How to use Heating in a sentence
He takes long weekends every time the weather starts heating up.
Martha was mixing batter while Quinn stood at the stove, heating a frying pan.
While you're heating that stuff up, I think I'll go out and lock Princess in the barn.
She looked up at him, anger heating her blood again.
They are of a reddish colour and usually crystallize well; on heating with concentrated acids are usually transformed into the purpureo-salts.Advertisement
It is also obtained by heating para-chlorphenoldisulphonic acid with potassium hydroxide.
GayLussac, who obtained it by heating mercury or silver cyanide; this discovery is of considerable historical importance, since it recorded the isolation of a "compound radical."
When cyanogen is prepared by heating mercuric cyanide, a residue known as para-cyanogen, (CN)x, is left; this is to be regarded as a polymer of cyanogen.
They readily decompose on heating, and are easily hydrolysed by alkalies; they possess a somewhat more acid character than.
Thenard in 1808 by heating boron trioxide with potassium, in an iron tube.Advertisement
It combines directly with fluorine at Ordinary temperature, and with chlorine, bromine and sulphur on heating.
Boron hydride has probably never been isolated in the pure condition; on heating boron trioxide with magnesium filings, a magnesium boride Mg 3 B 2 is obtained, and if this be decomposed with dilute hydrochloric acid a very evil-smelling gas, consisting of a mixture of hydrogen and boron hydride, is obtained.
Thenard and is best obtained by heating a mixture of the trioxide and fluorspar with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.
Boron nitride BN is formed when boron is burned either in air or in nitrogen, but can be obtained more readily by heating to redness in a platinum crucible a mixture of one part of anhydrous borax with two parts of dry ammonium chloride.Advertisement
It can also be prepared by heating borimide B2(NH)31 or by heating boron trioxide with a metallic cyanide.
Long-continued heating with water also decomposes it slowly.
A pentasulphide B2S5 is prepared, in an impure condition, by heating a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide with boron iodide, and forms a white crystalline powder which decomposes under the influence of water into sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen and boric acid.
Boron trioxide B203 is the only known oxide of boron; and may be prepared by heating amorphous boron in oxygen, or better, by strongly igniting boric acid.
It decomposes water slowly in the cold, and more rapidly on heating.Advertisement
The metal is quite permanent in dry air, but in moist air it becomes coated with a superficial layer of the oxide; it burns on heating to redness, forming a brown coloured oxide; and is readily soluble in mineral acids with formation of the corresponding salts.
It does not melt at a white heat, and is easily reduced to the metal by heating in a current of hydrogen or with carbon.
By gradually heating amber in an oil-bath it becomes soft and flexible.
Molybdenum sesquioxide, Mo 2 O 3, a black mass insoluble in acids, is formed by heating the corresponding hydroxide in vacuo, or by digesting the trioxide with zinc and hydrochloric acid.
Molybdenum trioxide, Mo03, is prepared by oxidizing the metal or the sulphide by heating them in air, or with nitric acid.Advertisement
It is a white powder, which turns pale yellow on heating, and melts at a red heat.
Molybdenum disulphide, MoS 2, is found as the mineral molybdenite, and may be prepared by heating the trioxide with sulphur or sulphuretted hydrogen.
It is a brown powder which on heating in air loses sulphur and leaves a residue of the disulphide.
The loose material may, and in an arid region does, consist only of portions of the higher parts of the surface detached by the expansion and contraction produced by heating and cooling due to radiation.
The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.
They are not decomposed by boiling alkalis, but on heating with hydriodic acid they split into their components.
It may be obtained from argyrodite by heating the mineral in a current of hydrogen; or by heating the dioxide to redness with carbon.
By heating with a small quantity of magnesium it is converted into germanious oxide, GeO.
By heating the disulphide in a current of hydrogen, germanious sulphide, GeS, is formed.
On continuing the heating, the viscosity diminishes while the colour remains the same.
From the heating of native calcium sulphate and carbon is obtained calx sulphurata (U.S. and B.P.), or sulphurated lime, a greyish-white powder.
In the United States the danger of the stoves that used to be employed for heating the interiors of the cars has been realized, and now the most common method is by steam taken from the locomotive boiler and circulated through the train in a line of piping, rendered continuous between the cars by flexible coupling-hose.
These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.
Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
Thus by heating spirits of salt he obtained "marine acid air" (hydrochloric acid gas), and he was able to collect it because he happened to use mercury, instead of water, in his pneumatic trough.
Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.
Held synthesized the acid from ethyl chlor-acetoacetate (from chlorine and acetoacetic ester) by heating with potassium cyanide and saponifying the resulting nitrile.
The ancient records of China and Japan are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating.
The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.
This instrument is so constructed that the higher temperature needed can be readily applied, and it is fitted with a stirrer to equalize the heating of the contents of the oil-cup.
For heating purposes, the stoves employed are practically kerosene lamps of suitable construction, though gasoline is used as a domestic fuel in the United States.
In ammeters for small currents it is customary to pass the whole current through the heating wire.
Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.
Lampadius, who obtained it by heating a mixture of charcoal and pyrites.
Ruthenium in bulk resembles platinum in its general appearance, and has been obtained crystalline by heating an alloy of ruthenium and tin in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.
The dioxide, Ru02, is formed by heating sulphate, or by heating the metal in a current of oxygen.
All four mono-hydroxyxanthones are known, and are prepared by heating salicylic acid with either resorcin, pyrocatechin or hydroquinone; they are yellow crystalline solids, which act as dyestuffs.
He also showed that on heating mercury calx alone an " air " was liberated which differed from other " airs," and was slightly heavier than ordinary air; moreover, the weight of the " air " set free from a given weight of the calx was equal to the weight taken up in forming the calx from mercury, and if the calx be heated with charcoal, the metal was recovered and a gas named " fixed air," the modern carbon dioxide, was formed.
Glauber showed how to prepare hydrochloric acid, spiritus salis, by heating rock-salt with sulphuric acid, the method in common use to-day; and also nitric acid from saltpetre and arsenic trioxide.
The action of these acids on many metals was also studied; Glauber obtained zinc, stannic, arsenious and cuprous chlorides by dissolving the metals in hydrochloric acid, compounds hitherto obtained by heating the metals with corrosive sublimate, and consequently supposed to contain mercury.
At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium.
Davy also described and partially investigated the gas, named by him " euchlorine," obtained by heating potassium chlorate with hydrochloric acid; this gas has been more recently examined by Pebal.
These three acids yield on heating phenol, identical with the substance started with, and since in the three oxybenzoic acids the hydroxyl groups must occupy positions other than I, it follows that four hydrogen atoms are equal in value.
If the substance to be weighed changes in composition on strong heating, it is necessary to employ a tared filter, i.e.
Beilstein determines their presence by heating the substance with pure copper oxide on a platinum wire in the Bunsen flame; a green coloration is observed if halogens be present.
Sulphur is detected by heating the substance with sodium, dissolving the product in water, and adding sodium nitroprusside; a bluish-violet coloration indicates sulphur.
In 1855 C. Brunner described a method for oxidizing the carbon to carbon dioxide, which could be estimated by the usual methods, by heating the substance with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
Nitrogen is estimated by (I) Dumas' method, which consists in heating the substance with copper oxide and measuring the volume Nitrogen.
The halogens may be estimated by ignition with quicklime, or by heating with nitric acid and silver nitrate in a sealed tube.
When precipitated from solutions it forms red tetragonal crystals, which, on careful heating, give a yellow rhombic form, also obtained by crystallization from the fused substance, or by sublimation.
Iodine in alkaline solution converts pyrrol into iodol (tetra-iodopyrrol), crystallizing in yellowishbrown needles, which decompose on heating.
It may also be prepared by heating tetra-bromor tetra-chlorpyrrol with potas= sium iodide in alcoholic solution (German patent, 38423, 1886).
It sublimes, but on rapid heating decomposes into carbon dioxide and phenol.
Mehner patented heating the oxides of silicon, boron or magnesium with coal or coke in an electric furnace, and then passing in nitrogen, which forms, with the metal liberated by the action of the carbon, a readily decomposable nitride.
Nitrogen peroxide is also prepared by heating lead nitrate and passing the products of decomposition through a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture, when the gas liquefies.
It slowly decomposes on exposure or on heating.
Its salts may be obtained in some cases by heating the corresponding nitrates, but the method does not give good results.
The heating of the latter causes great differences of pressure, which in turn set up changes of atmospheric circulation.
Nor is it, when newly gathered, heating, - a defect inherent to the preserved fruit everywhere; nor does its richness, however great, bring satiety; in short it is an article of food alike pleasant and healthy."
When the passage of an electric current through a substance is accompanied by definite chemical changes which are independent of the heating effects of the current, the process is known as electrolysis, and the substance is called an electrolyte.
When the converter is full the pressure is raised somewhat, and the heating continued until the conversion is complete.
The latex, which is usually coagulated by standing or by heating, is obtained from incisions in the bark of the tree.
The rubber is obtained by incising the stems of the vines and coagulating the latex by exposure, by admixture with acid vegetable juices or by heating.
Similar products are also formed by heating gutta-percha which closely resembles caoutchouc in its chemical structure.
Many of the residences and business places of Bowling Green are heated by a privately owned central hot-water heating plant.
The "browse," after removal of the "grey" slag, is reintroduced, ore added, and, after a quarter of an hour's heating, the mass again placed on the work-stone, &c.
This oxide is produced by heating lead in contact with air and removing the film of oxide as formed.
Lead dioxide, Pb0 2, also known as "puce oxide," occurs in nature as the mineral plattnerite, and may be most conveniently prepared by heating mixed solutions of lead acetate and bleaching powder until the original precipitate blackens.
Heating or exposure to sunlight reduces it to the red oxide; it fires when ground with sulphur, and oxidizes ammonia to nitric acid, with the simultaneous formation of ammonium nitrate.
The Kassner process for the manufacture of oxygen depends upon the formation of calcium plumbate, Ca2Pb04, by heating a mixture of lime and litharge in a current of air, decomposing this substance into calcium carbonate and lead dioxide by heating in a current of carbon dioxide, and then decomposing these compounds with the evolution of carbon dioxide and oxygen by raising the temperature.
On heating it assumes a finer colour, but then turns violet and finally black; regaining, however, its original colour on cooling.
The borate, Pb 2 B 6 0 1 u 4H20, is obtained as a white precipitate by adding borax to a lead salt; this on heating with strong ammonia gives PbB2044H2.
For specimens of large sectional area it is necessary to apply corrections in respect of the energy dissipated by eddy currents and in heating the secondary circuit.
The instrument exhibited by Thompson would, without undue heating, take a current of 30 amperes, which was sufficient to produce a magnetizing force of woo units.
But when exceptionally strong fields are desired, the use of a coil is limited by the heating effect of the magnetizing current, the quantity of heat generated per unit of time in a coil of given dimensions increasing as the square of the magnetic field produced in its interior.
Since the demagnetizing factor was o 052, the strongest field due to the coil was about 1340; but though arrangements were pro vided for cooling the apparatus by means of o ice, great difficulty was experienced owing to heating.
When heated they liquefy; and if the heating be continued, the water of crystallization is driven off, the salt froths and^swells, and at last an amorphous powder remains.
It burns on heating in air; and is scarcely attacked by hydrochloric or nitric acids, or by aqua regia; it is soluble in warm concentrated sulphuric acid.
Columbium oxysulphide, CbOS 3, is obtained as a dark bronze coloured powder when the pentoxide is heated to a white heat in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour; or by gently heating the oxychloride in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen.
Most of the polynitro compounds are not volatile, but undergo deco Imposition on heating.
In order to minimize the heating action of the light, it might be submitted to a preliminary prismatic analysis before it reaches the slit of the spectrometer, after the manner of Helmholtz.
Uranous Compounds.-Uranium dioxide, UO 2 (Berzelius's metal), is a brown to copper-coloured powder, obtained by heating U308 or uranyl oxalate in hydrogen.
Uranous chloride, UC14, was first prepared by Peligot by heating an intimate mixture of the green oxide and charcoal to redness in a current of dry chlorine; it is obtained as sublimate of black-green metallic-looking octahedra.
The chloride is very hygroscopic. By heating in hydrogen it yields the trichloride, UC1 3, and by direct combination with chlorine the pentachloride, UC1 5.
It is manufactured by heating pitchblende with lime, treating the resulting calcium uranate with dilute sulphuric acid, and adding sodium carbonate in excess.
Conversely, by heating protocatechuic acid with potash and methylene iodide, piperonylic acid was regained.
Of these sodium stannate, Na2Sn03, is produced industrially by heating tin with Chile saltpetre and caustic soda, or by fusing very finely powdered tinstone with caustic soda in iron vessels.
On heating it is converted into colloidal metastannic acid.
Stannous Chloride, SnC1 2, can only be obtained pure by heating pure tin in a current of pure dry hydrochloric acid gas.
Stannous sulphide, SnS, is obtained as a lead-grey mass by heating tin with sulphur, and as a brown precipitate by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannous solution; this is soluble in ammonium polysulphide, and dries to a black powder.
Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
In a mine with two shafts a ventilating current may result from other conditions creating a difference in the temperature of the air in either shaft - for example, the cooling effect of dropping water or the heating effect of steam pipes.
Ventilation may be produced by heating the air of the mine, as for example, by constructing a ventilating furnace at the bottom of an air shaft.
Di-metallic salts are obtained by heating cyanates alone, e.g.
These substances condense to form tetra-aminotriphenylmethane, which, on heating with acids, loses ammonia and yields diaminodihydrophenylacridine, from which benzoflavin is obtained by oxidation.
In some English works coal is still employed for direct heating with various forms of mechanical stokers.
Electrical furnaces have not as yet been employed for ordinary glass-making on a commercial scale, but the electrical plants which have been erected for melting and moulding quartz suggest the possibility of electric heating being employed for the manufacture of glass.
Wohler, Ann., 1856, 97, p. 266; 1857, 102, p. 382); by heating silica with magnesium in the presence of zinc (L.
A somewhat impure silicon (containing 90-98% of the element) is made by the Carborundum Company of Niagara Falls (United States Patents 745 122 and 842273, 1908) by heating coke and sand in an electric furnace.
It combines directly with many metals on heating, whilst others merely dissolve it.
The hexachloride, Si 2 C1 61 is formed when silicon chloride vapour is passed over strongly heated silicon; by the action of chlorine on the corresponding iodocompound, or by heating the iodo-compound with mercuric chloride (C. Friedel, Comptes rendus, 18 7 1, 73, P. 497).
Alloys of magnesium and silicon are prepared by heating fragments of magnesium with magnesium filings and potassium silico-fluoride.
The acid carbonates of the alkali metals can be prepared by saturating an aqueous solution of the alkaline hydroxide with carbon dioxide, M OH+ C02= Mhco 3, and from these acid salts the normal salts may be obtained by gentle heating, carbon dioxide and water being produced at the same time, 2Mhco 3 = M2C03+H02+C02.
By heating with phosphorus pentachloride an alkyl group is eliminated and a chlorcarbonic ester formed.
All sugars are colourless solids or syrups, which char on strong heating; they are soluble in water, forming sweet solutions but difficultly soluble in alcohol.
Evaporation of the Juice to Syrup. - The third operation is the concentration of the approximately pure, but thin and watery, juice to syrup point, by driving off a portion of the water in vapour through some system of heating and evaporation.
Forgetful or ignorant of the great principle announced and established by Rilleux, they have mostly devoted their energies and ingenuity to contriving all sorts of complicated arrangements to give the juice the density required, by passing and repassing it over the heating surface of the apparatus, the saving of a few square feet of which would seem to have been their main object.
But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.
With the juice of some canes considerable difficulty is encountered in keeping the heating surfaces of the evaporators clean and free from incrustations, and cleaning by the use of acid has to be resorted to.
All their endeavours have obtained at best but a doubtful success, for they have overlooked the fact that to evaporate a given weight of water from the syrup in a vacuum pan at least an equal weight (or in practice about 15% more) of steam must be condensed, and the first cost of mechanical agitators, together with the expenditure they involve for motive power and maintenance, must be put against the slight saving in the heating surface effected by their employment.
Earthy matter and other matter precipitated and fallen on the copper double bottom may be dislodged by a slowly revolving scraper - say every twelve hours - and ejected through the bottom discharge cock; and thus the heating surface of the copper bottom will be kept in full efficiency.
A cell when filled with fresh slices becomes the head of the battery, and where skilled scientific control can be relied upon to regulate the process, the best and most economical way of heating the slices, previous to admitting the hot liquor from the next cell, is by direct steam; but as the slightest inattention or carelessness in the admission of direct steam might have the effect of inverting sugar and thereby causing the loss of some portion of saccharine in the slices, water heaters are generally used, through which water is passed and heated up previous to admission to the freshly-filled cell.
Reduction with hydriodic acid gives dibenzyl, and heating with sulphur gives tetraphenylthiophene or thionessal.
Oxide of zinc, like most heavy metallic oxides, is easily reduced to the metallic state by heating it to redness with charcoal; pure red zinc ore may be treated directly; and the same might be done with pure calamine of any kind, because the carbon dioxide of the zinc carbonate goes off below redness and the silica of zinc silicate only retards, but does not prevent, the reducing action of the charcoal.
After four days' heating the provisional front wall is removed piecemeal, and the retorts, after having been heated to redness, are inserted in corresponding sets.
By heating the nitrate it is obtained as hemimorphous pyramids belonging to the hexagonal system; and by heating the chloride in a current of steam as hexagonal prisms. It is insoluble in water; it dissolves readily in all aqueous acids, with formation of salts.
A green pigment known as Rinmann's green is prepared by mixing I oo parts of zinc vitriol with 2.5 parts of cobalt nitrate and heating the mixture to redness, to produce a compound of the two oxides.
It may be prepared by the fusion of para-toluene sulphonic acid with potash; by the action of nitrous acid on para-toluidine; or by heating para-oxyphenyl acetic acid with lime.
Several modifications were proposed, in one of which, intended for the heating of non-conducting substances, the electrodes were passed horizontally through perforations in the upper part of the crucible walls, and the charge in the lower part of the crucible was heated by radiation.
Again, the construction of electric furnaces may often be exceedingly crude and simple; in the carborundum furnace, for example, the outer walls are of loosely piled bricks, and in one type of furnace the charge is simply heaped on the ground around the carbon resistance used for heating, without containing-walls of any kind.
When prolonged heating is required at very high temperatures it is found necessary to line the furnace-cavity with alternate layers of magnesia and carbon, taking care that the lamina next to the lime is of magnesia; if this were not done the lime in contact with the carbon crucible would form calcium carbide and would slag down, but magnesia does not yield a carbide in this way.
The whole mass dissolves on heating, and the anthracene crystallizes out on cooling.
Anthracene has also been obtained by heating ortho-tolylphenyl ketone with zinc dust C6H4(CH CH =H20+C6H4 I)C6H4.
Ti 3 N 4 is a copper-coloured powder obtained by heating the ammonio-chloride TiC1 4.4NH 3 in ammonia.
TiN 2 is a dark blue powder obtained when the oxide is ignited in an atmosphere of ammonia; while TiN is obtained as a bronze yellow mass as hard as the diamond by heating the oxide in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the electric furnace.
Titanium monoxide, TiO, is obtained as black prismatic crystals by heating the dioxide in the electric furnace, or with magnesium powder.
Titanium sesquioxide, Ti 2 O 3, is formed by heating the dioxide in hydrogen.
Ladenburg, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 783); by heating the esters of nitric acid with alcoholic ammonia at 10o C. (0.
Tafel, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 1924), by distilling the amido-acids with lime, by heating phenols with zinc chloride ammonia (V.
It is to be noted that only traces of the aromatic amines are produced by heating the halogen substituted benzenes with ammonia, unless the amino group be situated in the side chain, as in the case of benzylamine.
The secondary amines may be of two types-namely,the purely aromatic amines, and the mixed secondary amines, which contain an aromatic residue and an alkyl group. The purely aromatic amines result upon heating the primary amines with their hydrochlorides, and, in some cases, by heating a phenol with a primary amine and anhydrous zinc chloride.
The mixed secondary amines are prepared by the action of alkyl iodides on the primary amines, or by heating salts of the primary amine with alcohols under pressure.
The mode of heating varies with the substance to be distilled.
Sidney Young has suggested conducting the operation in a current of carbon dioxide which sweeps out the vapours as they are evolved, and also heating in a vapour bath, e.g.
The details of the plant - the material and fittings of the still, the manner of heating, the form of the condensing plant, receivers, &c. - have to be determined for each substance to be distilled in order to work with the maximum economy.
Several modes of heating are adopted.
Guntz and Roederer (Comptes rendus, 1906, 142, p. 400) by heating the hydride in a vacuum to 1000.
By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.
The hydride, SrH 2, was obtained by Guntz on heating strontium amalgam in a current of hydrogen.
It may be obtained crystalline by fusing the anhydrous chloride with a large excess of potassium hydrogen fluoride or by heating the amorphous variety to redness with an excess of an alkaline chloride.
The anhydrous chloride is formed by heating strontium or its monoxide in chlorine, or by heating the hydrated chloride in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.
Strontium carbide, SrC2, is obtained by heating strontium carbonate with carbon in the electric furnace.
With high current-density, heating the solution tended to increase the proportion of chlorate to hypochlorite, but as the proportion of water decomposed is then higher, the amount of chlorine produced must be less and the total chlorine efficiency lower.
Thorpe and Laurie converted potassium auribromide into a mixture of metallic gold and potassium bromide by careful heating.
When a concentrated solution of auric chloride is treated with caustic potash, a brown precipitate of auric hydrate, Au(OH) 3, is obtained, which, on heating, loses water to form auryl hydrate, AuO(OH), and auric oxide, Au 2 0 3.
Gold forms three sulphides corresponding to the oxides; they readily decompose on heating.
The distillation is then effected by heating to dull redness.
The conversion of silver into the sulphide may be effected by heating with antimony sulphide, litharge and sulphur, pyrites, or with sulphur alone.
The first process consists essentially in heating the alloy with salt and brickdust; the latter absorbs the chloride formed, while the gold is recovered by washing.
The heating is continued for 4 to 12 hours according to the amount of silver present; the end of the reaction is known by the absence of any hissing.
This compound occurs in nature as bismuth ochre, and may be prepared artificially by oxidizing the metal at a red heat, or by heating the carbonate, nitrate or hydrate.
Bismuth trichloride, BiC13, was obtained by Robert Boyle by heating the metal with corrosive sublimate.
Water decomposes it, giving a basic salt, Bi 2 (SO 4)(OH) i which on heating gives (BiO) 2 SO 4.
The bottle is carefully cleansed by washing with soda, hydrochloric acid and distilled water, and then dried by heating in an air bath or by blowing in warm air.
Berzelius, who prepared tantalic acid from the mineral tantalite in 1820, obtained an impure metal by heating potassium tantalofluoride with potassium.
Tantalum pentoxide, Ta205, is a white amorphous infusible powder, or it may be crystallized by strongly heating, or by fusing with boron trioxide or microcosmic salt.
Tantalum pentachloride, TaC1 5, is obtained as light yellow needles by heating a mixture of the pentoxide and carbon in a current of chlorine.
By heating with sodium amalgam and separating with hydrochloric acid, the dichloride, TaC1 2.2H 2 O, is obtained as emerald green hexagonal crystals.
In this coal, as well as in the lignite of Tasmania, known as white coal or Tasmanite, the sulphur occurs in organic combination, but is so firmly held that it can only be very partially expelled, even by exposure to a very high and continued heating out of contact with the air.
Hackspill (Comptes Rendus, 5905, 141, p. 101) finds that metallic caesium can be obtained more readily by heating the chloride with metallic calcium.
It is a silvery white metal which burns on heating in air.
Caesium nitrate, CsNO 3, is obtained by dissolving the carbonate in nitric acid, and crystallizes in glittering prisms, which melt readily, and on heating evolve oxygen and leave a residue of caesium nitrite.
The heating at the surfaces, the variations in their smoothness, and the variations of the lubrication make continuously variable, and necessitate frequent adjustment of W or of the nuts.
A body made up of molecules of this kind will expand on heating.
Dorp (Ber.,1874,7,P.578) obtained orthobenzoyl benzoic acid by heating phthalic anhydride with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride.
From 1861-91 methylated spirits prepared in this way were allowed to be sold by retail in Great Britain in small quantities for domestic purposes such as cleaning, heating and lighting; but use in large quantities, or in manufacture, was only possible under special authority and under excise supervision.
The amount of methyl alcohol present in wood spirit is determined by converting it into methyl iodide by acting with phosphorus iodide; and the acetone by converting it into iodoform by boiling with an alkaline solution of iodine in potassium iodide; ethyl alcohol is detected by giving acetylene on heating with concentrated sulphuric acid, methyl alcohol, !under the same circumstances, giving methyl ether.
It is also prepared by heating trimethylamine hydrochloride.
Porous carbon blocks, made by strongly heating a mixture of powdered charcoal with oil, resin, &c., were introduced about a generation later, and subsequently various preparations of iron (spongy iron, magnetic oxide) found favour.
C. Gooch, which has come into common use in quantitative analysis where the solid matter has to be submitted to heating or ignition, consists of a crucible having a perforated bottom.
Aposafranone, C,8H12N20, is formed by heating aposafranine with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Perkin by heating crude aniline with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
The sesquioxide, Os203, results on heating osmium with an excess of the tetroxide.
The metal was obtained by Berzelius as an iron-grey powder by heating potassium zirconofluoride with metallic potassium.
It is more conveniently prepared by heating the oxide with carbon in the electric furnace.
The anhydrous oxide is with difficulty soluble even in hydrofluoric acid; but a mixture of two parts of concentrated sulphuric acid and one of water dissolves it on continued heating as the sulphate, Zr(S04)2.
Zirconium fluoride, ZrF4, is obtained as glittering monoclinic tables (with 3H 2 0) by heating zirconia with acid ammonium fluoride.
The sulphate, Zr(S04)2, is a white mass obtained by dissolving the oxide or hydroxide in sulphuric acid, evaporating and heating the mass to nearly a red heat.
Meteorological phenomena seated more directly in the atmosphere obtained early recognition; thus Hesiod, in his Works and Days, speculated on the origin of winds, ascribing them to the heating effects of the sun on the air.
On long heating the syrup is partially converted into pyrophosphoric and metaphosphoric acids, but on adding water and boiling the ortho-acid is re-formed.
If the heating be with charcoal, the trimetallic salts of the alkalis and alkaline earths are unaltered, whilst the monoand di-salts give free phosphorus and a trimetallic salt.
The most important is the normal salt, Na 4 P 2 0 7, which is readily obtained by heating disodium orthophosphate, Na 2 HPO 4.
The acid is formed by dissolving phosphorus pentoxide in cold water, or by strongly heating orthophosphoric acid.
They may be obtained by heating a monometallic orthophosphate of a fixed base, or a dimetallic orthophosphate of one fixed and one volatile base, e.g.
On heating with an oxide or carbonate they yield a trimetallic orthophosphate, carbon dioxide being evolved in the latter case.
A third oil was obtained by heating the liver-residues to above the boiling-point of water, whereupon a black product, technically called "brown oil," separated.
The modern practice consists in heating the perfectly fresh, cleaned livers by steam to a temperature above that of boiling water, or, in more recent practice, to a lower temperature, the livers being kept as far as possible from contact with air.
Natural gas derived from the Kansas fields became available for lighting and heating, and crude oil for fuel, in 1906.
This lasts into February, when the northerly current begins to lose strength, and the gradual heating of the land produces local sea breezes from the gulf along the coast-line.
Henri Moissan obtained the metal of 99% purity by electrolysing calcium iodide at a low red heat, using a nickel cathode and a graphite anode; he also showed that a more convenient process consisted in heating the iodide with an excess of sodium, forming an amalgam of the product, and removing the sodium by means of absolute alcohol (which has but little action on calcium), and the mercury by distillation.
It is now manufactured by heating lime and carbon in the electric furnace (see Acetylene).
The anhydrous nitrate, obtained by heating the crystallized salt, is very phosphorescent, and constitutes "Baldwin's phosphorus."
Crystals may be obtained by heating di-calcium pyrophosphate, Ca2P207, with water under pressure.
Calcium monosulphide, CaS, a white amorphous powder, sparingly soluble in water, is formed by heating the sulphate with charcoal, or by heating lime in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen.
Calcium is generally estimated by precipitation as oxalate which, after drying, is heated and weighed as carbonate or oxide, according to the degree and duration of the heating.
Many of the ammonium salts are made from the ammoniacal liquor of gas-works, by heating it with milk of lime and then absorbing the gas so liberated in a suitable acid.
It crystallizes in colourless prisms, possessing a saline taste; it sublimes on heating and is easily soluble in water.
The commercial salt is known as salvolatile or salt of hartshorn and was formerly obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, decomposed urine, &c., but is now obtained by heating a mixture of sal-ammoniac, or ammonium sulphate and chalk, to redness in iron retorts, the vapours being condensed in leaden receivers.
The aqueous solution of this salt liberates carbon dioxide on exposure to air or on heating, and becomes alkaline in reaction.
On gentle heating, it is decomposed into water and nitrous oxide.
It forms colourless crystals which are soluble in water and decompose on heating, with the formation of nitrogen.
It crystallizes in large transparent prisms, which melt on heating and decompose, leaving a residue of metaphosphoric acid, (HP03).
A high vacuum is needed for the detection of the minute forces here concerned; but just in that case the indirect radiometereffect of the heating of the residual gas masks the effect.
The staff, excluding purely scientific departments, costs about £6000 per annum; gardening department, about £1500 per annum; maintenance of buildings, enclosures, paths and so forth, about £4000 per annum; provisions for animals, about £5000 per annum; litter, water, heating and general menagerie expenses about £3000 per annum.
In most temperate climates, artificial heating is necessary, at least occasionally, in many cases, but the tendency has been to be more sedulous of warmth than of ventilation.
The 2.3 derivatives are somewhat unstable compounds, since on heating they readily give up two hydrogen atoms. Tetrahydropyrazines of the 1.2.
Exposed to moist air it rapidly oxidizes to the hydroxide; and it burns on heating in air with a yellow flame, yielding the monoxide and dioxide.
They are strong oxidizing agents and yield alkaline solutions which readily evolve oxygen on heating.
The anhydrous salt may be prepared by heating a saturated solution of the hydrated salt.
It is further purified by heating in closed vessels, but even then it still contains a certain amount of mineral matter and more or less hydrocarbons.
It may be prepared by passing carbon dioxide over red-hot carbon, or red-hot iron; by heating carbonates (magnesite, chalk, &c.) with zinc dust or iron; or by heating many metallic oxides with carbon.
It may also be prepared by heating formic and oxalic acids (or their salts) with concentrated sulphuric acid (in the case of oxalic acid, an equal volume of carbon dioxide is produced); and by heating potassium ferrocyanide with a large excess of concentrated sulphuric acid, K 4 Fe(CN) 6 -i-6H2S04+6H20=2K2S04+FeS04+3(NH4)2S04+6C0.
The peroxide, K204, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard, is obtained by heating the metal in an excess of slightly moist air or oxygen.
Chemically pure chloride of potassium is most conveniently prepared from the pure perchlorate by heating it in a platinum basin at the lowest temperature and then fusing the residue in a wellcovered platinum crucible.
Potassium sulphide, K 2 S, was obtained by Berzelius in pale red crystals by passing hydrogen over potassium sulphate, and by Berthier as a flesh-coloured mass by heating the sulphate with carbon.
The hydrosulphide, KHS, was obtained by Gay-Lussac on heating the metal in sulphuretted hydrogen, and by Berzelius on acting with sulphuretted hydrogen on potassium carbonate at a dull red heat.
It forms a yellowishwhite deliquescent mass, which melts on heating, and at a sufficiently high temperature it yields a dark red liquid.
Liver of sulphur or hepar sulphuris, a medicine known to the alchemists, is a mixture of various polysulphides with the sulphate and thiosulphate, in variable proportions, obtained by gently heating the carbonate with sulphur in covered vessels.
Potassamide, NH 2 K, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1871, is obtained as an olive green or brown mass by gently heating the metal in ammonia gas, or as a white, waxy, crystalline mass when the metal is heated in a silver boat.
Fine aluminium will not burn below the temperature of molten cast iron, and previous experimenters had resorted to heating their mixtures in a crucible.
It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction"; the latter being the method commonly employed.
Iodine may also be prepared by the decomposition of an iodide with chlorine, or by heating a mixture of an iodide and manganese dioxide with concentrated sulphuric acid.
It volatilizes slowly at ordinary temperatures, but rapidly on heating.
Iodine can be readily detected by the characteristic blue coloration that it immediately gives with starch paste; the colour is destroyed on heating, but returns on cooling provided the heating has not been too prolonged.
It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c. It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.
Strong heating decomposes the majority of the iodides.
The trichloride, IC1 31 results from the action of excess of chlorine on iodine, or from iodic acid and hydrochloric acid, or by heating iodine pentoxide with phosphorus pentachloride.
It crystallizes in long yellow needles and decomposes readily on heating into the monochloride and chlorine.
They are decomposed on heating, with liberation of oxygen, in some cases leaving a residue of iodide and in others a residue of oxide of the metal, with liberation of iodine as well as of oxygen.
It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its" fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide.
Hot wire voltmeters, like electrostatic voltmeters, are suitable for use with alternating currents of any frequency as well as with continuous currents, since their indications depend upon the heating power of the current, which is proportional to the square of the current and therefore to the square of the difference of potential between the terminals.
From these acyl derivatives the elements of water are removed, either by simple heating or by boiling their aqueous solution; this elimination is accompanied by the formation of the azoxime ring.
A steam heating plant pipes heat to many shops, offices and residences.
Moissan (Comptes rendus, 1893, 116, p. 349; 1894, 119, p. 185) reduces the sesquioxide with carbon, in an electric furnace; the product so obtained (which contains carbon) is then strongly heated with lime, whereby most of the carbon is removed as calcium carbide, and the remainder by heating the purified product in a crucible lined with the double oxide of calcium and chromium.
Chromium as prepared by the Goldschmidt process is in a passive condition as regards dilute sulphuric acid and dilute hydrochloric acid at ordinary temperatures; but by heating the metal with the acid it passes into the active condition, the same effect being produced by heating the inactive form with a solution.
The bromide and iodide are formed in a similar manner by heating the metal in gaseous hydrobromic or hydriodic acids.
Oxyhalogen derivatives of chromium are known, the oxychloride, CrO 2 C1 21 resulting on heating potassium bichromate and common salt with concentrated sulphuric acid.
Chromic sulphide, Cr2S3, results on heating chromium and sulphur or on strongly heating the trioxide in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen; it forms a dark green crystalline powder, and on ignition gives the sesquioxide.
Azoxy Compounds, R N O N R', are usually yellow or red crystalline solids which result from the reduction of nitro or nitroso compounds by heating them with alcoholic potash (preferably using methyl alcohol).
Gas, obtained by pipe lines from the Ohio-Pennsylvania and the Canadian (Welland) natural gas fields, is also used extensively for lighting and heating purposes.
Count Gramont 5 has been able to obtain spectro scopic evidence of the metalloids in a mineral by employing powerful condensers and heating the electrodes in an oxyhydro gen flame when these (as is often the case) are not sufficiently conducting.
The experiment proves only the transparency of the gases experimented upon, and this is confirmed by the fact that bodies like bromine and iodine give on heating an emission spectrum corresponding to the absorption spectrum seen at ordinary temperatures.
Paschen proved that the emission spectra of water vapour as observed in an oxyhydrogen flame, and of carbon dioxide as observed in a hydrocarbon flame may be obtained by heating aqueous vapour and carbon dioxide respectively to a few hundred degrees above the freezing point.
It may also be prepared by heating a mixture of carbon, oxide of iron and magnesite to bright redness; and by heating a mixture of magnesium ferrocyanide and sodium carbonate, the double cyanide formed being then decomposed by heating it with metallic zinc. Electrolytic methods have entirely superseded the older methods.
The hydrated salt loses water on heating, and partially decomposes into hydrochloric acid and magnesium oxychlorides.
Magnesium sulphide, MgS, may be obtained, mixed with some unaltered metal and some magnesia, as a hard brown mass by heating magnesia, in sulphur vapour.
The municipality has natural gas for heating, lighting and manufacturing.
One practical outcome of these researches is the method now always adopted of sterilizing by a succession of gentle warmings, sufficient to kill the developed micro-organisms, instead of by one fierce heating attempting to attack the more refractory undeveloped germs of the same.
One class, represented by gelatin, will redissolve on warming or diluting, while the other class, containing such substances as silica, albumen, and metallic, hydrosulphides, will solidify on heating or on the addition of electrolytes to form a solid "gel" which cannot be redissolved.
A still more potent absorption is afforded by calcium prepared in situ by heating a mixture of magnesium dust with thoroughly dehydrated quick-lime.
It was again described by Albert le Grand in the 13th century and by Raimon Lull, who prepared it by heating nitre and clay and called it "eau forte."
In 1808 Sir Humphry Davy, fresh from the electrolytic isolation of potassium and sodium, attempted to decompose alumina by heating it with potash in a platinum crucible and submitting the mixture to a current of electricity; in 1809, with a more powerful battery, he raised iron wire to a red heat in contact with alumina, and obtained distinct evidence of the production of an iron-aluminium alloy.
The first successful idea of using electricity depended on the enormous heating powers of the arc. The infusibility of alumina was no longer prohibitive, for the molten oxide is easily reduced by carbon.
Alumina is obtained as a white amorphous powder by heating aluminium hydroxide.
Crystallized alumina is also obtained by heating the fluoride with boron trioxide; by fusing aluminium phosphate with sodium sulphate; by heating alumina to a dull redness in hydrochloric acid gas under pressure; and by heating alumina with lead oxide to a bright red heat.
A purer product is obtained by heating aluminium turnings in a current of dry chlorine, when the chloride distils over.
On heating, the crystals lose water, swell up, and give the anhydrous sulphate, which, on further heating, gives alumina.
This type of house is also very suitable for greenhouse plants, but would not need so much heating apparatus.
The heating and ventilating arrangements are much the same as in the lean-to, only the top sashes which open are on the back slope, and therefore do not interfere so much with the vines on the front slope.
Heating is effected by means of hot-water pipes below the beds, and against the side ventilators.
It is better, however, to effect both top and bottom heating by hot-water pipes.
Heating by hot water may be said to depend, in part, on the influence of gravity on water being to some extent overcome by heating in a boiler.
Portable boilers are convenient for heating small.
Portions can be added or taken away according to the amount of heating surface required.
Clean and repair the forcing-houses, and overhaul the heating apparatus to see it is in good working condition.
Liebig, Ann., 1832, r, p. 199), by heating chloral with alkalis (Liebig), CC1 3 CHO + NaHO = CHC1 3 + NaHCO 2, or by heating trichloracetic acid with ammonia (J.
The -y-diketones are characterized by the readiness with which they yield furfurane, pyrrol and thiophene derivatives, the furfurane derivatives being formed by heating the ketones with a dehydrating agent, the thiophenes, by heating with phosphorus pentasulphide, and the pyrrols by the action of alcoholic ammonia or amines.
Chemie, 1868, p. 34), or by heating the sulphonate with sodium formate (V.
The next great improvement in blast-furnace practice came in 1811, when Aubertot in France used for heating steel the furnace gases rich in carbonic oxide which till then had been allowed to burn uselessly at the top of the blast furnace.
Neilson's invention in 1828 of heating the blast, which increased the production and lessened the fuel-consumption of the furnace wonderfully.
Very soon after this, in 1832, the work of heating the blast was done by means of the waste gases, at Wasseralfingen in Bavaria.
The hardening of steel consists in first transforming it into austenite by heating it up into region 4 of fig.
These two things are done simultaneously by heating and melting the ore in contact with coke, charcoal or anthracite, in the iron blast furnace, from which issue intermittently two molten streams, the iron now deoxidized and incidentally carburized by the fuel with which it has been in contact, and the mineral matter, now called " slag."
Thus the furnace may be said to have four zones, those of (1) deoxidation, (2) heating, (3) melting, and (4) collecting, though of course the heating is really going on in all four of them.
After the ascending column of gases has done its work of heating and deoxidizing the ore,.
This heating was formerly done by burning part of the gases, after their escape from the furnace top, in a large combustion chamber, around a series of cast iron pipes through which the blast passed on its way from the blowing engine to the tuyeres.
The lining of the converter is made of 90% of the mixture of lime and magnesia which results from calcining dolomite, (Ca,Mg)CO i, at a very high temperature, and 10% of coal tar freed from its water by heating.
To bring them to a temperature suitable for rolling, these ingots must be set in heating or soaking furnaces (§ 125), and this should be done as soon as possible after they are cast, both to lessen the loss of their initial heat, and to make way for the next succeeding lot of ingots, a matter of great importance, because the charges of steel follow each other at such very brief intervals.
Thus the necessary slowness of the heating up of the molten charge would compel us to make the removal of the carbon slow, even if this slowness were not already forced on us by the danger of having the charge froth so much as to run out of the furnace.
Thence they are sucked out by the chimney-draught through the left-hand ports, down through the uptakes and regenerators, here again meeting ands heating the loose mass of " regenerator " brickwork, and finally escape by the chimney-flue 0.
Thus in the Westphalian pig and scrap practice, scrap usually forms 75 or even 80% of the charge, and pig only from 20 to 25%, indeed only enough to supply the carbon inevitably burnt out in melting the charge and heating it up to a proper casting temperature; and here the charge lasts only about 6 hours.
Heating Furnaces are used in iron manufacture chiefly for bringing masses of steel or wrought iron to a temperature proper for rolling or forging.
Many of the furnaces used for this heating are in a general way like the puddling furnace shown in fig.
Morgan for heating billets.
Bringing such an ingot, then, to the rolling temperature is not really an operation of heating, because its average temperature is already above the rolling temperature, but one of equalizing the temperature, by allowing the internal excess of heat to " soak " through the mass.
During all the latter part of the heating, when the temperature of the ingot has approached that of the flame, only an ever smaller and smaller part of the heat of that flame can be absorbed by the ingots.
It forms an addition product with acrylic ester, which on heating loses nitrogen and leaves trimethylene dicarboxylic ester.
Hydrogen may also be obtained by the action of zinc on ammonium salts (the nitrate excepted) (Lorin, Comptes rendus, 1865, 60, p. 745) and by heating the alkali formates or oxalates with caustic potash or soda, Na2C204+2NaOH = H 2 +2Na 2 CO 3.
The monovalent iodine, for instance, is transformed by heating into an allotropic form, corresponding to the formula I, whereas ordinary iodine answers to I 2.
There are polymers which have hardly any inter-relations other than identity in composition; on the other hand, there are others which are related by the possibility of mutual transformation; examples of this kind are cyanic acid (Cnoh) and cyanuric acid (Cnoh) 3, the latter being a solid which readily transforms into the former on heating as an easily condensable vapour; the reverse transformation may also be realized; and the polymers methylene oxide (CH 2 O) and trioxymethylene (CH20)3.
It is a colourless oily liquid of strongly acid reaction; its aqueous solution decomposes on standing and on heating it forms diethyl sulphate and sulphuric acid.
Diamond is insoluble in acid and alkalis, but is oxidised on heating with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
The, chief uncertainty in applying this method appears to have arisen from variations of temperature at different parts of the surface, due to inequalities in the heating or cooling effect of the stream of water flowing over the surfaces.
The heating vessel could be maintained at a steady temperature by high-pressure steam.
The external heat-loss was eliminated by comparing observations taken at the same mean temperatures during heating and during cooling, assuming that the rate of loss of heat f(S) would be the same in the two cases.
By careful heating it may be made to yield the anhydrous salt.
In a fine state of division it takes fire on heating in air, but is permanent at ordinary temperatures in oxygen or air; it is readily attacked by hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, but scarcely acted on by nitric acid.
Beryllium chloride BeC1 2, like aluminium chloride, may be prepared by heating a mixture of the oxide and sugar charcoal in a current of dry chlorine.
The blue colour, which disappears on heating or dissolving the salt, has been variously ascribed to the presence of sodium subchloride, sodium, sulphur or of a certain compound of iron, or again to the existence of minute cavities with parallel walls.
They are made by heating to a high temperature an intimate mixture of a calcareous substance and an argillaceous substance.
Next in antiquity to hydraulic lime is Roman cement, prepared by heating an indurated marl occurring naturally in nodules.
There are other forms of shaft kiln, such as the Schneider, in which there is a burning zone, a heating and cooling zone as in the Dietzsch, but no horizontal stage, the whole shaft being in the same vertical plane.
On its way down the cylinders the clinker meets a current of cold air and is cooled, the air being correspondingly warmed and passing on to aid in the combustion of the fuel used in heating the kiln.
This regenerative heating is similar in principle and effect to that obtained by means of the shaft and ring kilns described above.
To produce plaster of Paris European practice consists in baking the mineral in ovens, and in America in heating it in kettles.
The principles which govern the preparation and setting of the other class of calcium sulphate cements, that is, cements of the Keene class, are not fully understood, but there is a fair amount of knowledge on the subject, both empirical and scientific. The essential difference between the setting of Keene's cement and that of plaster of Paris is that the former takes place much more slowly, occupying hours instead of minutes, and the considerable heating and expansion which characterize the setting of plaster of Paris are much less marked.
Hydrochloric acid gives thallous chloride and chlorine; sulphuric acid gives off oxygen; and on heating it first gives the trioxide and afterwards the monoxide.
By heating the metal or thallous chloride in chlorine, T1C1 T1C1 3 is obtained, which on further heating gives3TlCI.T1C13.
Those derived from monobasic acids, obtained by the action of acid chlorides or anhydrides on urea, decompose on heating and do not form salts.
Oxygen may be prepared by heating mercuric oxide; by strongly heating manganese dioxide and many other peroxides; by heating the oxides of precious metals; and by heating many oxy-acids and oxy-salts to high temperatures, for example, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitre, lead nitrate, zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, &c. Potassium chlorate is generally used and the reaction is accelerated and carried out at a lower temperature by previously mixing the salt with about one-third of its weight of manganese dioxide, which acts as a catalytic agent.
It may be synthetically prepared by the fusion of cymol sulphonic acid with caustic potash; by the action of nitrous acid on 1-methyl-2-amino-4-propyl benzene; by prolonged heating of 5 parts of camphor with r part of iodine; or by heating carvol with glacial phosphoric acid.
Wahl [German patent 70773 (1893)] prepare a 97% manganese from pyrolusite by heating it with 30% sulphuric acid, the product being then converted into manganous oxide by heating in a current of reducing gas at a dull red heat, cooled in a reducing atmosphere, and finally reduced by heating with granulated aluminium in a magnesia crucible with lime and fluorspar as a flux.
It decomposes violently on heating, and explodes in contact with hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, &c. It dissolves in water to form a deep red solution which contains permanganic acid, HMnO 4.
Manganous Sulphate, MnSO 4, is prepared by strongly heating a paste of pyrolusite and concentrated sulphuric acid until acid fumes cease to be evolved.
Manganous Sulphide, MnS, found native as manganese glance, may be obtained by heating the monoxide or carbonate in a porcelain tube in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour.
Manganese Carbide, Mn 3 C, is prepared by heating manganous oxide with sugar charcoal in an electric furnace, or by fusing manganese chloride and calcium carbide.
The sesquioxide, Ce 2 O 3, is obtained by heating the carbonate in a current of hydrogen.
It is a white or pale yellow compound, which becomes reddish on heating.
It is not reduced to the metallic condition on heating