The evening heat was stifling.
Carmen stopped at the corner, uncomfortable with the heat of the exchange, yet unwilling to interrupt.
A flood of heat washed up her throat to stain her cheeks.
The thick Miami heat had never felt so good!
She tasted sweet and saucy, like the woman herself, her heat, scent and silky skin filling his senses in a way that left him wanting more of her.
The heat settled around them like a hot breath.
Fuming anyway, she pushed the curtains away from the balcony door and stepped into the night, winter's chill taking some of the heat out of her.
No one had remembered to turn the heat on last night.
As they watched, the figures in the dusty heat waves finally became recognizable as cavalry - even to the naked eye.
The desert heat couldn't reach her private cloud.
The heat was definitely turned up.
But the black rocks sucked the heat in and held it close to the earth.
Heat waves blurred the dunes around them.
Of course the vital heat is not to be confounded with fire; but so much for analogy.
Heat and drought had continued for more than three weeks.
Three empty bedrooms were closed off to the heat, as well as a full bath that looked as though it hadn't been used in years.
The gully shimmered in heat waves.
"I'm just turning the heat up a notch," he added.
They quickly melted into the heat waves again.
Ridges of sparkling white sand surrounded the camp like a sleeping dragon, soaking heat from the sun - resting now so it could spit its fiery breath at them later in the day.
She shivered at the odd connection, the heat and warmth.
Reluctant or not, his body heat was welcome.
Jule felt the sudden loss of the connection between Yully and him like the heat going out on a cold winter night.
The air between them shimmered with his body heat and her magic, and he didn't flinch away like normal people did.
Similarly, they require little power, so they either can be powered cheaply or can power themselves from their environment, with a little heat or sunlight.
The handle doesn't heat up.
Carmen lay still for a few minutes, soaking up the body heat from Alex.
I asked, pointing in the direction from which the heat came.
The riders were a blur in the heat waves, but she was sure one was Pete.
I knew the sky was black, because all the heat, which meant light to me, had died out of the atmosphere.
He remained relaxed, his large body radiating heat in the cold room.
Electricity produces heat, heat produces electricity.
His scent and heat, the warmth of his magic, the heady sensations of being so close to him … She concentrated on placing her feet and not on his body.
Yully met his gaze, utterly relaxed and content with his heat and power moving through her.
The heat makes Helen languid and quiet.
In the heat of a battle it is easy to make a mistake.
A pot-bellied stove in the middle of the main room provided the main heat in the two-bedroom room cottage.
As he joined her they squinted into the heat waves, shielding their eyes against the bright sun - trying to discern something of the shadows below the plume.
Frankly, if you can convince him, it will take a lot of heat off me.
They strode into the sticky heat towards the gym between the house and the garage.
The idea brought a rush of heat to her neck.
Engulfed in his heat and scent, she relaxed.
Let him who has work to do recollect that the object of clothing is, first, to retain the vital heat, and secondly, in this state of society, to cover nakedness, and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe.
The soft bed was warm from her body heat, and she found herself running a hand over the downy comforter while she tried to understand the emotions within her.
Plus, they will be able to convert heat to electricity as well, so anything that heats up will become an energy source.
She felt his body heat from the short distance between them and recognized his scent from the sheets.
His solid frame and heat were creeping into her senses, tugging at her resolve to resist.
It had to be a dream, except that she remembered the heat of the skin beneath his shirt and tracing the scars she knew covered his body.
She blinked, pulling her attention from the heat racing through her body.
The grand necessity, then, for our bodies, is to keep warm, to keep the vital heat in us.
Here, at the extreme left flank, Bennigsen talked a great deal and with much heat, and, as it seemed to Pierre, gave orders of great military importance.
He understood that latent heat (as they say in physics) of patriotism which was present in all these men he had seen, and this explained to him why they all prepared for death calmly, and as it were lightheartedly.
Everything from the texture of his skin to the heat of his hands branding her was heaven to one unaccustomed to the sensuality of her world.
Helen felt the heat and asked, "Did the sun fall?"
Heat sensors haven't located any body heat unless they're below ground level.
Damian closed his eyes to the heat and light, tormented by his brother's death and his own cowardice.
Deidre stopped only when they were toe-to-toe and leaned into him, needing the heat and solidness of his body to quiet her distress.
She gasped, the heat and energy of his touch making her shiver.
Others in that heat and crush racked their brains to find some thought and hastened to utter it.
There is a certain limit of time in less than which no amount of heat can melt the snow.
Jule began shivering, and she turned up the heat until it was too hot for her to stand.
This is that portion, also, where in the spring, the ice being warmed by the heat of the sun reflected from the bottom, and also transmitted through the earth, melts first and forms a narrow canal about the still frozen middle.
The extremes of heat and cold are very great.
"Vereshchagin is a renegade and a traitor who will be punished as he deserves," said he with the vindictive heat with which people speak when recalling an insult.
Glowing with the heat and from running, he felt at that moment more strongly than ever the sense of youth, animation, and determination that had come on him when he ran to save the child.
On the contrary the greater the heat the more solidified the remaining snow becomes.
And as the undefinable essence of the force moving the heavenly bodies, the undefinable essence of the forces of heat and electricity, or of chemical affinity, or of the vital force, forms the content of astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and so on, just in the same way does the force of free will form the content of history.
Traditional dishes such as chicken tikka and paneer bread are on the menu and the dishes are identified according to heat levels.
Just thinking of him made her body heat and her heart flip.
The heat of her anger vanished, replaced by fear.
Their bodies were slick with sweat, and she lingered in the afterglow, lost in the heat and silk of his skin.
Deidre watched closely as Cora demonstrated how to heat water, insert the teabag and then add sugar.
She tasted slightly sweet, the heat of her mouth contrasting with the chill of her skin, and smelled of lake water.
How can a man be a philosopher and not maintain his vital heat by better methods than other men?
A little later, when the rush and heat of achievement relax, we can begin to expect the appearance of grand men to celebrate in glorious poetry and prose the deeds and triumphs of the last few centuries.
As Pierre approached that street the smoke became denser and denser--he even felt the heat of the fire.
Heat rose to her face as she stared openly.
In Petersburg at that time a complicated struggle was being carried on with greater heat than ever in the highest circles, between the parties of Rumyantsev, the French, Marya Fedorovna, the Tsarevich, and others, drowned as usual by the buzzing of the court drones.
The sun baked them with ever intensifying heat.
Chauncey, you can't carry me in this heat.
It wouldn't take long to dry in this heat.
The best way to beat the cold was to work up some heat.
She rose and approached, resting back on her heels in front of him, close enough for him to smell her musk and feel her heat.
She started the car and blasted the heat.
"You're a pain in the ass," he said with no heat.
The sense of peace descended upon her again, and she relaxed against him, content to her soul to be surrounded by his scent and heat.
She rolled onto her stomach away from him, blood flying with desire and heat.
Her senses became saturated quickly by his scent and heat.
Watching him move made her blood heat.
Deidre's face flushed with heat.
Deidre approached him until close enough to feel his body heat.
"You came out better as a human," he said without heat.
How is a sociopathic deity better at ruling the underworld than a compassionate human? he returned with no heat.
I can turn the heat down and it will cook slower – might even be better.
After he left, she turned the heat down and wrote a note to Jonathan.
Most of them were wilting in the Atlanta heat.
The air-conditioned hospital corridor gave way to the balmy heat of the Caribbean island on which he stood.
Her sense of self-consciousness grew as the physical contact made her appreciative of the size and heat of his body.
The heat of his body sank through her clothes, and the idea of his hot skin pressed to hers made her lower belly burn.
She was lost in a haze of heat and dark spices, of his hot kisses and solid strength, until his touch left her.
His clothes were strangling him in heat after the match.
Her womanly scent teased him, the heat of her nearness reminding him of how he'd gotten himself into this situation in the first place.
His heat and scent were starting to mess with her at such a distance.
It was later than she thought, mid-afternoon by the heat.
Deidre's body betrayed her, giving a full-form shudder at the rush of heat and energy.
Deidre withdrew a few feet down the balcony, struggling with the heat streaking through her blood and scattering her rationale.
But Death on guard was something else entirely, and she wasn't going to be the second woman to revel in the heat of his arms this night.
Gradually, his warmth sank into her skin, and she lay still, exhausted yet soothed by the heat of his body.
Deidre gazed at the expanse of his chest, all too aware of his strength and heat.
Gabriel stopped in front of her, his heat and nearness like a subtle siren song that tried to lure her closer.
She let herself stay where she was, intrigued by the electricity and calmed by the heat of his body.
It gave off heat despite the black flames.
"Does nothing bother you?" he asked without heat, knowing the answer.
The vents rattled without producing heat.
The rocket slammed into an ambulance parked in front of Andre's, the brilliant explosion throwing heat and light that reached her on what she estimated was the twentieth floor.
Its touched eased the heat and pain.
When it'd finished, she felt little pain, and the heat was completely gone.
He certainly felt human with a massive male body expending heat and warmth.
The pinch was less today, and the pain gone instantly, replaced by heat and warmth.
His thumb traced the line of her jaw lightly, and heat skittered through her.
She felt the heat --his heat --within her, branding her from the inside out.
Katie supplied with no heat.
She surrendered to the heat in her blood.
If she stepped just an inch closer, she.d feel his body heat.
He turned her to face him, and she gazed up at him, once again awed by his size, heat, and intensity.
Her blood was already on fire from their bodies being pressed together, and heat pooled in the base of her belly.
He was trying not to let the feel of Katie.s skin heat his blood, but her nearness and direct gaze lit him afire.
Even at the safe distance, his body heat made her uncomfortably warm.
An unexpected heat jarred her to her core, and the earth beneath her feet shook violently enough to rattle her teeth.
The heat of his large hands made her feel as if she wore no clothing.
Heat flared within her body, and her imagination painted an image of the warrior before her without the clothing.
His incredible strength, heat, and scent calmed her fear as much as they excited the woman within her.
The brilliant suns were overhead, their heat heavy in the still day.
Another was hunch-backed and dressed in heavy robes despite the heat of the day, and a third man barely taller than her had white irises and silvering hair.
She could feel his body heat and felt pinned beneath the intensity of his gaze.
The landscape was open and flat, the heat making the ground shimmer.
She rose to see how far away they were from the horizon, miserable in the heat.
Night brought a chill as uncomfortable as the heat of the day.
The dwelling was warm already in the midmorning, and she wondered how she'd survive another day of heat like yesterday's.
Her senses filled with his taste, scent, the heat of his body, enveloping her yet never enough.
"I know you didn't," Kiera said with no heat.
His large frame radiated heat.
The heat has been lowered now that the men have left and it is oh so cold as I lay huddled here beneath my thin blankets.
You mean you'd start blasting away on the spur of the moment— in the heat of passion.
Fully alert, he listened, but heard only night noises, the ticking of the hall clock, a slight breeze, the ever-present furnace rumbling heat to the old building.
She turned and in one motion straddled him, pinning his arms above his head, the heat of her body pressed against him.
With the first sip, heat invaded the newborns' throats and bellies.
The first was to maintain enough control to avoid crushing them in the heat of passion.
He decided that even if she sounded like a cat in heat, he would gush over her with praise.
I can heat some up for you.
The house looked so far away as it shimmered in heat waves.
Heat rolled over him as he was flung towards the weed-infested parking lot.
Heat pulsed off the building in waves, aided by a soft, cold breeze.
Heat then red light washed over them.
The body heat of someone kneeling beside her made her blink, and she braced herself for the doc shooting her up again.
She felt his body heat and stared at his wide chest.
Her breathing was hard, his body heat piercing her clothes.
Her face flamed with heat, and she strained against him.
She touched him timidly, her cool hands branding him as heat coursed through him.
Overwhelmed, she closed her eyes, enjoying the heat.
Heat ripped through the cabin of the helicopter, bringing with it the scent of scorched metal.
At least now they'll have real heat, she thought to herself.
Heat surged through his body, but he hesitated.
Deidre shifted with a grunt. Katie sat back on her haunches, not sure what to do when she couldn't see what she was trying to cut. Deidre was shaking as hard as Katie was, and Katie crept closer for body heat.
And then they got sick of sitting around, and maybe ran out of dough I guess and figured the heat was off, so they came out.
What's the heat if I double rent once in awhile?
The heat wouldn't let up.
That's a lot of heat for a lousy two or three million.
There was another concern—once the bikers hit the lower elevation and the heat of the afternoon, they would be shedding outer gear and perhaps identifying numbers with them.
It wouldn't take more than a few minutes in this heat before she would be ready to jump back into the water.
Below, the pond glistened in the evening heat, as if winking up at her.
You can get in out of the heat and you don't have to walk so far to do the chores.
Heat rushed up her neck.
The idea brought heat to her face.
Heat flooded her face and she looked away.
No more would she crawl between icy sheets and shiver until her own body heat warmed them - or wake to a cold lonely house.
Heat raced up her neck.
Heat raced up her neck again.
She started to groan with pleasure, but it came out more an eager whimper that sent a rush of heat to her face.
One evening Carmen prepared a nice supper and put it on low heat in the oven to keep it warm while she dressed.
If I heat this stuff up one more time, it's likely to get tough.
It was too late to heat up the oven and bake the chicken, so she cut it up and fried it.
He could heat it up if he wanted it.
He flipped on the heat and looked around the living room, satisfied with his find.
Jenn shivered involuntarily as a cool breeze replaced his body heat.
The dry desert heat gave way to cool sea breeze, and a massive apple tree protected her from the sun overhead.
She'd sparred with Darian hundreds of times and never noticed the way he smelled or the heat of his body against hers.
Her fingers continued, and he felt the heat of her touch like lightning running through his body.
The heat of the desert disappeared as he dropped through the portal to the immortal world.
At once, the cold and dark was replaced by soft light and heat.
She took a step back at the flash of heat.
Those ahead of him grew more restless with the passing time, eerie quiet, and stifling heat.
He heard nothing to indicate danger, but the heat grew steadily with their bodies pressed together.
The return journey must be undertaken soon, despite the heat and danger lurking in the forest.
The tension was thick, their heat filling the empty space between them.
Taran opened his eyes beneath the eye-band, the heat of a hot morning sun on his face.
She could not remember anything as comforting as his protective strength and heat.
"You're a fool, Rissa," he said again but without heat.
Taran said with no heat.
She fluttered butterfly kisses across his face, thrilled at the heat and strength of his body so near hers.
Heat crawled up her neck.
It would be nice to try some of the camp recipes she had picked up before leaving California, but the kitchen was hot enough without adding cooking heat.
It was frozen, but it would soon thaw in this heat.
The heat of the sun had withered the cut foliage and it was unsightly.
She lifted the hair off the back of her neck and read on, but the sticky heat was too distracting.
The air was still and the heat stifling.
Even in the desert the heat had not been so oppressive... and one day it had reached over a hundred.
The heat was suffocating.
The warmth returned to his eyes, chasing a flood of heat up her throat.
Seriously, I don't know how you stand the heat.
I haven't yet, but then you're used to heat a lot worse than this, aren't you?
Probably something said in the heat of the moment.
Heat and exhaustion might have explained the instant fury that welled up in her throat and filled her voice with rancor.
Her head throbbed with the heat and she leaned it back on his shoulder.
His warm breath on her neck and the added heat of his body made her feel nauseous again.
Heat crept up his neck and into his face.
Xander asked with no real heat.
The air around him was strangely still, the heat of a body unlike any she'd ever seen before reminding her she hadn't dated in four years.
The heat of his large hands burned through her thin dress, and warmth bloomed within her.
Jessi fumbled with the lobster clasp on the black cord necklace, completely shaken by his size and heat.
He reached past her, his heat and scent stirring her senses once more.
She shivered at the sensation of his roughened jaw against her cheek and the heat of his bare chest.
The heat and size of his body, the erotic pose, his direct gaze … all fed the desire burning within her.
She gasped at the intensity that turned her lower belly into a furnace and swept through her, making her achingly aware of his scent, the heat and smoothness of his skin, the size of his body and the hot mouth pressed against her neck.
Her skin grew so sensitive, the scrape of sand and heat of his hands were almost orgasmic.
It was hard not to be affected by the strength and heat of his body or the fact she was way too close to him.
She backed away, too aware of the heat of his body and the strength it took to do what he'd done to the three thugs.
She found herself leaning into him, soothed by his size and the heat of the skin of his chest against her cheek.
She felt a hint of the trance she'd fallen into when he bit her, the coursing of desire and pooling of heat in her lower belly.
His scent and heat washed over her.
He stood close enough to feel her body heat and rested a hand on her hip as they waited for Ashley to unlock the door.
He began massaging gently, the combination of strength and heat welcome.
Jessi leaned into him, thrilled at the sensation of his arms enveloping her in his heat.
The Traveling was quick and transported them from the quiet, dry heat of Texas to the heavy, warm ocean air.
The heat of his bare chest beneath her hands and the hardness of his arousal against her belly made need roar to life within her.
His comforting scent and heat filled her senses.
His oak-amber scent and the heat of his skin intoxicated her, made her feel like – even if the world ended – she might not care, if she was in his arms.
It is the chief health resort of the state, and its climate is one of the finest in Australia; it has a mean annual temperature of 58.6° F., and the summer heat is never excessive.
Metallic cobalt may be obtained by reduction of the oxide or chloride in a current of hydrogen at a red heat, or by heating the oxalate, under a layer of powdered glass.
It decomposes steam at a red heat, and slowly dissolves in dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, but more readily in nitric acid.
If the heat exceeds 80°, holes should be made to moderate the fermentation.
The beds are to be spawned when the heat moderates, and the surface is then covered with a sprinkling of warmed loam, which after a few days is made up to a thickness of 2 in., and well beaten down.
In 1831, from a study of the specific heats of compounds, he formulated "Neumann's law," which expressed in modern language runs: "The molecular heat of a compound is equal to the sum of the atomic heats of its constituents."
A fire without light, compared to the heat which gathers in a haystack when the hay has been stored before it was properly dry - heat, in short, as an agitation of the particles - is the motive cause of the contraction and dilatations of the heart.
It is not much comfort to learn further from Descartes that " he denies life to no animal, but makes it consist in the mere heat of the heart.
A part of the helium contained in minerals can be extracted by heat or by grinding.
For the 150 miles between Ras Malan and Pasni Alexander was compelled by the natural barriers to march inland, and it was here that his troops sank under the horrors of heat and thirst and sand.
The excessive heat of the upper regions compels him to descend, and he next visits the bottom of the sea in a kind of diving-bell.
There would then have been less disturbance owing to the breath of the players and heat of the theatres or concert-rooms. It would be a great advantage to get this higher grade generally adopted.
The object of all heating apparatus is the transference of heat from the fire to the various parts of the building it is intended to warm, and this transfer may be effected by radiation, by conduction or by convection.
A closed stove acts mainly by convection; though when heated to a high temperature it gives out radiant heat.
With closed stoves much less heat is wasted, and consequ;ntly less fuel is burned, than with open grates, but they often cause an unpleasant sensation of dryness in the air, and the products of combustion also escape to some extent, rendering this method of heating not only unpleasant but sometimes even dangerous.
They usually take the form of cast iron open stoves fitted with a number of Bunsen burners which heat perforated lumps of asbestos.
If the flue pipe be carried up a considerable distance inside the apartment to be warmed before being turned into the external air, practically the whole of the heat generated will be utilized.
Gas fires, as a substitute for the open coal fire, have many points in their favour, for they are conducive to cleanliness, they need but little attention, and the heat is easily controlled.
All these methods warm chiefly by means of convected heat, the amount of true radiation from the pipes being small.
Owing to the very rapid movement and the consequent increased rate of transmission of heat, the pipes and radiators may be reduced in size, in many circumstances a very desirable thing to achieve.
If the weather is mild, a moderate heat may be obtained by using the apparatus as an ordinary hot water system, and shutting off the steam injectors.
For large public buildings, factories, &c., heating by steam is generally adopted on account of the rapidity with which heat is available, and the great distance from the boiler at which warming is effected.
It is certainly the most scientific method of steam-heating, and heat can be made to travel a greater distance by its aid than by any other means.
The heat of the pipes is great, but can be easily regulated.
This pumping action results in an extremely rapid circulation of the heating agent, enabling long distances to be traversed without much loss of heat.
Compared with heating by hot water, steam-heating requires less piping, which, further, may be of much smaller diameter to attain a similar result, because of the higher temperature of the heat yielding surface.
To regulate the heat it is necessary either to instal a number of small radiators or to divide the radiators into sections, each section controlled by distinct valves; steam may then be admitted to all the sections of the radiator or to any less number of sections as desired.
Indirect radiators are placed beneath the floor of the apartment to be heated and give off heat through a grating.
Fusible plugs are little used; they consist of pieces of softer metal inserted on the side of the boiler, which melt should the heat of the water rise above a certain temperature.
The lime deposit or " fur " is a poor conductor of heat, and it is therefore most detrimental to the efficiency of the system to allow the interior of the boiler or any other portion to become furred up. Further, if not removed, the fur will in a short time bring about a fracture in the boiler.
It does not react with the alkali metals, but combines with magnesium at a low red heat to form a boride, and with other metals at more or less elevated temperatures.
It reduces many metallic oxides, such as lead monoxide and cupric oxide, and decomposes water at a red heat.
Like silicon and carbon, very varying values had been given for its specific heat, until H.
Weber showed that the specific heat increases rapidly with increasing temperature.
Boron sulphide B 2 S 3 can be obtained by the direct union of the two elements at a white heat or from the tri-iodide and sulphur at 44 0 ° C., but is most conveniently prepared by heating a mixture of the trioxide and carbon in a stream of carbon bisulphide vapour.
They present to the fierce play of the sun almost a level surface, so that during the day that surface becomes intensely heated and at night gives off its heat by radiation.
This circumstance is due to the sea-breezes, which blow with great regularity, and temper what would otherwise be an excessive heat.
Of course, in a territory of such large extent there are many varieties of climate, and the heat is greater along the coast than on the elevated lands of the interior.
Thus the winter in Rockhampton averages nearly 65°, while the summer heat rises almost to 85°; and at Townsville and Normanton the average temperature is still higher.
The heat, however, is generally less intense in summer, and the cold greater in winter.
In the southern and early-settled parts of the state the mean temperature is about 64°, but in the more northern portions the heat is excessive, though the dryness of the atmosphere makes it preferable to moist tropical climates.
The chief complaint which Europeans make concerning it is the extreme humidity, which causes the heat to be more oppressive than is the case where the air is dry.
He showed that the heat motion of particles, which is too small to be perceptible when these particles are large, and which cannot be observed in molecules since these themselves are too small, must be perceptible when the particles are just large enough to be visible and gave complete equations which enable the masses themselves to be deduced from the motions of these particles.
The heat is moderated by the S.E.
The heat equator, or line of maximum mean surface temperature, starts from the African coast in about 5° N.
There was, however, even before Newton's time, more than a suspicion that heat was a form of energy.
Francis Bacon expressed his conviction that heat consists of a kind of motion or "brisk agitation" of the particles of matter.
In the Novum Organum, after giving a long list of the sources of heat, he says: "From these examples, taken collectively as well as singly, the nature whose limit is heat appears to be motion..
It must not be thought that heat generates motion or motion heat (though in some respects this is true), but the very essence of heat, or the substantial self of heat, is motion and nothing else."
Rumford was engaged in superintending the boring of cannon in the military arsenal at Munich, and was struck by the amount of heat produced by the action of the boring bar upon the brass castings.
In order to see whether the heat came out of the chips he compared the capacity for heat of the chips abraded by the boring bar with that of an equal quantity of the metal cut from the block by a fine saw, and obtained the same result in the two cases, from which he concluded that "the heat produced could not possibly have been furnished at the expense of the latent heat of the metallic chips."
In order to be sure that the heat was not due to the action of the air upon the newly exposed metallic surface, the cylinder and the end of the boring bar were immersed in 18-77 lb.
Taking into account the heat absorbed by the box and the metal, Rumford calculated that the heat developed was sufficient to raise 26.58 lb of water from the freezing to the boiling point, and in this calculation the heat lost by radiation and conduction was neglected.
Finally, Rumford reviewed all the sources from which the heat might have been supposed to be derived, and concluded that it was simply produced by the friction, and that the supply was inexhaustible.
"It is hardly necessary to add," he remarks, "that anything which any insulated body or system of bodies can continue to furnish without limitation cannot possibly be a material substance; and it appears to me to be extremely difficult, if not quite impossible, to form any distinct idea of anything capable of being excited and communicated in the manner that heat was excited and communicated in these experiments, except it be motion."
He did not, however, infer that since the heat could not have been supplied by the ice, for ice absorbs heat in melting, this experiment afforded conclusive proof against the substantial nature of heat.
Though we may allow that the results obtained by Rumford and Davy demonstrate satisfactorily that heat is in some way due to motion, yet they do not tell us to what particular dynamical quantity heat corresponds.
For example, does the heat generated by friction vary as the friction and the time during which it acts, or is it proportional to the friction and the distance through which the rubbing bodies are displaced - that is, to the work done against friction - or does it involve any other conditions?
P. Joule to achieve; his experiments conclusively prove that heat and energy are of the same nature, and that all other forms of energy can be transformed into an equivalent amount of heat.
The quantity of energy which, if entirely converted into heat, is capable of raising the temperature of the unit mass of water from C. to 1° C. is called the mechanical equivalent of heat.
One of the first who took in hand the determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat was Marc. Seguin, a nephew of J.
He argued that, if heat be energy, then, when it is employed in doing work, as in a steam-engine, some of the heat must itself be consumed in the operation.
Hence he inferred that the amount of heat given up to the condenser of an engine when the engine is doing work must be less than when the same amount of steam is blown through the engine without doing any work.
Him succeeded, not only in showing that such a difference exists, but in measuring it, and hence determining a tolerably approximate value of the mechanical equivalent of heat.
In 1839 Seguin endeavoured to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat from the loss of heat suffered by steam in expanding, assuming that the whole of the heat so lost was consumed in doing external work against the pressure to which the steam was exposed.
Mayer, a physician at Heilbronn, published an attempt to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat from the heat produced when air is compressed.
Mayer made an assumption the converse of that of Seguin, asserting that the whole of the work done in compressing the air was converted into heat, and neglecting the possibility of heat being consumed in doing work within the air itself or being produced by the transformation of internal potential energy.
By ca-sing two conical surfaces of cast-iron immersed in mercury and contained in an iron vessel to rub against one another when pressed together by a lever, Joule obtained 776.045 foot-pounds for the mechanical equivalent of heat when the heavy weights were used, and 774.93 foot-pounds with the small driving weights.
The close agreement between the results at least indicates that "the amount of heat produced by friction is proportional to the work done and independent of the nature of the rubbing surfaces."
Joule inferred from them that the mechanical equivalent of heat is probably about 772 foot-pounds, or, employing the centigrade scale, about 1390 foot-pounds.
He also determined a roughly approximate value for the mechanical equivalent of heat from the results of these experiments.
Now, we know that the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed is proportional to the whole amount of electricity which passed through the circuit, and the product of this by the electromotive force of the battery is the work done by the latter, so that in this case also Joule showed that the heat generated was proportional to the work done.
Assuming that the whole of the energy was converted into heat, when the air was subjected to a pressure of 21.5 atmospheres Joule obtained for the mechanical equivalent of heat about 824.8 foot-pounds, and when a pressure of only 10 .
The amount of heat absorbed by the air could thus be measured, while the work done by it in expanding could be readily calculated.
In allowing the air to expand from a pressure of 21 atmospheres to that of i atmosphere the value of the mechanical equivalent of heat obtained was 821.89 foot-pounds.
On repeating the experiment when the two vessels were placed in different calorimeters, it was found that heat was absorbed by the vessel containing the compressed air, while an equal quantity of heat was produced in the calorimeter containing the exhausted vessel.
For a long time the final result deduced by Joule by these varied and careful investigations was accepted as the standard value of the mechanical equivalent of heat.
Though we can convert the whole of the energy possessed by any mechanical system into heat, it is not in our power to perform the inverse operation, and to utilize the whole of the heat in doing mechanical work.
Thus the principle of Carnot involves the conclusion that a greater proportion of the heat possessed by a body at a high temperature can be converted into work than in the case of an equal quantity of heat possessed by a body at a low temperature, so that the availability of heat increases with the temperature.
By continuing this process every unit of mass which enters B will carry with it more energy than each unit which leaves B, and hence the temperature of the gas in B will be raised and that of the gas in A lowered, while no heat is lost and no energy expended; so that by the application of intelligence alone a portion of gas of uniform pressure and temperature may be sifted into two parts, in which both the temperature and the pressure are different, and from which, therefore, work can be obtained at the expense of heat.
In the preface he states the position that "whenever, then, two gases are allowed to mix without the performance of work, there is dissipation of energy, and an opportunity of doing work at the expense of low temperature heat has been for ever lost."
When the pressure on one side of the diaphragm thus becomes greater than that on the other, work may be done at the expense of heat in pushing the diaphragm, and the operation carried on with continual gain of work until the gases are uniformly diffused.
This sorting can occur spontaneously to a limited extent; while if we could carry it out as far as we pleased we might transform the whole of the heat of a body into work.
If we could drive the engine so fast as to reduce C' to zero, the whole of the energy of the battery would be available, no heat being produced in the wires, but the horse-power of the engine would be indefinitely small.
The availability of the energy of electrical separation in a charged Leyden jar is also limited only by the resistance of conductors, in virtue of which an amount of heat is necessarily produced, which is greater the less the time occupied in discharging the jar.
The availability of the energy of magnetization is limited by the coercive force of the magnetized material, in virtue of which any change in the intensity of magnetization is accompanied by the production of heat.
In all cases there is a general tendency for other forms of energy to be transformed into heat on account of the friction of rough surfaces, the resistance of conductors, or similar causes, and thus to lose availability.
In electric cranes a useful method is to arrange the connexions so that the lifting motor acts as a dynamo, and, driven by the energy of the falling load, generates a current which is converted into heat by being passed through resistances.
That the quantity of heat to be got rid of may become very considerable is seen when it is considered that the energy of a load of 60 tons descending through 50 ft.
is equivalent to an amount of heat sufficient to raise nearly 6 gallons of water from 60° F.
Over the surface of the plate and between it and the indicator there was passed, at a regularly uniform speed, in a direction perpendicular to the line of motion of the indicator, a material capable of being acted on physically by the sparks, through either their chemical action, their heat, or their perforating force.
When electric oscillations are set up in an open or closed electric circuit having capacity and inductance, and left to themselves, they die away in amplitude, either because they dissipate their energy as heat in overcoming the resistance of the circuit, or because they radiate it by imparting wave motion to the surrounding ether.
A fourth class of electric wave detector comprises the thermal detectors which operate in virtue of the fact that electric oscillations create heat in a fine wire through which they pass.
If then oscillations are sent through the other pair heat is produced at the junction and the galvanometer indicates a thermoelectric current (Wied.
Cadmium vapour decomposes water at a red heat, with liberation of hydrogen, and formation of the oxide of the metal.
It does not melt at a white heat, and is easily reduced to the metal by heating in a current of hydrogen or with carbon.
It is decomposed by heat into the oxide and water, and is soluble in ammonia but not in excess of dilute potassium hydroxide; this latter property serves to distinguish it from zinc hydroxide.
It is used as a pigment (cadmium yellow), for it retains its colour in an atmosphere containing sulphuretted hydrogen; it melts at a white heat, and on cooling solidifies to a lemon-yellow micaceous mass.
The inhabitants of the north—the Piedmontese, Lombards and Genoese especially—have suffered less than those of the rest of the peninsula from foreign domination and from the admixture of inferior racial elements, and the cold winter climate prevents the heat of summer from being enervating.
Thus the Italians, during the heat of the civil wars, were ostensibly divided between partisans of the ~ ~ empire and partisans of the church.
or vital principle, with heat or fire which pervades in unequal proportions, not only man and animals, but plants and nature as a whole, and through the agitation of which by incoming effluvia all sensation arises.
By this writer the world is explained as a product of three principles - dead matter, and two active forces, heat and cold.
Terrestrial things arise through a confluence of heat, which issues from the heavens, and cold, which comes from the earth.
It is a white powder, which turns pale yellow on heating, and melts at a red heat.
The latter function has been found to be of extreme importance in the case of plants exposed to the direct access of the suns rays, the heat of which would rapidly cause the death of the protoplasts were it not employed in the evaporation of the water.
Though this at first met with some acceptance, Strasburger showed that the action goes on in great lengths of stem the cells of which have been killed by poison or by the action of heat.
Again, we have evidence of the power of plants to avail themselves of the heat rays.
There is, no doubt, a direct interchange of heat between the plant and the air, which in many cases results in a gain of heat by the plant.
Indeed, the tendency to absorb heat in this way, either from the air or directly from the sunlight, has already been pointed out as a danger which needs to be averted by transpiration.
The liberated energy takes the form of heat, which raises the temperature of the fermenting wort.
531; and The Evolution of Heat by Wounded Plants, Ann.
In species of Eucalyptus, the leaves are placed edge-wise to the incident rays of light and heat.
The sieve tubes contain a thin lining layer of protoplasm on their walls, but no nuclei, and the cell sap contains albuminous substances which are coagulable by heat.
The boreal is cold, the austral warm, and the tropical affords conditions of heat and moisture to which the vegetation of the others would be intolerant.
Arctic plants make their brief growth and flower at a temperature little above freezing-point, and are dependent for their heat on the direct rays of the sun.
Aristotle, too, gave greater definiteness to the idea of zones conceived by Parmenides, who had pictured a torrid zone uninhabitable by reason of heat, two frigid zones uninhabitable by reason of cold, and two intermediate temperate zones fit for human occupation.
vapour of the atmosphere is caused in part by vertical movements of the atmosphere involving heat changes and apparently independent of the surface upon which precipitation occurs; but in greater part it is dictated by the form and altitude of the land surface and the direction of the prevailing winds, which itself is largely influenced by the land.
(6) The tropical forest, which represents the maximum of plant luxuriance, stimulated by the heaviest rainfall, greatest heat and strongest light.
On all sides there was danger and revolt, even Baber's own soldiers, worn out with the heat of this new climate, longed for Kabul.
The colour of amethyst is usually attributed to the presence of manganese, but as it is capable of being much altered and even discharged by heat it has been referred by some authorities to an organic source.
On exposure to heat, amethyst generally becomes yellow, and much of the cairngorm or yellow quartz of jewellery is said to be merely "burnt amethyst."
Each August, despite the heat, representatives from the 60 (or 64) tribes of Gallia Comata met at Lyons, elected a priest, "sacerdos ad aram Augusti et Romae," and held games.
Climate.-Uruguay enjoys the reputation of possessing one of the most healthy climates in the world The geographical position ensures uniformity of temperature throughout the year, the summer heat being tempered by the Atlantic breezes, and severe cold in the winter season being unknown.
In the simplest and crudest method, as practised in Sicily, a mass of the ore is placed in a hole in the ground and fired; after a time the heat melts a part of the sulphur which runs down to the bottom of the hole and is then ladled out.
The ore is kindled from above and the fire so regulated (by making or unmaking air-holes in the covering) that, by the heat produced References.
The retorts are charged with molten sulphur from an upper reservoir, which is kept at the requisite temperature by means of the lost heat of the retort fires.
The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat.
The precipitate is washed, collected, and dried at a very moderate heat.
The density of solid sulphur is 2 062 to 2'070, and the specific heat 0.1712; it is a bad conductor of electricity and becomes negatively electrified on friction.
When perfectly dry this oxide has no caustic properties; it combines rapidly, however, with water to form sulphuric acid, with the development of much heat.
above sea-level, in which the heat is most oppressive at times and the nights are unpleasantly cold.
In both states, the Commissions have power over electric railways and local public utilities furnishing heat, light and power, as well as over steam railway transportation, and the Wisconsin Commission also has control over telephone companies.
- One pound of good Welsh coal properly burned in the fire-box of a locomotive yields about 15,000 British thermal units of heat at a temperature high enough to enable from 50 to 80% to flow across the boiler-heating surface to the water, the rest escaping up the chimney with the furnace gases.
The steam produced in consequence of this heat transference from the furnace gas to the water carries heat to the cylinder, where 7 to II% is transformed into mechanical energy, the remainder passing away up the chimney with the exhaust steam.
With this assumption, 0.06 is the fraction of the heat energy of the coal which is utilized in the engine cylinders as mechanical work; that is to say, of the 15,000 B.Th.U.
Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.
In no case could an engine receiving steam at the tem perature corresponding to this pressure and rejecting heat at 212° F.
convert more heat into work than is represented by the area of this diagram.
If h is the water heat at the lower temperature, h l the water heat at the higher temperature, and L the latent heat at the higher temperature, the heat supply per pound of steam is equal to h1 - h2+L1, which, from the steam tables, with the values of the temperatures given, is equal to 1013 B.Th.U.
That is to say, a perfect engine working between the limits of temperature assigned would convert only 18% of the total heat supply into work.
In some cases, however, they are filled with fused acetate of soda; this salt is solid when cold, but when the can containing it is heated by immersion in hot water it liquefies, and in the process absorbs heat which is given out again on the change of state back to solid.
The prevalent winds, which temper the heat, are the S.E.
The Chemistry of the Sun (1887) is an elaborate treatise on solar spectroscopy based on the hypothesis of elemental dissociation through the intensity of solar heat.
Here he held several councils for the discussion of the affairs of the church, especially for grave questions as to the rebaptism of heretics, and the readmission into the church of the lapsi, or those who had fallen; away through fear during the heat of the persecution.
In spite of the high temperatures of summer, however, the low humidity prevents the heat from being oppressive, and cases of sunstroke are unknown.
2.1 Sun's Heat as Evidence
As this vast mass cooled it must by the laws of heat have contracted towards the centre, and as it contracted it must, according to a law of dynamics, rotate more rapidly.
The daily outpour of heat from the sun at the present time suggests a profound argument in support of the nebular theory.
The amount of the sun's heat has been estimated, but we receive on the earth less than one two-thousand-millionth part of the whole radiation.
Now what supplies this heat?
We might at first suppose that the sun was really an intensely heated body radiating out its heat as does white-hot iron, but this explanation cannot be admitted, for there is no historical evidence that the sun is growing colder.
We have not the slightest reason to think that the radiation from the sun is measurably weaker now than it was a couple of thousand years ago, yet it can be shown that, if the sun were merely radiating heat as simply a hot body, then it would cool some degrees every year, and must have cooled many thousands of degrees within the time covered by historical records.
We, therefore, conclude that the sun has some other source of heat than that due simply to incandescence.
It might, for example, be suggested that the heat of the sun was supplied by chemical combination analogous to combustion.
We cannot, therefore, admit that the source of the heat in the sun is to be found in any chemical combination taking place in its mass.
Where then can we find an adequate supply of heat?
Only one external source can be named: the falling of meteors into the sun must yield some heat just as a shooting star yields some heat to our atmosphere, but the question is whether the quantity of heat obtainable from the shooting stars is at all adequate for the purpose.
It can be shown that unless a quantity of meteors in collective mass equal to our moon were to plunge into the sun every year the supply of heat could not be sustained from this source.
As the sun loses heat it contracts, and every pair of particles in the sun are nearer to each other after the contraction than they were before.
The energy due to their separation is thus less in the contracted state than in the original state, and as that energy cannot be lost it must reappear in heat.
The sun is thus slowly contracting; but as it contracts it gains heat by the operation of the law just referred to, and thus the further cooling and further contraction of the sun is protracted until the additional heat obtained is radiated away.
In this way we can reconcile the fact that the sun is certainly losing heat with the fact that the change in temperature has not been large enough to be perceived within historic times.
Newcomb: "At the present time we can only say that the nebular hypothesis is indicated by the general tendencies of the laws of nature, that it has not been proved to be inconsistent with any fact, that it is almost a necessary consequence of the only theory by which we can account for the origin and conservation of the sun's heat, but that it rests on the assumption that this conservation is to be explained by the laws of nature as we now see them in operation.
He wrote an admirable textbook of the Theory of Heat (1871), and a very excellent elementary treatise on Matter and Motion (1876).
He treated the resultant electric force at any point as analogous to the flux of heat from sources distributed in the same manner as the supposed electric particles.