Hebrew Sentence Examples
With the Talmud, the anonymous period of Hebrew literature may be considered to end.
Between them they rendered into Hebrew all the chief Jewish writings of the middle ages.
Coming to England shortly after the completion of his education in the Rabbinic College at Warsaw, Dr Ginsburg continued his study of the Hebrew Scriptures, with special attention to the Megilloth.
They did not dedicate each day in turn to its astrological planet; and it is therefore precarious to assume that the Sabbath was in its origin what it is in the astrological week, the day sacred to Saturn, and that its observance is to be derived from an ancient Hebrew worship of that planet.4 The week, however, is found in various parts of the world in a form that has nothing to do with astrology or the seven planets, and with such a distribution as to make it pretty certain that it had no artificial origin, but suggested itself independently, and for natural reasons, to different races.
These Hebrew translations were, in their turn, rendered into Latin (by Buxtorf and others) and in this form the works of Jewish authors found their way into the learned circles of Europe.Advertisement
Among these was Judah IJayyuj of Cordova, the father of modern Hebrew grammar, who first established the principle of tri-literal roots.
The first is represented by the Deutero-Isaiah, who constitutes the climax and close of Hebrew prophetism, which is henceforth (with the possible exception of the Trito-Isaiah, Malachi and Jonah, who reproduce some features of the earlier prophecy) a virtually arrested development.
There can be little 1 We shall have to note the emergence of the doctrine of the resurrection of the righteous in later Judaism, which is obviously a fresh contribution of permanent value to Hebrew doctrine.
Wellhausen's Prolegomena and Jiidische Geschichte should be read both for criticism and Hebrew history generally.
Budde's Die Religion des Volkes Israel bis zur Verbannung, as well as Addis's recent Hebrew Religion (1906), is a most careful and scholarly compendium.Advertisement
This, however, does not adequately represent the Hebrew.
Before that time three religions (cultes) were recognized and supported by the state-the Roman Catholic, the Protestant (subdivided into the Reformed and Lutheran) and the Hebrew.
The saints of the Hebrew nation were sure that as God had entered into fellowship with them, death could not sever them from his presence.
He also studied the first six books of Euclid and some algebra, besides reading a considerable quantity of Hebrew and learning the Odes of Horace by heart.
In 1846 he graduated from Princeton Theological Seminary, and was instructor in Hebrew there in 1846-1849.Advertisement
In 1869-1879 he was professor of Hebrew in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (first in Greenville, South Carolina, and after 1877 in Louisville, Kentucky), and in 1880 he became professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages in Harvard University, where until 1903 he was also Dexter lecturer onzbiblical literature.
He early developed a gift for languages, becoming familiar not only with Latin and Greek but also with Hebrew, Syriac, Persian, Turkish and other Eastern tongues.
Iap,apeta from the Hebrew "an outlook hill," or rather from the Aramaic form 7734, whence also comes the Assyrian form Samirina.
The term came in time to mean " a beggar " and with that meaning has passed through Aramaic and Hebrew into many modern languages; but though the Code does not regard him as necessarily poor, he may have been landless.
The Hebrew lhashmal seems to have been amber.Advertisement
The Psaumes of Clement Marot (1538) were curious adaptations of Hebrew ideas to French forms of the epigram and the madrigal.
See further articles, Aaron; Decalogue; Hebrew Religion; Levites.
Properly speaking, "Hebrew Literature" denotes all works written in the Hebrew language.
The traditional view that Moses was the author of the Pentateuch in its present form, would make this the earliest monument of Hebrew literature.
As Hebrew became less familiar to the people, a system of translating the text of the Law into the Aramaic vernacular verse by verse, was adopted in the synagogue.Advertisement
Later on, Jacob 3 I Hebrew vi, from the initial letters of Rabbi Shelomoh Yizbagi, a convenient method used by Jewish writers in referring to well-known authors.
His treatises on the verbs, written in Arabic, were translated into Hebrew by Moses Giqatilla (11th century), himself a considerable grammarian and commentator, and by Ibn Ezra.
There is also an early Arabic recension, but its relation to the Hebrew and to the Arabic 2 Maccabees is still obscure.
The Hebrew text was edited with a Latin translation by Breithaupt (Gotha, 1707).
His poems, both secular and religious, contained in his Diwan and scattered in the liturgy, are all in Hebrew, though he employed Arabic metres.
In Arabic he wrote his philosophical work, called in the Hebrew translation Sepher ha-Kuzari, a defence of revelation as against non-Jewish philosophy and Qaraite doctrine.
He was distinguished in his profession as a physician, and wrote a number of medical works in Arabic (including a commentary on the aphorisms of Hippocrates), all of which were translated into Hebrew, and most of them into Latin, becoming the text-books of Europe in the succeeding centuries.
Maimonides also wrote an Arabic commentary on the Mishnah, soon afterwards translated into Hebrew, commentaries on parts of the Talmud (now lost), and a treatise on Logic. His breadth of view anti- and his Aristotelianism were a stumbling-block to the orthodox, and subsequent teachers may be mostly classified as Maimonists or anti-Maimonists.
The fact that many of the most important works were written in Arabic, the vernacular of the Spanish Jews under the Moors, which was not understood in France, gave rise to a number of translations into Hebrew, chiefly by the family of Ibn Tibbon (or Tabbon).
With the 13th century Hebrew literature may be said to have reached the limit of its development.
Both the 14th and 15th centuries in Spain were largely taken up with controversy, as by Isaac ibn Pulgar (about 1350), and Shem Tobh ibn Shaprut (about 1380), who translated St Matthew's gospel into Hebrew.
The introduction of printing (first dated Hebrew printed book, Rashi, Reggio, 1475) gave occasion for a number of scholarly compositors and proof-readers, some of whom were also authors, such as Jacob ben Ilayyim of Tunis Later waters.
One consequence of the Mendelssohn movement was that many writers used their vernacular language besides or instead of Hebrew, or translated from one to the other.
The question of the use of the vernacular or of Hebrew is bound up with the differences between the orthodox and the liberal or reform parties, complicated by the many problems involved.
Patriotic efforts are made to encourage the use of Hebrew both for writing and speaking, but the continued existence of it as a literary language depends on the direction in which the future history of the Jews will develop.
Documents were drawn up in such and so many of these tongues as was convenient for the parties concerned; not a few private documents add a fourth tongue, and are drawn up in Greek, Arabic, Latin and Hebrew.
The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.
In the following pages we shall not attempt to do more than to sketch in very succinct outline the general results of investigation into the origins and growth of Hebrew religion.
A close survey of the facts, however, would lead us to regard it as probable that some at least of the Hebrew clans had patrondeities of their own.
That in early pre-Mosaic times parallel cults existed among the various Hebrew tribes is by no means improbable.
Religion, 4th ed., p. 24, Kautzsch in his Religion of Israel already cited, p. 613, and recently Addis in his Hebrew Religion, p. 33 foll., have abandoned the theory as applied to Israel. ?
As we have already indicated, the document J assumes that Yahweh was worshipped by the Hebrew race from the first.
According to this later tradition Yahweh was unknown till the days of Moses, and under the aegis of His power the Hebrew tribes were delivered from Egyptian thraldom.
Yahweh now becomes the supreme deity of the Hebrew people, and an ark analogous to the Egyptian and Babylonian arks portrayed on the monuments' was constructed as embodiment of the rumen of Yahweh and was borne in front of the Hebrew army when it marched to war.
Indeed, Hebrew, unlike Assyrian or Phoenician, has no distinctive form for " goddess."
It was no easy task to establish Yahweh in permanent possession of the new lands conquered by the Hebrew settlers.
Similarly in the earlier pre-exilian period of Israel's occupation of Canaanite territory the Hebrews were always subject to this tendency to worship the old Baal or `Ashtoreth (the goddess who made the cattle and flocks prolific).3 A few years of drought or of bad seasons would make a Hebrew settler betake himself to the old Canaanite gods.
Of this we have recurring examples in pre-exilian Hebrew history.
It is only possible here to refer in briefest enumeration to the material and external objects and forms of popular Hebrew religion.
Palestinian states on the other, and that they could scarcely have escaped the all-pervading Babylonian influences of 2000-1400 B.C. It is now becoming clearer every day, especially since the discovery of the laws of Khammurabi, that, if we are to think sanely about Hebrew history before as well as after the exile, we can only think of Israel as part of the great complex of Semitic and especially Canaanite humanity that lived its life in western Asia between 2060 and 600 B.C.; and that while the Hebrew race maintained by the aid of prophetism its own individual and exalted place, it was not less susceptible then, than it has been since, to the moulding influences of great adjacent civilizations and ideas.
The centre of gravity in Hebrew religion was shifted from ceremonial observance and local sacra to righteous conduct.
The religion of the Hebrew race - properly the Jews - now enters on a new stage, for it should be observed that it was Amos, Isaiah and Micah - prophets of Judah - who laid the actual foundations.
The next notable contribution to the permanent growth of Hebrew prophetic religion was made about a century after the lifetime of Isaiah by Jeremiah and Ezekiel.
No possibility of recovery now remained to the diseased Hebrew state.
The Hebrew state was doomed and even its temple was to be destroyed.
Personal religion now became an important element in Hebrew piety and upon this there logically followed the idea of personal responsibility.
It marks the highest point to which the Hebrew race attained in its progress from henotheism to monotheism.
This closes the evolution of Hebrew prophetism.
The strong impress of Hebrew prophecy is to be found in the deeply marked ethical spirit of the Deuteronomic legislation.
Now when the Hebrew religion was reduced to written form it began to be a book-religion, and since the book consisted of fixed rules and enactments, religion began to acquire a stereotyped character.
The word holiness (qodesh) in primitive Hebrew usage partook of the nature of taboo, and came to be applied to whatever, whether thing or person, stood in close relation to deity and belonged to him, and could not, therefore, be used or treated like other objects not so related, and so was separated or stood apart.
In the historical evolution of Hebrew sacrifice it is remarkable how long this non-ethical and primitive survival of old custom still survived, even far into post-exilian times.
Thus the exile period marks the parting of the ways in the development of Hebrew religion.
The development of the priestly code of legislation (Priestercodex) was a gradual process, and probably occupied a considerable part of the 5th century B.C. The Hebrew race now definitely entered upon the new path of organized Jewish legalism which had been originally marked out for it by Ezekiel in the preceding century.
The fetters of nationalism were to be broken, and the Hebrew religion in its essential spiritual elements was to become the heritage of all humanity.
The berosh, or beroth, of the Hebrew Scriptures, translated "fir" in the authorized version, in I Kings v.
The meaning of the name may be "the stone heap"; but it is not necessarily a Hebrew word.
The definite article is usually prefixed to the name in Hebrew.
Although the rise of the Hebrew state, at an age when the great powers were quiescent and when such a people as the Philistines is known to have appeared upon the scene, is entirely intelligible, it is not improbable that legends of Saul and David, the heroic founders of the two kingdoms, have been put in a historical setting with the help of later historical tradition.
Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.
Hebrew religious institutions can be understood from the biblical evidence studied in the light of comparative religion; and without going afield to Babylonia, Assyria or Egypt, valuable data are furnished by the cults of Phoenicia, Syria and Arabia, and these in turn can be illustrated from excavation and from modern custom.
What does distinguish Hebrew prophecy from all others is that the genius of a few members of the profession wrested this vulgar but powerful instrument from baser uses, and by wielding it in the interest of a high morality rendered a service of incalculable value to humanity.
In this crisis we meet with Isaiah (q.v.), one of the finest of Hebrew prophets.
He did not fulfil the detailed predictions, and the events did not reach the ideals of Hebrew writers; but these anticipations may have influenced the form which the Jewish traditions subsequently took.
Excavation at Nippur in Babylonia has brought to light numerous contract tablets of the 5th century B.C. with Hebrew proper names (Haggai, Hanani, Gedaliah, &c.).
This hierarchical government, which can find no foundation in the Hebrew monarchy, is the forerunner of the Sanhedrin (q.v.); it is an institution which, however inaugurated, set its stamp upon the narratives which have survived.
Yet it is impossible to recover with confidence or completeness the development of Hebrew history from the pages of the Old Testament alone.
Thus Antigonus succeeded his uncle as " King Antigonus " in the Greek and " Mattathiah the high priest " in the Hebrew by grace of the Parthians.
The schismatic Qaraites initiated or rather necessitated a new Hebrew philology, which later on produced Qimhi, the gaon Saadiah founded a Jewish philosophy, the statesman Hasdai introduced a new Jewish culture - and all this under Mahommedan rule.
Hebrew religious poetry was revived for synagogue hymnology, and, partly in imitation of Arabian models, a secular Hebrew poetry was developed in metre and rhyme.
The new Hebrew Piyut found its first important exponent in Kalir, who was not a Spaniard.
An erroneous derivation of the word pascha from the Greek ircthx iv, " to suffer," thus connected with the sufferings or passion of the Lord, is given by some of the Fathers of the Church, as Irenaeus, Tertullian and others, who were ignorant of Hebrew.
The Syriac alphabet, which derived its letters from forms ultimately akin to those of the Old Hebrew and Phoenician alphabets, has the same twenty-two letters as the Hebrew.
And as in Hebrew, the six letters b g d k p t are aspirated when immediately preceded by any vowel sound.
Where the same root exists in Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew, its fundamental consonants are usually the same in all three languages.
Hebrew samekh is represented by Ar.
In vowel-sounds Syriac is clearly more primitive than Hebrew (as pointed by the Massoretes), less so than Arabic. Thus Ar.
The accent plays much less part in lengthening and altering the vowels in Syriac than in Hebrew, but there are well-marked cases of lengthening from this cause.
These pronominal suffixes are of much the same form as in Hebrew, but produce less change in the vowels of the words to which they are attached.
Thus " the son of the king " is more commonly expressed by b`ra dh`malka or b`reh d`malka than by bar mailed, whereas the latter type would alone be permissible in Hebrew.
This is one of the many respects where Syriac has gained greater flexibility in syntax than Hebrew.
The Syriac verb is remarkable for having entirely lost the original passive forms, such as in Arabic can be formed in every conjugation and in Hebrew are represented by the Pual and Hophal.
Whereas the Hebrew verb is devoid of real tenses, and only expresses an action as completed or as in process without indicating time past, present or future, Syriac has by the help of an auxiliary verb constructed a set of tenses.
It would appear probable, however, that the former of these words was derived from an Assyrian or Hebrew root, which signifies the west or setting sun, and the latter from a corresponding root meaning the east or rising sun, and that they were used at one time to imply the west and the east.
According to the Hebrew text of I Sam.
David was not only a great captain, he was a national hero in whom all the noblest elements of the Hebrew genius were combined.
Accordingly, David is not to be condemned for failing to subdue the sensuality which is the chief stain on his character, but should rather be judged by his habitual recognition of a generous standard of conduct, by the undoubted purity and lofty justice of an administration which was never stained by selfish considerations or motives of personal rancour, 5 and finally by the calm 3 See Hebrew Religion, Messiah, Prophet.
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
At the same time he endeavoured to acquire a knowledge of Hebrew, in order to be able to read the Old Testament in the original.
Origen's textual studies on the Old Testament were undertaken partly in order to improve the manuscript tradition, and partly for apologetic reasons, to clear up the relation between the LXX and the original Hebrew text.
The results of more than twenty years' labour were set forth in his Hexapla and Tetrapla, in which he placed the Hebrew text side by side with the various Greek versions, examined their mutual relations in detail, and tried to find the basis for a more reliable text of the LXX.
This last name is evidently meant to be Hebrew, "Yahweh of the heavens," the God of the Jews being of a secondary rank in the usual Gnostic style.
His writings, which include some Latin poems, prove him a man of learning, and he appears to have been acquainted not only with the Latin classics, but also with Greek, and even Hebrew.
He secured an excellent set of scientific apparatus and improved the instruction in the natural sciences; he introduced courses in Hebrew and French about 1772; and he did a large part of the actual teaching, having courses in languages, divinity, moral philosophy and eloquence.
The writing is a modified form of the old Aramaic character, and especially interesting because it represents almost the last stage through which the ancient alphabet passed before it developed into the Hebrew square character.
The earliest form of the name of the symbol which we can reach is the Hebrew beth, to which the Phoenician must have been closely akin, as is shown by the Greek Oiira, which is borrowed from it with a vowel affixed.
Beetles (Scarabaei) are the subjects of some of the oldest sculptured works of the Egyptians, and references to locusts, bees and ants are familiar to all readers of the Hebrew scriptures.
In his holidays he learned Hebrew 'from Mr Kirkby, a dissenting minister at Heckmondwike, who subsequently took entire charge of his education.
Besides Greek and Latin he knew Hebrew, Chaldee and.
The name Syria is not found in the Hebrew original of the Scriptures; but it was used by the Septuagint to translate Aram.
But how far these, or the indigenous " Jews " are of Hebrew rather than of Aramaean origin is impossible to say.
We only know that as long ago as the 1st century B.C. true Hebrew blood was becoming rare, and that a vast proportion of the Jews of Roman times were Hebraized Aramaeans, whose assimilation into the Jewish community did not date much further back than the Maccabaean age.
The language throughout southern and middle Syria as high as Killis is Arabic, which has entirely ousted Aramaic and Hebrew from common use, and tends to prevail even over the speech of recent immigrants like the Circassians.
Later on we find Kheta focused farther north, on the middle Euphrates (Carchemish), and more or less cut off from Egypt by the Hebrew state.
The Greek ecclesiastes means one who takes part in the deliberations of an assembly (ecclesia), a debater or speaker in an assembly (Plato, Gorgias, 452 E), and this is the general sense of the Hebrew word.
This usage is not Hebrew; it is not found either in the Old Testament or in the later (Mishnaic)Hebrew.
The form may have been suggested by that of the Hebrew word for" wisdom."Koheleth, however, is employed in the book not as a title of wisdom (for" wisdom "is never the speaker), but as the independent name of the sage.
A change of the Hebrew text seems necessary; possibly we should read S1p $t"', "low is the voice," instead of 51p$ o'p', "he rises up at the voice."
The language belongs to the post-classical period of Hebrew.
The numerous Aramaisms point to a time certainly not earlier than the 4th century B.C., and probably (though the history of the penetration of Aramaic into Hebrew speech is not definitely known) not earlier than the 3rd century.
Not only are new words employed, and old words in new significations, but the grammatical structure has a modern stamp - some phrases have the appearance of having been translated out of Aramaic into Hebrew.
By about the beginning of our era the Jews had given up Hebrew and wrote in Aramaic; the process of expulsion had been going on, doubtless, for some time; but comparison with the later extant literature (Chronicles, the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus or Ben-Sira, Esther) makes it improbable that such Hebrew as that of Koheleth would have been written earlier than the 2nd century B.C. (for details see Driver's Introduction).
The conception of the world and of human life as controlled by natural law, a naturalistic cosmos, is alien not only to the prophetic and liturgical Hebrew literature but also to Hebrew thought in general.
The .modern "balm of Gilead" or "Mecca balsam," an aromatic gum produced by the Balsamodendron opobalsamum, is more likely the Hebrew mor, which the English Bible wrongly renders "myrrh."
Some of them imitated the Hebrew prophets in the performance of symbolic acts of denunciation, foretelling or warning, going barefoot, or in sackcloth or undress, and, in a few cases, for brief periods, altogether naked; even women in some cases distinguished themselves by extravagance of conduct.
They " were written in Hebrew in the later years of John Hyrcanus - in all probability after his final victory over the Syrian power and before his breach with the Pharisees - in other words, between 109 and 106.
Apart from Grabe, till within the last fifteen years no notable scholar has advocated a Hebrew original.
To Kohler and Gaster belongs the honour of re-opening the question of the Hebrew original of the Testaments.
I the correct Hebrew phrase is found.
But he certainly knew Greek, and possibly some Hebrew.
According to the Kabbalah all these esoteric doctrines are contained in the Hebrew Scriptures.
The two parts are distinguished by difference of style; the Hebrew principle of parallelism of clauses is employed far more in the first than in the second, which has a number of plain prose passages, and is also rich in uncommon compound terms. In view of these differences there is ground for holding that the second part is a separate production which has been united with the first by an editor, an historical haggadic sketch, a midrash, full of imaginative additions to the Biblical narrative, and enlivened by many striking ethical reflections.
The name first appears in Hebrew history in connexion with the wanderings of the Israelites.
For the Greeks "love of wisdom" involved inquiry into the basis and origin of things; the Hebrew "wisdom" was the capacity so to order life as to get out of it the greatest possible good.
This was the task of the early Hebrew thinkers, and to it a large part of the higher energy of the nation was devoted.
Yet, with this adoption of the Greek point of view, the tone and spirit of this literature remain Hebrew.
But the definition of the cardinal number of a class applies when the class is not finite, and it can be proved that there are different infinite cardinal numbers, and that there is a least infinite cardinal, now usually denoted by o where to is the Hebrew letter aleph.
The Hebrew tradition further connects the revelation of the sacred name of the God of the Hebrews with this festival, which thus combines, in itself, all the associations connecting the Hebrews with their God.
It is not surprising therefore that Hebrew tradition connects it with the Exodus, the beginning of the theocratic life of the nation.
As before remarked, there seems no direct connexion between the paschal sacrifice and what appears to be essentially an agricultural festival; the Hebrew tradition, to some extent, dissociates them by making the sacrifice on the 14th of Nisan and beginning the Feast of Unleavened Bread on the 15th.
This seeming casual connexion, to some extent, confirms the historic connexion suggested by the text, that the Jews at the Exodus had to use bread prepared in haste; but not even Hebrew tradition attempts to explain why the abstention should last for seven days.
He at the same time shows the Greeks that their own greatest philosophers and poets recognized the unity of the divine Being, and had caught glimpses of the true nature of God, but that fuller light had been thrown on this subject by the Hebrew prophets.
Sometimes he thinks that they came direct from God, like all good things, but he is also fond of maintaining that many of Plato's best thoughts were borrowed from the Hebrew prophets; and he makes the same statement in regard to the wisdom of the other philosophers.
Though now cultivated in India, and almost wild in some parts of the northwest, and, as we have seen, probably also in Afghanistan, it has no Sanskrit name; it is not mentioned in the Hebrew text of the Scriptures, nor in the earliest Greek times.
In 1833 he received an appointment to teach Hebrew and history in the gymnasium of Erlangen.
The Hebrew word tebah, translated in the A.V.
The possibility must be conceded that there were several arks in the course of Hebrew history and that separate tribes or groups of tribes had their own sacred object.
Here the son received his education, until in 1595 he entered the university of Leiden, where he became the lifelong friend of Hugo Grotius, and studied classics, Hebrew, church history and theology.
The word is commonly used in the Alexandrian Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) for the Hebrew word (ger) which is derived from a root (gur) denoting to sojourn.
His bibliographies (each bearing the Hebrew title Qontres) were useful compilations.
If Hebrew, it might be derived from the root p rr (to embrace) as an intensive term of affection.
The philosophy of history, by which Hebrew prophets could read a deep moral significance into national disaster and turn the flank of resistless attack, became one of the most important elements in the nation's faith.
Perowne was a good Hebrew scholar of the old type and sat on the Old Testament Revision Committee.
His journal and letters show that he had made acquaintance with a large number of languages, including Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopic, as well as the classical and the principal modern European languages.
One of his dissertations was a defence of the antiquity and divine authority of the vowel-points in Hebrew.
In spite of his doctrinal writings - which at the time made no little noise, so that his Compendium of Dogmatic (1760) was confiscated in Sweden, and the knighthood of the North Star was afterwards given him in reparation - it was the natural side of the Bible that really attracted him, and no man did more to introduce the modern method of studying Hebrew antiquity as an integral part of ancient Eastern life.
These works bore, perforce, the names of ancient Hebrew worthies in order to procure them a hearing among the writers' real contemporaries.
On the other hand, teachers connected with Palestine, and familiar with the Hebrew canon, rigidly exclude all but the books contained there.
On the other hand, the Protestants universally adhered to the opinion that only the books in the Hebrew collection are canonical.
Already Wycliffe had declared that " whatever book is in the Old Testament besides these twentyfive (Hebrew) shall be set among the apocrypha, that is, without authority or belief."
Thus the Apocrypha Proper constitutes the surplusage of the Vulgate or Bible of the Roman Church over the Hebrew Old Testament.
But this is only true with certain reservations; for the Latin Vulgate was revised by Jerome according to the Hebrew, and, where Hebrew originals were wanting, according to the Septuagint.
The former literature was generally written in Hebrew or Aramaic, and seldom in Greek; the latter naturally in Greek.
The Book of Jubilees was written in Hebrew by a Pharisee between the year of the accession of Hyrcanus to the high-priesthood in 135 and his breach with the Pharisees some years before his death in 105 B.C. Jubilees was translated into Greek and from Greek into Ethiopic and Latin.
On many grounds Cohn infers a Hebrew original.
The evidence, however, seems to be strongly in favour of Hebrew.
The Hebrew name for Orion also means "fool," in reference perhaps to a mythological story of a "foolhardy, heaven-daring rebel who was chained to the sky for his impiety" (Driver).
Most Hebrew prophecies contain pointed references to the foreign politics and social relations of the nation at the time.
Joel complains that they were sold to the Grecians (Javan, Ionians).2 It is probable that some Hebrew and Syrian slaves were exported to the Mediterranean coasts from a very early date, and Isa.
From this time down to the last period of the Hebrew monarchy Egypt was not the enemy of Judah.
He was educated for the priesthood in Paris and Utrecht, but his taste for Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, and other languages of the East 7 Anorthite.
Fresh translations of Aristotle and Averroes had already been made from the Arabic (IIepi ret ivropiat from the Hebrew) by Michael Scot, and Hermannus Alamannus, at the instance of the emperor Frederick II.; so that the whole body of Aristotle's works was at hand in Latin translations from about 1210 to 1225.
Sometimes, also, he gives proof of some knowledge of Hebrew and supplements his scriptural authorities, which include I Esdras, from general Greek histories.
The Hebrew title of the book is o'S7n, tehillim, or o'IM " the book of hymns," or rather " songs of praise."
And here we have first to observe that in the Hebrew text the Psalter is divided into five books, each of which closes with a doxology.
And the Greek Psalter, though it contains one apocryphal psalm at the close, is essentially the same as the Hebrew; there is nothing to suggest that the Greek was first translated from a less complete Psalter and afterwards extended to agree with the extant Hebrew.
It is therefore reasonable to hold that the Hebrew Psalter was completed and recognized as an authoritative collection long enough before 130 B.C. to allow of its passing to the Greek-speaking Jews in Alexandria.
The Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum - that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the SyroHexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874).
For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.
The "tin" of the Bible (KauoLTEpos in the Septuagint) corresponds to the Hebrew bedhil, which is really a copper alloy known as early as 1600 B.C. in Egypt.
The translation was executed entirely from the Hebrew, but underwent later revision which brought it more into conformity with the LXX - this to a greater degree in some books than in others.
Of the large number of Apocryphal books existing in Syriac8 the majority have been translated from Greek, one or two (such as Bar Sira or Ecclesiasticus) from Hebrew, while some (like the Doctrine of Addai above referred to) are original Syriac documents.
The Arab izar, though now a large outer wrapper, was once a loin-cloth (like the Hebrew ezor), which, however, was long enough to be trodden upon.
On the other are such figures as the Hebrew prophets, distinguished by their hairy garment and by their denunciation of the luxury of both sexes.
His works exist chiefly in the original Arabic or in Hebrew translations; only some smaller treatises have been translated into Latin, so that no definite opinion can be formed as to their medical value.
A more important work, the Practica seu lilium medicinae, of Bernard Gordon, a Scottish professor at Montpellier (written in the year 1307), was more widely spread, being translated into French and Hebrew, and printed in several editions.
But his two chief works, posthumously published, are his Cyprian (London, 1897), a work of great learning, which had occupied him at intervals since early manhood; and The Apocalypse, an Introductory Study (London, 1900), interesting and beautiful, but limited by the fact that the method of study is that of a Greek play, not of a Hebrew apocalypse.
Here Jacques Davy received his education, being taught Latin and mathematics by his father, and learning Greek and Hebrew and the philosophy then in vogue.
In the authorized version of the Bible, the word "incense" translates two wholly distinct Hebrew words.
Its source may be an Aramaic or a Hebrew document.
He had studied Arabic, Turkish, Greek, the vernacular languages of India and Sind, and perhaps even Hebrew; he had visited Multan and Lahore, and the splendid Ghaznavide court under Sultan Mahmud, Firdousi's patron.
The Hebrew Book of Noah, a later work, is printed in Jellinek's Bet ha-Midrasch, iii.
The portion of this Hebrew work which is derived from the older work is reprinted in Charles's Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees, p. 179.
Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.
Since the Psalms were written in Hebrew, and intended for public worship in the synagogues, it is most probable that they were composed in Palestine.
The Syriac is a translation from the Greek, and the Greek in turn from the Hebrew.
The book was written originally in Hebrew.
It is true that these might have been due to the writer's borrowings from earlier Greek works ultimately of Hebrew origin.
He wrote a book entitled The Method of Preparing Medicines and Diet, which was translated into Hebrew in the year 1280, and thence into Latin by Paravicius, whose version, first printed at Venice, 1490, has passed through several editions.
With the growth of scientific geography they came to be located somewhat less vaguely, and indeed their name was employed as the equivalent of the Assyrian and Hebrew Cush, the Kesh or Ekosh of the Hieroglyphics (first found in Stele of Senwosri I.), i.e.
He was assistant Hebrew instructor (1832-1833) at Andover, and having been licensed to preach by the Londonderry Presbytery in 1830 was ordained as an evangelist by the Third Presbytery of New York in 1833.
In 1806, shortly after graduation, he became Repetent and Privatdozent in that university; and, as he was fond of afterwards relating, had Neander for his first pupil in Hebrew.
He soon became the most popular teacher of Hebrew and of Old Testament introduction and exegesis in Germany; during his later years his lectures were attended by nearly five hundred students.
His Hebrew Grammar inaugurated a new era in biblical philology.
All subsequent works in that department have been avowedly based on his, and to him will always belong the honour of having been, as Hitzig has called him, "the second founder of the science of the Hebrew language."
The chief arguments to be urged against this late date are the character of the Hebrew style (Driver, op. cit., p. 233) and the alleged close of the prophetic canon by 200; but perhaps neither of these can be regarded as very convincing.
In 1848 he conceived the idea of a union, and after a campaign lasting a quarter of a century the Union of American Hebrew Congregations was founded (1873) in Cincinnati.
As a corollary of this he founded in 1875 the "Hebrew Union College" in the same city, and this institution has since trained a large number of the rabbis of America.
During the latter part of the Hebrew monarchy we hear nothing of Shechem, no doubt on account of the commanding importance of the neighbouring city of Samaria.
In such cases of substitution the vowels of the word which is to be read are written in the Hebrew text with the consonants of the word which is not to be read.
Jahveh or Yahweh is apparently an example of a common type of Hebrew proper names which have the form of the 3rd pers.
Both interpretations, " He (who) is (always the same)," and " He (who) is (absolutely, the truly existent)," import into the name all that they profess to find in it; the one, the religious faith in God's unchanging fidelity to his people, the other, a philosophical conception of absolute being which is foreign both to the meaning of the Hebrew verb and to the force of the tense employed.
A serious objection to this theory in every form is that the verb hayah, " to be," has no causative stem in Hebrew; to express the ideas which these scholars find in the name Yahweh the language employs altogether different verbs.
This hypothesis is not intrinsically improbable - and in Aramaic, a language closely related to Hebrew, " to be " actually is hawa - but it should be noted that in adopting it we admit that, using the name Hebrew in the historical sense, Yahweh is not a Hebrew name.
In its earlier form this opinion rested chiefly on certain misinterpreted testimonies in Greek authors about a god 'Iaco, and was conclusively refuted by Baudissin; recent adherents of the theory build more largely on the occurrence in various parts of this territory of proper names of persons ' See Hebrew Religion.
In a tablet attributed to the 14th century B.C. which Sellin found in the course of his excavations at Tell Ta'annuk (the Taanach of the O.T.) a name occurs which may be read Ahi-Yawi (equivalent to Hebrew Ahijah); 6 if the reading be correct, this would show that Yahweh was worshipped in Central Palestine before the Israelite conquest.
The fact that the full form Yahweh appears, whereas in Hebrew proper names only the shorter Yahu and Yah occur, weighs somewhat against the interpretation, as it does against Delitzsch's reading of his tablets.
It is, as it were, the great temple of medieval science, whose floor and walls are inlaid with an enormous mosaic of skilfully arranged passages from Latin, Greek, Arabic, and even Hebrew authors.
But Hebrew, Arabic and Greek he seems to have known solely through one or other of the popular Latin versions.
But Rabbi Jonah saw the true vocation of his life in the scientific investigation of te Hebrew language and in a rational biblical exegesis based upon sound linguistic knowledge.
Abulwalid's works mark the culminating point of Hebrew scholarship during the middle ages, and he attained a level which was not surpassed till the modern development of philological science in the 19th century.
While much that Herder produced after settling in Weimar has little value, he wrote also some of his best works, among others his collection of popular poetry on which he had been engaged for many years, Stimmen der Volker in Liedern (1778-1779); his translation of the Spanish romances of the Cid (1805); his celebrated work on Hebrew poetry, Vom Geist der hebrdischen Poesie (1782-1783); and his opus magnum, the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (1784-1791).
This fact of the idiosyncrasy of national poetry he illustrated with great fulness and richness in the case of Homer, the nature of whose works he was one of the first to elucidate, the Hebrew poets, and the poetry of the north as typified in ' ` Ossian."
He afterwards studied divinity at Geneva under Calvin, and Hebrew at Paris under Jean Mercier.
From that year onwards he was employed as a public preacher at Brescia, Pisa, Venice and Rome; and in his intervals of leisure he mastered Greek and Hebrew.
He befriended a number of English exiles, but had himself in 1556 to accept an offer of the chair of Hebrew at Zurich owing to his increased alienation from Lutheranism.
Though ardent in his pastoral work, he found time for diligent study of Hebrew and other Oriental languages, undertaken chiefly with the view of qualifying himself for the great work of his life, his Commentary on the Holy Scriptures (8 vols., 1810-1826).
And so he became a positive religious teacher by virtue of the very ideas that made the words of the Hebrew prophets so potent and sublime.
He holds a high place in the history of humanism by the foundation of the College de France; he did not found an actual college, but after much hesitation instituted in 1530, at the instance of Guillaume Bude (Budaeus), Lecteurs royaux, who in spite of the opposition of the Sorbonne were granted full liberty to teach Hebrew, Greek, Latin, mathematics, &c. The humanists Bude, Jacques Colin and Pierre Duchatel were the king's intimates, and Clement Marot was his favourite poet.
He took up afresh his study of Hebrew, and began his voluminous works on the interpretation of the Scriptures.
They possess - not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in Ethiopic (or Geez)- the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud.
For the Iranian parallel, see § 8, and on the Hebrew Priestly Writer, Gunkel, Genesis 2, pp. 2 33 ff.
From a literary point of view, indeed, it cannot compare with the dignified Hebrew narrative, but considering the misfortunes which have befallen the collection of Zoroastrian traditions now represented by the Bundahish (the Parsee Genesis) we cannot reasonably be surprised.
This may illustrate the fact that the dragon is also unmentioned in the Hebrew cosmogony; to some writers the dragon-element may have seemed grotesque and inappropriate.
The student should, however, notice that the dragon-element is not entirely unrepresented even in the priestly Hebrew cosmogony.
But we are far from having exhausted the evidence of Babylonian influence on the Hebrew cosmogony.
Nor ought we to find a discrepancy between the Babylonian and the Hebrew, accounts in the creation of the heavenly bodies after the plants, related in Gen.
On the whole, the Hebrew statement of the successive stages of creation corresponds so nearly to that in the Babylonian epic that we are bound to assume that one has been influenced by the other.
The town was the seat of a Hebrew printing-press founded in 1472, but suppressed in 1597, when the Jews were expelled from the duchy of Milan.
Reuss, and, after holding various teaching posts, was made instructor in French and Hebrew at the Landesschule of Meissen, receiving in 1852 the title of professor.
For some notice of the Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew translations of works professedly by Hippocrates (Ibukrat or Bukrat), the number of which greatly exceeds that of the extant Greek originals, reference may be made to Fliigel's contribution to the article " Hippokrates " in the Encyklopadie of Ersch and Gruber.
After studying at Leipzig, Altenburg and Ingolstadt, he was ordained priest in 1520 and appointed Hebrew tutor in the Augustinian convent at Nuremberg.
The prophecy must, therefore, be regarded as anonymous; the title was added by the compiler 1 A Hebrew tradition given in the Targum of Jonathan, and approved by Jerome, identifies Malachi with Ezra the priest and scribe.
He held that the Hebrew must be read without points, and his interpretation rested largely on fanciful symbolism.
The history of Christian preaching with which alone this article is concerned has its roots (I) in the activity of the Hebrew prophets and scribes, the former representing the broader appeal, the latter the edification of the faithful, (2) in the ministry of Jesus Christ and His apostles, where again we have both the evangelical invitation and the teaching of truth and duty.
In their origin they were designed to meet the needs of the unlearned among the people who had ceased to understand the Hebrew of the Old Testament.
In the absence of any precise evidence on the point it is impossible to give more than a rough estimate as to the period at which Hebrew, as a spoken language, was finally displaced by Aramaic. It is, however, certain that the latter language was firmly established in Palestine in the 1st century A.D.
By that time, as we know from many sources, Aramaic was not only the language in common use, but had also received official recognition,' despite the fact that Hebrew still remained the learned and sacred tongue.
The Hebrew text used by the translators appears to have been practically identical with the Massoretic. The version was held in high esteem in Babylon, and, later, in Palestine, and a special Massora was made for it.
He discovered and copied MSS., and began to study Hebrew.
A number of widows and maidens met together in the house of Marcella to study the Scriptures with him; he taught them Hebrew, and preached the virtues of the celibate life.
There he was joined by two wealthy Roman ladies, Paula, a widow, and Eustochium, her daughter, one of Jerome's Hebrew students.
The results of this journey may be traced in his translation with emendations of the book of Eusebius on the situation and names of Hebrew places, written probably three years afterwards, when he had settled down at Bethlehem.
Here he did most of his literary work and, throwing aside his unfinished plan of a translation from Origen's Hexaplar text, translated the Old Testament directly from the Hebrew, with the aid of Jewish scholars.
His commentaries are valuable because of his knowledge of Greek and Hebrew, his varied interests, and his comparative freedom from allegory.
After a short residence at Lambeth he was appointed, through the influence of Cromwell, then chancellor of the university, to lecture on theology at Cambridge; but when he had delivered a few expositions of the Hebrew psalms, he was compelled by the opposition of the papal party to desist.
The same word is found in Hebrew and Aramaic as well as in ancient Arabic (Sabaean).
The old Hebrew prohibition of graven images was surely based on a like superstition, so far as it was not merely due to the physical impossibility for nomads of heavy statues that do not admit of being carried from camp to camp and from pasture to pasture.
Phonetic values known, Assyrian was found to be a Semitic language cognate to Hebrew.
Now that the lost literatures have been restored to us, the status of the Hebrew writings could not fail to be disturbed.
Even conservative students of the Bible urge that its historical passages must be viewed precisely in the light of any other historical writings of antiquity; and the fact that the oldest Hebrew manuscript dates only from the 8th century A.D., and therefore of necessity brings to us the message of antiquity through the fallible medium of many generations of copyists, is far more clearly kept in mind than it formerly was.
Yet the very eagerness with which the champions of the Hebrew records searched for archaeological proofs of their validity was a tacit confession that even the most unwavering faith was not beyond the reach of external evidence.
As, one after another, the various tablets and cylinders and annalistic tablets have been translated, it has become increasingly clear that here are almost inexhaustible fountains of knowledge, and that sooner or later it may be possible to check the Hebrew accounts of the most important periods of their history with contemporaneous accounts written from another point of view.
Tiglath-Pileser III., a usurper who came to the throne of Assyria in 745 B.C., and whose earlier name of Pul proved a source of confusion to the later Hebrew writers, left records that have served to clear up the puzzling chronology of a considerable period of the history of Samaria.
The Hebrew account of the death of Sennacherib is corroborated by a Babylonian inscription.
One cannot avoid the suspicion that in this instance the Hebrew chronicler purposely phrased his account to convey the impression that Sennacherib's tragic end was but the slightly delayed culmination of the punishment inflicted for his attack upon the "chosen people."
Within the past generation records of Cyrus have been brought to light, as well as records of the conquered Babylonian king himself, which show that the Hebrew writers of the later day had a peculiarly befogged impression of a great historical event - their misconception being shared, it may be added, by the Greek historian Herodotus.
The explanation is found, so the Assyriologist assures us, in the fact that both Hebrew and Greek historians, writing at a considerable interval after the events, and apparently lacking authentic sources, confused the peaceful occupation of Babylon by Cyrus with its siege and capture by a successor to that monarch, Darius Hystaspes.
As to the confusion of Babylonian names - in which, by the way, the Hebrew and Greek authors do not agree - it is explained that the general, Belshazzar, was perhaps more directly known in Palestine than his father the king.
He continued his studies in Strassburg, under the professor of Hebrew, Johannes Pappus (1549-1610), a zealous Lutheran, the crown of whose life's work was the forcible suppression of Calvinistic preaching and worship in the city, and who had great influence over him.
At the age of twenty-eight he accepted the chair of Hebrew at Saumur, and twenty years afterwards was appointed professor of theology.
As a Hebrew scholar he made a special study of the history of the Hebrew text, which led him to the conclusion that the vowel points and accents are not an original part of the Hebrew language, but were inserted by the Massorete Jews of Tiberias, not earlier than the 5th century A.D., and that the primitive Hebrew characters are those now known as the Samaritan, while the square characters are Aramaic and were substituted for the more ancient at the time of the captivity.
Cappel was also the author of Annotationes et Commentarii in Vetus Testamentum, Chronologia Sacra, and other biblical works, as well as of several other treatises on Hebrew, among which are the Arcanum Punctuationis revelatum (1624) and the Diatriba de veris et antiquis Ebraeorum literis (1645).
His Commentarius de Capellorum gente, giving an account of the family to which he belonged, was published by his nephew James Cappel (1639-1722), who, at the age of eighteen, became professor of Hebrew at Saumur, but, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, fled to England, where he died in 1722.
The two canonical books entitled Ezra and Nehemiah in the English Bible' correspond to the I and 2 Esdras of the Vulgate, to the 2 Esdras of the Septuagint, and to the Ezra and Nehemiah of the Massoretic (Hebrew) text.
Their position in the Hebrew Bible before the book of Chronicles is, however, illogical.
The often-cited description of the pulmonary circulation (which occurs in the 1546 draft) begins p. 169; it has escaped even Sigmond that Servetus had an idea of the composition of water and of air; the hint for his researches was the dual form of the Hebrew words for blood, water, &c. Two treatises, Desiderius (ante 1542) and De tribus impostoribus (1598) have been wrongly ascribed to Servetus.
For by transliterating Ka7vap Nepc'ev into Hebrew 1113 10,P and adding together the sums denoted by the Hebrew letters we obtain the number 666.
In 1850 he became vice-principal and Hebrew lecturer at St David's College, Lampeter, where he introduced muchneeded educational and financial reforms. He was appointed select preacher of Cambridge University in 1854, and preached a sermon on inspiration, afterwards published in his Rational Godliness after the Mind of Christ and the Written Voices of the Church (London, 1855).
In the Hebrew scriptures the waters were gathered together in one place at the word of God, and the dry land appeared.
Luzzatto's most lasting work is in the realm of Hebrew drama.
The beautiful Hebrew style created a new school of Hebrew poetry, and the Hebrew renaissance which resulted from the career of Moses Mendelssohn owed much to Luzzatto.
The history of the practice of excommunication may be traced through (1) pagan analogues, (2) Hebrew custom, (3) primitive Christian practice, (4) medieval and monastic usage, (5) modern survivals in existing Christian churches.
See on this question, HEBREW RELIGION, and Budde, Religion of Israel to the Exile, vol.
But the Hebrew version of Rabbi Joel, made somewhat later, was translated in the 13th century into Latin by John of Capua, a converted Jew, in his Directorium vitae humanae (first published in 1480), and in that form became widely known.
He also wrote a good deal of German and Hebrew verse.
Geiger also contributed frequently on Hebrew, Samaritan and Syriac subjects to the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, and from 1862 until his death (on the 23rd of October 1874) he was editor of a periodical entitled Ji dische Zeitschrift fiir Wissenschaft and Leben.
Jewish catacombs with inscriptions in Hebrew, Greek and Latin show the importance of the Jewish population here in the 4th and 5th centuries after Christ.
Their proper names show that before and even during the Persian age their languages differed only dialectically from Hebrew.
The current Hebrew Text has the land of ammo,i.e.
All these peoples either belong to the Hebrew stock or are closely connected with it.
He there began the study of Greek that he might "learn the teaching of Christ from the original sources," and gave some attention to Hebrew.
Schultens was never the same as before to him; Reiske indeed was too independent, and hurt him by his open criticisms of his master's way of making Arabic mainly a handmaid of Hebrew.
There are also early Hebrew works, of which one by Gedaliah is extant.
On the death of Arminius shortly after this time, Konrad Vorstius (1569-1622), who sympathized with his views, was appointed to succeed him, in spite of the keen opposition of Gomarus and his friends; and Gomarus took his defeat so ill that he resigned his post, and went to Middleburg in 1611, where he became preacher at the Reformed church, and taught theology and Hebrew in the newly founded Illustre Schule.
From this place he was called in 1614 to a chair of theology at Saumur, where he remained four years, and then accepted a call as professor of theology and Hebrew to Groningen, where he stayed till his death on the 11th of January 1641.
He took part in revising the Dutch translation of the Old Testament in 1633, and after his death a book by him, called the Lyra Davidis, was published, which sought to explain the principles of Hebrew metre, and which created some controversy at the time, having been opposed by Louis Cappel.
He was appointed governor of Syria a second time (17), where his just and prudent administration won him the respect and good-will of the provincials, especially the Hebrew population.
The ancient name of the people of Yemen was Saba (Saba' with final hemza); and the oldest notices of them are in the Hebrew Scriptures.
There are twenty-nine letters, one more than in Arabic, Samech and Sin being distinct forms, as in Hebrew.
The names for altar (midhbaji) and sacrifice (dhibh) are common Semitic words, and the altar of incense has among other names that of miktar, as in Hebrew.
The sela` in late Hebrew answers to the older shekel, and the mention of it seems to point to Jewish or Christian influence.
As a Hebrew philologist he holds high rank; and as a constructive critic he is remarkable for acuteness a.nd sagacity.
Tregelles wrote Heads of Hebrew Grammar (1852), translated Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon, and was the author of a little work on the Jansenists (1851) and of various works in exposition of his special eschatological views (Remarks on the Prophetic Visions of Daniel, 1852,1852, new ed., 1864).
Hence Chronicles is the last book of the Hebrew Bible, following the book of EzraNehemiah, which properly is nothing else than the sequel of Chronicles.
The true importance of Hebrew history had always cter p y y ofcharafhe centred in the fact that this petty nation was the people work.
Just as the Gathas (the ancient Zoroastrian hymns) omit Gaokerena, and the Hebrew prophets on the whole avoid mythological phrases, so this old Hebrew thinker prunes the primitive exuberance of the traditional myth.
The first part of the latter has definite Arabian affinities; the second is as definitely Hebrew.
Still there are four Babylonian stories which may serve as partial illustrations of the Hebrew Adam-story.
Certainly Adamu (if it is not more convenient to write "Adapa") was not regarded as the progenitor of the human race, like the Hebrew Adam.
The king was struck with the lad's bright grey eyes and pleasant humorous face; and Brokman, proud of his pupil, made him translate a chapter from a Hebrew Bible first into Latin and then into Danish, for the entertainment of the scholarly monarch.
The many floating and fragmentary notes of various dates that have found a place in the account of his reign in the book of Kings (q.v.) show how much Hebrew tradition was occupied with the monarch under whom the throne of Israel reached its highest glory; and that time only magnified in popular imagination the proportions of so striking a figure appears from the opinions entertained of him in subsequent writings.
It is impossible not to be struck with the growing development of the Israelite tribes after the invasion of Palestine, their strong position under David, the sudden expansion of the Hebrew monarchy under Solomon, and the subsequent slow decay, and this, indeed, is the picture as it presented itself 'to the last writers who found in the glories of the past both consolation for the present and grounds for future hopes.
In May 1858 the surviving members of his faction together with a few fresh arrivals from France established a new 1 The Mormons said the name was 6f Hebrew origin and meant "beautiful place"; Hebrew "naveh" means "pleasant."
According to the Hebrew consonants it might simply be read "the king" (melek), an appellation for the supreme deity of a Semitic state or tribe.
In the Old Testament, " atonement," " make an atonement " represent the Hebrew kippur and its derivatives.
In general it may be said that the traditional theology of the Church took its material fromvarious sources - Hebrew, Christian,.
The theologians of the Greek and Latin churches expressly found the conception of a Christian priesthood on the hierarchy of the Jewish temple, while the names by which the sacerdotal character is expressed - iEpEbs, sacerdos - originally designated the ministers of sacred things in Greek and Roman heathenism, and then came to be used as translations into Greek and Latin of the Hebrew kohen.
Here we find magic and soothsaying closely intertwined with priestly functions as, we shall see, was the case in early Hebrew pre-exilian days with the Kohen.
This confirms the view that the Hebrew kipper, which appears to be a late word (specially employed in Ezek, and P.), originally had the meaning which belongs to the Aramaic viz.
Soothsaying was no modern importation in Arabia; its characteristic form - a monotonous croon of short rhyming clauses - is the same as was practised by the Hebrew " wizards who peeped and muttered " in the days of Isaiah, and that this form was native in Arabia is clear from its having a technical name (saj`), which in Hebrew survives only in derivative words with modified sense.'
But the earliest forms of Hebrew priesthocd are not Canaanite in character; the priest, as he appears in the older records of the time of the Judges, Eli at Shiloh, Jonathan in the private temple of Micah and at Dan, is much liker the sadin than the kahin.
This coincides with the Hebrew use of the term as idolatrous priests, Hos.
The influence of the Hebrew priesthood on the thought and organization of Christendom was the influence not of a living institution, for it hardly began till after the fall of the Temple, but of the theory embodied in the later parts of the Pentateuch.
Thus in Syria one who touched a dove became taboo for one whole day, and if a drop of blood of the Hebrew sin-offering fell on a garment it had to be ritually washed off.
It was as necessary in the Hebrew religion for the priest to wash his hands after handling the sacred volume as before.