He left the basement and entered the heated first floor.
They exchanged a heated look so intense Kiera blushed.
Iridium sesquichloride, IrC1 31 is obtained when one of the corresponding double chlorides is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, the mixture being then thrown into water.
It may be obtained in the spongy form by igniting iridium ammonium chloride, and this variety of the metal readily oxidizes when heated in air.
A closed stove acts mainly by convection; though when heated to a high temperature it gives out radiant heat.
While we were sympathetic to dad, we decided after heated discussion simply tip what we learned.
Iridium sesquioxide, Ir 2 0 3, is obtained when potassium iridium chloride is heated with sodium or potassium carbonates, in a stream of carbon dioxide.
His gaze flared with heated interest.
Arguments concerning contact with tip lines became heated as well.
His blood heated at her familiar scent.
Sofia felt Rainy's hard gaze but avoided his heated look.
Therefore in a room with an open fire the air is, as a rule, less heated than the walls.
The sounds of heated discussion made her look toward the river.
He was heated and huge at her back.
Two weeks passed and I'd put Howie Abbott from my mind when Betsy called one evening as I heated a frozen dinner in my lonely apartment.
Whether it comes from the trees which have been heated by the sun, or from the water, I can never discover.
She lowered her gaze at the heated look from the man who drove her crazy every other minute of her day.
Though nauseated by the thought, she heated up a can of soup and forced herself to eat it.
His touch sent heated energy through her, and the nearness of his body made her tense.
He filled in his stepfather on his conversation with Weller as the two shared a macaroni dinner Fred had heated up.
The disulphide, IrS2, is formed when powdered iridium is heated with sulphur and an alkaline carbonate.
Heated at 190-300° in a current of hydrogen it gives the oxide C0304, while at higher temperatures the monoxide is formed, and ultimately cobalt is obtained.
Tricobalt tetroxide, C0304, is produced when the other oxides, or the nitrate, are heated in air.
Rouvier reproached the Foreign Minister with imprudence in the matter of Morocco, and after a heated discussion M.
As the water is heated it becomes lighter, rises to the top of the boiler, and passes along the flow pipe.
those heated by the fire of the kitchen range, and those heated separately or independently.
"Yes, always first both on the grassland and here," answered Rostov, stroking his heated Donets horse.
At his hesitation and the heated, lustful look he gave her, Sofia's mouth dropped open.
The million-gallon harvest of nature's heated waters was a major tourist attraction.
The story of Talos, the Cretan man of brass, who heated himself red-hot and clasped strangers in his embrace as soon as they landed on the island, is probably of similar origin.
The sounds and scents of battle were thick in the air, from clanging of metal to cries of the injured to the smell of heated bodies.
6), the water heated in this way circulating in the manner already described.
Czartoryski, Novosiltsev, Prince Volkonsky, Strogonov, and the others, all richly dressed gay young men on splendid, well-groomed, fresh, only slightly heated horses, exchanging remarks and smiling, had stopped behind the Emperor.
A touch of coolness grazed his heated frame, which always grew hotter than Hell when he changed forms.
The couple gave each other another heated look, and she wolfed down her food before leaving them in peace.
She heated some water and carried a towel back to the bathroom to bathe before bed.
He bowed out after several rounds to watch a heated match between two warriors casting loud taunts at each other as they battled.
She closed her eyes, savoring the sensations, his scent and heated touch imprinted upon her mind.
It is a brown coloured powder which is stable in air, but gives a higher oxide when heated.
Cobalt sesquioxide, Co 2 0 3, remains as a dark-brown powder when cobalt nitrate is gently heated.
From this point the " return " pipe drops, usually at the same rate as the flow pipe rises; and in due course the water reaches its starting point, the boiler, and is again heated and again circulated through the system.
The water after being heated passes into a circulating FIG.
long would expand or increase in length when heated to this temperature about I 1 in.
Indirect radiators are placed beneath the floor of the apartment to be heated and give off heat through a grating.
In small houses all requirements may be satisfied with a boiler heated by the kitchen fire.
Every installation is made up of a boiler or other water heater, a tank or cylinder to contain the water when heated, and a cistern of cold water, the supply from which to the system is regulated automatically by a ball valve.
The supply from the cold water cistern enters the bottom of the cylinder, and thence travels by way of the return pipe to the boiler, where it is heated, and back through the flow pipe to the cylinder, which is thus soon filled with hot water.
In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.
p. 299), or by the addition of a concentrated solution of potassium cyanide to one of copper sulphate, the mixed solutions being then heated.
Heated with sulphuric acid and with nitric acid it is oxidized to boric acid, whilst on fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it gives a borate of the alkali metal.
Boron chloride BC1 3 results when amorphous boron is heated in chlorine gas, or more readily, on passing a stream of chlorine over a heated mixture of boron trioxide and charcoal, the volatile product being condensed in a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture.
It is decomposed by water, and with a solution of yellow phosphorus in carbon bisulphide it gives a red powder of composition PBI 2, which sublimes in vacuo at 210° C. to red crystals, and when heated in a current of hydrogen loses its iodine and leaves a residue of boron phosphide PB.
When heated with concentrated hydrochloric acid the amino group is replaced by the hydroxyl group and the phenolic eurhodols are produced.
They present to the fierce play of the sun almost a level surface, so that during the day that surface becomes intensely heated and at night gives off its heat by radiation.
von Liebig (1823), who heated a mixture of alcohol, nitric acid and mercuric nitrate; the salt is largely manufactured by processes closely resembling the last.
Dibromcotinine on hydrolysis yields oxalic acid, methylamine and 0-methyl pyridyl ketone: C10H10Br2N20+3H20+0= H2C204-ECH 3 NH 2 +C 5 H 4 N 000H 3 +2HBr; whilst dibromticonine yields methylamine, malonic acid and nicotinic acid: C10H8Br2N202+ 4H20=CH 3 NH 2 +CH 2 (CO 2 H) 2 +C 5 H 4 N CO 2 H+2HBr, or if heated with zinc and caustic potash, methylamine and pyridyl-ay-dioxybutyric acid.
This loop hung in a very strong magnetic field, and when one junction was heated by radiation and convection from the heating wire the loop was 18 See R.
Cadmium salts can be recognized by the brown incrustation which is formed when they are heated on charcoal in the oxidizing flame of the blowpipe; and also by the yellow precipitate formed when sulphuretted hydrogen is passed though their acidified solutions.
The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate.
Sulphur is present to the extent of more than i %, whence the smell of suiphuretted hydrogen when the resin is heated.
Molybdenum trichloride, MoC1 31 is obtained when the pentachloride is heated to a temperature of about 250° C. in a current of hydrogen.
Molybdenum pentachloride, MoC1 5r is obtained when molybdenum is gently heated in dry chlorine (L.
When distilled over lead oxide, it forms diphenylene oxide, (C 6 H 4) 2 O: and when heated with oxalic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms aurin, C19H1403.
When heated with aniline it yields phenol and acetanilide.
- Several interesting phenomena are witnessed when sulphur is heated above its melting point.
If the viscous variety be rapidly cooled, or the more highly heated mass be poured into water, an elastic substance is obtained, termed plastic sulphur.
It is decomposed by the influence of strong light or when strongly heated.
When heated in a sealed tube to 180° C. it is transformed into sulphuric acid, with liberation of sulphur.
It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 152-153° C. When heated under pressure it decomposes, forming sulphuric acid, sulphuryl chloride, &c. (Ruff, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 35 0 9).
It is decomposed readily into sulphur trioxide and oxygen when heated.
Not that the regime in Russia had become in any true sense constitutional, far less parliamentary; but the " unlimited autocracy " had given place to a " self-limited autocracy," whether permanently so limited, or only at the discretion of the autocrat, remaining a subject of heated controversy between conflicting parties in the state.
In that most largely used, known as " creosoting," dead oil of tar, to the amount of some 3 gallons per sleeper, is forced into the wood under pressure, or is sucked in by vacuum, both the timber and the oil being heated.
These in their simplest form are cans filled with water, which is heated by immersing them in a vessel containing boiling water.
In some cases, however, they are filled with fused acetate of soda; this salt is solid when cold, but when the can containing it is heated by immersion in hot water it liquefies, and in the process absorbs heat which is given out again on the change of state back to solid.
On electric railways the trains are heated by electric heaters.
When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 200° C. it yields a hexahydride.
We might at first suppose that the sun was really an intensely heated body radiating out its heat as does white-hot iron, but this explanation cannot be admitted, for there is no historical evidence that the sun is growing colder.
" As the little water-drop poured into a large measure of wine seems to lose its own nature entirely and to take on both the taste and the colour of the wine; or as iron heated red-hot loses its own appearance and glows like fire; or as air filled with sunlight is transformed into the same brightness so that it does not so much appear to be illuminated as to be itself light - so must all human feeling towards the Holy One be self-dissolved in unspeakable wise, and wholly transfused into the will of God.
The great summer heat, by expanding the air upwards, disturbs the level of the planes of equal pressure, and causes an outflow of the upper strata from the heated area.
The heated body of air carried from the Indian Ocean over southern Asia by the south-west monsoon comes up highly charged with watery vapour, and hence in a condition to release a large body of water as rain upon the land, whenever it is brought into circumstances which reduce its temperature in a notable degree.
r 265 at 15° C., possessing a somewhat sweet taste; below o° C. it solidifies to a white crystalline mass, which melts at 17° C. When heated alone it partially volatilizes, but the greater part decomposes; under a pressure of 12 mm.
Joffrin was only admitted to the Chamber after a heated discussion, and continued to be attacked by the nationalists.
The climate of Bellary is characterized by extreme dryness, due to the passing of the air over a great extent of heated plains, and it has a smaller rainfall than any other district in south India.
When heated with bromine and water to too° C. it forms tribromacetic acid, some bromoform being produced at the same time.
When the reaction has finished, the whole is evaporated and heated to about 130 0 -140° C. and then allowed to cool.
Again he heated fluorspar with oil of vitriol, as K.
The surface-layers of this immense basin are heated in the summer up to temperatures of 55z° to 57° F., both close to the shores and at some distance from the mouth of the Selenga; but these warmer layers are not deep, and a uniform temperature of nearly 39° F.
This view is supported by the fact that petroleum is found on the Sardinian and Swedish coasts as a product of the decomposition of seaweed, heated only by the sun, and under atmospheric pressure.
The stills were formerly completely bricked in, so that the vapours should be kept fully heated until they escaped to the condenser, but since the introduction of the " cracking process," the upper part has usually been left exposed to the air.
This may be brought about by a distillation under pressure, or by allowing the condensed distillate to fall into the highly heated residue in the still.
In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
The steam is superheated and may thus be heated to any desired temperature without increase of pressure, which would be liable to damage the still.
The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.
The oil-cup is supported in a bath or heating-vessel, consisting of two flat-bottomed copper cylinders, to contain water, heated by a spirit lamp, and provided with an air-space between the water-vessel and the oil-cup. Thermometers are placed in both oil-cup and waterbath, the temperature of the latter being raised to 130° at the commencement of the test, while the oil is put in at about 60° F.
I) and then heated.
The expansion of the working wire when it is heated will then increase or create a sag in it owing to its increase in FIG.
In order that this may take place, the heated wire must be flexible and must therefore be a single fine wire or a bundle of fine wires.
Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.
The process of manufacturing soaps by boiling fatty acids with caustic alkalis or sodium carbonate came into practice with the development of the manufacture of candles by saponifying fats, for it provided a means whereby the oleic acid, which is valueless for candle making, could be worked up. The combination is effected in open vats heated by a steam coil and provided with a stirring appliance; if soda ash be used it is necessary to guard against boiling over.
The soap is now milled in the form of ribbons with the perfume and colouring matter, and the resulting strips are welded into bars by forcing through a heated nozzle.
The water in a soap is rarely directly determined; when it is, the soap, in the form of shavings, is heated to 105° C. until the weight is constant, the loss giving the amount of ' " Soap powders " and " soap extracts " are powdered mixtures of soaps, soda ash or ordinary sodium carbonate.
It is a good solvent for sulphur, phosphorus, wax, iodine, &c. It dissociates when heated to a sufficiently high temperature.
When heated with water in a sealed tube to 150° C. it yields carbon dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen.
Potassium, when heated, burns in the vapour of carbon bisulphide, forming potassium sulphide and liberating carbon.
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and sulphuretted hydrogen, when passed over heated copper, gives, amongst other products, some methane.
Carbon bisulphide combines with primary amines to form alkyl dithiocarbamates, which when heated lose sulphuretted hydrogen and leave a residue of a dialkyl thio-urea, CS 2 +2R NH 2 - R NH CSS NH 3 RCS(NHR)2+H2S; or if the aqueous solution of the dithiocarbamate be boiled with mercuric chloride or silver nitrate solution, a mustard oil (q.v.) is formed, R.NH CSS NH3R+HgC12-Hg(R NH CSS)2->2RNCS-}-HgS+H2S.
It fuses easily in the electric arc. It oxidizes superficially when heated, but fairly rapidly when ignited in an oxidizing blowpipe flame, forming a black smoke of the oxide.
It is insoluble in acids and decomposes when heated to a sufficiently high temperature.
An oxide of composition Ru 4 0 9 is obtained as a black hydrated powder when the peroxide is heated with water for some time.
The sesquichloride, Ru 2 C1 6, is formed when a mixture of chlorine and carbon monoxide is passed over finely divided ruthenium heated to 350° C. (Joly, Comptes rendus, 1892, 114, p. 291).
The per-ruthenate, KRuO 4, formed by the action of chlorine on the ruthenate, or of alkalis on the peroxide at 50° C., is a black crystalline solid which is stable in dry air but decomposes when heated strongly.
Phenylpropiolic acid, C 6 H 5 C:C CO 2 H, formed by the action of alcoholic potash on cinnamic acid dibromide, C 6 H 5 CHBr CHBr CO 2 H, crystallizes in long needles or prisms which melt at 136-137° C. When heated with water to 120° C. it yields phenyl acetylene CsH b C; CH.
Baeyer, Ber., 1880, 13, p. 2258), crystallizes in needles which decompose when heated to 155-156° C. It is readily converted into indigo.
6-dihydroxyxanthone, isoeuxanthone, is formed when 0-resorcylic acid is heated with acetic anhydride.
He also showed that on heating mercury calx alone an " air " was liberated which differed from other " airs," and was slightly heavier than ordinary air; moreover, the weight of the " air " set free from a given weight of the calx was equal to the weight taken up in forming the calx from mercury, and if the calx be heated with charcoal, the metal was recovered and a gas named " fixed air," the modern carbon dioxide, was formed.
Berthelot first accomplished the synthesis of benzene in 1870 by leading acetylene, HC: CH, through tubes heated to dull redness; at higher temperatures the action becomes reversible, the benzene yielding diphenyl, diphenylbenzene, and acetylene.
By passing carbon monoxide over heated potassium J.
Vorlander (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 2348) it is converted into y-acetobutyric acid, CH 3 C0 (CH 2) 3 000H, when heated with baryta to 150-160°.
If silica be present, it gives the iron bead when heated with a little ferric oxide; if tin is present there is no change.
a filter paper which has been previously heated to the temperature at which the substance is to be dried until its weight is constant.
Carbon is detected by the formation of carbon dioxide, which turns lime-water milky, and hydrogen by the formation of water, which condenses on the tube, when the substance is heated with copper oxide.
Nitrogen may be detected by the evolution of ammonia when the substance is heated with soda-lime.
The substance is heated with metallic sodium or potassium (in excess if sulphur be present) to redness, the residue treated with water, filtered, and ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid added.
If all the connexions are sound, the copper oxide is gradually heated from the end a, the gas-jets under the spiral d are lighted, and a slow current of oxygen is passed through the tube.
If nitrogen be present, a boat containing dry lead peroxide and heated to 320° is inserted, the oxide decomposing any nitrogen peroxide which may be formed.
The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.
The reverse series of transformations occurs when this final modification is heated.
yds., is provided with an electric bell communicating with the warder in the tower, heated by hot-air pipes, and lighted by day through a window on the outer wall of the rotunda, and from sunset till ten o'clock by electric light.
The name of "Clemency Canning," which was applied to him during the heated animosities of the moment, has since become a title of honour.
Sodium phenolate is heated in a stream of carbon dioxide in an iron retort at a temperature of 180-220° C., when half the phenol distils over and a basic sodium salicylate is left.
Manasse (German patent 73,279) prepared an intimate mixture of phenol and potassium carbonate, which is then heated in a closed vessel with carbon dioxide, best at 130 -160 C. The Chemische Fabrik vorm.
When heated with resorcin to 200° C. it gives trioxybenzophenone.
Its sodium salt is transformed into the isomeric C6H4(0C6H5) CO 2 Na when heated to 300°.
When heated in air for many hours it decomposes, yielding carbon dioxide, phenol and xanthone.
The product is at first white, but soon turns green ("green ultramarine") when it is mixed with sulphur and heated.
Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.
This may be effected by burning phosphorus in a confined volume of air, by the action of an alkaline solution of pyrogallol on air, by passing air over heated copper, or by the action of copper on air in the presence of ammoniacal solutions.
p. 862), calcium is heated in a current of hydrogen, and nitrogen passed over the hydride so formed; this gives ammonia and calcium nitride, the latter of which gives up its nitrogen as ammonia and reforms the hydride when heated in a current of hydrogen.
It does not burn, but supports the combustion of heated substances almost as well as oxygen.
It combines directly with lithium, calcium and magnesium when heated, whilst nitrides of the rare earth metals are also produced when their oxides are mixed with magnesium and heated in a current of nitrogen (C. Matignon, Comptes rendus, 1900, 131, p. 837).
188188); or by passing air, or a mixture of oxygen and ammonia, over heated metallic oxides (ibid., 168272).
When heated with CS 2 to 1 00° C. under pressure, it forms liquid nitrogen sulphide, N 2 S 5, a mobile red liquid which solidifies to an iodine-like mass of crystals which melt at Io-I I° C. Water, alkalis and acids decompose it into sulphur and ammonia (W.
When heated with the halogens, acetophenone is substituted in the aliphatic portion of the nucleus; thus bromine gives phenacyl bromide, C6H6CO.CH2Br.
In their natural condition the marekanite spheres are doubly refracting, but when they have been heated and very slowly cooled they lose this property and no longer exhibit any tendency to sudden disintegration.
The rise of conductivity with temperature, therefore, shows that the fluidity becomes greater when the solution is heated.
This product melts at 86° C., and becomes anhydrous when heated to 110° C. The anhydrous compound can also be prepared, as hard crusts melting at 146°, by crystallizing concentrated aqueous solutions at 30 to 35°.
When heated to above 200 it turns brown and produces caramel, a substance possessing a bitter taste, and used, in its aqueous solution or otherwise, under various trade names, for colouring confectionery, spirits, &c. The specific rotation of the plane of polarized light by glucose solutions is characteristic. The specific rotation of a freshly prepared solution is 105°, but this value gradually diminishes to 52.5°, 24 hours sufficing for the transition in the cold, and a few minutes when the solution is boiled.
If a glucose solution be added to copper sulphate and much alkali added, a yellowish-red precipitate of cuprous hydrate separates, slowly in the cold, but immediately when the liquid is heated; this precipitate rapidly turns red owing to the formation of cuprous oxide.
The milk is then carefully dried by turning the mould round and round in the smoke produced by burning wood mixed with certain oily palm nuts; those of A ttalea excelsa are considered best, the smoke being confined within certain limits by the narrowness of the neck of the pot in which the nuts are heated.
In some districts the collected milk is heated alone or diluted with water, to coagulate the rubber, but if heated alone an inferior rubber is apt to result owing to overheating.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
When caoutchouc is heated slightly above the temperature of boiling water it becomes softer and loses much of its elasticity, which, however, it recoveres on cooling.
When a manufactured article has been saturated with sulphur in the melted sulphur bath, the heat necessary for vulcanization may be obtained either by highpressure steam, by heated glycerin, or by immersion in a sulphur bath heated to about 140° C. In this last case absorption of the sulphur and its intimate combination with the rubber occur simultaneously.
Another very excellent method of vulcanizing cut sheet goods consists in placing them in a solution of the polysulphides of calcium at a temperature of 140° C. Rubber employed for the manufacture of cut sheets is often coloured by such pigments as vermilion, oxide of chromium, ultramarine, orpiment, antimony, lamp black, or oxide of zinc, incorporation being effected either by means of the masticator or by a pair of rollers heated internally by steam, and so geared as to move in contrary directions at unequal FIG.
Rubber mixed in the usual way with about WA of sulphur is now softened by heat, forced into the mould, and retained there by pressure during the operation of curing, which is usually effected in an iron box heated over a gas burner to 140° C.
Air goods, such as cushions, beds, gas bags, and so forth, are made of textile fabrics which have been coated with mixed rubber either by the spreading process above described, or by means of heated rollers, the curing being then effected by steam heat.
The articles are first fashioned by joining the soft material; they are then varnished, and afterwards cured in ovens heated to about 135° C. The fine vulcanized " spread sheets " are made by spreading layers of indiarubber solution, already charged with the requisite proportion of sulphur, on a textile base previously prepared with a mixture of paste, glue and treacle.
Many of the residences and business places of Bowling Green are heated by a privately owned central hot-water heating plant.
heated in the presence of atmospheric oxygen) until all the sulphur is burned away and the lead left.
As a preliminary to the melting process, the "browse" left in the preceding operation (half-fused and imperfectly reduced ore) is introduced with some peat and coal, and heated with the help of the blast.
When zinc is placed on the lead (heated to above the melting-point of zinc), liquefied and brought into intimate contact with the lead by stirring, gold, copper, silver and lead will combine with the zinc in the order given.
Pans and pot are heated from separate fire-places.
It ignites when heated in air with the formation of the monoxide; dilute acids convert it into metallic lead and lead monoxide, the latter dissolving in the acid.
These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.
When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.
When heated to 250° C. with red phosphorus and hydriodic acid it gives a hydride It is nitrated by nitric acid and sulphonated by sulphuric acid.
In the Democratic national convention at Chicago in 1896, during a long and heated debate with regard to the party platform, Bryan, in advocating the "plank" declaring for the free coinage of silver, of which he was the author, delivered a celebrated speech containing the passage, "You shall not press down upon the brow of labour this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
After a heated contest Mr Bryan again suffered a decisive defeat, President Taft securing 321 electoral votes to Mr Bryan's 162.
When heated with hydriodic acid and phosphorus it forms phenylacetic acid; whilst concentrated hydrobromic acid and hydrochloric acid at moderate temperatures convert it into phenylbromand phenylchlor-acetic acids.
A mixture of the two forms in equivalent quantities produces the inactive variety, which is also obtained when either form is heated for some hours to 160° C.
When heated it loses water and forms pyraconitine.
.+] steel and nickel when heated up to high temperatures were those of J.
The ring thus prepared was placed in a cast-iron box and heated in a gas furnace.
A third platinum coil, wound non-inductively between the primary and the secondary, served to carry the current by which the ring was heated; a current of 4.6 amperes, with 16 volts across the terminals, was found sufficient to maintain the ring at a temperature of 11 50° C. In the ring itself was embedded a platinum-thermometer wire, from the resistance of which the temperature was determined.
The magnetometric method was employed, and the metals, in the form of ovoids, were heated by a specially designed burner, fed with gas and air under pressure, which directed 90 fine jets of flame upon the asbestos covering the ovoid.
But if the alloy is heated up to 580° C. it loses its susceptibility - rather suddenly when H is weak, more gradually when H is strong - and remains non-magnetizable till it is once more cooled down below the freezing-point.
Now iron, nickel and cobalt all lose their magnetic quality when heated above certain critical temperatures which vary greatly for the three metals, and it was suspected by Faraday 3 as early as 1845 that manganese might really be a ferromagnetic metal having a critical temperature much below the ordinary temperature of the air.
He considers that Hall's is the fundamental phenomenon, and that the Nernst effect is essentially identical with it, the primary electromotive force in the case of the latter being that of the Thomson effect in the unequally heated metal, while in the Hall experiment it is derived from an external source.
As the temperature was raised up to 273°, gradually fell to-9.38 X 10 -6, rising suddenly when fusion occurred to - o 37X 10 -6, at which value it remained constant when the fluid metal was further heated.
Finding his relatives unsympathetic, and falling into heated controversy with the Presbyterian clergy, he made no long stay, but returned to Paris, where he remained for seven years, becoming professor in several colleges successively.
When heated in a sealed tube at 120° C. it is completely converted into the ordinary form.
When heated with alcoholic potassium cyanide they are converted into benzoins.
When heated they liquefy; and if the heating be continued, the water of crystallization is driven off, the salt froths and^swells, and at last an amorphous powder remains.
In the preparation of alum from clays or from bauxite, the material is gently calcined, then mixed with sulphuric acid and heated gradually to boiling; it is allowed to stand for some time, the clear solution drawn off and mixed with acid potassium sulphate and allowed to crystallize.
When cryolite is used for the preparation of alum, it is mixed with calcium carbonate and heated.
When heated to nearly a red heat it gives a porous friable mass which is known as "burnt alum."
It is then dissolved in hydrofluoric acid and heated in order to expel silicon fluoride; finally the columbium, tantalum and titanium fluorides are separated by the different solubilities of their double fluorides (C. Marignac, Ann.
It burns when heated in air, and is soluble in warm concentrated sulphuric acid.
tetroxide, Cb204, is obtained as a black powder when the pentoxide is heated to a high temperature in a current of hydrogen.
It is a white amorphous infusible powder, which when strongly heated in sulphuretted hydrogen, yields an oxysulphide.
When heated in a current of carbon dioxide it forms the oxychloride CbOC1 3, and carbon monoxide.
Columbium pentachloride, CbC1 5, is obtained in yellow needles when a mixture of the pentoxide and sugar charcoal is heated in a current of air-free chlorine.
Columbium oxychloride, CbOC1 3r is formed when carbon tetrachloride, and columbic acid are heated together at 440° C.: 3CC14+Cb205 = 2CbOC1 3 +30001 2, and also by distilling the pentachloride,in acurrent of carbon dioxide, over ignited columbic acid.
The oxyfluoride, CbOF 3, results when a mixture of the pentoxide and fluorspar is heated in a current of hydrochloric acid.
Columbium oxysulphide, CbOS 3, is obtained as a dark bronze coloured powder when the pentoxide is heated to a white heat in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour; or by gently heating the oxychloride in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen.
It burns when heated in air, forming the pentoxide and sulphur dioxide.
Above these they are less regular and are attracted northward by the heated llanos of Venezuela in winter, or southward by the heated campos of Matto Grosso in summer.
In summer, becoming warmed by the heated surface of the plateau, they sweep across it without a cloud or drop of rain.
In winter the plateau is less heated, and cold currents of air from the west and south-west cause precipitation over a part if not all of this region.
It explodes when heated.
When strongly heated they decompose, forming fatty acids, nitrogen peroxide and nitrogen.
When heated with water and mineral acids, the nitrolic acids are completely decomposed, yielding fatty acids and nitrous oxide.
long, a stratum of air heated 1 ° C. lying along the top of the tube, and occupying a moderate fraction of the whole volume, would produce a not insensible effect.
The experiment is easily made on a laboratory scale, with a small source of light, the rays from which, in their course towards a rather distant screen, are disturbed by the neighbourhood of a heated body.
Rosell, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 487), or from the aminoazo compound and a mustard oil, the resulting thiocarbanilido derivative being heated with acetic acid (M.
Busch, Ber., 1899, 32, p. 2960): N C(SH):N C 6 H 5 /N C:NC6H5 C. 2 S 7Hs " H s d-H N NH C,H 7 C7 "N N C,H7 C. Harries (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1223) has also shown that as-phenylhydrazino-acetic esters, when heated with formamide and substituted formamides under pressure, yield dihydrotriazines: CO 2 R CO-NR'-CH H2 N(C6H5)NH2 +R'NH CHO --> CH 2 N(C 6 H 5) IV The phen-a-triazines are yellow-coloured crystalline compounds of a somewhat basic character.
rend., 1896, 122, p. '088), in which the oxide is heated with sugar charcoal in the electric furnace.
The powdery metal when heated in air to 150° or 170° C. catches fire and burns brilliantly into U 3 0 8; it decomposes water slowly at ordinary temperatures, but rapidly when boiling.
It fires when heated in air, and dissolves in acids to form uranous salts.
Ammonium uranate heated to redness yields pure U308, which serves as a raw material for uranium compounds.
The latter when heated with hydrochloric acid to 170°, or water to 200°, separates carbon with the formation of protocatechuic acid, I.
In the English process the bars are heated cautiously on an inclined hearth, when relatively pure tin runs off, while a skeleton of impure metal remains.
The basin, made scrupulously clean, is heated to beyond the fusing point of tin.
The iron plates, having been carefully cleaned with sand and hydrochloric or sulphuric acid, and lastly with water, are plunged into heated tallow to drive away the water without oxidation of the metal.
Stannous Oxide, SnO, is obtained in the hydrated form Sn20(OH)2 from a solution of stannous chloride by addition of sodium carbonate; it forms a white precipitate, which can be washed with air-free water and dried at 80° C. without much change by oxidation; if it be heated in carbon dioxide the black SnO remains.
Stannous oxalate when heated by itself in a tube leaves stannous oxide.
It is insoluble in water and in nitric acid and apparently so in hydrochloric acid; but if heated with this last for some time it passes into a compound, which, after the acid mother liquor has been decanted off, dissolves in water.
Tin compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium cyanide in the reducing blowpipe flame yield the metal and a scanty ring of white Sn02.
Carefully prepared guncotton after washing with alcohol-ether until nothing more dissolves may require to be heated to 180-185° C. before inflaming.
When slowly heated in a vacuum vessel until ignition takes place, some nitrogen dioxide, N02, is also produced.
Dry guncotton heated in ammonia gas detonates at about 70°, and ammonium hydroxide solutions of all strengths slowly decompose it, yielding somewhat complex products.
When heated with zinc dust, it yields ethylene and water.
In a similar manner, formic acid and dicyanophenylhydrazine yields a phenyl-triazole carboxylic acid, in which the phenyl group may be nitrated, the nitro group reduced to the amino group, and the product oxidized to a triazole carboxylic acid, which, by elimination of carbon dioxide, yields the free triazole: HO 2 C C=N H02C C =N, NPh-> N :CH N :CH They also result when the acidylthiosemicarbazides are strongly heated, the mercapto-triazoles so formed being converted into triazoles on oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (M.
These laws are enforced by mine inspectors of the timber produces falls of ground, making necessary the excavawho are empowered to call upon the courts and other government tion and removal at times of hundreds of tons of heated rock and burning coal, in order to reach the fire.
In such cases the establishment of dressingrooms, properly heated, and connected with the mine by covered passages will be necessary.
Heated above its melting point it polymerizes to di-cyandiamide (CN2H2)2, which at 150° C. is transformed into the polymer n-tri-cyantriamide or melamine (CN 2 H 2) 3, the mass solidifying.
Fischer, Ber., 1884, 17, p. 102); by passing the vapours of orthoaminodiphenylmethane over heated litharge (0.
Silver oxide, mixed as a paint and spread on the surface of a piece of glass and heated, gives a permanent yellow stain.
The desired result is obtained either by moving the manufactured goods gradually away from a constant source of heat, or by placing them in a heated kiln and allowing t he heat gradually to die out.
15) employed for melting glass are usually heated with gas on the " Siemens," or some similar system of regenerative heating.
The empty crucible, having first been gradually dried and heated to a bright red heat in a subsidiary furnace, is taken up by means of massive iron tongs and introduced into the previously heated furnace, the temperature of which is then gradually raised.
For this purpose a cylinder of fireclay, provided with a square axial hole at the upper end, is heated in a small subsidiary furnace and is then introduced into the molten glass.
The crucible with the semi-solid glass which it contains is now allowed to cool considerably in the melting furnace, or it may be removed to another slightly heated furnace.
Lumps of glass of approximately the right weight are chosen, and are heated to a temperature just sufficient to soften the glass, when the lumps are caused to assume the shape of moulds made of iron or fireclay either by the natural flow of the softened glass under gravity, or by pressure from suitable tools or presses.
The Venetian furnaces in the island of Murano are small low structures heated with wood.
The manufactured goods are either removed gradually from a constant source of heat by means of a train of small iron trucks drawn along a tramway by an endless chain, or are placed in a heated kiln in which the fire is allowed gradually to die out.
In the viscous state a mass of glass can be coiled upon the heated end of an iron rod, and if the rod is hollow can be blown into a hollow bulb.
The fractured end is heated, and by the combined action of heat and centrifugal force opens out into a flat foot.
The fractured edge of the bowl is heated, trimmed with scissors and melted so as to be perfectly smooth and even, and the bowl itself receives its final form from the sugar-tongs tool.
The glass in process of fusion is contained in a basin or tank built up of large blocks of fire-clay and is heated by one or more powerful gas flames which enter the upper part of the furnace chamber through suitable apertures or " ports."
With producer gas it is necessary to pre-heat both the gas and the air which is supplied for its combustion by passing both through heated regenerators (for an account of the principles of the regenerative furnace see article Furnace).
Next, the rest of the connecting neck is detached from the cylinder by the application of a heated iron to the chilled glass.
The mould is in two, pieces hinged together; it is heated and the inner surface is rubbed over with finely powdered plumbago.
Before the glass is introduced, the annealing kiln is heated to dull red by means of coal fires in grates which are provided at the ends or sides of the kiln for that purpose.
Although the moulds are heated, the surface of the glass is always slightly ruffled by contact with the mould.
These small furnaces are usually heated by an oil spray under the pressure of steam or compressed air.
Having severed the body of the vase from the blowing iron, he heated and closed the fractured base, whilst holding the vase by means of the rod fixed in the neck.
It is probable that when the metal rod was withdrawn the vessel was filled with sand, to prevent collapse, and buried in heated ashes to anneal.
It is attacked rapidly by fluorine at ordinary temperature, and by chlorine when heated in a current of the gas.
slight superficial oxidation when heated in oxygen.
It is decomposed with great violence when heated in contact with either sodium or potassium.
The solution on evaporation deposits a hydrated form, H 2 SiF 6.2H 2 O, which decomposes when heated.
Berzelius (Jahresb., 182 5, 4, p. 91) by the action of chlorine on silicon, and is also obtained when an intimate mixture of silica and carbon is heated in a stream of chlorine and the products of reaction fractionated.
When heated with the alkali and alkaline earth metals it yields silicon and the corresponding metallic chlorides.
The hexachloride, Si 2 C1 61 is formed when silicon chloride vapour is passed over strongly heated silicon; by the action of chlorine on the corresponding iodocompound, or by heating the iodo-compound with mercuric chloride (C. Friedel, Comptes rendus, 18 7 1, 73, P. 497).
It is a colourless fuming liquid which boils at 146-148° C. It is decomposed by water, and also when heated between 350° and 1000° C., but it is stable both below and above these temperatures.
It is decomposed by alcohol and also by ether when heated to loo° C.: Si14-I-2C2H50H =S102±2C2H51+ 2HI; Si14+4(C2H5)20=Si(OC2H5)4+4C2H51.
Silicon sulphide, SiS 2, is formed by the direct union of silicon with sulphur; by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on crystallized silicon at red heat (P. Sabatier, Comptes rendus, 1880, 90, p. 819); or by passing the vapour of carbon bisulphide over a heated mixture of silica and carbon.
All carbonates, except those of the alkali metals and of thallium, are insoluble in water; and the majority decompose when heated strongly, carbon dioxide being liberated and a residue of an oxide of the metal left.
When heated with ammonia it yields guanidine, and on boiling with alcoholic potash it yields potassium carbonate.
When heated with ammonia it yields urethane.
A bar of zinc, for instance, as obtained by casting, is very brittle; but when heated to 100° or 150° C. it becomes sufficiently plastic to be rolled into the thinnest sheet or to be drawn into wire.
The same metal, when heated to 205° C., becomes so brittle that it can be powdered in a mortar.
As liquidity might be looked upon as the ne plus ultra of softness, this is the right place for stating that, while most metals, when heated up to their melting points, pass pretty abruptly from the solid to the liquid state, platinum and iron first assume, and throughout a long range of temperatures retain, a condition of viscous semi-solidity which enables two pieces of them to be "welded" together by pressure into one continuous mass.
Volatilized more or less readily when heated beyond their fusing points in open crucibles: antimony (very readily), lead, bismuth, tin, silver.
All other metals, when heated in oxygen or air, are converted, more or less readily, into stable oxides.
Sulphur.-Amongst the better known metals, gold and aluminium are the only ones which, when heated with sulphur or in sulphur vapour remain unchanged.
Of the several products, the chlorides of gold and platinum (AuC13 and PtC1 4) are the only ones which when heated beyond their temperature of formation dissociate into metal and chlorine.
The ultimate chlorination product of copper, CuC1 2, when heated to redness, decomposes into the lower chloride, CuCI, and chlorine.
All the rest, when heated by themselves, volatilize, some at lower, others at higher temperatures.
When l-gulonic acid is heated with pyridine, it is converted into l-idonic acid, and vice versa; and d-gulonic acid may in a similar manner be converted into d-idonic acid, from which it is possible to prepare d-idose.
Lastly, when d-galactonic acid is heated with pyridine, it is converted into talonic acid, which is reducible to talose, an isomeride bearing to galactose the same relation that mannose bears to glucose.
When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.
In Barbadoes there are still many estates making good Mascabado sugar; but as the juice is extracted from the canes by windmills, and then concentrated in open kettles heated by direct fire, the financial results are disastrous, since nearly half the yield obtainable from the canes is lost.
In Demerara and other places the juice is then heated under pressure up to 220° F.
In Cuba, Martinique, Peru and elsewhere the old-fashioned double-bottomed defecator is used, into which the juice is run direct, and there limed and heated.
These results are brought about by adding to the cold juice as it comes from the mill the proper proportion of milk of lime set up at 8° B., and then delivering the limed juice in a constant steady stream as near the bottom of the defecator as possible; it is thus brought into immediate contact with the heating surface and heated once for all before it ascends, with the result of avoiding the disturbance caused in the ordinary defecator by pouring cold juice from above on to the surface of the heated juice, and so establishing down-currents of cold juice and up-currents of hot juice.
in diameter, which follows the curve of the hemispherical bottom, and is fitted from one side to the other of the defecator; one end is entirely closed, and the other is connected by a small pipe to a shallow circular vessel outside the defecator, covered with an india-rubber diaphragm, to the centre of which is attached a light rod actuating a steam throttle-valve, and capable of being adjusted as to length, &c. The copper pipe and circular vessel are filled with cold water, which on becoming heated by the surrounding juice expands, and so forces up the india-rubber diaphragm and shuts off the steam.
The juice is then drawn off and pumped up to one of the double-bottomed defecators and redefecated, or, where juice-heaters have been used instead of defecators, the scums from the separators or subsiders are heated and forced through filter presses, the juice expressed going to the evaporators and the scum cakes formed in the filter presses to the fields as manure.
in length; with such coils, and a sufficient annular space in the pan free from obstruction, in order to allow a natural down-current of the cooking mass, while an up-current all round is also naturally produced by the action of the heated worms or coils, rapid evaporation and crystallization can be obtained, without any mechanical adjuncts to require attention or afford excuse for negligence.
These pans are sometimes heated by boiling oil, with the idea that under such conditions the sugar which is kept stirred all the time as it thickens cannot be burnt or caramelized; but the same object can be attained more economically with steam of a given pressure by utilizing its latent heat.
When Cuba was the chief sugar-producing country making clayed sugars it was the custom (followed in refineries and found advantageous in general practice) to discharge the strike of crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated below by steam, and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed.
A cell when filled with fresh slices becomes the head of the battery, and where skilled scientific control can be relied upon to regulate the process, the best and most economical way of heating the slices, previous to admitting the hot liquor from the next cell, is by direct steam; but as the slightest inattention or carelessness in the admission of direct steam might have the effect of inverting sugar and thereby causing the loss of some portion of saccharine in the slices, water heaters are generally used, through which water is passed and heated up previous to admission to the freshly-filled cell.
When the new cell comes into operation and becomes the head of the battery, the first or tail cell is thrown out, and number two becomes the tail cell, and so the rounds are repeated; one cell is always being emptied and one filled or charged with slices and heated up, the latter becoming the head of the battery as soon as it is ready.
The cistern being thus packed and settled is closed, and the syrup from the bag filters, heated up to nearly boiling point, is admitted at the top until the cistern is quite full.
A cistern well packed with 20 tons of char will hold, in addition, about io tons of syrup, and after settling, this can be pressed out by allowing second quality syrup, also heated to nearly boiling point, to enter the cistern slowly from the top, or it may be pressed out by boiling water.
Granulated sugar, so called, is made by passing the crystals, after leaving the centrifugals, through a large and slightly inclined revolving cylinder with a smaller one inside heated by steam.
The sugar fed into the upper end of the cylinder gradually works its way down to the lower, showering itself upon the heated central cylinder.
The a-halogen compounds are obtained by heating styrolene chloride (or bromide) with lime or alcoholic potash; they are liquids which have a penetrating odour, and yield acetophenone when heated with water to 180°.
The co-chlor compound results when, (3-phenyl-a-chlorlactic acid (from hypochlorous acid and cinnamic acid) is heated with water; it has a hyacinthine odour and yields phenylacetaldehyde when heated with water.
Related to styrolene is phenylacetylene, C G H 1 C;CH, which results when a-bromstyrolene or acetophenone chloride are heated to 130° with alcoholic potash, or phenylpropiolic acid with water to 120°.
That: the action of living organisms is the cause of the production of nitrates is supported by the fact that the change does not occur when the soil is heated nor when it is treated with disinfectants which destroy or check the growth and life of bacteria.
Pure carbonate of lime when heated loses 44% of its weight, the decrease being due to the loss of carbon dioxide gas.
Heated with many metals it converts them into oxides, and with combustible substances, such as charcoal, sulphur, &c., a most intense conflagration occurs.
The roasting is most simply effected by spreading it on heated slabs, on which it is constantly turned, or a roasting machine is used, consisting of a revolving drum in which the tobacco is rotated, gradually passing from one end to the other, and all the time under the influence of a current of heated air.
Some fortysix or more retorts, arranged in parallel horizontal rows, are heated in one furnace.
After four days' heating the provisional front wall is removed piecemeal, and the retorts, after having been heated to redness, are inserted in corresponding sets.
(a) The gas is made from the fuel in a detached fireplace and conducted while hot into the combustion chamber of the furnace, and the air for complete combustion is heated by the products of combustion on their way to the chimney.
(b) Both the producer gas and the air are heated before they enter the combustion chamber, as in the Siemens system of regenerative firing.
(c) Natural gas is piped to the furnace, where it meets air heated by the chimney gases.
If zinc be heated to near its boiling-point, it catches fire and burns with a brilliant light into its powdery white oxide, which forms a reek in the air (lana philosophica, " philosopher's wool").
The precipitate, when heated, passes into oxide, which is yellow in the heat and white after cooling; and, if it be moistened with cobalt nitrate solution and re-heated, it exhibits a green colour after cooling.
OH(3), is formed when thymol (paraisopropyl-meta-cresol) is heated with phosphorus pentoxide.
Several modifications were proposed, in one of which, intended for the heating of non-conducting substances, the electrodes were passed horizontally through perforations in the upper part of the crucible walls, and the charge in the lower part of the crucible was heated by radiation.
with a substance offering a high resistance to the current passing through it, and (2) those in which the substance to be heated itself affords the resistance to the passage of the current whereby electric energy is converted into heat.
Practically the first of these furnaces was that of Despretz, in which the mixture to be heated was placed in a carbon tube rendered incandescent by the passage of a current through its substance from end to end.
A thin carbon pencil, forming a bridge between two stout carbon rods, is set in the midst of the mixture to be heated.
On passing a current through the carbon the small rod is heated to incandescence, and imparts heat to the surrounding mass.
The class of furnaces heated by electrically incandescent materials has been divided by Borchers into two groups: (I) those in which the substance is heated by contact form at least so much carbide as would suffice, when diffused through the metal, to render it brittle, practically restricts the use of such processes to the production of aluminium alloys.
It is formed by the condensation of acetylene tetrabromide with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride: Br CH Br CH C H +C6H6=4HBr+C6H4) I, )C6H4, Br CH Br CH and similarly from methylene dibromide and benzene, and also when benzyl chloride is heated with aluminium chloride to 200° C. By condensing ortho-brombenzyl bromide with sodium, C. L.
(-anthrol and anthranol give the corresponding amino compounds (anthramines) when heated with ammonia.
When heated in air it burns brilliantly with the formation of the oxide.
By passing chloroform vapour over the heated dioxide the tetradiand tri-chlorides are formed, together with the free metal and a gaseous hydride, TiH 4 (Renz, Ber., 1906, 39, p. 2 49).
Primary amines when heated with alcoholic potash and chloroform yield isonitriles, which are readily detected by their offensive smell.
Primary amines heated with carbon bisulphide in alcoholic solution are converted into mustard oils, when the dithiocarbamate first produced is heated with a solution of mercuric chloride.
When heated with alkyl or aryl iodides, they are converted into secondary and tertiary amines.
When heated with concentrated sulphuric acid for some time, they are sulphonated.
They form condensation products with aldehydes, benzaldehyde and aniline forming benzylidene aniline, C 6 H 5 N: CHC 6 H 5, and when heated with acids they form anilides.
When heated with monobasic saturated acids and zinc chloride it yields acridines.
Orthophenylene diamine, C 6 H 4 (NH2)2, crystallizes from water in plates, which melt at 102 -103° C. and boil at 256-258° C. When heated with io% hydrochloric acid to 180° C. it yields pyrocatechin (Jacob Meyer, Ber., 1897, 30, p. 2569).
When heated with io% hydrochloric acid to 180° C. it yields resorcin (J.
It crystallizes in tables which melt at 140° C. and boil at 267° C. When heated with 10% hydrochloric acid to 180 C. it yields hydroquinone (J.
Sometimes, especially at early dawn, there is a musical noise in the desert, like the sound of distant drums, which is caused by the eddying of grains of sand in the heated atmosphere, on the crests of the medanos.
The apparatus consists of three parts: - the "retort" or "still," in which the substance is heated; the "condenser," in which the vapours are condensed; and the "receiver," in which the condensed vapours are collected.
Prior to about the 18th century three forms of distillation were practised: (I) destillatio per ascensum, in which the retort was heated from the bottom, and the vapours escaped from the top; (2) destillatio per latus, in which the vapours escaped from the side; (3) destillatio per descensum, in which the retort was heated at the top, and the vapours led off by a pipe passing through the bottom.
The substance is heated in a retort a, which consists of a large bulb drawn out at the top to form a long neck; it may also FIG.
Practically any vessel may serve as a receiver - test tube, flask, beaker, &c. If noxious vapours come over, it is necessary to have an air-tight connexion between the condenser and receiver, and to pro vide the latter with an outlet tube leading to an absorption column or other contrivance in which the vapours are taken up. If the substances operated upon decompose when heated in air, as, for example, the zinc alkyls which inflame, the air within the apparatus is replaced by some inert gas, e.g.
- In this process a current of steam, which is generated in a separate boiler and superheated, if necessary, by circulation through a heated copper worm, is led into the distilling vessel, and the mixed vapours condensed as in the ordinary processes.
The theory of fractional distillation, or the behaviour of liquid mixtures when heated to their boiling-points, is more complex.
The most favourable retort is a shallow iron pan heated in a sand bath, and provided with a screwed-down lid bearing the delivery tube.
In its simplest form the apparatus consists of a straight tube, made of glass, porcelain or iron according to the temperature required and the nature of the reacting substances, heated in an ordinary combustion furnace, the mixture entering at one end and the vapours being condensed at the other.
Two forms of steam distillation may be distinguished: - in one the still is simply heated by a steam coil wound inside or outside the still - this is termed heating by dry steam; in the other steam is injected into the mass within the still - this is the distillation with live steam of laboratory practice.
Glass stills heated by a sand bath are sometimes employed in the final distillation of sulphuric acid; platinum, and an alloy of platinum and iridium with a lining of gold rolled on (a discovery due to Heraeus), are used for the same purpose.
The still is usually fed continuously by the heated water from the condenser.
It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air, and burns when heated in air, oxygen, chlorine, bromine or sulphur vapour.
It dissociates when heated to a high temperature and is not affected by oxygen.
It is a white solid, which combines with gaseous ammonia to form SrC1 2.8NH 3, and when heated in superheated steam it decomposes with evolution of hydrochloric acid.
Strontium sulphide, SrS, is formed when the carbonate is heated to redness in a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen.
When heated it fuses in its own water of crystallization and becomes anhydrous at 110° C. It is used in pyrotechny for the manufacture of red-fire.
It loses carbon dioxide when heated to high temperature.
It forms deliquescent crystals, which are readily soluble in alcohol and melt at ioo° C. When heated for some time at 130° C. it yields fumaric acid (q.v.), and on rapid heating at 180° C. gives maleic anhydride and fumaric acid.
Taking magnesia alba, which he distinguished from limestone with which it had previously been confused, he showed that on being heated it lost weight owing to the escape of this fixed air (named carbonic acid by Lavoisier in 1781), and that the weight was regained when the calcined product was made to reabsorb the fixed air with which it had parted.
The metal is then heated, not to redness, but sufficiently to develop a certain degree of softness, and the workman, taking a very thin sheet of gold (or silver), hammers portions of it into the salient points of the design.
In his process a current was passed through a tank divided into two or three cells by porous partitions, hoods and tubes were arranged to carry off chlorine and hydrogen respectively, and the whole was heated to r20° F.
The ammonium salts when heated lose one molecule of water and are converted into acid-amides, R.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
When heated with glycerin to ioo C. it yields formic acid and carbon dioxide; above this temperature, allyl alcohol is formed.
It melts at 417-419° C. (with decomposition) when heated in a sealed tube (A.
When heated with phosphorus pentoxide it yields cyanogen.
Debray in the case of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which evolve heat when they are dissolved in zinc. When the solution of the rhodium-zinc alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid, a residue is left which undergoes a change with explosive violence if it be heated in vacuo to 400°.
A nickel steel containing 36% of nickel has the property of retaining an almost constant volume when heated or cooled through a considerable range of temperature; it is therefore useful for the construction of pendulums and for measures of length.
To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of p and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to p. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.
Macquer and Lavoisier showed that when gold is strongly heated, fumes arise which gild a piece of silver held in them.
It is insoluble in hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids, but dissolves in aqua regia - a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids - and when very finely divided in a heated mixture of strong sulphuric acid and a little nitric acid; dilution with water, however, precipitates the metal as a violet or brown powder from this solution.
Varrentrapp pointed out that " cornets " from the assay of gold may retain gas if they are not strongly heated.
This oxide is slightly basic. Auric oxide, Au203, is a brown powder, decomposed into its elements when heated to about 250° or on exposure to light.
It has been found that the reaction proceeds faster when the solution is heated.
After well washing with water, the slimes are roughly dried in bag-filters or filter-presses, and then treated with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution being heated by steam.
The bullion with about twice its weight of sulphuric acid of 66° Be is placed in the pot, and the whole gradually heated.
It shows the influence of Arminian theology against Calvinism, which was vigorously upheld in the Quin-particular formula, put forward by the synod of Dort in 1619 to uphold the five points of Calvinism, after heated discussion, in which English delegates took part, of the problems of divine omniscience and human free-will.
Sodium and boiling amyl alcohol reduce it to a tetrahydroretene, - t whilst if it be heated with phosphorus and hydriodic acid to 260° C. a dodecahydride is formed.
In the liquation process the ore is heated in inclined cylindrical retorts, and the molten metal is tapped at the lower end; the residues being removed from the upper end.
The metal oxidizes very slowly in dry air at ordinary temperatures, but somewhat more rapidly in moist air or when heated.
When heated to 200 0 it assumes the crystalline form of bismuthite.
On this ground Maxwell inferred that the forces acting in the radiometer are connected with gliding of the gas along the unequally heated boundaries; and as the laws of this slipping, as well as the constitution of the adjacent layer, are uncertain, the problem becomes very intricate.
In general these compounds are decomposable by heat, but some of them, such as those of gold, silver, copper and the alkali metals, even when heated above the boiling point of mercury retain mercury and leave residues of definite composition.
For higher temperatures the bulb of the vapour density tube is made of porcelain or platinum, and is heated in a gas furnace.
When heated in a current of hydrogen it sublimes in the form of brilliant prismatic crystals.
When heated in air, tellurium burns, forming the dioxide Te02.
The trioxide is an orangecoloured solid which is formed when telluric acid is strongly heated.
When heated in air the metal burns if in the form of thin wire, and is superficially oxidized if more compact.
It is unaffected by any acid or mixture of acids, but burns to the pentoxide when heated.
It forms colourless, very hygroscopic prisms, which attack glass, slowly at ordinary temperatures, more rapidly when heated (Ber., 1909, 4 2, p. 49 2).
There is no difficulty in observing the temperature of the surface of the sea on board ship, the only precautions required being to draw the water in a bucket which has not been heated in the sun in summer or exposed to frost in winter, to draw it well forward of any discharge pipes of the steamer, to place it in the shade on deck, insert the thermometer immediately and make the reading without delay.
The most important class of coals is that generally known as bituminous, from their property of softening or undergoing an apparent fusion when heated to a temperature far below that at which actual combustion takes place.
When coal is heated to redness out of contact with the air, the more volatile constituents, water, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are in great part expelled, a portion of the carbon being also volatilized in the form of hydro carbons and carbonic oxide,-the greater part, however, remaining behind, together with all the mineral matter or ash, in the form of coke, or, as it is also called, " fixed carbon."
The former class undergo an incipient fusion or softening when heated, so that the fragments coalesce and yield a compact coke, while the latter (also called free-burning) preserve their form, producing a coke which is only serviceable when made from large pieces of coal, the smaller pieces being incoherent and of no value.
They found that if liquid acetylene in a steel bottle be heated at one point by a platinum wire raised to a red heat, the whole mass decomposes and gives rise to such tremendous pressures that no cylinder would be able to withstand them.
Heated in contact with air to a temperature of 480° C., acetylene ignites and burns with a flame, the appearance of which varies with the way in which it is brought in contact with the air.
Before the commercial production of calcium carbide made it one of the most easily obtainable gases, the processes which were most largely adopted for its preparation in laboratories were: - first, the decomposition of ethylene bromide by dropping it slowly into a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, and purifying the evolved gas from the volatile bromethylene by washing it through a second flask containing a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, or by passing it over moderately heated soda lime; and, second, the more ordinarily adopted process of passing the products of incomplete combustion from a Bunsen burner, the flame of which had struck back, through an ammoniacal solution of cuprous chloride, when the red copper acetylide was produced.
The essence of this process is that the coke and lime are only heated to the point of combination, and are not 3 to 82 5 to 72 13 to 75 4 to 22 5 to 13 colours.
It is infusible at temperatures up to 2000° C., but can be fused in the electric arc. When heated to temperature of 2 4 5° C. in a stream of chlorine gas it becomes incandescent, forming calcium chloride and liberating carbon, and it can also be made to burn in oxygen at a dull red heat, leaving behind a residue of calcium carbonate.
The carbide is heated to complete liquefaction and tapped at short intervals.
became so heated as to cause the decomposition of some of the gas before combustion, the jet being choked up by the carbon which deposited in a very dense form; and as the use of acetylene under pressures greater than one hundred inches of water was prohibited, no advance was made in this direction.
In 1818 he saved Paris from a financial crisis by buying a large amount of stock, but next year, in consequence of his heated defence of the liberty of the press and the electoral law of 1867, the governorship of the Bank was taken from him.
The term is more customarily given to productions of flame such as we have in the burning of oils, gas, fuel, &c., but it is conveniently extended to other cases of oxidation, such as are met with when metals are heated for a long time in air or oxygen.
In the year before (1742) he had planned the " Pennsylvania fire-place," better known as the " Franklin stove," which saved fuel, heated all the room, and had the same principle as the hot-air furnace; the stove was never patented by Franklin, but was described in his pamphlet dated 1744.
By one of those waves of popular feeling to which the Japanese people are peculiarly liable, the nation which had supported him up to a certain point suddenly veered round and opposed him with heated violence.
The chloride, SmC1 3.6H 2 0, is a deliquescent solid which when heated in hydrochloric acid gas to 180° C. yields the anhydrous chloride.
This anhydrous chloride is reduced to a lower chloride, of composition SmC1 2, when heated to a high temperature in a current of hydrogen or ammonia (Matignon and Cazes, Coupes rendus, 2906, 142, p. 183).
The carbide, SmC2, is formed when the oxide is heated with carbon in the electric furnace.
When the oxidation is complete, the anthraquinone is separated in a filter press, washed and heated to 120° C. with commercial oil of vitriol, using about 22 parts of vitriol to i of anthraquinone.
Dioxyand tetraoxy-anthraquinones are obtained when meta-oxyand dimeta-dioxy-benzoic acids are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid.
As an alternative the osmiridium is fused with zinc, the regulus treated with hydrochloric acid, and then heated with barium nitrate and barium peroxide.
The sulphide is converted into sodium osmichloride by fusion with salt, in a current of chlorine, the sodium salt transformed into ammonium salt by precipitation with ammonium chloride, and the ammonium salt finally heated strongly (H.
It combines with fluorine at loo° C., and when heated with chlorine it forms a mixture of chlorides.
The protoxide, OsO, is obtained as a dark grey insoluble powder when osmium sulphite is heated with sodium carbonate in a current of carbon dioxide.
The dioxide, 0s0 2, is formed when potassium osmichloride is heated with sodium carbonate in a current of carbon dioxide, or by electrolysis of a solution of the tetroxide in the presence of alkali.
The tetroxide, 0s04, is formed when osmium compounds are heated in air, or with aqua regia, or fused with caustic alkali and nitre.
Osmium dichloride, OsC1 21 is obtained as a dark coloured powder when the metal is heated in a current of chlorine.
Potassium osmichloride, K 2 OsC1 6, is formed when a mixture of osmium and potassium chloride is heated in a current of chlorine, or on adding potassium chloride and alcohol to a solution of the tetroxide in hydrochloric acid.
The amorphous metal also results when the chloride is heated with sodium; the oxide reduced with magnesium; or when fused potassium zircono fluoride is electrolysed (Wedekind, Zeit.
The powdery metal burns readily in air; the crystalline metal requires to be heated in an oxyhydrogen flame before it catches fire.
For its extraction from zircon the mineral is heated and quenched in water to render it brittle, and then reduced to a fine powder, which is fused with three to four parts of acid potassium fluoride in a platinum crucible.
When the mass is quietly fusing, the crucible is heated for two hours in a wind-furnace.
Zirconia, when heated to whiteness, remains unfused, and radiates a fine white light, which suggested its utilization for making incandescent gas mantles; and, in the form of disks, as a substitute for the lime-cylinders ordinarily employed in "limelight."
When heated in a loosely covered crucible with magnesium the nitride Zr 2 N 3 is formed (Wedekind, Zeit.
Zirconium hydride, ZrH2, is supposed to be formed when zirconia is heated with magnesium in an atmosphere of hydrogen.
Zirconium iodide, Zr14, was obtained as a yellow, microcrystalline solid by acting with hydriodic acid on heated zirconium (Wedekind, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1135).
Good graphite crucibles can be used many times in succession if they are heated gradually each time, but they are usually discarded after about fifteen or twenty meltings.
They are heated in circular furnaces 21 in.
The blanks fall through an aperture after having been heated for a few minutes.
The three series also differ when heated: the trimetallic salts, containing fixed bases are unaltered, whilst the monoand dimetallic salts yield metaand pyrophosphates respectively.
When boiled with water it forms the ortho-acid, and when heated to redness the metaacid.
The name seems to have been given originally to the Spanish phosphorite, probably because it phosphoresced when heated.
When the wire was heated by an electric current a fine line of vapour descended from each drop. The pipe was closed at the centre by a membrane which prevented a through draught, yet permitted the vibrations, as it was at a node.
When heated with hydrochloric acid it gives isopilocarpine.
Heated in chlorine or with bromine, it yields carbon and calcium chloride or bromide; at a dull red heat it burns in oxygen, forming calcium carbonate, and it becomes incandescent in sulphur vapour at 500°, forming calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide.
Calcium phosphide, Ca 3 P 2, is obtained as a reddish substance by passing phosphorus vapour over strongly heated lime.
It is particularly noteworthy from the phosphorescence which it exhibits when heated, or after exposure to the sun's rays; hence its synonym "Canton's phosphorus," after John Canton (1718-1772), an English natural philosopher.
Calcium is generally estimated by precipitation as oxalate which, after drying, is heated and weighed as carbonate or oxide, according to the degree and duration of the heating.
The hydrogen in ammonia is capable of replacement by metals, thus magnesium burns in the gas with the formation of magnesium nitride Mg3N2, and when the gas is passed over heated sodium or potassium, sodamide, NaNH 2, and potassamide, KNH 2, are formed.
It decomposes silicates on being heated with them.
Berthelot in 1883 showed that if ammonium nitrate be rapidly heated the following reaction takes place with explosive violence:-2NH 4 NO 3 = 4H20+2N2+ 02.
After some heated discussion a compromise was arrived at.
They are also formed when grape sugar is heated with ammonia or when glycerin is heated with ammonium chloride and ammonium phosphate (C. Stoehr, Journ.
The apparatus described in the patent specification is an iron cylinder heated by gas rings below, with a narrower cylinder beneath, through which passes upwards a stout iron cathode rod cemented in place by caustic soda solidified in the narrower vessel.
Heated in a current of carbon dioxide sodamide yields caustic soda and cyanamide, and with nitrous oxide it gives sodium azoimide; it deflagrates with lead or silver nitrate and explodes with potassium chlorate.
It burns when heated in dry air, and ignites in moist air; it is decomposed by water, giving caustic soda and hydrogen.
rend., 1901, 133, p. 223.) Sodium dioxide, Na202, is formed when the metal is heated in an excess of air or oxygen.
In practice the metal is placed on aluminium trays traversing an iron tube heated to 300 0, through which a current of air, freed from moisture and carbon dioxide, is passed; the process is made continuous, and the product contains about 93% Na202.
Sodium dioxide is chiefly employed as an oxidizing agent, being used in mineral analysis and in various organic preparations; it readily burns paper, wood, &c., but does not evolve oxygen unless heated to a high temperature.
Propylene, C 3 H 6, may be obtained by passing the vapour of trimethylene through a heated tube (S.
Isobutylene, (CH 3) 2 C:CH 2, is formed in the dry distillation of fats, and also occurs among the products obtained when the vapour of fusel oil is led through a heated tube.
Charcoal burns when heated in air, usually without the formation of flame, although a flame is apparent if the temperature be raised.
It burns when heated in an atmosphere of oxygen, forming carbon dioxide, and when heated in sulphur vapour it forms carbon bisulphide.
When heated with nitrogenous substances, in the presence of carbonated or caustic alkali, it forms cyanides.
It does not burn, and does not support ordinary combustion, but the alkali metals and magnesium, if strongly heated, will continue to burn in the gas with formation of oxides and liberation of carbon.