tribes of Israel in the 15th and preceding centuries were included in the generic term Habiri (or Hebrews) mentioned in the Tell el-Amarna inscriptions as forming predatory bands that disturbed the security of the Canaanite dwellers west of the Jordan.
Indications in the Old Testament itself clearly point to the celestial or atmospheric character of the Yahweh of the Hebrews.
Judaei), the general name for the Semitic people which inhabited Palestine from early times, and is known in various connexions as " the Hebrews," " the Jews," and " Israel " (see §5 below).
At Tyre, as among the Hebrews, Baal had his symbolical pillars, one of gold and one of smaragdus, which, transported by phantasy to the farthest west, are still familiar to us as the Pillars of Hercules.
in Luc.), is not to be identified with the Gospel according to the Hebrews (see above), with Lipsius and others, who have sought to reconstruct the original gospel from the surviving fragments of these two distinct works.
His greatest work, his commentary on the epistle to the Hebrews (Brief an die Hebrl er erldutert durch Einleitung, Ubersetzung, and fortlaufenden Commentar, in three parts, 1828, 1836 and 1840) won the highest praise from men like De Wette and Fr.
The district was the scene of contests between Moab and the Hebrews (cf.
19 Hebrews speaks of Christ as transcending the rites and officials of the law; He a ccomplishes the realities which they could only foreshadow;, in relation to the perfect, heavenly sacrifice which atones for sin, He is both priest and victim.20 The subsequent development of the Christian doctrine has chiefly shaped itself according to the Pauline formula of vicarious atonement; the sufferings of Christ were accepted as a substitute for theunishment which men deserved, p ?
The text of the Old 'Testament consists of consonants only, for the alphabet of the ancient Hebrews, like that of their Moabite, Aramaean and Phoenician neighbours, contained no vowels; the text of the interpretation consists of vowels and accents only - for vowel signs and accents had been invented by Jewish scholars between the 5th and 9th centuries A.D.; the text of the Old Testament -is complete in itself and intelligible, though ambiguous; but the text of the interpretation read by itself is unintelligible, and only becomes intelligible when read with the consonants (under, over, or in which they are inserted) of the text of the Old Testament.
date of the Flood) =86,400 weeks (1656=72X23; and 23 years being =8395 days+5 intercalary days =8400 days = 1200 weeks); and hence the inference has been drawn that the two periods have in some way been developed from a common basis, the Hebrews taking as their unit a week, where the Babylonians took a lustrum of 5 years.
No allusions to Israelites in Egypt have yet been found on the monuments; against the view that the Aperiu (or Apury) of the inscriptions were Hebrews, see S.
Brothers, however, had announced that on the 19th of November 1795 he was to be "revealed" as prince of the Hebrews and ruler of the world; and when this date passed without any such manifestation, what enthusiasm he had aroused rapidly dwindled, despite the fact that some of his earlier political predictions (e.g.
26.2), who sheds no light on the origin of the Ebionites, but says that while they admit the world to have been made by the true God (in contrast to the Demiurge of the Gnostics), they held Cerinthian views on the person of Christ, used only the Gospel of Matthew (probably the Gospel according to the Hebrews - so Eusebius), and rejected Paul as an apostate from the Mosaic Law, to the customs and ordinances of which, including circumcision, they steadily adhered.
In affirming the " inamissibility " of grace in the regenerate (not simply in the unknowable elect) Calvin went beyond Augustine, perhaps beyond Paul, certainly beyond the Epistle to the Hebrews, resolutely loyal to the logic of his non-sacramental theory of grace.
They used the Aramaic recension of the Gospel according to Matthew, which they called the Gospel to the Hebrews, but, while adhering as far as possible to the Mosaic economy as regarded circumcision, sabbaths, foods and the like, they did not refuse to recognize the apostolicity of Paul or the rights of heathen Christians (Jer., Comm.
In Hebrews 1:3-4, the Son is said to be the radiance of the glory of God.
The Hebrews were not, of course, only the Jews, but all of the nations of the Persian satrapy of Abarnahara.
In Hebrews 1 we are hold that God spoke through the prophets and in the last days tho his Son.
Think of all God 's servants and prophets who have suffered tribulation, read Hebrews 11.
Hebrews 7:2 states that the priest named Melchizedek was "made like unto the Son of God".
Hebrews 9:27 states plainly that men only die once and then face judgment.
This craft dates back to about the 11th century when historians say Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Babylonians embroidered their robes.
2 The Hebrews held that the leaves of the fig-tree (the largest available tree in Palestine) served primitive man and that the Deity gave them skins for a covering - evidently after he had slain the animals (Gen.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.