This was no doubt a place of religious sacrifice in heathen times.
754 at the hands of some heathen Frisians.
He belongs to the heathen Gnosis, and is in his essence the same as the Babylonian Marduk.
4), the latter taxes the Catholics with having turned the sacrifices of the heathen into agapes, their idols into martyrs, whom they worship with similar rites.
By the end of it, any traces of heathen faith, and even of Scandinavian speech, must have been mere survivals.
the heathen set up a temple on Mt Gerizim and became the Samaritan schism (§ 21 above).
Under what latitudes reside the heathen to whom we would send light?
against the heathen Hungarians and the Saracens, 3 and incidentally providing a detailed picture of the everyday life of people of high condition.
My days were not days of the week, bearing the stamp of any heathen deity, nor were they minced into hours and fretted by the ticking of a clock; for I lived like the Puri Indians, of whom it is said that "for yesterday, today, and tomorrow they have only one word, and they express the variety of meaning by pointing backward for yesterday forward for tomorrow, and overhead for the passing day."
Katie bit into the bread, determined not to eat like a heathen that would shame her sister.
Jerusalem had suffered some serious catastrophe before Nehemiah's return; a body of exiles returned, and in spite of interference the work of rebuilding was completed; through their influence the Judaean community underwent reorganization, and separated itself from its so-called heathen neighbours.
Reason is in his idea not the individual reason, but the fountain of natural truth, whose chief channels are the various systems of heathen philosophy, and more especially the thoughts of Plato and the methods of Aristotle.
The superiority of the Christian faith both philosophically and ethically is set forth, the chief stress being laid on monachism, with which heathen philosophy has nothing to compare.
From his pillar he preached and exercised a great influence, converting numbers of heathen and taking part in ecclesiastical politics.
What avails it that you are Christian, if you are not purer than the heathen, if you deny yourself no more, if you are not more religious?
In foreign missions the distinctive feature about the Moravians is, not that they were so early in the field (1732), but that they were the first Protestants to declare that the evangelization of the heathen was the duty of the Church as such.
In Constantinople he seems to have early won the notice of Justinian, one of the main objects of whose policy was the consolidation of Eastern Christianity as a bulwark against the heathen power of Persia.
Their funerals were as much under the protection of the law, which not only invested the tomb itself with a sacred character, but included in its protection the area in which it stood, and the cella memoriae or chapel connected with it, as those of their heathen fellow-citizens, while the same shield would be thrown over the burial-clubs, which, as we learn from Tertullian 2 Cicero is our authority for the burial of Marius, and for Sulla's being the first member of the Gens Cornelia whose dead body was burnt (De Legg.
On the representations of Orpheus in heathen and Christian art (in which he is finally transformed into the Good Shepherd with his sheep), see A.
The book contains expressions such as daemones, angelica virtus, and purgatoria dementia, which have been thought to be derived from the Christian faith; but they are used in a heathen sense, and are explained sufficiently by the circumstance that Boetius was on intimate terms with Christians.
In Galilee the Jews predominated over the heathen and their ruler Herod Antipas had some sort of claim upon their allegiance.
The service opened with a procession of Old Testament characters, prophets, patriarchs and kings, together with heathen prophets, including Virgil, the chief figure being Balaam on his ass.
The funeral-banquet descended to the Christian church from pagan times, and was too often profaned by heathen licence.
There would, therefore, be nothing extraordinary in the fact that a community, always identified in the popular heathen mind with the Jewish faith, should adopt the mode of interment belonging to that religion.
630, it was destroyed by the Frisians, who remained obstinately heathen.
After their dispersion the Jews were constrained to have recourse to the astronomical rules and cycles of the more enlightened heathen, in order that their religious festivals might be observed on the same days in all the countries through which they were scattered.
Rather than despise the faulty presentation of truth which we find in heathen religions and their more or less degraded rites, we follow the apostle Paul in his endeavour to trace in them attempts " to feel after God " (Acts vii.
Particularly under the grand master Winrich of Kniprode (1351-1382) it was the school of northern chivalry, engaged in unceasing struggle to defend and extend Christianity against the heathen Lithuanian.
Like the Arabic Nasara, it is originally identical with the name of the half heathen half Jewish-Christian Ncq-copaioc, and indicates an early connexion with that sect.
religion compounded of Christian, heathen and Jewish elements on a type which is essentially that of ancient Gnosticism.
It was only as a supporter of the orthodox church and persecutor of the heathen that Honorius displayed any energy.
In 754 he resigned his archbishopric in favour of Lull, and took up again his earliest plan of a mission to Frisia; but on the 5th of June 754 he and his companions were massacred by the heathen near Dockum.
9), violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes, appear among the offences denounced by the Israelite prophets, and show that the cult of Baal (and Astarte) included the characteristic features of heathen worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic world, although attached to other names.5 By an easy transition the local gods of the streams and springs which fertilized the increase of the fields became identified with 2 Compounds with geographical terms (towns, mountains), e.g.
pp. The extent to which elements of heathen cult entered into purer types of religion is illustrated in the worship of Yahweh.
The history of Baalism among the Hebrews is obscured by the difficulty of determining whether the false worship which the prophets stigmatize is the heathen worship of Yahweh under a conception, and often with rites, which treated him as a local nature god; or whether Baalism was consciously recognized to be distinct from Yahwism from the first.
To the latter belong views of the Antichrist, of the heathen worldpower, of the place, extent, and duration of the earthly kingdom of Christ, &c. These remained in a state of solution; they were modified from day to day, partly because of the changing circumstances of the present by which forecasts of the future were regulated, partly because the indications - real or supposed - of the ancient prophets always admitted of new combinations and constructions.
His fears and prejudices melted away as he discerned that this was the very method needed for reaching the multitudes living in almost heathen darkness.
c. 39), were common among the early Christians, as over those existing among the heathen population of Rome.
150 of heathen parents in Athens.
Either of these will supply the names of works upon Clement's biblical text, his use of Stoic writers, his quotations from heathen writers, and his relation to heathen philosophy.
He prohibited heathen worship at Rome; refused to wear the insignia of the pontifex maximus as unbefitting a Christian;.
trans., New York, 1873) and works on heathen religion (Die Geschichte des Heidentums, 1851-1853) and superstition (Der deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart, 1865, 2nd ed.
It is based on Procopius, whose very words are to some extent copied, and indeed it adds nothing to what the latter tells us, except the statement that Tribonian was the son of Macedonianus, was lore) Suc. r yopwv uirap X wv, and was a heathen and atheist, wholly averse to the Christian faith.
32), and it is their heathen enemies, assembled before Jerusalem to war against Yahweh, who shall be mowed down in the valley of Jehoshaphat ("Yahweh judgeth") by no human arm, but by heavenly warriors.
No heathen may tread the outer court.
It appears that at the end of his life Dominic had the idea of going himself to preach to the heathen Kuman Tatars on the Dnieper and the Volga.
We have, however, sufficient Theories of evidence that they were used as places of refuge from the use of the fury of the heathen, in which the believers - the cata- especially the bishops and clergy, who would naturally combs.
The Jew and the heathen had the gospel preached to them in the world below by Christ and his apostles, and Christians will have to pass through processes of purification and trial after death before they reach knowledge and perfect bliss.
Vossius was amongst the first to treat theological dogmas and the heathen religions from the historical point of view.
These names were known not only to Jewish but also to heathen writers, such as Pliny and Apuleius.
45, 50 that Joseph married the daughter of a heathen priest naturally gave offence to later Judaism, and gave rise to the fiction that Asenath was really the daughter of Shechem and Dinah, and only the foster-daughter of Potipherah (Targ.-Jon.
The works may really have been written by one Boetius, a bishop of Africa, as Jourdain supposes, or by some Saint Severinus, as Nitzsch conjectures, and the similarity of name may have aided the transference of them to the heathen or neutral Boetius.
In 1210 Valdemar led a second expedition eastwards, this time directed against heathen Prussia and Samland, the chief result of which was the subjection of Mestwin, duke of Pomerania, the leading chieftain in those parts.
Again, although some may have desired a self-contained community opposed to the heathen neighbours of Jerusalem, the story of Jonah implicitly contends against the attempt of Judaism to close its doors.
HEATHEN, a term originally applied to all persons or races who did not hold the Jewish or Christian belief, thus including Mahommedans.
Judas avenged them by burning the harbour and the shipping, and set to work to bring into Judaea all such communities of Jews who had kept themselves separate from their heathen neighbours.
In the hundred and seventieth year (142 B.C.) the yoke of the heathen was taken away from Israel and the people began to date their legal documents "in the first year of Simon the great high priest and commander and leader of the Jews."
In this form the seventh day's rest was one of the few outward ordinances by which the Israelite could still show his fidelity to Yahweh and mark his separation from the heathen.
About 722 he visited Hesse and Thuringia, won over some chieftains, and converted and baptized great numbers of the heathen.
The office of acolyte may have been suggested by the attendant assigned to heathen priests.
The Ars magna of the former professed by means of a species of logical machine to give a rigid demonstration of all the fundamental Christian doctrines, and was intended by its author as an unfailing instrument for the conversion of the Saracens and heathen.
Yet God has not gone forth with them: the heathen have been victorious, blood has flowed like water round Jerusalem, the Temple has been defiled, and these disasters assume the character of a religious persecution.
In this connexion verse 10 is particularly appropriate as addressed to an Egyptian princess whose forefathers, though their rule had not on the whole been tyrannical, had been regarded by the Jews as heathen oppressors.
Israel, indeed, is still scattered and not triumphant over the heathen, but even in the dispersion the Jews are under a mild rule (cvi.
4 may fairly be taken as evidence that those heathen among whom the Jews dwelt " in a strange land " had heard and admired the " songs of Zion."
7-10, is most easily understood of the time when the Lord who had shown Himself strong and mighty by His victories over the heathen returned in triumph to His Temple in 164 B.C. - in the days of Zerubbabel or of Nehemiah Jehovah had not recently shown Himself " mighty in battle."
i (a passage which, as has been already noted, is probably Maccabaean) denote the region which had felt the brunt of the persecution of the heathen, while in Ps.
9, io) of the heathen Cyrus as the instrument of Yahweh's purposes, as in fact his Messiah or Anointed One (xlv.
deus, applied to all those superhuman beings of the heathen mythologies who exercise power over nature and man and are often identified with some particular sphere of activity; and also to the visible material objects, whether an image of the supernatural being or a tree, pillar, &c. used as a symbol, an idol.
author of the epistle to the Hebrews; its use was foreign to the synagogue services on which, and not on those of the temple, the worship of the primitive Christians is well known to have been originally modelled; and its associations with heathen solemnities, and with the evil repute of those who were known as "thurificati," would still further militate against its employment.
What became of the cathedral which we may suppose to have existed in London during the later Roman period we cannot tell, but we may guess that it was destroyed by the heathen Saxons.
Thus, whereas prophecy had to deal with temporary reverses at the hands of some heathen power, apocalyptic arose at a time when Israel had been subject for generations to the sway of one or other of the great worldpowers.
Its contents relate to the destruction of the world through war and natural catastrophes - for the heathen a source of menace and fear, but for the persecuted people of God one of admonition and comfort.
Much influence is ascribed to this heathen element by Lujo Brentano, Karl Hegel, W.
Imbued with the idea of the brotherhood of man, the church naturally fostered the early growth of gilds and tried to make them displace the old heathen banquets.
Although so many of their subjects were Christian, the aakhmids remained heathen until Nu'man, the last of the dynasty.
The capture of Mecca (630) was not only an evidence of his growing power, which induced Arabs throughout the peninsula to join him, but gave him a valuable centre of pilgrimage, in which he was able by a politic adoption of some of the heathen Arabian ceremonies into his own rites to win men over the more easily to his own cause.
The catastrophe of " the land of the north " is near to come; then the exiles of Zion shall stream back from all quarters, the converted heathen shall join them, Yahweh Himself will dwell in the midst of them, and even now He stirs Himself from His holy habitation.
(1) Yahweh's word is accomplished on Syria-Phoenicia and Philistia; and then the Messianic kingdom begins in Zion, and the Israelites detained among the heathen, Judah and Ephraim combined, receive a part in it.
The heathen gather against Jerusalem and take the city, but do not utterly destroy the inhabitants.
The Yahweh, at a time known only to Himself, shall appear with all His saints on Mount Olivet and destroy the heathen in battle, while the men of Jerusalem take refuge in their terror in the great cleft, that opens where Yahweh sets His foot.
Now the new era begins, and even the heathen do homage to Yahweh by bringing due tribute to the annual feast of tabernacles.
the Greeks, appear as the representatives of the heathen world-power.
The Heruli remained heathen until the overthrow of their kingdom, and retained many striking primitive customs. When threatened with death by disease or old age, they were required to call in an executioner, who stabbed them on the pyre.
Modern scholars have sometimes found in the name the expression of the aseity 14 of God; sometimes of his reality, in contrast to the imaginary gods of the heathen.
The wheel being her symbol she was the patron saint of wheelwrights and mechanics; as the confounder of heathen sophistry she was invoked by theologians, apologists, preachers and philosophers, and was chosen as the patron saint of the university of Paris; as the most holy and illustrious of Christian virgins she became the tutelary saint of nuns and virgins generally.
He was born of heathen parents in Africa about 260, and became a pupil of Arnobius, whom he far excelled in style though his knowledge of the Scriptures was equally slight.
The first of these may belong to Lactantius's heathen days, the second is a product of the Renaissance (c. 1500), the third was written by Venantius Fortunatus in the 6th century.
Charlemagne is chiefly venerated as the champion of Christianity against the heathen and the Saracens.
Igor was the leader of a raid against the heathen Polovtsi in 1185; at first successful, he was afterwards defeated and taken prisoner, but finally managed to escape.
The Florence streets rang with Lorenzo's ribald songs (the "canti carnascialeschi"); the smooth, cultured citizens were dead to all sense of religion or morality; and the spirit of the fashionable heathen philosophy had even infected the brotherhood of St Mark.
6, and that verses 7-20 1 represent Zion as already fallen before the heathen and her inhabitants as pining in the darkness of captivity.
Then Yahweh shall arise mindful of His oath to the fathers, Israel shall be forgiven and restored, and the heathen humbled.
On July 11 1918 he accepted under the title of" Mindove II., King of Lithuania,"thus strangely choosing the style of a heathen prince of the 13th century who fiercely resisted the Teutonic order.
9), the people bound by marriage to heathen women, while the tears of the daughters of Israel, thrust aside to make way for strangers, cover the altar (ii.
Io), not merely as a ground of separation from the heathen, but as inconsistent with the selfish and cruel freedom of divorce current in his time.
Gladstone; In Darkest England and the Way Out (1890); Bramwell Booth, Social Reparation; Servants of All (1899); Booth-Tucker, The Life of Catherine Booth (1892); Railton, Heathen England; Twenty-one Years' Salvation Army; Arnold White, Truth about the Salvation Army (1892, 1900 and 1906); The Great Idea (1909; 2nd ed., 1910); T.
e denotes heathen gods.
Konitz was the first fortified post established in Prussia by Hermann Balk, who in 1230 had been commissioned as Landmeister, by the grand-master of the Teutonic order, to reduce the heathen Prussians.
4447), and a fresh separation from the heathen (Moabites and Ammonites, xiii.
(written in the third person) the number of those that had intermarried with the heathen is relatively small considering the general trend of the preliminaries, and the list bears a marked resemblance to that in ch.
is complicated by the reference to the separation from the heathen in Neh.
Thus the world powers of heathen statesmanship and heathen religion are leagued in a confederacy against the rising Christian Church.
The earliest zeal has passed away and heathen ways of thought and life are tolerated and practised at Pergamum and Ephesus, and faith is dying or dead at Laodicea and Sardis.
The offender is only treated as a heathen and publican when the purity and safety of the church demand it.
He was born of heathen parents at Tabatha near Gaza about 290; he was sent to Alexandria for his education and there became a convert to Christianity; about 306 he visited St Anthony and became his disciple, embracing the eremitical life.
It is not even safe, according to these two fathers, to commit too much to writing; and Clement undertakes not to reveal in writing many secrets known to the initiated among his readers; otherwise the indiscreet eye of the heathen may rest on them, and he will have cast his pearls before swine.
The earliest authentic record of the town is that of the building of a chapel - afterwards destroyed by the heathen Frisians - by Dagobert I., king of the Franks, in 636; but the importance of the place began when St Willibrord (q.v.), the apostle of the Frisians, established his see there.
The bishop's seat had to be fortified against the incursions of the heathen Frisians and Northmen, and the security thus afforded attracted population till, after the destruction of its rival Dorestad by the Normans in the 9th century, Utrecht became the chief commercial centre of the northern Netherlands.
Outwardly they are Mussulmans of the Shiah branch, but most of them show little veneration for either Prophet or Koran, and the religion of some of them seems to be a mixture of Ali-Illahism involving a belief in successive incarnations combined with mysterious, ancient, heathen rites.
Like all the Reformers, he was strictly Augustinian in theology, but he dwelt chiefly on the positive side of predestination - the election to salvation - and he insisted upon the salvation of infants and of the pious heathen.
Of these it is enough to name John Cotton, able both as a divine and as a statesman, potent in England by his expositions and apologies of the " New England way," potent in America for his organizing and administrative power; Thomas Hooker, famed as an exponent and apologist of the " New England way "; John Eliot, famous as the " apostle of the Indians," first of Protestant missionaries to the heathen; Richard Mather, whose influence and work were carried on by his distinguished son, and his still more distinguished grandson, Cotton Mather.
In Daniel the princes or guardian angels of the heathen nations oppose Michael the guardian angel of Judah.
The guardian angels of the nations in Daniel probably represent the gods of the heathen, and we have there the first step of the process by which these gods became evil angels, an idea expanded by Milton in Paradise Lost.
The abbey of Corvey, where rested the bones of St Vitus, the patron saint of Saxony, soon became a centre of learning for the country, and the Saxons undertook with the eagerness of converts the conversion of their heathen neighbours.
This rising, which lwas probably caused by the exaction of tithes and the oppression of Frankish officials, aimed also at restoring the heathen religion, and was put down in 842 by king Louis the German, who claimed authority over this part of the Carolingian empire.
2), subsequent history shows that the high-places, like the altars to heathen deities in Jerusalem itself, long remained undisturbed; it was the Deuteronomic reformation, ascribed to Josiah, which marked the great advance in the religion of Yahweh, and under its influence the history of the monarchy has been compiled.
In the Book of Wisdom, again, the composition of an Egyptian Hellenist, who from internal evidence is judged to have lived somewhat earlier than Philo, Solomon is introduced uttering words of admonition, imbued with the spirit of Greek philosophers, to heathen sovereigns.
About the year 565 he applied himself to the task of converting the heathen kingdom of the northern Picts.
Augustine's City of God, published in 426, was an apologetic, not an historical work, but it had great influence in our field, for in it he undertook to answer the common heathen accusation that the growing misfortunes of the empire were due to the prevalence of Christianity and the forsaking of the gods of Rome.
Under his successors, except during the brief reign of Julian (361-363), when the effort was made to reinstate paganism in its former place of supremacy, the Church received growing support, until, under Theodosius the Great (379-395), orthodox Christianity, which stood upon the platform adopted at Nicaea in 325, was finally established as the sole official religion of the state, and heathen worship was put under the ban.
The documents comprise imperial edicts, rescripts, &c., liturgies, acts of councils, decretals and letters of bishops, references in contemporary heathen writings, and above all the works of the Church Fathers.
The fundamental type of the Arabic sanctuary can be traced through all the Semitic lands, and so appears to be older than the Semitic dispersion; even the technical terms are mainly the same, so that we may justly assume that the more developed ritual and priesthoods of the settled Semites sprang from a state of things not very remote from what we find among the heathen Arabs.
The idea of priestly asceticism expressed in the celibacy of the clergy belongs also to certain types of heathen and especially Semitic priesthood, to those above all in which the priestly service is held to have a magical or theurgic quality.
The present Gothic building of St Martin (in Wyk) was erected in 1859; the original church is said by tradition to have occupied the site of an old heathen temple.
He lived in close alliance with the Church, to which he was very generous, and entered eagerly into schemes for the conversion of his heathen neighbours.
Tertullian (c. 200) had long before condemned this as a heathen custom; none the less, it was insisted on in later ages, and is a survival of the pagan lustrations or -repcppavTiipca.
6) tells how a priest sprinkled Julian and Valentinian with water according to the heathen custom as they entered his temple.
Boleslaus III., moreover, with the aid of St Otto, bishop of Bamberg, succeeded in converting the heathen Pomeranians (1124-1128), and making head against paganism generally.
Education was shamefully neglected, the masses being left in almost heathen ignorance - and this, too, at a time when the upper classes were greedily appropriating the ripe fruits of the Renaissance and when, to use the words of a contemporary, there were "more Latinists in Poland than there used to be in Latium."
Two great objects eclipsed all others, - to find a route to the Indies, and to bring the heathen tribes into the embraces of the Church, since, while he cared little for their bodies, his solicitude for their souls knew no bounds" (Parkman).
" hall of the slain"), the name given by the heathen Scandinavians to the abode in which the god Odin received the souls of those who had fallen in battle.
iv.), His choice of Israel, and the love and faithfulness which He had shown towards it, by redeeming it from slavery in Egypt, and planting it in a free and fertile land; from which are deduced the great practical duties of loyal and loving devotion to Him, an uncompromising repudiation of all false gods, the rejection of all heathen practices, a cheerful and ready obedience to His will, and a warm-hearted and generous attitude towards man.
upon St Stephen (975-1038), the first Christian king of Hungary, in return for his zeal in seeking the conversion of the heathen.
The popular faith was full of heathenish superstition strangely blended with the higher ideas which were the inheritance left to Israel by men like Moses and Elijah; but the common prophets accepted all alike, and combined heathen arts of divination and practices of mere physical enthusiasm with a not altogether insincere pretension that through their professional oracles the ideal was being maintained of a continuous divine guidance of the people of Yahweh.
Zion is now not the centre of a mere national cult, but the centre of all true religion for the whole world; and more than once the prophet indicates not obscurely that the necessary issue of the great conflict between Yahweh and the gods of the heathen must be the conversion of all nations, the disappearance of every other religion before the faith of the God of Israel.
It is true that the prophets absorbed the old seers, and that the Israelites, as we see in the case of the asses of Kish, went to their seers on the same kind of occasions as sent heathen nations to seers or diviners.
11), "God hath set some in the Church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers," he points to a state of things which in his time prevailed in all the churches both of Jewish and heathen origin.
Untaught by experience, he resumed his course of selfish tyranny over Christians and heathen alike, and raised the irritation of the populace to such a pitch that when, on the accession of Julian, his downfall was proclaimed and he was committed to prison, they dragged him thence and killed him, finally casting his body into the sea (24th of December 361).
When the news reached Rome of the martyrdom of Adalbert, bishop of Prague (997), Bruno determined to take his place, and in 1004, after being consecrated by the pope as archbishop of the eastern heathen, he set out for Germany to seek aid of the emperor Henry II.
It has been justly remarked of the Pauline view, that- " The union with the Lord Himself, to which those who partake of the Lord's Supper have, is compared with the union which those who partake of a sacrifice have with the deity to whom the altar is devoted - in the case of the Israelites with God, of the heathen with demons.
This idea that to partake of sacrifice is to devote oneself to the deity, lies at the root of the ancient idea of worship, whether Jewish or heathen; and St Paul uses it as being readily understood.
Both in its inner nature then and outward effects the Eucharist was the Christian counterpart of these two other forms of communion of which one, the heathen, was excluded from the first, and the other, the Jewish, soon to disappear.
Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).
With the growing weakness and corruption of the Hasmonaean princes, and the alienation of a large part of the nation from their cause, the hope of a better kingship begins to appear in Judaea also; at first darkly shadowed forth in the Book of Enoch (chap. xc.), where the white steer, the future leader of God's herd after the deliverance from the heathen, stands in a certain contrast to the actual dynasty (the horned lambs); and then much more clearly, and for the first time with use of the name Messiah, in the Psalter of Solomon, the chief document of the protest of Pharisaism against its enemies the later Hasmonaeans.
The Pharisees themselves could not but see that their principles were politically impotent; the most scrupulous observance of the Sabbath, for example - and this was the culminating point of legality - could not thrust back the heathen.
The heathen nations shall serve under his yoke; he shall glorify the Lord before all the earth, and cleanse Jerusalem in holiness, as in the beginning.
So entirely did even his immediate circle ignore his religion that a court skald composed a poem on his death representing his welcome by the heathen gods into Valhalla.
The nature of the imports during the heathen period may be learned chiefly from the graves, which contain many brooches and other ornaments of continental origin, and also a certain number of silver, bronze and glass vessels.
- Of these the most interesting are the brooches which were worn by both sexes and of which large numbers have been found in heathen cemeteries.
- Both inhumation and cremation were practised in heathen times.
There can be little doubt that the heathen Angli worshipped certain gods, among them Ti (Tig), Woden, Thunor and a goddess Frigg, from whom the names Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday are derived.
The altar is spoken of by the early Greek and Latin ecclesiastical writers under a variety of names :- Tpa7rc a, the principal name in the Greek fathers and the liturgies; 8vvcavriipcov (rarer; used in the Septuagint for Hebrew altars); iXafriipcov; (3wï¿½6s (usually avoided, as it is a word with heathen associations); mensa Domini; ara (avoided like Owï¿½os, and for the same reason); and, most regularly, altare.
They are used on a journey in a heretical or heathen country, or in private chapels.
There is no doubt that the marriages of heathen times were often of a kind which could not be permitted after the adoption of Christianity.
Many districts in Norway, however, remained heathen until the reign of St Olaf (1014-1028), and in Sweden for half a century later.
In the literatures of other Teutonic countries we have only occasional references to the religious rites of heathen times, and these are generally in no way comparable to the detailed accounts given in Icelandic writings.
She did so, but complained that this heathen writer said nothing about ecclesiastical affairs and stopped with the accession of the emperor Valens in 364; consequently Paulus interwove extracts from the Scriptures, from the ecclesiastical historians and from other sources with Eutropius, and added six books, thus bringing the history down to 553.
While the majority of Protestant leaders left the conversion of the heathen to some remote and inscrutable interposition of Providence, the Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans and kindred orders were busily engaged in making Roman Catholics of the nations brought by Oriental commerce or American colonial enterprise into contact with Spain, Portugal and France.
After the rise of Mahommedanism many Arabs settled on the coast and mixed with the heathen Beja, whose rule of kinship and succession in the female line helped to give the children of mixed marriages a leading position (Makrizi, Khitat, i.
The fact that they copied the form in which the heathen revelations were conveyed (Greek hexameter verses) and the Homeric language is evidence of a degree of external Hellenization, which is an important fact in the history of post-exilic Judaism.
Even Virgil in his fourth Eclogue seems to have used Jewish rather than purely heathen oracles.
The extant fragments and conglomerations of the Sibylline oracles, heathen, Jewish and Christian, were collected, examined, translated and explained by C. Alexandre in a monumental edition full of exemplary learning and acumen.
is a definite attack upon the heathen Sibyl - the Jews and Christians did not attempt to pass off their "forgeries" as genuine - as the mouthpiece of Apollo by a Jew who speaks for the Great God and yet uses a Greek review (49114) of ancient history from the Assyrian empire.
missio, a sending) the term used specially for the propagandist operations of the Christian Church among the heathen, the executants of this work being missionaries.
- Thus they laid the foundations, aweing the heathen tribes by their indomitable spirit of selfsacrifice and the sternness of their rule of life.
But the zeal of the Portuguese took too often a one-sided direction, repressing the Syrian Christians on the Malabar coast, and interfering with the Abyssinian Church,3 while the fanatic temper of the Spaniard consigned, in Mexico and Peru, multitudes who would not renounce their heathen errors to indiscriminate massacre or abject slavery.'
As contrasted with the colossal display of power on the part of the Church of Rome, it must be allowed that the churches which in the 16th century broke off from their allegiance to the Latin centre at first showed no great anxiety for the extension of the gospel and the salvation of the heathen.
He contributed to the expense of printing and publishing at Oxford the four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in the Malay language, and at his death left 5400 for the propagation of the gospel in heathen lands.
Meanwhile, in 1664, Von Welz, an Austrian baron, issued a stirring appeal to the Church at large for a special association devoted to extending the evangelical religion and converting the heathen.
the Greeks for the Turks, and that as for the heathen it was no good casting pearls before swine.
Again in 1731 the Moravians (q.v.) illustrated in a signal degree the growing consciousness of obligation towards the heathen.
That revival had intensified the idea of the worth of the individual soul, whether Christian or heathen, and " to snatch even one brand from the burning " became a dominant impulse.
Under its influence twelve ministers at Kettering in October 1792 organized the Baptist Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen, and subscribed L 13, 2s.
By " colonial " is meant, not missions to the British colonial population, but missions from the colonial population to the heathen.
But these Christian settlers have their own missions to the heathen - both to the heathen at their doors and to the great heathen lands beyond.
t e J s.; c onverted heathen; but they are more numerous than to the ews.
It holds supreme control over all the foreign missions in heathen countries, and also over large and important parts of the church in Christian countries whose governments are not Catholic - including the British empire, the United States, Holland, the Norse kingdoms, Greece, and some parts of Germany and Switzerland.
to heathen or nonChristian countries, we shall find the whole of these parts of the globe carefully mapped and parcelled out by propaganda to a variety of missionary agencies or religious orders.
Of the religious societies engaged in the evangelization of these many fields of labour, some have been established exclusively for foreign missionary work among the heathen - notably the famous Societe des Missions Etrangeres of Paris, the oldest and greatest of all (dating from 1658, and consisting of 34 bishops, 1200 European missionaries and 700 native priests); the German " Society of the Divine Word," whose headquarters are at Steyl in Holland; the Belgian Society of Scheat; the celebrated French Society of the " White Fathers," founded by the late Cardinal Lavigerie for African missions; the English Society of St Joseph, founded at Mill Hill by Cardinal Vaughan; and some others.
The annual baptisms of adult heathen are 190,000; those of heathen children at the point of death, 450,000.
The outstanding problem of African missions at least north of the Equator (south there is the Ethiopian question) is not the degradation of the black races, nor the demoralizing influences of heathen Christians, nor even the slave dealer, though all these obstacles are present and powerful.
But there are numerous heathen tribes never yet reached.
If, however, we are to take statistical returns for what they are worth, it is estimated that the Christians in heathen lands gathered by Protestant missions probably amount to five millions, and a similar total may be ascribed to Roman Catholic missions, making ten millions in all.
The 8th century witnessed in deed a heathen reaction; but it was checked by the arrival in Bavaria about 734 of St Boniface, who organized the Bavarian church and founded or restored bishoprics at Salzburg, Freising, Regensburg and Passau.
The Chase is generally considered to have been the scene of the battle of Heathfield in 633, when King Edwin of Northumbria fell before the heathen King Penda of Mercia.
The singing of this is followed by bidding prayers for the peace and unity of the church, for the pope, the clergy, all ranks and conditions of men, the sovereign, for catechumens, the sick and afflicted, heretics and schismatics, Jews and heathen.
Our chief authorities for the career of Alaric are the historian Orosius and the poet Claudian, both strictly contemporary; Zosimus, a somewhat prejudiced heathen historian, who lived probably about half a century after the death of Alaric; and Jordanes, a Goth who wrote the history of his nation in the year 551, basing his work on the earlier history of Cassiodorus (now lost), which was written about 520.
Regular clerks are by their institute clerics and priests, and they are devoted to some particular work or works as their own special object - as education, the preaching of missions and retreats, or the going on missions to the heathen.
Olier, 1642), and a vast number of others, including several for the mission to the heathen (see Heimbucher op. cit.
Athanaric was a harsh and obstinate heathen, and his short reign was chiefly famous for his brutal persecution of his Christian fellowcountrymen.
during the first half of the 9th century B.C. He is introduced as predicting the drought 2 God was to send upon Israel as a punishment for the apostasy into which Ahab had been led by his heathen wife Jezebel.
Wesel, formerly known as Lippemiinde, was one of the points from which Charlemagne directed his operations against the heathen Saxons.
Germany, but the bulk of the people were heathen, in spite of the efforts of Frank and Irish missionaries and the command of King Dagobert I.
Anxious to regain these lands Henry allied himself with some Slavonic tribes, promising not to interfere with the exercise of their heathen religion, while Boleslaus found supporters among the discontented German nobles.
against the heathen Prussians flocked hither from all lands; towns, Konigsberg, Thorn, KuIm and others, were founded; and in alliance with the Brothers of the Sword, the order was soon pressing farther eastwards.
He chooses this order so as to work up to a climax of error and absurdity in heathen worship. The direct natureworship of the Chaldeans is shown to be false because its objects are works of the Creator, fashioned for the use of men.
These frauds were all contrived for the heathen public, as a means of propaganda, calculated to inspire them with respect for Jewish antiquity or turn them from idols to God.
A very remarkable case is that of the two verses in liii., when he had recognized three heathen goddesses as exalted beings, possessing influence with God.
It is actually used of the religion of the Jews and Christians (once), of the heathen (5 times), but mostly (8 times) of the religion of Abraham, which Mahomet in the Medina period places on the same level with Islam.
Many of these pieces remind us of the oracles of the old heathen soothsayers, whose style is known to us from imitations, although we have perhaps not a single genuine specimen.
For generations the obstinately heathen Saxons had lain, a compact and impenetrable mass, between Scandinavia and the Frank empire, nor were the measures adopted by Charles the Great for the conversion of the Saxons to the true faith very much to the liking of their warlike Danish neighbours on the other side.
The kingdom was harassed almost incessantly, and more than once partitioned,by pretenders to the throne, who did not scruple to invoke the interference of the neighbouring monarchs, and even of the heathen Wends, who established themselves for a time on the southern islands.
Niels Matthias Petersen (1791-1862), a disciple of Rask, was the author of an admirable History of Denmark in the Heathen 3 Edited (3 vols., 2nd ed., 1855, Copenhagen) by F.
Yet even in the middle ages kings of Christian countries were buried with their swords and spears, and queens with their spindles and ornaments; the bishop was laid in his grave with his crozier and comb; the priest with his chalice and vestments; and clay vessels filled with charcoal (answering to the urns of heathen times) are found in the churches of France and Denmark.
Montelius, The Civilization of Sweden in Heathen Times (London, 1888), and Der Orient and Europa (Stockholm, 1899); E.
Missionary work, carried on in the northern peninsula of Halmahera since 1866, has been fairly successful among the heathen natives, but less so among the Mahommedans, who have often incited the others against the missionaries and their converts.
And though for the present the north-eastern half of England, including London, remained in the hands of the Danes, in reality the tide had turned, and western Europe was saved from the danger of becoming a heathen Scandinavian power.
In the first centuries of the Christian era, apostasy was most commonly induced by persecution, and was indicated by some outward act, such as offering incense to a heathen deity or blaspheming the name of Christ.'
Mahomet himself made a concession to heathen traditions when he recognized the Ka`ba and the black stone; and the worship of saints, which is now spread throughout Islam and supported by obviously forged traditions, is an example of the same thing.
Bernard of Clairvaux, Innocent's champion, built up against Anacletus and his " half heathen king " a coalition joined by Louis VI.
That men travelled for purposes of prayer implies acceptance of the heathen theory of sanctuaries which it is an act of piety to visit.
Care for the tombs of martyrs was sanctioned by immemorial custom of the Church; but, in this case also, a later age failed to preserve the primitive conception in its purity; and Augustine himself was obliged to defend the usage of the Church from the imputation that it implied a transference of heathen ceremonial to the sphere of Christianity (Contr.
These Bantu are still heathen and nearly all are agriculturists.
So) still only refers simply to the heathen belief, the author of the (Jewish?) original of the 17th chapter of the Apocalypse of St John expects the return of Nero with the Parthians to take vengeance on Rome, because she had shed the blood of the Saints (destruction of Jerusalem!).
Near the town is the Plitenberg, formerly a heathen place of sacrifice.
At the school of Libanius the sophist he gave early indications of his mental powers, and would have been the successor of his heathen master, had he not been stolen away, to use the expression of his teacher, to a life of piety (like Augustine, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Theodoret) by the influence of his pious mother Anthusa.
He took part in no less than five crusades with the Teutonic order against the heathen Lithuanians and Prussians.
To another critic, who had taken occasion to point out the resemblance between Catholic and pagan ceremonies, Wiseman replied, boldly admitting the likeness, and maintaining that it could be shown equally well to exist between Christian and heathen doctrines.
He would learn something as he read on; for the letter makes a passing reference to the foundation of the society, and to the expansion of its influence in other parts of Greece; to the conversion of its members from heathenism, and to the consequent sufferings at the hands of their heathen neighbours.
He desired to remain unknown, and not to extend His mission to the heathen population, but the extraordinary faith and the modest importunity of a Syrophenician woman induced Him to heal her daughter.
According to the original commandment of God, marriage is between one man and one woman, and this original precept has been confirmed by our Lord; but sin brought it about that first Lamech, then the heathen, and then Abraham, took more than one wife, and this was permitted under the law.
On ethical conceptions of heathen deities, see I.
It is the adaptation of the prophets' conceptions of Yahweh to old religious ideas, the building up of new conceptions upon an old basis, a fusion " between old heathen notions and prophetic ideas," and " this fusion is characteristic of the entire priestly law."
p. 322 (" [the] marriage of heathen practice and monotheistic use is one of the oddest and saddest features of the whole priestly code "), cf.
The party who wished to make a covenant with the heathen (1 Macc. i.
Finally, in 141 B.C., the new era began: the yoke of the heathen was taken away from Israel and Simon was declared high-priest and general and ruler of the Jews for ever until there should arise a faithful prophet (1 Macc. xiii.
I); or (c) to punish them for their marriage with the heathen and their apostasy (D in ii.
While preaching in Pomerania (997) he was assassinated by a heathen priest.
31, to a spot in the valley of Ben Hinnom near Jerusalem where the Hebrews in the time of Ahab and Manasseh offered children to Molech and other heathen gods.
To this heathen chief the Imam of the Moslems sent a messenger, inducing him to attack the prince of Khwarizm, who already had provoked the Mongolian by a disrespectful treatment of his envoys.
The Rauberturm is a relic of the old castle of the margraves of Moravia; the round castle-chapel, known as the heathen temple (Heiden-Tempel), in the Romanesque style of the 12th century, was at one time considered the most ancient building in Moravia.
It was no longer the Jewish nation against the heathen empire, for the Jewish nation had ceased to be, and the empire and the Church were one.
The whole development which we have traced, culminating in the ecclesiastical-doctrinal, system of the Roman Church, is regarded as a corruption, since foreign and even heathen elements have been brought in, so that the religion established by Christ is obscured or lost.
It regards even the earliest creeds as only more or less satisfactory attempts to translate the Christian facts into the current language of the heathen world.
In the Stubbenitz and elsewhere Huns' or giants' graves are common; and near the Hertha Lake are the ruins of an ancient edifice which some have sought to identify with the shrine of the heathen deity Hertha or Nerthus, referred to by Tacitus.
And even after this event, whatever may have been the attitude of churchmen towards the old heathen poetry, the kings and warriors would be slow to lose their interest in the heroic tales that had delighted their ancestors.
Although the heathen Angles had their own runic alphabet, it is unlikely that any poetry was written down until a generation had grown up trained in the use of the Latin letters learned from Christian missionaries.
It may have been before loo; much later it can hardly have been, for the old heathen poetry, though its existence might be threatened by the influence of the church, was still in vigorous life.
The necessity of christianizing his heathen kingdom by force of arms engrossed all the energies of Stephen and compelled him to adopt a pacific policy towards the emperors of the East and West.
But 1 "It is, perhaps, by surveying India that we at this day can best represent to ourselves and appreciate the vast external reform worked upon the heathen world by Christianity, as it was organized and executed throughout Europe by the combined authority of the Holy Roman Empire and the Church Apostolic."
Since childhood he had been filled with zeal for foreign missions, and he conceived the determination to found a great English missionary college to fit young priests for the work of evangelizing the heathen.
It is full of martial spirit, yet makes no use of the phrases of the heathen epic, which Cynewulf and other Christian poets were accustomed to borrow freely, often with little appropriateness.
The older Mahommedan theologians were agreed that they possessed a written revelation and were entitled accordingly to enjoy a toleration not granted to mere heathen.
Full of missionary zeal, and desirous that settlements should be planted in the new region in order that the heathen might be converted, Fray Marcos did little to refute these exaggerations.
above sea-level, on whose summit, according to tradition, was once an altar to the heathen idol Krodo, still to be seen in the Ulrich chapel at Goslar.
2 During his boyhood Ephraim showed a repugnance towards heathen worship, and was eventually driven by his father from the home.
(8) `Abodah Zarah (" idolatrous worship "), regulations in reference to heathen idolatry (useful edition with Germ.
The Baptists were the first denomination of British Christians to undertake in a systematic way that work of missions to the heathen, which became so prominent a feature in the religious activity of the 19th century.
Judson appealed to his American brethren to support him in missionary work among the heathen, and Rice returned to America to organize missionary societies to awaken interest in Judson's mission.
All was Yahweh's work; a wonder to the heathen world, but accounted for by the crimes of prophets and priests (Jer.
(1150-1160) organized the Swedish Church on the model prevalent elsewhere, and undertook a crusade against the heathen Finlanders, which marks the beginning of Sweden's overseas dominion.
The first ten were written in 337, the following twelve in 344, and the last in 345.1 The author was early known as hakkima pharsaya ("the Persian sage"), was a subject of Sapor II., and was probably of heathen parentage and himself a convert from heathenism.
of the heathen, a movement which had already had an energetic representative in the prophet himself.
In Armenia, also, Ardashir and Shapur, during the period of their occupation, sought to introduce the orthodox religion, destroyed the heathen imageseven those of the Iranian gods which were here considered heathenand turned the shrines into fire-altars (Gelzer, Ber.
Newman a protest that they took "a liberty which no Christian can tolerate," and carried him to "conclusions which were often heathen rather than Christian."
Lactantius, writing early in the 4th century, is even more sarcastic in his references to the heathen practice.
Among the places where these have been found, special mention should be made of the large cremation cemetery at Borgstedterfeld, between Rendsburg and EckernfOrde, which has yielded many urns and brooches closely resembling those found in heathen graves in England.
The term " holiness " in this connexion consists positively in the fulfilment of ceremonial obligations and negatively in abstaining from the defilement caused by heathen customs and superstitions, but it also includes obedience to the moral requirements of the religion of Yahweh.
The issue of an important edict ordaining the erection of heathen altars in every township of Palestine, and the appointment of officers to deal with recusants, brought matters to a crisis.
Rudolph of Ems about 1220 expanded it into a long poem of 16,000 lines, celebrating the victory of Christian over heathen teaching.
people" of God, as of a unique revelation, and insisted on the possibility of salvation for the heathen.
Inigo Jones, in his work on Stonehenge, published in 1655, endeavours to prove that it was a "Roman temple, inscribed to Coelus, the senior of the heathen gods, and built after the Tuscan order."
In 1741 he issued the bull Immensa pastorum principis, demanding more humane treatment for the Indians of Brazil and Paraguay, and in the bulls Ex quo singulari (1742) and Omnium sollicitudinum (1744) he rebuked the missionary methods of the Jesuits in accommodating their message to the heathen usages of the Chinese and of the natives of Malabar.
He is regarded as the apostle of the Bavarians, not that the land was up to that time altogether heathen, but because of his services in the promotion and consolidation of its Christianity.
Many of their chiefs were in high favour; but it seems that the orthodox Theodosius showed more favour to the still remaining heathen party among the Goths than to the larger part of them who had embraced Arian Christianity.
The Arian appeared as an enemy alike to the pagan majority and the Catholic minority; but he came surrounded by monks, and his chief wrath was directed against the heathen temples (vide G.
Pallmann' writes Ratiger, and takes him for the chief of the heathen part of the East Goths).
24 (and note E eXB000-a in verse 22, which implies that Jesus had not himself entered the heathen borders), and for a similar rule prescribed to the disciples, x.
The former is thus a preparation for the latter, and the two together constitute a defence of Christianity against all the world, heathen as well as Jews.
Other edicts of an earlier or later date forbade the unorthodox to hold assemblies in the towns, enjoined the surrender of all churches to the catholic bishops, and overthrew the heathen temples "throughout the whole world."
At his death, about 1328, heathen vied with Christian in honouring him.
Its only result for the majority was a falling back on the earlier popular cultus of the Baals, and on the heathen customs introduced, or reintroduced, by Josiah's grandfather, Manasseh.
The author's object was clearly to demonstrate to his readers the necessity of faith in Israel's God, who shall not for ever allow his chosen ones to be ground under the heel of a ruthless heathen oppressor.
His Pantheisticon, sive formula celebrandae sodalitatis socraticae, of which he printed a few copies for private circulation only, gave great offence as a sort of liturgic service made up of passages from heathen authors, in imitation of the Church of England liturgy.
in 492 1 as a counter-attraction to the heathen Lupercalia; but for this there is no warrant.
of the town; and in the neighbourhood rises the Kastanienberg, with the ancient rude stone fortification of the Heidenmauer or Heathen's Wall.
Arians and Semi-Arians seemed to him to be pagans, who worship the creature, instead of the God who created all things, since they teach two gods, one having no beginning, the other having a beginning in Time and therefore of the same nature as the heathen gods, since, like them, he is a creature.
It was during his papacy that the siege of Rome by Alaric (408) took place, when, according to a doubtful anecdote of Zosimus, the ravages of plague and famine were so frightful, and help seemed so far off, that papal permission was granted to sacrifice and pray to the heathen deities; the pope was, however, absent from Rome on a mission to Honorius at Ravenna at the time of the sack in 410.
The system of intercalation in the lunar calendar of the heathen Arabs was designed to secure that the feast should always fall at the time when the hides, fruits and other merchandise were ready for market, 4 and the Meccans, who knew how to attract the Bedouins by hospitality, bought up these wares in exchange for imported goods, and so became the leaders of the international trade of Arabia.
Purged of elements obviously heathen, the Ka`ba became the holiest site, and the pilgrimage the most sacred ritual observance of Mahommedanism, drawing worshippers from so wide a circle that the confluence of the petty traders of the desert was no longer the main feature of the holy season.
They are either connected with genuine memories of the Prophet and his times, or have spurious legends to conceal the fact that they were originally holy stones, wells, or the like, of heathen sanctity.
The Ka`ba has been rebuilt more than once since Mahomet purged it of idols and adopted it as the chief sanctuary of Islam, but the old form has been preserved, except in secondary details;2 so that the "Ancient House," as it is titled, is still essentially a heathen temple, adapted to the worship of Islam by the clumsy fiction that it was built by Abraham and Ishmael by divine revelation as a temple of pure monotheism, and that it was only temporarily perverted to idol worship from the time when `Amr ibn Lohai introduced the statue of Hobal from Syria' till the victory of Islam.
This fiction has involved the superinduction of a new mythology over the old heathen ritual, which remains practically unchanged.
Esau and all the heathen shall drink full retribution for their banquet of carnage and plunder on Yahweh's holy mountain.
In the former verses Esau is destroyed by his allies, and they occupy his territory, but in the latter he perishes with the other heathen in the day of universal retribution, he disappears before the victorious advance of Israel, and the southern Judaeans occupy his land.'
14; but such passages represent this conquest as a suzerainty of Israel over its neighbours, as in the days of David, while in Obadiah, as in other later books, the intensified antithesis - religious as well as political - between Judah and the surrounding heathen finds its expression in the idea of a consuming judgment on the latter - the great "day of Yahweh."
Although Ammianus was no doubt a heathen, his attitude towards Christianity is that of a man of the world, free from prejudices in favour of any form of belief.
5, a Philistine custom) - a protest against heathen intercourse, for which cf.
6 seq.); the heathen gods prove helpless (ii.
ST PACHOMIUS (292-346), Egyptian monk, the founder of Christian cenobitical life, was born, probably in 292, at Esna in Upper Egypt, of heathen parents.
To the same class belong the treatise To Ablavius, against the tritheists; On Faith, against the Arians; On Common Notions, in explanation of the terms in current employment with regard to the Trinity; Ten Syllogisms, against the Manichaeans; To Theophilus, against the Apollinarians; an Antirrhetic against the same; Against Fate, a disputation with a heathen philosopher; De anima et resurrectione, a dialogue with his dying sister Macrina; and the Oratio catechetica magna, an argument for the incarnation as the best possible form of redemption, intended to convince educated pagans and Jews.
They use the Macassar language, are for the most part nominally Mahommedans (though many heathen customs survive), and support themselves by agriculture, fishing, seafaring, trade, the preparation of salt (on the south coast) and weaving.
Not merely did it produce the great band of missionaries who converted heathen GermanyWilliEli h brord, Suidbert, Boniface and the restbut it excelled church, the other national churches in learning and culture.
~thelfrith, the last heathen among the Northumbrian kings, cut off the Britons of the North from those of the West, by winning the battle of Chester (AD.
Penda, the last heathen king of Mercia, determined the size and strength of that state, by absorbing into it the territories of the other Anglian kingdoms of the Midlands, and probably also by carrying forward its western border beyond the Severn.
in their heathen days the English were not wont to massacre their beaten kinsmen as they massacred the unfortunate Cdt.
were reckoned the chief monarchs of England, and exercised a widespread influence over the southern realms, yet each had to win his supremacy by his own sword; and when Edwin and Oswald fell before the savage heathen Penda, and Ecgfrith was cut off by the Picts, there was a gap of anarchy before another king asserted hh superior power.
For though Wessex had its full share of Danish attacks it met them with a vigour that was not seen in the other realms. The defence was often, if not always, successful; and once at least (at Aclea in 851) -~lthelwu1f exterminated a whole Danish army with the greatest slaughter among the heathen host that had been heard of down to that day, as the Anglo-Saxon chronicler is careful to record.
But his navy was not yet strong enough to hold off all raids: it was not till the very end of his reign that he perfected it by building long ships that were nigh twice as large as those of the heathen; some had 60 oars, some more; and they were both steadier and swifter and lighter than the others, and were shaped neither after the Frisian nor after the Danish fashion, but as it seemed to himself that they would be most handy.
453 Maximinus, the general of the emperor Marcian, after inflicting a severe defeat on the Nobatae and Blemmyes who were settled in Lower Nubia, and thence raided Upper Egypt, made peace on terms which included permission for these heathen tribes to visit the temple and even to borrow the image of Isis on certain occasions.
The further suggestion has been made that zebul itself in the sense of "dung" is a term for a heathen deity, cf.
the Old Testament use of "abomination" &c. for heathen deities, so that Beelzebul would mean " Chief of false gods," and so arch-fiend.
It appears, however, that Rabbinical writings use yom (day-of) zebul for the festival of a heathen deity; and Jastrow connects this usage with the meaning " house " or " temple," so that the meaning " Lord of the False Gods" might be arrived at in a different way.
Although the first attempt to convert the Lapps to Christianity seems to have been made in the 11th century, the worship of heathen idols was carried on openly in Swedish Lappmark as late as 1687, and secretly in Norway down to the first quarter of the 18th century, while the practices of heathen rites survived into the 19th century, if indeed they are extinct even yet.
Lapp graves, prepared in the heathen manner, have been discovered in upper Namdal (Norway), belonging to the years 1820 and 1826.
The unit of Icelandic politics was the homestead with its franklin-owner (buendi) its primal organization the hundredmoot (thing), its tie the gooorc5(godar) or chieftainship. The chief who had led a band of kinsmen and dependants to the new land, taken a " claim " there, and parcelled it out among them, naturally became their leader, presiding as priest at the temple feasts and sacrifices of heathen times, acting as speaker of their moot, and as their representative towards the neighbouring chiefs.
During the heathen days many great chiefs passed part of their lives in Norway at the king's court, but after the establishment of Christianity in Iceland they kept more at home, visiting the continent, however, for purposes of state, suits with clergy, &c. Trade was from the first almost entirely in foreign (Norse) hands.
This period of Iceland's existence is eventless: she had got peace but with few of its blessings; all spirit seemed to have died with the commonwealth; even shepherding and such agriculture as there had been sank to a lower stage; wagons, ploughs and carts went out of use and knowledge; architecture in timber became a lost art, and the fine carved and painted halls of the heathen days were replaced by turfwalled barns half sunk in the earth; the large decked luggers of the old days gave way to small undecked fishing-boats.
It includes a mass of information on the law, religion, traditions, &c., of the heathen days in Iceland, and the lives of Eric, the real discoverer of Greenland, Biorn of Broadwick, a famous chief, and Snorri, the greatest statesman of his day.
Of the north there are the sagas of Kormak (930-960), most primitive of all, a tale of a wild poet's love and feuds, containing many notices of the heathen times; of Vatzdeelasaga (890-980), relating to the settlement and the chief family in Waterdale; of Hallfred the poet (996-1014), narrating his fortune at King Olaf's court, his love affairs in Iceland, and finally his death and burial at Iona; of Reyk -deela (990), which preserves the lives of Askell and his son Viga-Skuti; of Svarf-deela (980-990), a cruel, coarse story of the old days, with some good scenes in it, unfortunately imperfect, chapters I-10 being forged; of VigaGlum (970-990), a fine story of a heathen hero, brave, crafty and cruel.
Nearly all that we know of the heathen commonwealth may be traced to the collections of Ari.
He was certainly a Christian when he married Palladia, the daughter of heathen parents, Hypatius and Quieta, whose 'displeasure he incurred by persuading his wife to retire with him to a distant monastery, which is almost certainly that founded by St Honoratus at Lerins.
They perhaps identified themselves too closely with their Tongan friends, whose dissolute, lawless, tyrannical conduct led to much mischief; but it should not be forgotten that their position was difficult, and it was mainly through their efforts that many terrible heathen practices were stamped out.
Royalty and chieftainship in Madagascar had many peculiar customs. It had a semi-sacred character; the chief was, in heathen tribes, while living, the high priest for his people, and after death, was worshipped as a god; in its modern development among the Hova sovereigns it gathered round it much state and ceremony.
At the same time the position of woman is much higher in Madagascar than in most heathen countries; and, the fact that for nearly seventy years there were (with a few months' exception) only female sovereigns, helped to give women considerable influence in native society.
Although there was no proper priesthood, the idol-keepers, the diviners, the day-declarers and some others formed a class of people closely connected with heathen customs and interested in their continued observance.
THOR, one of the chief deities of the heathen Scandinavians.
When Christianity became powerful the heathen philosophers evaded its satire by making more and more use of the allegorical and non-natural system of explanation.
First (as Arnobius and Eusebius reminded their heathen opponents), the allegorical explanations are purely arbitrary, depend upon the fancy of their author, and are all equally plausible and equally unsupported by evidence.6 Secondly, there is no proof at all that, in the distant age when the myths were developed, men entertained the moral notions and physical philosophies which are supposed to be " wrapped up, " as Cicero says, " in impious fables."
When Christians approached the problem of heathen mythology, they sometimes held, with St Augustine, a form of the doctrine of Euemerus?
Sometimes the missionary, on the other hand, is anxious to demonstrate that the myths of his heathen flock are a corrupted version of the Biblical narrative.
In receiving this kind of evidence, then, we need to know the character of our informant, his means of communicating with the heathen, his power of testing evidence, and his good faith.
He was convinced (like Caxton in his Destruction of Troy, and like St Augustine) that the heathen gods were only dead men worshipped.
The ideas which may be gathered about the gods from the hymns are (as is usual in heathen religions) without consistency.
There is a manifest difference between the religious importance of Shechem in the traditions of Joshua (xxiv.) and Jacob's reforms when he leaves behind him the heathen symbols before journeying to the holy site of Bethel (Gen.
Under the protection of the Frankish king Dagobert (622-638), the Christian missionaries Amandus (St Amand) and Eligius (St Eloi) attempted the conversion of these Flemish Frisians, and their efforts were attended with a certain measure of success; but farther north the building of a church by Dagobert at Trajectum (Utrecht) at once aroused the fierce hostility of the heathen tribesmen of the Zuider Zee.
To this petition Ambrose replied in a letter to Valentinian, arguing that the devoted worshippers of idols had often been forsaken by their deities; that the native valour of the Roman soldiers had gained their victories, and not the pretended influence of pagan priests; that these idolatrous worshippers requested for themselves what they refused to Christians; that voluntary was more honourable than constrained virginity; that as the Christian ministers declined to receive temporal emoluments, they should also be denied to pagan priests; that it was absurd to suppose that God would inflict a famine upon the empire for neglecting to support a religious system contrary to His will as revealed in the Scriptures; that the whole process of nature encouraged innovations, and that all nations had permitted them, even in religion; that heathen sacrifices were offensive to Christians; and that it was the duty of a Christian prince to suppress pagan ceremonies.
But the choice of evil was not made only by man but by angels, who by their evil choice became the demons, that is, the gods of the heathen world.
There can be no doubt that the early Christians were unanimous in condemning heathen image-worship and the various customs, some immoral, with which it was associated.
13, " We are but a few left among the heathen where thou hast scattered us "; ii.
After 66 years'exile Jeremiah brings back the Jews to Jerusalem, but refuses to admit such as had brought with them heathen wives.
Penda, although he did not prohibit the preaching of Christianity, had remained a heathen to the end of his life.
appalled at the thought of some heathen religion sharing their festival.
crusadespan>crusading spirit, which had not died out in Europe, thrilled at the thought of spreading Christianity among heathen peoples.
gigantic statue of some heathen deity was dug up in the parish in 1847, carved in stone.
Arise, O Lord; let not man prevail: let the heathen be judged in thy sight.
heathen deity was dug up in the parish in 1847, carved in stone.
heathen gods do have personal relationships with humans, however.
heathen poet supposed to be appropriate.
A little heathen in six-year-old shoes, showing her up.
As they had written books of revelation, they were not considered heathen by Mohammed.
Britain didn't give a hoot for the welfare of a few heathen Turks.
liminal space where previous generations had buried the heathen dead.
A story is told by the rabbis: A heathen asked the rabbi: Why did God speak to Moses from the thorn bush?
sacrilegious hands of the heathen from across the North Sea.
" Heathen," i.e.
It tended also to accentuate Schristipread of the enmity to the Franks of the heathen Frisians and amity.
Tongues were, he felt, to cease whenever the perfect should come; and the believer who spoke with the tongues of men and of angels, if he had not love, was no better than the sounding brass and clanging cymbal of the noisy heathen mysteries.
This state of things was clearly recognized by German statesmen, and in 1208, when the Emperor Otto felt more secure upon his unstable throne, he became overtly hostile to Denmark and would have attempted the recovery of the lost German territory but for the interposition of Pope Innocent III., who threatened to excommunicate any German prince who should attack Valdemar, the equally pious and astute Danish king having undertaken, at the bidding of the holy see, to lead a crusade against the heathen Esthonians.
The connecting link between the western and the eastern Baltic was the isle of Gotland, where German merchants from Lubeck had established a depot (the later Visby)_ The fur-trade with the Esthonians and Livonians proved so lucrative that a German colony was planted in Livonia itself at what was afterwards Riga, and in 1201 for its better security the colony was converted into a bishopric. A still firmer footing was gained by the Germans on Livonian soil when Abbot Theoderick of Riga founded the order of the Sword (a foundation confirmed by the pope in 1204), whose duty it was to convert the heathen Esths and Livs and appropriate as much of their land in the process as possible.
"You appease," he says, "the shades of the dead with wines and banquets, you celebrate the feast-days of the heathen along with them.
No heathen may tread the outer court, no layman the inner court, while the holiest of all may not be trodden even by the priest Ezekiel but only by the angel who accompanies him.
This terrible intermezzo was no longer terrestrial, but was a cosmic and universal crisis in which the Messiah would emerge victorious from the final conflict with the heathen and demonic powers.
He was also sent, with the rank of bishop, on a mission for the conversion of such heathen as remained in Asia Minor, and informs us that the number of those whom he baptized amounted to 70,000.
The greater prevalence of heathen elements in Jerusalem, as detailed in the reforms of Josiah or in the writings of the prophets (cf.
But although, as we have said, in ordinary times there was no necessity for secrecy, yet when the peace of the Church was broken by the fierce and often protracted persecutions of the heathen emperors, it became essential to adopt precautions to conceal the entrance to the cemeteries, which became the temporary hiding-places of the Christian fugitives, and to baffle the search of their pursuers.
We may attribute the origin of the episcopate to the need felt of a single official to preside at the Eucharist, to represent the church before the heathen state and in the face of rising heresy, and to carry on correspondence with sister churches.
the saints are pictured with the praises of God in their throat and a sharp sword in their hands to take vengeance on the heathen, to bind their kings and nobles, and exercise against them the judgment written in prophecy.
It is not improbable that the Elohistic redaction of the second collection of psalms is due not so much to any Jewish scruples about writing the Tetragrammaton as to the fear that it might fall into the hands of the heathen who were trying to destroy the Hebrew Scriptures, and might thus be desecrated (cf.
20) was for the avoidance of heathen customs, the peyoth or long curls which became typical in the middle ages are reminiscent of the Horus-curl of Egypt and the Mahommedan " heaven lock " and evidently served as positive distinctive marks.
An instinctive feeling that a proper name for God implicitly recognizes the existence of other gods may have had some influence; reverence and the fear lest the holy name should be profaned among the heathen were potent reasons; but probably the most cogent motive was the desire to prevent the abuse of the name in magic. If so, the secrecy had the opposite effect; the name of the god of the Jews was one of the great names in magic, heathen as well as Jewish, and miraculous efficacy was attributed to the mere utterance of it.
MARTIN, ST (c. 316-400), bishop of Tours, was born of heathen parents at Sabaria (Stein am Agger) in Pannonia, about the year 316.
the prohibition of intermarriage with the heathen of the land (cf.
And, the excommunicate being but as a publican and a heathen, heathen being lawfully permitted to come to hear the word in church assemblyes; wee acknowledg therfore the like liberty of hearing the word, may be permitted to persons excommunicate, that is permitted unto heathen.
For long generations the doctors of the Church fought bravely against such an infusion of heathen customs; thus in Latin countries we find the rule to keep New Year's day as a fast, just because the pagans feasted on it, giving one another gifts (strenae, Fr.
Thus the heathen philosopher Iamblichus (d.
270), mentions 'Athtar, Shams and other heathen deities, while the inscriptions of 582 (A.D.
The "ban" (p in), which was a religious execution of criminals or enemies, was common to Israel with its heathen neighbours (cf.
Again, the Old Testament speaks of the restoration of heathen nations, and of the salvation of the heathen; 1 Ã‚° but does not formulate any theory of atonement in this connexion.
It speaks of their defiance of their own constitution, expressly revived by Paul V., forbidding them to meddle in politics; of the great ruin to souls caused by their quarrels with local ordinaries and the other religious orders, their condescension to heathen usages in the East, and the disturbances, resulting in persecutions of the Church, which they had stirred up even in Catholic countries, so that several popes had been obliged to punish them.
But Thou, 0 Lord, will cast them down and root out their seed from the land, when a man not of our race (Pompey) rises up against them Behold, 0 Lord, and raise up their king the Son of David at the time that Thou hast appointed, to reign over Israel Thy servant; and gird him with strength to crush unjust rulers; to cleanse Jerusalem from the heathen that tread it under foot, to cast out sinners from Thy 1 In Sibyll.
The altar is spoken of by the early Greek and Latin ecclesiastical writers under a variety of names :- Tpa7rc a, the principal name in the Greek fathers and the liturgies; 8vvcavriipcov (rarer; used in the Septuagint for Hebrew altars); iXafriipcov; (3wÃ¯¿½6s (usually avoided, as it is a word with heathen associations); mensa Domini; ara (avoided like OwÃ¯¿½os, and for the same reason); and, most regularly, altare.
SIBYLLINE ORACLES, a collection of Apocalyptic writings, composed in imitation of the heathen Sibylline books (see Sibyls) by the Jews and, later, by the Christians in their efforts to win the heathen world to their faith.
So curiously alike in their general features were the sepulchral usages connected with barrow-burial over the whole of Europe, that we find the Anglo-Saxon Saga of Beowulf describing the chambered tumulus with its gigantic masonry "held fast on props, with vaults of stone," and the passage under the mound haunted by a dragon, the guardian of the treasures of heathen gold which it contained.
contain a violent attack on the heathen mythology, in which he narrates with powerful sarcasm the scandalous chronicles of the gods, and contrasts with their grossness and immorality the pure and holy worship of the Christian.
Jerusalem and the surrounding district have ominous heathen associations.'
Indeed, Alcimus and his company did more mischief among the Israelites than the heathen (1 Macc. vii.
Transoxiana was conquered by the heathen hordes of Khata, who towards the end of 535 (A.D.
Mahomet, it is said, declared that the house-dwelling snakes were a kind of jinn, and the heathen Arabs invariably regarded them as alike malevolent or benevolent demoniacal beings."
The other episodes were introduced by some later writer, who had heard recited, or perhaps had read, a multitude of the old heathen songs, the substance of which he piously sought to preserve from oblivion by weaving it in an abridged form, into the texture of the one great poem which he was transcribing.
These writings were used as a quarry by the compilers and dilettanti of later times, such as Pliny, Plutarch, Gellius, Festus, Macrobius, and by Christian champions like Tertullian, Arnobius and Augustine, who did not disdain to seek in heathen literature the means of defending their faith.
After his conversion, he resolved to devote himself to evangelical work among the heathen, to write an exposure of infidel errors, and to promote the teaching of foreign tongues in seminaries.
In view of the apparent unity of the entire work, the only possible explanation seems to be that the book was written at first all in Hebrew, but for the convenience of the general reader whose vernacular was Aramaic, a translation, possibly from the same pen as the original, was made into king to great political prominence, owing to his extraordinary God given ability to interpret dreams. In both.versions, the heathen astrologers make the first attempt to solve the difficulty, which results in failure, whereupon the pious Israelite, being summoned to the royal presence, in both cases through the friendly intervention of a court official, triumphantly explains the mystery to the king's satisfaction (cf.
As he himself tells us, he was originally a heathen, but was converted to Christianity when advanced in years, and felt called upon to instruct the ignorant in the truth.
(See further Mahommedan Religion.) The colourless character of these ceremonies is plainly due to the fact that they are nothing more than expurgated heathen rites.
They used the Aramaic recension of the Gospel according to Matthew, which they called the Gospel to the Hebrews, but, while adhering as far as possible to the Mosaic economy as regarded circumcision, sabbaths, foods and the like, they did not refuse to recognize the apostolicity of Paul or the rights of heathen Christians (Jer., Comm.
Neither saint nor sanctuary was to be safe from the sacrilegious hands of the heathen from across the North Sea.
He commanded that Heathen altars be set up all over the land upon which swine 's flesh was to be offered.
And Jezebel was a cruel woman, wife of a king of Israel who was a heathen and worshiped idols.
Generally, Webster's defines a pagan as "heathen - not recognizing the god of Christianity, Islam, or Judaism".
Live record Familiar to Millions was released, and two years later their fifth studio album Heathen Chemistry arrived on the shelves.
The first of the three dialogues contains the substance of the allegory, which, under the disguise of an assault on heathen mythology, is a direct attack on all forms of anthropomorphic religion.
During the interval between the citation and the appearance of the accused, the professorial members of the synod was instructed to prepare themselves to be able to confute the Arminian errors, and the synod occupied itself with deliberations as to a new translation of the Bible, for which a commission was named, made arrangements for teaching the Heidelberg catechism, and granted permission to the missionaries of the East Indies to baptize such children of heathen parents as were admitted into their families.
458), so far as they can be read, contain no name of a heathen god, but do speak of a god Rahmanan - that is, the Hebrew Rahman, " the compassionate " (Arabic, al-Rahman), agreeably with the fact that Jewish and Christian influences were powerful in Arabia in the 4th century.
The cry of the heathen populace in the Roman empire against the Christians was " Away with the atheists!
Einhard, the friend and biographer of Charles, sums up this struggle as follows: - " It is hard to say how often the Saxons, conquered and humbled, submitted to the king, promised to fulfil his commands, delivered over the required hostages without delay, received the officials sent to them, and were often rendered so tame and pliable that they gave up the service of their heathen gods and agreed to accept Christianity.
2) was acquainted only with the heathen Acts of Pilate, and knew nothing of a Christian work.
With the zeal of new converts they set forth on their new errand very much in the spirit of their heathen forefathers.
Armed with it he passed safely into heathen Germany and began a systematic crusade, baptizing, overturning idols, founding churches and monasteries, and calling from England a band of missionary helpers, monks and nuns, some of whom have become famous: St Lull, his successor in the see at Mainz; St Burchard, bishop of Wurzburg; St Gregory, abbot at Utrecht; Willibald, his biographer; St Lioba, St Walburge, St Thecla.
In the approaching disruption writers saw the punishment for the king's apostasy, and they condemn the sanctuaries in Jerusalem which he erected to the gods of his heathen wives.
He returned with letters of recommendation to Charles Martel, charged not only to convert the heathen but to suppress heresy as well.
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