Hastings was a man of immense industry, with an insatiable appetite for detail.
When Hastings landed at Calcutta in October 1750 the affairs of the East India Company were at a low ebb.
Thus unfortunate in his birth, young Hastings received the elements of education at a charity school in his native village.
WARREN HASTINGS (1732-1818), the first governor-general of British India, was born on the 6th of December 17 3 2 in the little hamlet of Churchill in Oxfordshire.
His mother died a few days after giving him birth; his father, Pynaston Hastings, drifted away to perish obscurely in the West Indies.
At the age of eight he was taken in charge by an elder brother of his father, Howard Hastings, who held a post in the customs. After spending two years at a private, school at Newington Butts, he was moved to Westminster, where among his contemporaries occur the names of Lord Thurlow and Lord Shelburne, Sir Elijah Impey, and the poets Cowper and Churchill.
At an early date Hastings was placed in charge of an aurang or factory in the interior, where his duties would be to superintend the weaving of silk and cotton goods under a system of money advances.
When that passionate young prince, in revenge for a fancied wrong, resolved to drive the English out of Bengal, his first step was to occupy the fortified factory at Cossimbazar, and make prisoners of Hastings and his companions.
Hastings was soon released at the intercession of the Dutch resident, and made use of his position at Murshidabad to open negotiations with the English fugitives at Falta, the site of a Dutch factory near the mouth of the Hugli.
When the relieving force arrived from Madras under Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson, Hastings enrolled himself as a volunteer, and took part in the action which led to the recovery of Calcutta.
Clive showed his appreciation of Hastings's merits by appointing him in 1758 to the important post of resident at the court of Murshidabad.
Macaulay, in his celebrated essay, has said that "of the conduct of Hastings at this time little is known."
When war was actually begun, Hastings officially recorded his previous resolution to have resigned, in order to repudiate responsibility for measures which he had always opposed.
After fourteen years' residence in Bengal Hastings did not return home a rich man, estimated by the opportunities of his position.
While at home Hastings is said to have attached himself to literary society; and it may be inferred from his own letters that he now made the personal acquaintance of Samuel Johnson and Lord Mansfield.
Among his companions on his voyage round the Cape were the Baron Imhoff, a speculative portrait-painter, and his wife, a lady of some personal attractions and great social charm, who was destined henceforth to be Hastings's lifelong companion.
Some of them fled the country, and so far as possible Hastings obtained terms for those who remained.
Hastings was named in the act as governor-general for a term of five years.
The new members of council disembarked at Calcutta on the 19th of October 1774; and on the following day commenced the long feud which scarcely terminated twentyone years later with the acquittal of Warren Hastings by the House of Lords.
Hastings was reduced to the position of a cipher at their meetings.
To charges from such a source, and brought in such a manner, Hastings disdained to reply, and referred his accuser to the supreme court.
Hastings always maintained that he did not cause the charge to be instituted, and the legality of Nuncomar's trial is thoroughly proved by Sir James Stephen.
But in the meantime Colonel Monson had died, and Hastings was thus restored, by virtue of his casting vote, to the supreme management of affairs.
From that time forth, though he could not always command an absolute majority in council, Hastings was never again subjected to gross insult, and his general policy was able to prevail.
A crisis was now approaching in foreign affairs which demanded all the experience and all the genius of Hastings for its solution.
Hastings did not hesitate to take upon his own shoulders the whole responsibility of military affairs.
The Bhonsla Mahratta raja of Nagpur, whose dominions bordered on Bengal, was won over by the diplomacy of an emissary of Hastings.
The understanding between Hastings and Francis, originating in this state of affairs, was for a short period extended to general policy.
An agreement was come to by which Francis received patronage for his circle of friends, while Hastings was to be unimpeded in the control of foreign affairs.
Hastings recorded in an official minute that he had found Francis's private and public conduct to be "void of truth and honour."
Hastings's personal task was to provide the ways and means for this exhausting war.
Ready cash could alone fill up the void; and it was to the hoards of native princes that Hastings's fertile mind at once turned.
In his case the ancestral hoards were under the control of his mother, the begum of Oudh, into whose hands they had been allowed to pass at the time when Hastings was powerless in council.
Hastings resolved to make a progress up country in order to arrange the affairs of both provinces, and bring back all the treasure that could be squeezed out of its holders by his personal intervention.
The decisive success of Hastings's administration alone postponed the inevitable solution.
Though Hastings was thus irremovable, his policy did not escape censure.
On one occasion Dundas carried a motion in the House of Commons, censuring Hastings and demanding his recall.
The directors of the Company were disposed to act upon this resolution; but in the court of proprietors, with whom the decision ultimately lay, Hastings always possessed a sufficient majority.
The act which Pitt successfully carried in the following year introduced a new constitution, in which Hastings felt that he had no place.
Francis, who had been the early friend of Burke, supplied him with the personal animus against Hastings, and with the knowledge of detail, which he might otherwise have lacked.
For seven long years Hastings was upon his defence on the charge of "high crimes and misdemeanours."
In physical appearance, Hastings "looked like a great man, and not like a bad man."
Concerning his second marriage, it suffices to say that the Baroness Imhoff was nearly forty years of age, with a family of grown-up children, when the complaisant law of her native land allowed her to become Mrs Hastings.
Hastings's public career will probably never cease to be a subject of controversy.
No Englishman ever understood the native character so well as Hastings; none ever devoted himself more heartily to the promotion of every scheme, great and small, that could advance the prosperity of India.
Malleson, Life of Warren Hastings (1894); G.
Forrest, The Administration of Warren Hastings (Calcutta, 1892); Sir Charles Lawson, The Private Life of Warren Hastings (1895); L.
Trotter, Warren Hastings (" Rulers of India" series) (1890); Sir Alfred Lyall, Warren Hastings (" English Men of Action" series) (1889); F.
Hastings, A Vindication of Warren Hastings (1909).
As the name implies, the ports originally constituting the body were only five in number - Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover and Sandwich; but to these were afterwards added the "ancient towns" of Winchelsea and Rye with the same privileges, and a good many other places, both corporate and non-corporate, which, with the title of limb or member, held a subordinate position.
Driver, Hastings' Diet.
and Hastings' Dict.
Taking them from north to south, the principal rivers are the Richmond, Clarence, Macleay, Hastings, Manning, Hunter, Hawkesbury and Shoalhaven.
Post in Hastings' Did., under "Camel") throws doubt on this explanation, and assumes that the more violent hyper bole is intended.
Two English missions sent by Warren Hastings to Tibet, one led by George Bogle in 1774, and the other by Captain Turner in 1783, complete Tibetan exploration in the 18th century.
This was true enough, but there is truth also in the remark of Prof. Sanday ("Eucharist" in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible) that Providence even in its revolutions is conservative.
5 See Kautzsch, " Religion of Israel," in Hastings's Dict.
See Messiah (and also the article " Messiah " in Hastings's Diet.
See Hastings's D.B., arts.
Strachan, Hastings's Dict.
Guided by such administrators as Warren Hastings, the East India Company had assumed more and more definitely the functions of government for a great part of India.
White, Hastings' Diet.
It was at this conjuncture that Warren Hastings displayed his political genius and rendered signal service to his country, by succouring from Bengal the defeated Bombay army and negotiating a peace (in 1782) that restored the status quo.
Bernard in Hastings's Bible Dictionary, iii.
x., and his Semitic Origins; Driver, Hastings' Dict.
(by P. Kleinert); Hastings, Diet.
He entered the navy in 1846, and served first at sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards, in 1848, in the Mediterranean, and from 1848 to 1851 as midshipman of the "Reynard" in operations against piracy in Chinese waters; as midshipman and mate of the "Serpent" during the Burmese War of 1852-53; as mate of the "Phoenix" in the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the "Hastings" in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking part in the attack on Sveaborg.
In 1066 Eustace came to England with Duke William, and fought at the battle of Hastings.
The subsequent history of Benares contains two important events, the rebellion of Chait Singh in 1781, occasioned by the demands of Warren Hastings for money and troops to carry on the Mahratta War, and the Mutiny of 1857, when the energy and coolness of the European officials, chiefly of General Neill, carried the district successfully through the storm.
"Ephesians, Epistle to," in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, the various works of Holtzmann above referred to, and T.
She also had relations with William Hastings, and may perhaps have been the intermediary between him and the Woodvilles.
from Hastings by the South Eastern and Chatham railways.
In 1788 Mackintosh removed to London, then agitated by the trial of Warren Hastings and the king's first lapse into insanity.
See also the articles in HerzogHauck's Realencyclopadie; Hastings, Diet.
The most eminent of these were the two brothers John and Charles Wesley, John Byrom the poet, George Cheyne the physician and Archibald Hutcheson, M.P. for Hastings.
The scheme of invasion was based on the Boulogne flotilla, a device inherited from the old French royal government, through the Republic. Its object was to throw a great army ashore on the coast between Dover and Hastings.
The Burning Of Hastings.
Building Of Hastings Castle.
It affords facilities for the transport of logs by means of booms above Minneapolis, and is navigable below St Paul; being half a mile broad where it reaches the border of the state at Hastings.
(about 50 being navigable) formed the boundary between Wisconsin and Minnesota, enters the Mississippi at Hastings; the second, rising in Big Stone Lake on the western border, but 1 m.
Both furnish valuable water-power, which is true also of the Cannon and Zumbro rivers flowing into the Mississippi below Hastings.
A few years later (1694) Le Sueur, who had as early as 1684 engaged in trade along the upper Mississippi, established a trading post on Isle Pelee (Prairie Island) in the Mississippi between Hastings and Red Wing, and in 1700 he built Fort L'Huillier at the confluence of the Blue Earth and the Le Sueur rivers.
On the 26th of August a convention met at Stillwater, where measures were taken for the formation of a separate territorial government, and Henry Hastings Sibley (1811-1891) was sent to Congress as a delegate of " Wisconsin Territory."
Henry Hastings Sibley Alexander Ramsey .
William of Malmesbury, about 1125, already treats Tinchebrai (1r06) as an English victory and the revenge for Hastings.
p. 9; Revue biblique (1903), pp. 2 49 sqq.; and on the ark, generally, in addition to the literature already cited, Kautzsch, Hastings' Diet.
On the 29th of September a Greek naval force, commanded by an English Philhellene, Captain Frank Abney Hastings, had destroyed some Turkish vessels in Salona Bay, on the north side of the Gulf of Corinth.
Bib., Hastings's Dict.
Are not the terms of reference in 1 These legends are collected in Hastings, D.
See also Hastings Rashdall, Theory of Good and Evil (2 vols., Oxford, 1907).
In the 15th century the manor was held by James Butler, earl of Ormond, after whose attainder it was granted in 1461 to Lord Hastings, who in 1474 obtained royal licence to empark 3000 acres and to build and fortify a castle.
During the Civil War Colonel Henry Hastings fortified and held it for the king, and it was visited by Charles in 1645.
And this is not strange seeing that of the former such abundant l See Porter in Hastings' Bible Did.
622-653; Porter in Hastings' Bible Dic. i.
176-177; Hastings' Bible Diet.
708-709, and Dobschiitz in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, iii.
543-622; also James in Hastings' Bible Diet.
820-834, particularly pp. 827-828; Chase, in Hastings' Bible Dict.
Within the park is situated the Government House, a noble building begun by Lord Minto, and enlarged into its present state by the marquess of Hastings.
On the 14th of October a crushing defeat was inflicted on Harold at the battle of Senlac or Hastings; .and on Christmas Day William was crowned at Westminster.
Davison, in Hastings's Dict.
by Cheyne; in Hastings' Dict.
His son Ralph fought on the Norman side at Hastings, and was made earl of Norfolk by William the Conqueror.
Bible (Hastings), Ency.
Bernard in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, iv.
ASAF-' 'UD-DOWLAH, nawab wazir of Oudh from 1775 to 1797, was the son of Shuja-ud-Dowlah, his mother and grandmother being the begums of Oudh, whose spoliation formed one of the chief counts in the charges against Warren Hastings.
When Warren Hastings pressed the nawab for the payment of debt due to the Company, he obtained from his mother a loan of 26 lakhs of rupees, for which he gave her a jagir of four times the value; he subsequently obtained 30 lakhs more in return for a full acquittal, and the recognition of her jagirs without interference for life by the Company.
The evidence now available seems to show that Warren Hastings did his best throughout to rescue the nawab from his own incapacity, and was inclined to be lenient to the begums.
See The Administration of Warren Hastings, 1772-1785, by G.
HASTINGS, a city and the county-seat of Adams county, Nebraska, U.S.A., about 95 m.
Hastings is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-western, the Missouri Pacific and the St Joseph & Grand Island railways.
It is the seat of Hastings College (Presbyterian, coeducational), opened in 1882, and having 286 students in 1908, and of the state asylum for the chronic insane.
Hastings was settled in 1872, was incorporated in 1874 and was chartered as a city in the same year.
6 See Ancient Hebrew Tradition, p. 125, and Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, i.
See the articles in the Encyclopaedia Biblica; Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie; The Jewish Encyclopaedia; Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible; and cf.
Fontabelle and Hastings are fashionable suburban watering-places with good sea-bathing.
Biblica and Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible.
Gibb (Hastings's Dict.
The article in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible (vol.
Smith, Prophets of Israel, pp. 175 sqq.; Kennedy, Hastings' Dict.
i., in The Expositor's Bible, 1896); also to the articles on "Micah" by Nowack in Hastings's Did.
Ramsay, The Letters to the Several Churches (1904), and article in Hastings' Dict.
He actively promoted the impeachment of Warren Hastings, which had the support of Pitt.
" Malachi " in Hastings's Dict.
" Jude " in Hastings's Diet.
in Hastings's Dict.
After the Treaty of Paris stability of government developed, and many important reforms were introduced under the strong government of the masterful Sir Thomas Maitland; he acted promptly, without seeking popularity or fearing the reverse, and he ultimately gained more real respect than any other governor, not excepting the marquess of Hastings, who was a brilliant and sympathetic administrator.
In the same year Porter's able article on "Revelation" appeared in Hastings' Bible Dictionary (iv.
Along with his colleagues Monson and Clavering he reached Calcutta in October 1774, and a long struggle with Warren Hastings, the governor-general, immediately began.
The death of Monson in 1776, and of Clavering in the following year, made Hastings again supreme in the council.
But a dispute with Francis, more than usually embittered, led in August 1780 to a minute being delivered to the council board by Hastings, in which he stated that "he judged of the public conduct of Mr Francis by his experience of his private, which he had found to be void of truth and honour."
The acquittal of Hastings in April 1795 disappointed Francis of the governor-generalship, and in 1798 he had to submit to the additional mortification of a defeat in the general election.
Impey (2 vols., London, 1885); Lord Macaulay's Essay on "Warren Hastings"; G.
Malleson, Life of Warren Hastings (London, 1894); G.
Forrest, The Administration of Warren Hastings, 1772-1785 (Calcutta, 1892); Sir Leslie Stephen's article on Francis in Dict.
Hommel in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible) suggests E-Saggila, the great temple of Merodach (Marduk).
He was educated at Hastings, at which town his mother had opened a school after the death of his father in 1826.
After a residence in the north as chaplain to Henry Hastings, earl of Huntingdon, President of the North, he was made vicar of St Giles's, Cripplegate, in 1588, and there delivered his striking sermons on the temptation in the wilderness and the Lord's prayer.
Gray on Numbers xxii.-xxiv.; and the articles on "Balaam" (Bileam) in Hamburger's Realencyclopddie fiir Bibel and Talmud, Hastings' Bible Diet., Black and Cheyne's Encyclopaedia Biblica, Herozog-Hauck's Realencyklopddie.
min.) The fullest critical treatment in English is by Dr Vernon Bartlet in the extra volume of Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible; the most complete commentary on the text is by P. Drews in Hennecke's Handbuch zu den N.T.
Beckles in the Wealden cliffs near Hastings; and an accurate knowledge of the skeleton was only obtained when many complete specimens were disinterred by the Belgian government from the Wealden beds at Bernissart, near Mons, during the years 1877-1880.
" Angel " in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
Brown in Hastings' Diet.
Brown in Hastings' Dict.
Flint in Hastings's Dict.
The first was the case of Lady Flora Hastings.
The In February 1839 this young lady, a daughter of the "Bed- marquis of Hastings, and a maid of honour to the chamber duchess of Kent, was accused by certain ladies of Plat' the bedchamber of immoral conduct.
The ladies of the bedchamber were so unpopular in consequence of their behaviour to Lady Flora Hastings that the public took alarm at the notion that the queen had fallen into the hands of an intriguing coterie; and Lord Melbourne, who was accused of wishing to rule on the strength of court favour, resumed office with diminished prestige.
It was an untoward coincidence that Lady Flora Hastings died on the 5th of July, for though, she repeated on her deathbed, and wished it to be published, that the queen had taken no part whatever in the proceedings which had shortened her life, it was remarked that the ladies who were believed to have persecuted her still retained the sovereign's favour.
Four years afterwards he was made resident at Delhi, and in 1819 he received from Lord Hastings the appointment of secretary in the secret and political department.
Along the borders of Sussex there is a narrow strip of country consisting of picturesque sandy hills, formed by the Hastings beds, whose highest elevation is nearly 400 ft.
Ironstone is found in the Wadhurst Clay, a subdivision of the Hastings beds, clays and calcareous ironstone in the Ashdown sand, but the industry has long been discontinued.
Hastings in 1892 (Boston).
Day of Atonement: articles in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and in the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
Already, on the 5th of February, General Gordon had landed and entrenched himself on the hill of Munychia, near the ancient Piraeus, and the efforts of the Turks to dislodge him had failed, mainly owing to the fire of the steamer "Karteria" commanded by Captain Hastings.
Yet now and again he rises to the level of some heroic event, and parts of his chapter on the "Campaign of Hastings" and of his record of the wars of Syracuse and Athens, his reflections on the visit of Basil the Second to the church of the Virgin on the Acropolis, and some other passages in his books, are fine pieces of eloquent writing.
In 1789 he visited England with his mother, and was present at the trial of Warren Hastings.
See article " Magic " in Hastings's Diet.
Commentary, p. 425 sqq, and especially his article " Propitiation" in Hastings's Dict.
Schurer, History of the Jewish People (1890-1891); article in Hastings' Dict.
298-301; Robinson, "The Ascension of Isaiah" in Hastings Bible Diet.
Warren Hastings sent from Bengal Sir Eyre Coote, who, though repulsed at Chidambaram, defeated Hyder thrice successively in the battles of Porto Novo, Pollilur and Sholingarh, while Tippoo was forced to raise the siege of Wandiwash, ana Vellore was provisioned.
Other important works in which English and American scholars have co-operated are the Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903) and Hastings' Bible Dictionary (1898-1904) - the latter less radical, but yet on the whole based on acceptance of the fundamental positions of Vatke, Graf, Wellhausen.
Nor does it appear to us that the objections to this theory brought by Dr Chase in his excellent article on the epistle in Hastings' Dictionary are really so fatal as he supposes.
Hastings, 5 vols., 1898-1904) and Encyclopaedia Biblica (ed.
Dr Hastings and his contributors belong more to the right wing of criticism, and Dr Cheyne and his to the left.
(1885); the article on the " Old Latin Version," in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible.
pp. 91-144; and especially an article on " Egyptian Versions " in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, vol.
pp. 148-154; Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, article on " The Armenian Versions of the New Testament," by F.
- The views stated in this article are in general (though with some modifications) the same as those which the present writer worked out with more fulness of detail in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, i.
See further, in addition to the monographs already cited, the articles in Hastings's Diet.
Schechter, Hastings's Dict.
Schechter, Hastings, Diet.
Accordingly this derivation is preferable to that suggested by earlier Semitists from Gesenius to (in recent times) Kautzsch ("Religion of Israel," Hastings's Dict.
This Davidson ("Prophecy and Prophets," Hastings's Did.
Kautzsch, "Religion of Israel," in Hastings's Did.
Davidson, "Prophecy and Prophets," in Hastings's Dict.
A treaty with the nawab of Oudh was signed here by Warren Hastings on behalf of the East India Company in September 1781.
Lupton, article on " English Versions," in Hastings' Dict.
Thomas in Hastings' Dictionary of Religions; Frazer, Golden Bough; Campbell's Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom; Maclennan's Studies (series 2); V.
` The cup is the covenant ' " (Prof. Sanday in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, 3, 149).
" Lord's Supper " in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible; Th.
He died at Hastings, New York, on the 4th of January 1882.
At last the evil became intolerable, and in '817 the marquess of Hastings obtained the consent of the East India Company to the organized campaign, known as the Pindari War.
The Pindaris were surrounded on all sides by a great army, consisting of 120,000 men and 300 guns, which converged upon them from Bengal, the Deccan and Gujarat under the supreme command of Lord Hastings in person.
Grant Duff, History of the Mahrattas (1826); and Major Ross of Bladensburg, Marquess of Hastings (Rulers of India Series) (1893).
See the articles on "Messiah" in Hastings's D.
3rd ed., as well as Hastings's Diet.
On the law under the act of 1900 see Hastings's Law relating to Moneylenders and Unconscionable Bargains; and Edmondson's Moneylenders Act 1900.
We know that the Chanson de Roland was sung at the battle of Hastings, and we possess Anglo-Norman MSS.
In the 140 years since Warren Hastings initiated British rule in India, there have been nineteen famines and five severe scarcities.
There is more than one meaning of Hastings discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
147-164; Porter in Hastings's Dict.
See also Hastings's Dict.
He accompanied the Norman army to England in 1066, and obtained permission from William to strike the first blow at the battle of Hastings.
Spatz, Die Schlacht von Hastings (Berlin, 1896); Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest.
The first Englishman to enter Tibet was George Bogle, a writer of the East India Company, in 1774, on an embassy from Warren Hastings to the Tashi lama of Shigatse.
(1903); the articles by Thatcher in Hastings's Dict.
Lock (Hastings's Diet.
Among the latter were (besides histories of the campaigns in which he served), Life of Sir Thomas Munro (3 vols., 1830); History of India (4 vols., 1830-1835); The Leipsic Campaign and Lives of Military Commanders (1831); Story of the Battle of Waterloo (1847); Sketch of the Military History of Great Britain (1845); Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan (1847); biographies of Lord Clive (1848), the duke of Wellington (1862), and Warren Hastings (1848; the subject of Macaulay's essay, in which it is described as "three big bad volumes full of undigested correspondence and undiscerning panegyric").
Davidson, in Hastings's Bible Dictionary, i.
Charles in Hastings's Bible Dictionary, i.
Salmond in Hastings's Bible Dictionary, p. 752).
See Biblical Dictionaries of Hastings and Cheyne, s.v.; Jew.
See under "Shekinah" in Hastings' Dict.
The opposing school (the Sumerists) insists that these Hastings's Diet.
She retained possession till 1254, when the manor was divided between his coheirs Robert de Brus, John de Baliol and Henry de Hastings, each division forming a distinct manor bearing the name of its owner.
See the articles on Moab in Hastings's Dict.
(Carrere & Hastings.) 7 wet, Ç tij Photo, L; lag FIG.
Eberhard Nestle's article in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible is important for its bibliographical information as well as in other respects.
Hastings' Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels.
Peake in Hastings's Dict.
Strachan, Hastings' Did.
For further information and discussion see especially Harnack's Chronologie, and Bishop Chase's article in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible.
BELLEVILLE, a city and port of entry of Ontario, Canada, and capital of Hastings county, 106 m.
Thayer in Hastings's Dict.
601 f.; Willrich, Juden and Griechen (1895), Judaica (1900); Hastings' Dict.
FRANCIS RAWDON-HASTINGS HASTINGS, 1st Marquess Of (1754-1826), British soldier and governor-general of India, born on the 9th of December 1754, was the son of Sir John Rawdon of Moira in the county of Down, 4th baronet, who was created Baron Rawdon of Moira, and afterwards earl of Moira, in the Irish peerage.
His mother was the Lady Elizabeth Hastings, daughter of Theophilus, 9th earl of Huntingdon.
In 1789 his mother succeeded to the barony of Hastings, and Rawdon added the surname of Hastings to his own.
For his masterly conduct of these affairs Lord Moira was created marquess of Hastings in February 1817.
Before the end of 1817 the preparations of Lord Hastings were completed, when the peshwa suddenly broke into war, and the British were opposed at once to the Mahratta and Pindari powers, estimated at 200,000 men and 500 guns.
"It is a proud phrase to use," said Lord Hastings, "but it is a true one, that we have bestowed blessings upon millions.
While the natives of India appreciated the results of Lord Hastings's achievements, the court of directors grumbled at his having extended British territory.
Brilliant and beneficent as his career had been, Lord Hastings did not escape unjust detraction.
The whole affair was mixed up with insinuations against Lord Hastings, especially charging him with having been actuated by favouritism towards one of the partners in the firm.
He died on the 28th of November 1826, leaving a request that his right hand should be cut off and preserved till the death of the marchioness of Hastings, and then be interred in her coffin.
Hastings was succeeded by his son, Francis George Augustus (1808-1844), who in 1840 succeeded through his mother to the earldom of Loudoun.
See Ross-of-Bladensburg, The Marquess of Hastings (" Rulers of India" series) (1893); and Private Journal of the Marquess of Hastings, edited by his daughter, the marchioness of Bute (1858).
Frank Abney Hastings >>
Harford-Battersby (Hastings, Dict.
in Hastings' Diet.
Of these scenes there are seventy-two, beginning with Harold's visit to Bosham on his way to Normandy, and ending with the flight of the English from the battle of Hastings, though the actual end of the strip has perished.
Johns, Hastings's Dict.
The enlightened mind of Warren Hastings did indeed anticipate his age by founding the Calcutta madrasa for Mahom medan teaching, and by affording steady patronage alike to Hindu pundits and European students.
For more than twenty years these temporary engagements continued, and received the sanction of Warren Hastings, the first titular governor-general of India.
The governor, Mr Vansittart, and Warren Hastings, then a junior member of council, attempted to effect some compromise.
Between that date and the arrival of Warren Hastings in 1772 nothing of importance occurred in Bengal beyond the terrible famine of 1770, which is officially reported to have swept away one-third of the inhabitants.
Warren Hastings, a tried servant of the company, distinguished alike for intelligence, for probity and for knowledge of oriental manners, was nominated governor by the court of directors, with express instructions to carry out a predetermined series of reforms. In their own words, the court had resolved to " stand forth as diwan, and to take upon themselves, by the agency of their own servants, the entire care and administration of the revenues."
In the execution of this plan, Hastings removed the exchequer from Murshidabad to Calcutta, and for the first time appointed European officers, under the now familiar title of collectors, to superintend the revenue collections and preside in the civil courts.
The urgency of foreign affairs, and subsequently internal strife at the council table, hindered Hastings from developing farther the system of civil administration, a task finally accomplished by Lord Cornwallis.
Though Hastings always prided himself specially upon that reform, as well as upon the improvements he introduced into the collection of the revenues from salt and opium, his name will be remembered in history for the boldness d success of his foreign policy.
Warren Hastings, who in his capacity of governor-general claimed a right of control over the decisions of the Bombay government, strongly disapproved of the treaty of Surat, but, when war once broke out, he threw the whole force of the Bengal army into the scale.
If the foundations of the system of civil administration were laid by Hastings, the superstructure was erected by Cornwallis.
Hastings had the reputation of bearing hard upon the zamindars, and was absorbed in other critical affairs of state or of war.
Francis, on the other hand, Hastings's great rival, deserves the credit of being among the first to advocate a limitation of the state demand in perpetuity.
The central portion, forming the old state of Mysore, was restored to an infant representative of the Hindu rajas, whom Hyder Ali Meanwhile Warren Hastings had to deal with a more formidable enemy than the Mahratta confederacy.
The diplomacy of Hastings won over the nizam and the Mahratta raja of Nagpur, but the army of Hyder Ali fell like a thunderbolt upon the British possessions in the Carnatic. A strong detachment under Colonel Baillie was cut to pieces at Perambakam, and the Mysore cavalry ravaged the country unchecked up to the walls of Madras.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.