How to use Haydn in a sentence
Haydn uses a true Straussian discord in The Seasons, in order to imitate the chirping of a cricket; but the harshest realism in Gatterdammerung (the discord produced by the horns of Hagen and his churls in the mustering-scene in the second act) has a harmonic logic which would have convinced Corelli.
To Thackeray her diction recalled the sound of village bells falling sweetly and softly on the ear, and it sent a shiver through John Stuart Mill, like a symphony of Haydn or Mozart.
The pianoforte trios of Haydn are perhaps the only-works of first-rate artistic importance in which there is no doubt that the earlier stages of the new art do not admit of sufficient polyphony to give the instruments fair play.
Haydn finds the pianoforte so completely capable of expressing his meaning that he is at a loss to find independent material for any accompanying instruments; and the violoncello in his trios has, except perhaps in four passages in the whole collection of thirty-three works, not a note to play that is not already in the bass of the pianoforte; while the melodies of the violin are, more often than not, doubled in the treble.
It would be impossible to add a note to Haydn's trio; the only question is how to account for the superfluity of much of the string parts and how to make the trios effective in performance.Advertisement
But experiment shows that in this condition much of the violin part sounds incomplete; and the truth appears to be that Haydn is thinking, like any modern composer, of the opposition of two solid bodies of tone - the pianoforte and the stringed instruments.
In the treatment of the orchestra volumes might be written about Haydn's and Mozart's sense of fitness, as shown in Haydn's experiments and Mozart's settled methods.
This was in many cases true, and it is equally true that Mozart and Haydn often had no scruple in following the customs of very bad composers.
There is not room for one together with an independent violoncello part; the wonderful use of muted solo violoncellos in the slow movement of the Pastoral Symphony being a special effect, like the earlier instance in Haydn's 12th Salomon Symphony.
Similar principles apply in infinite detail to the treatment of wind instruments, and we must never lose sight of them in speculating as to the reasons why the genius of Beethoven was able to carry instrumentation into worlds of which Haydn and Mozart never dreamt, or why, having gone so far, it left anything unexplored.Advertisement
These instruments thus produced, in Haydn's and Beethoven's times, a very remarkable but closely limited series of effects, which, as Sir George Macfarren pointed out in the article "Music" in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, gave them a peculiar character and function in strongly asserting the main notes of the key.
Richard Strauss, in his edition of Berlioz's works on Instrumentation, paradoxically characterizes the classical orchestral style as that which was derived from chamber-music. Now it, is true that in Haydn's early days orchestras were small and generally private; and that the styles of orchestral and chamber music were not distinct; but surely nothing is clearer than that the whole history of the rise of classical chamber-music lies in its rapid differentiation from the coarse-grained orchestral style with which it began.
Orchestral wind-parts have been discovered belonging to Haydn's string-quartet Op. r, No.
Among musical organizations may be mentioned the Handel and Haydn Society (1815), the Harvard Musical Association (1837), the Philharmonic (1880) and the Symphony Orchestra, organized in 1881 by the generosity of Henry Lee Higginson.
Wagner's earlier works have too long been treated as if they represented the pure and healthy childhood of his later ideal; as if Lohengrin stood to Parsifal as Haydn, Mozart and early Beethoven stand to Beethoven's last quartets.Advertisement
For all his Wagnerian impatience, his progress was no struggle from out of a squalid environment; on the contrary, one of his latest discoveries was the greatness of his master Haydn.
Now Wagner's excellent teacher Weinlig did certainly, as Wagner himself testifies, teach him more of good music than Beethoven, Haydn and Mozart could have seen in their youth; for he showed him Beethoven.
In 1740, on the recommendation of the Dean of Hainburg, Haydn obtained a place in the cathedral choir of St Stephen's, Vienna, where he took the solo-part in the services and received, at the choir school, some further instruction on the violin and the harpsichord.
Here Haydn wrote, in rapid succession, eighteen divertimenti which include his first symphony and his first quartet; the two earliest examples of the forms with which his name is most closely associated.
In 1762 Prince Paul Esterhazy died and was succeeded by his brother Nicholas, surnamed the Magnificent, who increased Haydn's salary, showed him every mark of favour, and, on the death of Werner in 1766, appointed him Oberkapellmeister.Advertisement
With the encouragement of a discriminating patron, a small but excellent orchestra and a free hand, Haydn made the most of his opportunity and produced a continuous stream of compositions in every known musical form.
There can have been little personal intercourse between them, for Haydn was rarely in the capital, and Mozart seems never to have visited Eisenstadt; but the cordiality of their relations and the mutual influence which they exercised upon one another are of the highest moment in the history of 18th-century music. " It was from Haydn that I first learned to write a quartet," said Mozart; it was from Mozart that Haydn learned the richer style and the fuller mastery of orchestral effect by which his later symphonies are distinguished.
Haydn, thus released from his official duties, forthwith accepted a commission from Salomon, the London concertdirector, to write and conduct six symphonies for the concerts in the Hanover Square Rooms. He arrived in England at the beginning of 1791 and was welcomed with the greatest enthusiasm, receiving among other honours the degree of D Mus.
The lessons, which were not very successful, lasted for about a year, and were then interrupted by Haydn's second visit to England (January 1794 to July 1795), where he produced the last six of his " Salomon " symphonies.
Haydn's place in musical history is best determined by his instrumental compositions.Advertisement
Haydn broke through this.
In the development of instrumental polyphony Haydn's work was almost as important as that of Mozart.
The compositions of Haydn include 104 symphonies, 16 overtures, 76 quartets, 68 trios, 54 sonatas, 31 concertos and a large number of divertimentos, cassations and other instrumental pieces; 24 operas and dramatic pieces, 16 Masses, a Stabat Mater, interludes for the " Seven Words," 3 oratorios, 2 Te Deums and many smaller pieces for the church, over 40 songs, over 50 canons and arrangements of Scottish and Welsh national melodies.
His younger brother, JOHANN MICHAEL HAYDN (1737-1806), was also a chorister at St Stephen's, and shortly after leaving the choir-school was appointed Kapellmeister at Grosswardein (1755) and at Salzburg (1762).
His most important works were the Missa hispanica, which he exchanged for his diploma at Stockholm, a Mass in D minor, a Lauda Sion, a set of graduals, forty-two of which are reprinted in Diabelli's Ecclesiasticon, three symphonies (1785), and a string quintet in C major which has been erroneously attributed to Joseph Haydn.Advertisement
Another brother, JOHANN EVANGELIST HAYDN (1743-1805), gained some reputation as a tenor vocalist, and was for many years a member of Prince Esterhazy's Kapelle.
The fruit of their efforts came to maturity in the Masses of Mozart and Haydn.
So unfavourable were the conditions of 18th-century music for the formation of a good ecclesiastical style that only a very small proportion of Mozart's and Haydn's Mass music may be said to represent their ideas of religious music at all.
Haydn was for thirty years conductor of his private orchestra and general musical director, and many of his compositions were written for the private theatre and the concerts of this prince.
At his summer palace of Kis Marton (Eisenstadt) he erected a monument to Haydn.Advertisement
Stephen Hopper was the soloist in a tightly controlled Haydn Trumpet Concerto, with a lovely cadenza at the end of the Allegro.
His concert work is equally prestigious, and he has featured in recordings of Haydn, Schumann, Brahms and Mozart.
Born in the small town of Rohrau on the Hungarian border, Franz Joseph Haydn was the son of a local wheelwright.
Franz Joseph Haydn was born at Rohrau in modern Hungary on the 31st March 1732, the son of the village wheelwright.
To these should be added the list of Haydn's symphonies printed in Alfred Wotquenne's Catalogue de la Bibliothbque du Conservatoire Royal de Bruxelles, vol.Advertisement
But this was ineffective with the pianoforte, and is only explicable in Haydn as a survival.
Haydn's numerous examples of independent violoncello melodies are almost all either marked solo or written for such small orchestras that they would be played as solos.