Has-to sentence example

has-to
  • He has to stay with you.
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  • The text of the passages has to be critically treated anew.
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  • If one of us has to leave, I'll go.
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  • It all has to do with the light.
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  • No, if one of us has to get snowed in up here, I'd rather it was me.
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  • Someone has to cover the calls.
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  • It has to be in his vehicle.
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  • "No, she has to stay," Ully said quickly.
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  • He has to learn how... and maybe he senses your anxiety.
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  • He has to learn you're at least suspicious.
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  • No one has to like me.
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  • Just listen to what he has to say.
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  • Once in a while, I'm off duty and a call comes to someone else but I think the tipster person maybe knows my hours, 'cause it's rare another girl has to answer.
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  • That's possible but I can't wait to hear what your buddy Howie has to say about it.
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  • "I guess Howie has to buy a suit," I said.
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  • He has to do that, or he'd be in violation of rule number one.
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  • Jule, he has to be there.
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  • One of us has to keep the other calm, and it won't be me.
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  • Sometimes the head of the Council That Was Seven has to be discreet.
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  • There has to be another reason you chose me.
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  • He has to pick up his wife's belongings, too.
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  • Let's see what Sarah has to say first.
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  • Someone has to feed Mrs. Lincoln, pick up the paper and the mail...
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  • It can therefore be employed, instead of that costly metal, in the construction of incandescent lamps where a wire has to be fused into the glass to establish electric connexion between the inside and the outside of the bulb.
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  • He who during his lifetime did not become one of the elect, who did not completely redeem himself, has to go through a severe process of purification on the other side of the grave, till he too is gathered to the blessedness of the light.
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  • There is also another new point which has to be mentioned, viz.
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  • Some medical attention has to beat none.
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  • You mean he thinks that he has to take care of his mother, now that his father is gone?
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  • Then a woman has to do the best she can on her own.
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  • This is an inn and someone has to keep it cleaned.
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  • Sarah has fangs and has to be careful not to crush me whenever we hug 24/7.
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  • She has to believe you when she sees this, Jackson.
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  • Someone has to be head of the household - final authority.
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  • "Someone has to protect you," Elise replied with a smile.
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  • "Whatever Darkyn is planning, it has to do with Rhyn.  He let us go.  There were no guards when Rhyn came for me and no demons to stop us," Kiki mused.
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  • "Whatever he's planning has to be done by the time your bond returns," Gabe said.
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  • He tugged her towards the portal.  "Everyone has to deal with Death on their own.  Please, pleeeeeeease come with me, Mama!  We have to take you to the Sanctuary.  You're still not alive or dead yet.  We have to make you alive."
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  • She has to work late.
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  • The store of energy thus accumulatec and distributed has to subserve various purposes in the econom~ of the plant.
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  • The speed at which the journey has to be completed is obviously another important factor, though the increased power of modern locomotives permits trains to be heavier and at the same time to run as fast, and often faster, than was formerly possible, and in consequence the general tendency is towards increased weight as well as increased speed.
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  • The Greek text of the Physiologus exists only in late MSS., and has to be corrected from the translations.
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  • What is given by the formulae is accordingly the mean radius of an irregularly shaped solid (or, more probably, of the region in which the field of force surrounding such a solid is above a certain intensity), and the mean has to be taken in different ways in the different phenomena.
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  • The chancellor of the exchequer has to take parliament into confidence on his estimates, both as regards revenue and expenditure; and these estimates are prepared by the various departments of the administration.
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  • Nature to Hegel is the idea in the form of hetereity; and finding itself here it has to remove this exteriority in a progressive evolution towards an existence for itself in life and mind.
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  • The arches bear on the convex outer side the delicate arborescent gills, and on the concave inner side develop a membranous septum with vermicular perforations, a special sifting or filtering contrivance through which the water absorbed by the mouth has to pass before reaching the respiratory organs of the branchial apparatus.
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  • Besides absorption, assimilation, conduction and protection there is another very important function for which provision has to be made in any plant-body of considerable size, especially when raised into the air, that of support.
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  • In all green plants which have a special protective epidermis, the cortex of the shoot has to perform the primitive fundamental function of carbon assimilation.
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  • In the former case the formation of phelloderm is trivial in amount; in the latter, considerable, since this tissue has to replace the cast-off cortex, as a metabolic and particularly a storage tissue.
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  • This method of study has to a large extent modified our ideas of the relative importance of the parts of such an organism as a large tree.
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  • Thus it is that the variations are produced upon which natural selection has to work.
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  • Physical geography itself is divided into two parts: a general, which has to do with the earth and all that belongs to it - water, air and land; and a particular, which deals with special products of the earth - mankind, animals, plants and minerals.
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  • This theory of crust blocks dropped by subsidence is opposed to Lapworth's theory of vast crust-folds, but geology is the science which has to decide between them.
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  • Especial attention has to be drawn to the article " Geographical Distribution," in Newton's Dictionary of Birds.
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  • Thus a nation which has to choose between bankruptcy and the repudiation of its debts is on the horns of a dilemma.
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  • Leibnitz has to supplement rather than correct Locke on this point.
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  • This speculation is clearly a development of that which the Iranian cosmology has to tell about the battles between Ahura-Mazda and Angro-Mainyu (Ormuzd and Ahriman).
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  • Any member may bring in a " project of law," but it has to be submitted to the minister of the department concerned, who is allowed a month to consider it, and himself prepares the final draft laid on the table of the House.
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  • In the region of the tundras life has to contend with such unfavourable conditions that it cannot be abundant.
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  • H.) British Railway Legislation The first thing a railway company in Great Britain has to do is to obtain a special or private act of parliament authorizing the construction of the line.
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  • Sometimes also a viaduct consisting of a series of arches is preferred to an embankment when the line has to be taken over a piece of fiat alluvial plain, or when it is desired to economize space and to carry the line at a sufficient height to clear the streets, as in the case of various railways entering London and other large towns.
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  • When an engineer has to construct a railway up a hill having a still steeper slope, he must secure practicable gradients by laying out the line in ascending spirals, if necessary tunnelling into the hill, as on the St Gothard railway, or in a series of zigzags, or he must resort to a rack or a cable railway.
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  • The weight required to cause the downward motion is obtained either by means of the material which has to be transported to the bottom of the hill or by water ballast, while to aid and regulate the motion generally steam or electric motors are arranged to act on the main drums, round which the cable is passed with a sufficient number of turns to prevent slipping.
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  • Its depth varies, according to the traffic which the line has to bear, from about 6 in.
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  • In a large station the arrangements become much more complicated, the precise design being governed by the nature of the traffic that has to be served and by the physical configuration of the site.
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  • however, varies with the amount and character of the work that has to be done, with the configuration of the ground, and also with the mode of shunting adopted.
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  • 7 he torque exerted on the driving-axle by the steam engine just at starting may be that due to the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders, but usually the weight on the coupled wheels is hardly sufficient to enable advantage to be taken of the full boiler pressure, and it has to be throttled down by the regulator to prevent slipping.
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  • It will be seen from these particulars - which are typical of what has happened not only on other British railways, but also on those of other countries - that much more space has to be provided and more weight hauled for each passenger than was formerly the case.
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  • Hence less dead weight has to behauled for each ton of paying load.
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  • The weights are governed by what the railway has to carry Italy.
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  • Though in his ten years of preaching a large number of converts were made, it has to be said that the results were not such as had been hoped for, and after it all, and after the crusade, the population still remained at heart Albigensian.
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  • But, since a derivative of that religion has come to be a power in the world at large, this event has to be regarded in a different light.
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  • 3, f), into whose mouths the requisite food has to be forced by the assiduous "nurse" workers.
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  • Fielde show that an ant follows her own old track by a scent exercised by the tenth segment of the feeler, recognizes other inmates of her nest by a sense of smell resident in the eleventh segment, is guided to the eggs, maggots and pupae, which she has to tend, by sensation through the eighth and ninth segments, and appreciates the general smell of the nest itself by means of organs in the twelfth segment.
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  • With these facts it has to be noticed that many of the principal forms of the eastern flora are absent or comparatively rare in the peninsula and Ceylon.
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  • On the other hand Christianity, though Asiatic in its origin and essential ideas, has to a large extent taken its present form on European soil, and some of its most important manifestations - notably the Roman Church - are European reconstructions in which little of the Asiatic element remains.
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  • He was certainly not the Jew of Prussian Poland which his enemies declared him to be, and he has to this day a circle of devoted adherents.
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  • A comparison of the two records, however, is especially important for its illustration of the later tendency to idealize the figure of David, and the historical critic has to bear in mind the possibility that this tendency had begun long before the Chronicler's time, and that it may be found in the relatively older records preserved in Samuel.
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  • Sometimes his x has to do duty twice, for different unknowns, in one problem.
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  • During the whole time the animal is living the feeder has to pay what has been termed the " life tax " - that is, so much of the food has to go to the maintenance of the animal as a living organism, independently of that which may be undergoing conversion into what will subsequently be available in the form of beef or mutton.
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  • The exhibition of pigs at agricultural shows has to be abandoned, in consequence of swine fever regulations.
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  • But these conclusions, after all, suggest more difficulties than they remove, for they show that our inquiry, instead of presenting certain well-marked features which can be readily dealt with, has to be split up into a number of highly specialized studies: the investigation of rates of wages, prices and the standard of comfort in different localities, bye-industries, regularity of employment, the organization of particular trades, the economic functions of local authorities, apprenticeship and a host of other subjects.
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  • That is, original investigation of special problems has to be carried out on a more gigantic scale than any economist of the historical school ever dreamt of or the world requires, with the certain knowledge that at the end of it all the general theory will not correspond with the facts of life.
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  • It is supposed to act in some way as a stimulant in copulation, but possibly has to do with the calcareous covering of the egg-capsule.
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  • Exoskeleton The outer cellular layer (ectoderm or " hypodermis ") of insects as of other Arthropods, secretes a chitinous cuticle which has to be periodically shed and renewed during the growth of the animal.
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  • The explanation has to be sought in another direction.
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  • The following year Ranzani of Bologna, in his Elementi di zoologia - a very respectable compilation - came to treat of birds, and then followed to some extent the plan of De Blainville and Merrem (concerning which much more has to be said by and by), placing the Struthious birds in an Order by themselves.
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  • The result is that the tracery itself has to support the structure above it - is, in fact, constructional - whereas in most other countries the tracery is merely, as it were, a pierced screen filling in a constructional arch.
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  • BEATRICE CENCI (1577-1599), a Roman woman, famous for her tragic story; poetic fancy has woven a halo of romance about her, which modern historic research has to a large extent destroyed.
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  • In the moist bottom-lands along the rivers it is the custom to throw the soil up in high beds with the plough, and then to cultivate them deep. This is the more common method of drainage, but it is expensive, as it has to be renewed every few years.
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  • The crop having been picked, it has to be prepared for purpose of manufacture.
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  • The cotton leaves the ginning machine in a very loose condition, and has to be compressed into bales for convenience of transport.
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  • Compared with the commercial fertilizer which the farmer has to buy, cotton seed possesses, therefore, a distinct value.
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  • on his old holding, and has to pay 5000 X o° 0 d.
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  • If the fishing operation is unsuccessful the well has to be abandoned, often after months of labour, unless it is found possible to drill past the tools which have been lost.
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  • From the conditions of the manufacture care must be taken to regulate the amount and strength of the alkali in proportion to the oil used, and the degree of concentration to which the boiling ought to be continued has to be determined with close observation.
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  • Elliptic orbits, and a parabolic orbit considered as the special case when the eccentricity of the ellipse is 1, are almost the only ones the astronomer has to consider, and our attention will therefore be confined to them in the present article.
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  • Since the foundation of the German Institute in 1874, Athenian topography has to a large extent become a speciality of German scholars, among whom Wilhelm DOrpfeld occupies a pre-eminent position owing to his great architectural attainments and unrivalled local knowledge.
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  • The first week is the foundation, and has to do with the consideration of the end of man, sin, death, judgment and hell.
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  • It has to some extent the character of a secondary amine; the hydrogen of the imino group can be replaced by potassium.
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  • Far more difficult is his task where no surveys are available, and the map has to be compiled from a variety of sources.
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  • annually, and in many places water has to be carted for miles.
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  • But he has to learn to ride none the less.
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  • So marked is this current that it has to be taken into account in the navigation of the Black Sea.
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  • The prefect has to a certain extent a double character and two series of functions.
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  • For its privileges the regie has to pay a rent of £T750,000 per annum to the government (assigned to bondholders), " even if it has no revenues at all," and after the payment of a dividend of 8% to its shareholders, and certain other deductions, it has to share profits with the government and the bondholders according to a sliding scale agreed upon between the three parties.
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  • A duty of 10 per mille on its estimated value has to be paid on transfer by sale, donation or testament; 5 per mille on transfer by inheritance; and, a registration duty on expenses of transfer.
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  • But he has to move upwards continually until he at length does nothing that is evil, and he knows fully the reason and object of what he does.
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  • He has to free himself from the power of passion.
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  • He has to give up all thoughts of pleasure.
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  • He has to resist the temptations of the body, keeping it under strict control, and with the eye of the soul undimmed by corporeal wants and impulses, contemplate God the supreme good, and live a life according to reason.
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  • The decline in the value of the trade, which was formerly very profitable, has to a great extent been brought about by the fall in the price of seal-oil.
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  • Contrary to the habits of all other insects, there yet remains a pellicle that has to be shed, covering every part of the body.
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  • The respiratory current of water is therefore conducted to the exterior by different means from that adopted by Amphioxus, and this difference is so great that the theory which seeks to explain it has to postulate radical changes of structure, function and topography.
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  • in three days, has a strong ammoniacal odour, which rapidly disappears, and in consequence of the loss of ammonia the latex will not keep for longer than a day unchanged; hence when it has to be carried to a distance from the place of collection, 3% of ammonia solution is added.
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  • per lb, to which has to be added the expense of transport.
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  • To remove tin, arsenic and antimony, the lead has to be brought up to a bright-red heat, when the air has a strongly oxidizing effect.
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  • In skimming the crust from the surface of the lead some unalloyed lead is also drawn off, and has to be separated by an additional operation (liquation), as, running lower in silver than the crust, it would otherwise reduce its silver content and increase the amount of lead to be cupelled.
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  • Before it can be cupelled it has to be freed from most of the zinc, which is accomplished by distilling in a retort made of a mixture similar to that of the plumbago crucible.
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  • The desilverized lead, which retains o 6-0.7% zinc, has to be refined before it is suited for industrial use.
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  • The question, however, has to be re-examined; later interpreters, e.g.
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  • It lies in the middle of a large plain, and has to the west of it a smaller but much higher lake, Urga-nor, besides several smaller ones.
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  • or to the question " What operation of a given kind has to be performed on a given quantity or number in order to produce a given result?"
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  • If a person has to receive 7s.
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  • It is not necessary to regard - 4 here as a negative number; all that is meant is that 4x2 has to be subtracted.
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  • (vi.) The definition of no.), which has already been extended in (iv.) above, has to be further extended so as to cover fractional values of n, positive or negative.
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  • In the course of reducing such expressions as (AB)C, (AB){C(DE)} and the like, where a chain of multiplications has to be performed in a certain order, the multiplications may be all progressive, or all regressive, or partly, one, partly the other.
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  • But we know this is not the case: the child has to begin with a clean slate and learn for itself.
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  • The ground has to be thoroughly cleared of stones, manured and trenched, and the corms are planted in ridges.
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  • Utilitarian, or perhaps rather practical, considerations have very little to do with the subject from a scientific point of view - no more so than the science of chemistry has to do with the art of the manufacturing chemist.
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  • Disease as an entity - as something to which all living matter is subject - is what the pathologist has to recognize and to investigate, and the practical application of the knowledge thus acquired follows as a natural consequence.
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  • The term " pathogenesis " has reference to the generation and development of disease, and that of " aetiology," in its present bearing, has to do with its causes.
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  • III.), which in turn has to give way to the more firm and differentiated fibrous tissue.
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  • Nevertheless some progress has to be recorded, even if not due directly to the study of ancient medicine.
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  • The tax has to be paid for each wife a Zulu may possess, whether or not each wife has a separate hut.
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  • If, for a twocompartment shaft, a pair of drums (or a single wide drum) be keyed to the engine shaft, with the ropes wound in opposite directions, the hoisting is " in balance," that is, the cages and cars counterbalance each other, so that the engine has to raise only the useful load of mineral, plus the rope.
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  • The principal charm of his "Minutes" lies in the amusing details he has to recount about his personages, and in the plainness and truthfulness that he permits himself in face of established reputations.
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  • As rice has to be transplanted as well as sown and irrigated, it needs a considerable amount of labour expended on it; and the Burman has the reputation of being a somewhat indolent cultivator.
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  • With the juice of some canes considerable difficulty is encountered in keeping the heating surfaces of the evaporators clean and free from incrustations, and cleaning by the use of acid has to be resorted to.
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  • East of this again a succession of stony ridges running parallel to the coast has to be crossed before El Hasa is reached.
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  • The subsequent regulation of the former suburbs has to a large extent covered its own expenses through the acquisition by the town of the improved area.
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  • Thus far the road is easy, but at Michmash it descends into a very steep and rough valley, which has to be crossed before reascending to Geba.l At the bottom of the valley is the Pass of Michmash, a noble gorge with precipitous craggy sides.
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  • It is the method and knowledge of the abstract sciences that the Positive Philosophy has to reorganize in a great whole.
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  • Thus the red pine (aka-matsu or pinus densiflora), which is the favorite garden tree, has to be subjected twice a year to a process of spraydressing which involves the careful removal of every weak or aged needle.
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  • But it has to be clearly understood that there is here no mention of a flowergarden in the Occidental sense of the term.
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  • In order to support himself and pay his academic fees many a Japanese has to fall into the ranks of the physical laborer during a part of each day or night.
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  • Against this blemishwhich is in process of gradual correction the fact has to be set that the better class of merchants, the whole of the artisans and the laboring classes in general, obey canons of probity fully on a level with the best to be found elsewhere.
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  • II we compare it with anything that Europe has to show at this period, it must be admitted that it is indeed a remarkable work.
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  • Microscopic accuracy has to be attained in cutting out the space for the insertion of the design, and while the latter must be soldered firmly in its place, not the slightest trace of solder or the least sign of junction must be discernible between the metal of the inserted picture and that of the field in which it is inserted.
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  • Hence the skill undoubtedly possessed by several graduates of the defunct art school has to be devoted chiefly to a subordinate purpose, namely, the fashioning of models for metal-casters.
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  • But a sharp distinction has to be drawn between the method of Seifu and that of the other six ceramists mentioned above as following Chinese fashions.
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  • Japanese connoisseurs indicate the end of the 17th century as the golden period of the art, and so deeply rooted is this belief that whenever a date has to be assigned to any specimen of exceptionally fine quality, it is unhesitatingly referred to the time of Joken-in (Tsunayoshi).
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  • Lord John Russell (afterwards Earl Russell), his friendly biographer, has to confess that Fox might have joined in the confession of Mirabeau: "The public cause suffers for the immoralities of my youth."
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  • The largeness and dignity of the matter with which he has to deal are at least as important.
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  • The latter has to make deficits good.
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  • The supply of butchers' meat has to be kept up by constant importations.
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  • It has been defined to be the right which a clerk has to enjoy certain ecclesiastical revenues on condition of discharging certain services prescribed by the canons, or by usage, or by the conditions under which his office has been founded.
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  • The acute interest which they excited when George Smith deciphered their contents in 1872 has to some extent abated, but this is only because scholars are now pretty generally agreed as to their bearing on the corresponding parts of Genesis.
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  • The prism p is fitted accurately into brass slides (care has to be taken in the construction to place the prism so that an object in the centre of the field will so remain when the eye-piece is rotated in its adapter).
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  • Thus 7-12, which is really a Jewish fragment recounting the victory of Michael over Satan, has to a certain degree been adapted to a Christian environment by the insertion of the b - I 1.
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  • Like geography, oceanography may be viewed in two different ways, and is conveniently divided into general oceanography, which deals with phenomena common to the whole ocean, and special oceanography, which has to do with the individual characteristics of the various divisions of the ocean.
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  • The former is the basis of the negative part of his argument; the latter supplies him with all the positive account he has to give, and that is meagre enough.
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  • Gases, consisting principally of light carburetted hydrogen or marsh gas, are of ten present in considerable quantity in coal, in a dissolved or occluded state, and the evolution of these upon exposure to the air, especially when a sudden diminution of atmospheric pressure takes place, constitutes one of the most formidable dangers that the coal miner has to encounter.
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  • This method necessitates the use of very considerable pumping power during the sinking, as the water has to be kept down in order to allow the sinkers to reach a water - tight stratum upon which the foundation of the tubbing FIG.
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  • This system, therefore, combines both methods of longwall working, but it is not generally applicable, owing to the difficulty of ventilation, due to the great length of air-way that has to be kept open around the waste on each bank.
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  • Where the load has to be hauled up a rising gradient, underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air or electric motors, are used.
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  • The gases evolved from the sudden outbursts or blowers in coal, which are often given off at a considerable tension, are the most dangerous enemy that the collier has to contend with.
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  • In the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide and water, all that has to be done is to bring these two compounds into contact, when they mutually react upon each other with the formation of lime and acetylene, while, if there be sufficient water present, the lime combines with it to form calcium hydrate.
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  • The vessel, however, which contains this mixture has to be of earthenware, porcelain or enamelled iron on account of the free acid present; the gas must be washed after purification to remove traces of hydrochloric acid, and care must be taken to prevent the complete neutralization of the acid by the ammonia present in the gas.
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  • But if a worm has to make his way through the gravel, it makes the greatest possible difference to him whether he tries to push right against a piece of gravel, or directs his course through one of the intervals between the pieces; to him, therefore, the gravel is by no means a homogeneous and continuous substance.
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  • But this only means that the unity between subject and object to which the gift of consciousness commits us is incompletely realized in that appearance: the apparent truth has to submit to correction and supplementation before it can be accepted as real truth.
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  • It has to be said that in the course of the middle ages, especially the later middle ages, grave disorders arose in many convents; and this doubtless led, in the reform movements initiated by the councils of Constance and Basel, and later of Trent, to the introduction of strict enclosure in Benedictine convents, which now is the almost universal practice.
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  • The disadvantages that still remain are that the sight has to be removed every time the gun is fired, and the amount of deflection is limited and has to be put on the reverse way to that on a tangent scale.
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  • It has to be established on the Roman Catholic side that faith (or dogma; the two are inseparable) deals with divine truths historically revealed long ago but now administered with authority, according to God's will, by the church.
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  • The filtering medium in this, as in other filters of the same kind, takes the form of a hollow cylinder or "candle," through the walls of which the water has to pass from the outside to the inside, the candles often being arranged so that they may be directly attached to a tap, whereby the rate of flow, which is apt to be slow, is accelerated by the pressure of the main.
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  • C. Gooch, which has come into common use in quantitative analysis where the solid matter has to be submitted to heating or ignition, consists of a crucible having a perforated bottom.
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  • In 1822 Auguste Miot endeavoured to improve on Larcher; and in 1828-1832 Dr Adolf Scholl brought out a German translation with copious notes (new ed., 1855), which has to some extent superseded the work of Lange.
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  • In more than one state the police are employed as enumerators, but elsewhere, a staff has to be specially recruited for the purpose.
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  • The difficulty in all these cases is that of procuring a sufficient quantity of efficient agency, especially where a large and illiterate native population has to be taken into account.
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  • The value of S 13 _ 1 has to be found by a quadrature-formula.
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  • The dividing line, however, has to be drawn in different years.
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  • Moreover, he has to govern in accordance with the Rule, and must endeavour, while enforcing discipline and implanting virtues, not to sadden or "overdrive" his monks, or give them cause for "just murmuring."
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  • A compromise has to be made, and the note has to be tuned so as to make the compromise as little unsatisfactory as possible.
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  • Atheism has to meet the protest of the heart as well as the argument of the mind of mankind.
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  • And in reality it would be difficult to account for this feature except on the supposition that one who had lived through the events had been accustomed, when required to give a comprehensive sketch of the history of the ministry and sufferings of Jesus, to relate the facts in the main as they happened; and that a hearer of his has to a considerable extent reproduced them in the same order.
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  • The last-named place, though the centre of the iron-manufacture of Saxony, has to import every pound of iron by railway.
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  • (2) The importance of securing permanence and small cost of maintenance and repairs has to be considered.
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  • Most commonly the engineer has to attach great importance to the question of cost, and to design his structure to secure the greatest economy consistent with the provision of adequate strength.
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  • Whatever type of bridge is adopted, the engineer has to ascertain the loads to be carried, and to proportion the parts so that the stresses due to the loads do not exceed limits found by experience to be safe.
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  • At the beginning and end of each chapter occur puzzle-canons, wherein the primary part or parts alone are given, and the reader has to discover the canon that fixes the period and the interval at which the response is to enter.
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  • It has to be competent to transmit the transverse waves of light and electricity, and the other known radiant and electric actions; the way in which this is done is now in the main known, though there are still questions as to the mode of expression and formulation of our knowledge, and also as regards points of detail.
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  • But in the transition from molecular theory to the electrodynamics of extended media, all magnetism has to be replaced by a distribution of current; the latter being now specified by volume as well as by flow so that (u,v,w) ST is the current in the element of volume 6T.
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  • To make any alteration in its frontiers a constitutional law is required - a law which, as opposed to an ordinary law, has to be passed by a three-fifths majority of Parliament.
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  • As a wholly inland nation, Czechoslovakia has to rely in the matter of transport upon its railways and its waterways, notably the Elbe, which connects the republic with Hamburg and the North Sea, and the Danube, which unites it with the east of Europe and the Balkans.
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  • But it has to be remembered that Maine also wrote much which was never publicly acknowledged.
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  • Here appeared the Monumenta Poloniae historica of Bielowski, previously mentioned; but Polish in this province has to struggle with the Red-Russian or Ruthenian, a language or dialect which for all practical purposes is the same as the Southern or Little Russian.
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  • This is a purely deliberative conclave, worked by committees, and all its legislation has to be confirmed by the two Associations before it can have any force or be legal.
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  • The combustion of the wood is conducted from the top downwards, and from the exterior towards the centre; great care has to be taken that the process is carried out slowly.
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  • Leipoldt (Leipzig, 1907), may also be warmly recommended; it is clear and methodical, and does not make the common mistake of assigning too much to secondary causes; the author does not forget that he is dealing with a sacred book, and that he has to show why it was held sacred.
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  • There are not enough letters to cover the uncials, the same letter has to serve for various fragments which are quite unconnected except by the accident of simultaneous discovery, and no information is given about the MS. referred to.
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  • One of the most obscure questions with which the ethnologist has to deal is that of the prehistoric remains which occur in different and widely separated parts of the oceanic region.
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  • The theodicea of the prophets is national; they see Yahweh's righteousness working itself out with unmistakable clearness in the present, and know that all that He brings upon Israel is manifestly just; but from the days of Jeremiah' the fortunes of Israel as a nation are no longer the one thing which religion has to explain; the greater question arises of a theory of the divine purpose which shall justify the ways of God with individual men or with His "righteous servant" - that is, with the ideal community of true faith as distinct from the natural Israel.
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  • But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing, running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be procured.
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  • In standardizing a weight for use in India, correction has to be made for the weight of air displaced by the material standard, and for such purpose the normal temperature of 85°, atmospheric pressure 29.8 inches, latitude 22° 35` 6.5" (Calcutta), g at 0.9982515 of g at 45° are taken.
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  • And, besides the propaedeutic importance which thus belongs to it, another fact has to be taken into account in estimating the influence of Neoplatonism.
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  • And even when there is an attempt at reconciliation, it is still quite clear how strong was the original dualism which has to be overcome.
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  • It has to be remembered (1) that the movement originated within the pale of the Church, and had a great deal in common with that which it opposed; (2) that it was ante-Catholic rather than anti-Catholic, e.g.
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  • Flying fences consist of a hedge with or without a post and rail, and with or without a ditch on one or both sides; consequently a horse has to jump both high and wide to clear them.
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  • Sometimes one or two votings are sufficient, but sometimes the process has to be repeated many timesit may even continue for several daysbefore a result is reached.
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  • The problem of finding a square equal in area to a given circle, like all problems, may be increased in difficulty by the imposition of restrictions; consequently under the designation there may be embraced quite a variety of geometrical problems. It has to be noted, however, that, when the " squaring " of the circle is especially spoken of, it is almost always tacitly assumed that the restrictions are those of the Euclidean geometry.
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  • De Sectione Determinata resolved the problem: Given two, three or four points on a straight line, to find another point on it such that its distances from the given points satisfy the condition that the square on one or the rectangle contained by two has to the square on the remaining one or the rectangle contained by the remaining two, or to the rectangle contained by the remaining one and another given straight line, a given ratio.
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  • Inferior land bearing less than 42 quarters per acre would not be protected to the same extent, and moreover, seeing that a portion of the British wheat crop has to stand a charge as heavy for land carriage across a county as that borne by foreign wheat across a continent or an ocean, the protection is not nearly so substantial as Caird would make out.
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  • As regards the British farmer, it does not appear as if he had improved his position; for he has to send his wheat to greater distances, owing to the collapse of many country millers or their removal to the seaboard, while railway rates have fallen only to a very small extent; again the farmer's wheat is worth only half of what it was formerly; it may be said that the British farmer has to give up one bushel in nine to the railway company for the purpose of transportation, whereas in the 'seventies he gave up one in eighteen only.
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  • The fidelity of a scribe has to be judged chiefly by internal tests, and these are best applied to his work in passages where there is no reasonable doubt of the correctness of the transmitted text.
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  • An inquirer who examines the stars with a shilling telescope is not likely to make observations of value, and even a trained astronomer has to allow for his "personal equation" - a point to which even a finished critic rarely attends.
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  • Aristotelianism has to be considered against the philosophy which preceded it and against the philosophy which has since followed it.
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  • Where the blast has to be kept up for only a few seconds, this instrument is quite serviceable, but in longer chemical operations inconvenience arises from the condensation of moisture exhaled by the lungs in the tube.
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  • As the reeling proceeds the reeler has to give the most careful attention to the thickness of the strand being produced, and to introduce new cocoons in place of any from which the reelable silk has become exhausted.
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  • (5) Raw silk skeins are often re-reeled; and in this process part has to be discarded: this being known to the trade as gum-waste.
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  • biveau, a joiner's instrument), the inclination of one surface of a solid body to another; also, any angle othef than a right angle, and particularly, in joinery, the angle to which a piece of timber has to be cut.
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  • In machinery, abrasion between moving surfaces has to be prevented as much as possible by the use of suitable materials, good fitting and lubrication.
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  • Balfour, however, having from unproved assumptions denied the evidence of the senses, and the rational power of using them to infer things beyond oneself, has to look out for other, and non-rational, foundations of belief.
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  • In the deflexion experiment, in addition to the induction correction, and that for the effect of temperature on the magnetic moment, a correction has to be applied for the effect of temperature on the length of the bar which supports the deflexion magnet.
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  • Generally, it is that part of archaeology which has to do with inscriptions engraved on stone, metal or other permanent material (not, however, coins, which come under the heading Numismatics) .
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  • The heretical literature has to a great extent either perished or been completely changed; but much has also survived in a modified written form or through oral tradition.
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  • The superintendent, who is a naval officer, has to investigate the magnetic character of the ships, to point out the most suitable positions for the compasses when a ship is designed, and subsequently to keep himself informed of their behaviour from the tin g e of the ship's first trial.
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  • restored this Congregation to a position of great importance; in the first place he gave it the effective control of all matters concerning the erection of dioceses and chapters and the appointment of bishops, except in the case of countries subject to the Propaganda, and save that for countries outside Italy it has to act upon information furnished by the papal secretary of state.
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  • Further, even for those countries which it continues to administer, the Propaganda has to submit to the various Congregations all questions affecting the Faith, marriage and rites.
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  • Custom has to some extent restricted its use to inorganic chemistry; the corresponding property of organic compounds being generally termed isomerism.
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  • On the other hand, where the mixing platform has to be constantly shifted, hand mixing is the more convenient way.
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  • In this case very great care has to be taken to prevent the cement from being washed away from the other constituents when passing through the water.
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  • But concrete is hampered by the fact that the surface always has to be formed by means of wooden or other framing, and in the case of thin walls or floors this framing becomes a serious item, involving expense and delay.
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  • The mixing and laying should all be done very thoroughly; the concrete should be rammed in position, and any old surface of concrete which has to be covered should be cleaned and coated with fresh cement.
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  • The main tube must be accurately machined as it has to be readily trained in its stuffing-box as well as be water-tight in all positions, through a considerable range of vertical travel.
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  • One lesson only, instead of many, has to be learnt; and once learnt at the expense of a few individuals of one or two species it will thereafter be applied indiscriminately to all.
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  • It is largely replacing brass and copper in all departments of industry - especially where dead weight has to be moved about, and lightness is synonymous with economy - for instance, in bed-plates for torpedo-boat engines, internal fittings for ships instead of wood, complete boats for portage, motor-car parts and boiling-pans for confectionery and in chemical works.
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  • No special development has to be reported, except the great extension of John Wilkinson's Mildmay Mission to the Jews, and its energy in the free distribution of Hebrew New Testaments.
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  • But as the rays of light, even in passing through transparent glass, lose much of their energy, which is further weakened in proportion to the distance it has to travel, the nearer the plant can be placed to the glass the more perfectly will its functions be performed; hence the importance of constructing the roofs at such an angle as will admit the most light, especially sunlight, at the time it is most required.
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  • Where the cultivation of large specimens has to be carried on, a span-roofed house of greater height and larger dimensions may sometimes prove useful; but space for this class of plants may generally be secured in a house of the smaller elevation, simply by lowering or removing altogether the staging erected for smaller plants, and allowing the larger ones to stand on or nearer the floor.
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  • In tonguing the leaves are cut off the portion which has to be brought under ground, and a tongue or slit is then cut from below upwards close beyond a joint, of such length that, when the cut part of the layer is pegged an inch or two (or in larger woody subjects 3 or 4 in.) below the surface, the elevation of the point of the shoot to an upright position may open the incision, and thus set it free, so that it may be surrounded by earth to induce it to form roots.
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  • When, however, a hard-wooded plant has to be repotted, the case is different; it may stand without further potting for one year or two years or more, and therefore much more care is necessary.
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  • In the pear and apple the fruit is borne principally on spurs, and hence what is known as spur-pruning has to be adopted, the young shoots being all cut back nearly to their base, so as to cause fruit buds to evolve from the remaining eyes or buds.
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  • In subdividing the strata of the Carboniferous system and correlating the major divisions in different areas, just as in other great systems, use has to be made of the fossil contents of the rocks; stratigraphical units, based on lithology, are useless for this purpose.
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  • The coal has to be transported by railway via Solok to Padang (Emmahaven), a seaport on the west coast.
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  • The power of the pumping-engines is taken on the basis of 12 h.p. per moo hectares for every metre that the water has to be raised, or stated in another form, the engines must be capable of raising nearly 9 lb of water through I yd.
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  • If by pre-heating the blast we add to the sum of the heat available; or if by drying it we subtract from the work to be done by that heat the quantity needed for decomposing the atmospheric moisture; or if by removing part of its nitrogen we lessen the mass over which the heat developed has to be spread - if by any of these means we raise the temperature developed by the combustion of the coke, it is clear that we increase the proportion of the total heat which is available for this critical work in exactly the way in which we should increase the proportion of the water of a stream, initially too in.
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  • Before its use in the gas engine, the blast-furnace gas has to be freed carefully from the large quantity of fine ore dust which it carries in suspension.
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  • (5) In that carburizing lowers the melting point of the iron greatly, it lowers somewhat the temperature to which the mineral matter of the ore has to be raised in order that the iron may be separated from it, because this separation requires that both iron and slag shall be very fluid.
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  • The processes for converting cast iron into steel can now remove phosphorus easily, but the removal of sulphur in them is so difficult that it has to be accomplished for the most part in the blast-furnace itself.
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  • " mirror-iron," from the brilliancy of its facets, and usually containing somewhere about 12% of manganese and 4% of carbon, though the proportion between these two elements has to be adjusted so as to introduce the desired quantity of each into the molten steel.
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  • The advantage of this combination is that, by simplifying the conditions with which the composition of the pig iron has to comply, it makes the management of the blast furnace easier, and thus lessens the danger of making " misfit " pig iron, i.e.
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  • Hence the manganesecontent needed increases with the sulphur-content which has to be endured.
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  • This moving is expensive, because it has to be done, or at least guided, by hand, and it takes up much time, during which both heat and iron are wasting.
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  • With regard, then, to the first problem, the formal element in knowledge, Hume has to consider several questions, distinct in nature and hardly discriminated by him with sufficient precision.
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  • For he has to give some explanation of the nature of space and time which shall identify these with impressions, and at the same time is compelled to recognize the fact that they are not identical with any single impression or set of impressions.
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  • To this total has to be added the men on the active list, but either absent on leave or allowed to return to civil life, numbering 70,043.
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  • Other minerals are iron, manganese, lead and zinc. The iron mines produce much less than formerly, and the want of iron is a grave defect in Belgian prosperity, as about £5,000,eoo sterling worth of iron has to be imported annually, chiefly from French Lorraine.
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  • The burgomaster is entirely dependent upon the police and the chief of the district, and has to discharge all sorts of functions (bailiff, policeman, &c.) which have nothing to do with municipal affairs.
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  • But digitalis is indicated whenever the heart shows itself unequal to the work it has to perform.
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  • It has to be emphasized at the outset that the monasteries in which the Benedictine rule was the basis of the life did not form a body or group apart within the great " monastic order," which embraced all monasteries of whatever rule; nor had Benedictine monks any special work or object beyond that common to all monks - viz.
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  • This is nearly the last of the cluses through which the river has to make its way.
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  • The story has to be pieced together from the vague and somewhat discrepant accounts of Plutarch (Crassus, 8 - II; Pompey, 21), Appian (Bell.
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  • Though there is great waste of labour, he can apply his labour when he likes; no permission is required from a government official; no one has to be bribed.
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  • The engineer must not decide upon the plan till he has gauged at different seasons the stream which has to supply the water, and has ascertained the rain-collecting area available, and the rainfall of the district, as well as the proportion of storable to percolating and evaporating water.
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  • Obviously the choice which has to be made between these traditions cannot be adequately discussed here: it must suffice to say that intrinsic and traditional probability seem to favour the Galilean narrative.
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  • A great difference, however, is to be remarked between the coasts of the North Sea and those of the Baltic. On the former, where the sea has broken up the ranges of dunes formed in bygone times, and divided them into separate islands, the mainland has to be protected by massive dikes, while the Frisian Islands are being gradually washed away by the waters.
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  • In the former division has to be classed all the North German plain.
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  • The whole of the Prussian military system, inciuding not only the obligation to military service, but the rules for recruiting, organization, drill and uniforms, has to be followed in all the states; all the contingents are under the command of the emperor, and the soldiers have to swear obedience to him in addition to the oath of allegiance to their own sovereign.
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  • Save for beds of lignite, said to exist in the extreme north, coal is not found, and has to be imported, chiefly from the states of Ohio and Pennsylvania, though Nova Scotia furnishes an increasing quantity.
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  • Of the four main lines which centre on Genoa - (1) to Novi, which is the junction for Alessandria, where lines diverge to Turin and France via the Mont Cenis, and toNovaraandSwitzerland and France via the Simplon, and for Milan; (2) to Acqui and Piedmont; (3) to Savona, Ventimiglia and the French Riviera, along the coast; (4) to Spezia and Pisa - the first line has to take no less than 78% of the traffic. It has indeed two alternative double lines for the passage over the Apennines, but one of them has a maximum gradient of 1: 18 and a tunnel over 2 m.
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  • How far the country generally may be regarded as Hellenized is a problem which involves the vexed question what right the Macedonian people itself has to be classed among the Hellenes, and Macedonian to be considered a dialect of Greek.'
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  • It has to be considered, however, that many of those sermonizing pieces which are so tedious to us, especially when we read two or three in succession (perhaps in a very inadequate translation), must have had a quite different effect when recited under the burning sky and on the barren soil of Mecca.
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  • They are no consolidated party, but to Mahomet they are all equally vexatious, because, as soon as danger has to be encountered, or a contribution is levied, they all alike fall away.
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  • IntheXllthDynastythe soldering of the thin cells for the cloisonnee inlaid pectorals, on to the base plate, is a marvellous piece of delicacy; every cell has to be perfectly true in form, and yet all soldered, apparently simultaneously, as the heat could not be applied to successive portions (M.D.
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  • If the fruit is a dehiscent one and the seed is therefore soon exposed, the seed-coat has to provide for the protection of the embryo and may also have to secure dissemination.
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  • In some other countries the brine has to be concentrated before use.
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  • Logical analysis, after assuming that truth is independent and not of our making, has to confess that all logical operations involve an apparently arbitrary interference with their data (Bradley).
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  • Because all truth is primarily a claim which may turn out to be false, it has to be tested.
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  • Analyses of the two classes of hydraulic lime are as follows: Hydraulic lime contains a good deal of uncombined lime, and has to be slaked before it is used as a cement.
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  • It must be remembered that one of the great advantages of concrete is that five-sixths of its total mass may be provided from local sand and gravel, on which no carriage has to be paid.
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  • The difference of the general level on the two sides of the water-parting is reflected in the length of their streams. On the west the drainage empties itself into the Atlantic after flowing only a very few miles, on the east it has to run 30 or 40 m.
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  • While, therefore, Teutonic people have spread over the one area, the earlier race has to this day maintained its ground in the other.
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  • This in effect is to say that not magnitude but something else has to be sought for if we are to pick out amongst observed variations those which may be the material for the differentiation of species.
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  • Variation provides the material for selection, and although opinions may differ as to the nature of that material, the modes by which it comes into existence and their relative values and permanences, there is an increasingly wide consensus of opinion that all such material has to pass through the sieve of natural selection and that the sifted products form new varieties and species, and new adaptations.
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  • Notwithstanding the strong scent of the otter, he often escapes the hounds, and then a cast has to be made.
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  • To judge from the monuments, it appears to have recovered some of its old prosperity; but the art of this later period has to a great extent lost the strongly marked individuality of its earlier bloom.
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  • In a pass examination the question has to be considered how far, if at all, excellence in one subject shall compensate for deficiency in another, a question which is indeterminate until the precise object of the whole examination is formulated.
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  • What he has to tell us of the history of South Palestine was derived from oral tradition.
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  • With regard to traditional sayings or doings of our Lord, which were only written down at a later period, it will suffice to say that those which have any claim to be genuine are very scanty, and that their genuineness has to be tested by their correspondence with the great bulk of information which is derived from the sources already enumerated.
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  • It has to do with those who challenge it from the first.
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  • From the moral world the next step is religion; the moral law gives place to God; but the idea of Godhead, too, as it first appears, is imperfect, and has to pass through the forms of nature-worship and of art before it reaches a full utterance in Christianity.
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  • The order of the categories is in the main outlines fixed; but in the minor details much depends upon the philosopher, who has to fill in the gaps between ideas, with little guidance from the data of experience, and to assign to the stages of development names which occasionally deal hardly with language.
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  • This page gives an overview of all articles in the 1911 Brittanica which are alphabetized under Has to Hea.
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  • Consequently, in addition to the ordinary requirements of historical criticism, biblical study has to take into account the intricate composite character of the sources and the background of these positions.
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  • Not only is more powerful machinery required for the latter, but in bending it allowance has to be made for the difference in radius of outer and inner layers, which increases with increase of thickness.
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  • But when curving occurs In different planes at right or other angles (hollowing), the metal has to be drawn or extended on the outside, and important differences arise.
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  • If an object has to be beaten into concave form from a flat thin sheet, the outer portions must be hammered until they occupy smaller dimensions than on the flat sheet.
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  • One of the most difficult problems with which the metal-worker who handles constructional forms has to deal is the maintenance of a due relation between absolute strength and a useful degree of elasticity.
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  • Where (as is the more usual case) the chlorine has to serve for the manufacture of bleaching-powder, it must first be deprived of the great amount of moisture which it contains, by means of coke-towers fed with moderately strong sulphuric acid.
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  • The profit made upon the chlorine produced has to make up for the loss on the alkali.
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  • If, for instance, payment has to be made at a bank or place of business, it must be within business hours.
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  • Though Arabic has to a considerable extent displaced the Berber language, the latter is still spoken by millions of people from Egypt to the Atlantic and from the Mediterranean to the Sudan.
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  • The balance of trade is always against India, because she is a debtor country, and has to pay interest on borrowed capital, and the " home charges " for the upkeep of the civil and military services and of the secretary of state's establishment in London.
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  • This is such a practical drawback that the separation is generally 4ths or $ths of the theoretical, and then the primary image viewed by the eye piece may be rather outside the field-lens, which is a great practical advantage, especially when a reticule has to be mounted in the primary focal plane, although the edge of the field is not quite achromatic under these conditions.
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  • This framework is provided with guides on which the platform, whilst preserving its horizontality, is V the observer has to follow the eye-end in a comparatively small circle; another good point is the flattening of the cast-iron centrepiece of the tube so that the flange of the declination axis is attached as near to the axis of the telescope tube as is consistent with free passage of the cone of rays from the object-glass.
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  • A large slot has to be cut in the cone which forms the upper part of the polar axis, in order to allow the telescope to be pointed nearer to the pole than would otherwise be possible; even so stars within 15° of the pole cannot be observed.
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  • The Sugar Plantations: The soil of the island is of considerable fertility; it is a ferruginous red clay, but so largely mingled with stones of all sizes that no plough can be used, and the hoe has to be employed to prepare the ground for cultivation.
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  • A material point for the application of the privilege consists in the fact that ancient demesne has to be proved from the time before the Conquest, and this shows clearly that the theory was partly derived from the recognition of tenant right in villeins of the Anglo-Saxon period who, as we have said above, were mostly ceorls, that is, freeborn men.
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  • If not, the lord can follow him in fresh pursuit for four days; once these days past, the fugitive is maintained provisionally in possession of his liberty, and the lord has to bring an action de nativo habendo and has to assume the burden of proof.
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  • Still the tendency to treat merchet as a distinctive feature of serfdom has to be noted, and we find that the custom spread for this very reason in consequence of the encroachments of powerful lords: in the Hundred Rolls it is applied indiscriminately to the whole rustic population of certain hundreds in a way which can hardly be explained unless by artificial extension.
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  • Every virgater or holder of a bovate has to send a labourer to do work on the lord's farm for some days in the week.
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  • In applying this principle of similarity, each of the three processes in its own way has to premise both that something is somehow determined and that something is similar, and by combining these premises to conclude that this is similarly determined to that.
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  • Induction has to consider more instances, and the similarity of a whole number or class.
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  • man is running or not running; and reasoning is a combination of judgments: conversely, there is a mental analysis of reasoning into judgments, and judgment into conceptions, beneath the linguistic analysis of rational discourse into propositions, and propositions into terms. Logic, according to this new school, which has by our time become an old school, has to co-ordinate these three operations, direct them, and, beginning with conceptions, combine conceptions into judgments, and judgments into inference, which thus becomes a complex combination of conceptions, or, in modern parlance, an extension of our ideas.
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  • Formal logic has arisen out of the narrowness of conceptual logic. The science of inference no doubt has to deal primarily with formal truth or the consistency of premises and conclusion.
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  • Logic has to consider the things we know, the minds by which we know them from sense, memory and experience to inference, and the sciences which systematize and extend our knowledge of things; and having considered these facts, the logician must make such a science of inference as will explain the power and the poverty of human knowledge.
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  • And what Spinoza has to say of the requisites of definition and the marks of intellection makes it clear that insight comes with coherence, and that the work of method on the " inductive " side is by means of the unravelling of all that makes for artificial limitation to lay bare what can then be seen to exhibit nexus in the one great system.
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  • by 8 has to be allowed for each tree.
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  • Thus Apollo has to fight the oracle serpent of Gaia, and it has been observed that where Apollo prevailed in Greek religion the serpent became a monster to be slain.
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  • The last-named region has to a great extent had a separate history; and it was only in 1894 that the Mosquito Reserve, a central enclave which includes more than half of the littoral and hinterland, was incorporated in the republic and renamed the department of Zelaya.
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  • To find the energy which has to be exerted to peoduce the acceleration from v1 to Vi, it is to be observed that the distance through which the effort P acts during the acceleration is L~s= (vi+vi)~t/2;
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  • Kali, on the other hand, the most terrible of the goddess's forms, has a special service performed to her, at the Kali-puja, during the darkest night of the succeeding month; when she is represented as a naked black woman, four-armed, wearing a garland of heads of giants slain by her, and a string of skulls round her neck, dancing on the breast of her husband (Mahakala), with gaping mouth and protruding tongue; and when she has to be propitiated by the slaughter of goats, sheep and buffaloes.
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  • On other occasions also Vamacharis commonly offer animal sacrifices, usually one or more kids; the head of the victim, which has to be severed by a single stroke, being always placed in front of the image of the goddess as a blood-offering (bali), with an earthen lamp fed with ghee burning above it, whilst the flesh is cooked and served to the guests attending the ceremony, except that of buffaloes, which is given to the low-caste musicians who perform during the service.
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  • Since by the universally accepted doctrine of karman (deed) or karmavipaka (" the maturing of deeds") man himself - either in his present, or some future, existence - enjoys the fruit of, or has to atone for, his former good and bad actions, there could hardly be room in Hindu pantheism for a belief in the remission of sin by divine grace or vicarious substitution.
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  • At stated intervals to offer reverential homage and oblations of food to the forefathers up to the third degree is one of the most sacred duties the devout Hindu has to discharge.
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  • Akbar's method of dealing with what must always be the chief difficulty of one who has to rule widely diverse races, affords perhaps the crowning evidence of his wisdom and moderation.
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  • Migration.-Passing from the internal factors in the movement of population, the influence has to be taken into account of the interchange of population between different countries.
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  • It is therefore obvious that some term, wider than Revival of Learning, descriptive of the change which began to pass over Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries, has to be adopted.
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  • The point of contact between humanism and the Reformation in Germany has to be insisted on; for it is just here that the relation of the Reformation to the Renaissance in general makes itself apparent.
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  • For these settlers he has to find British wives, and to this end collects 11,000 noble and 60,000 plebeian virgins, who are wrecked on their passage across.
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  • It appears to the author, however, that where such methods are employed merely with a view to overcoming a specific malady and there is no intention of increasing the quantity of the wine for purposes of gain, or of giving it a fictitious appearance of quality, these operations are perfectly justifiable and may be compared to the modifications of procedure which are forced upon the brewer or distiller who has to deal with somewhat abnormal raw material.
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  • Thus the amount and character of public ex penditure necessarily depends on the functions that the state undertakes to perform - national defence, the maintenance of internal' order, and the efficient equipment of the state organization; such are the tasks that all governments have to discharge, and for their cost due provision has to be made.
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  • The financier has to " cover " his outlay.
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  • Not only has there to be a strict control over the total national expense; supervision has to be carried into each department of the state.
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  • Regarded as an organized system, the body of receipts has to be made conformable to certain general conditions.
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  • Speculative or theoretical natural philosophy has to deal with natural substances and qualities and is subdivided into physics and metaphysics.
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  • The player who declares to make most has to try to make them, and the others, but without consultation, to prevent him.
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  • If the forme to be printed consists of both type and blocks mixed, a somewhat different treatment has to he employed in order to put the blocks into a relative position with the type for printing.
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  • This is done by the usual trial impression sheet, and, as blocks are found to vary much in height and are generally low as compared with type, this deficiency has to be remedied by underlaying the blocks so that they are brought to the height of the type, or a shade higher.
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  • To make the department pay, the machines must be kept fully employed with the many classes of work that a large concern has to deal with; the wheels must be kept running as much as possible, and the time for making-ready curtailed as far as is consistent with the proper preparation of the forme.
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  • In a state of nature, every recurring severe winter or otherwise unfavourable season weeds out those individuals of tender constitution or imperfect structure which may have got on very well during favourable years, and it is thus that the adaptation of the species to the climate in which it has to exist is kept up. Under domestication the same thing occurs by what C. Darwin has termed "unconscious selection."
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  • Owing, however, to the woody and brittle nature of the fibre, it has to undergo a preliminary treatment peculiar to itself.
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  • Cereals are grown, but the inhabitants prefer to raise such articles of produce as are in demand for export, and consequently part of the grain supply has to be imported.
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  • The line is marked at intervals by frontier posts held by military police and commanding the roads of access to the tract beyond; and any person from the plains who has received permission to cross the line has to present his pass at these posts.
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  • Spinoza's position is based upon the thoroughgoing distinction drawn in the book between philosophy, which has to do with knowledge and opinion, and theology, or, as we should now say, religion, which has to do exclusively with obedience and conduct.
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  • Yet even there it has to contend with the many species of carnivora which prey upon its eggs and young - the latter especially; and H.
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  • Less common and picked fruits are expensive, particularly so when cost of transport has to be considered; for instance, a good orange costs 2d.
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  • He has to choose on which side he will stand: he is called to serve the powers of Good: his duty lies in speaking the truth and combating the lie.
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  • iroXerEia, constitution, condition of a state, irOXcs, city, state), a term used of the enforcement of law and order in a state or community, of the department concerned with that part of the civil administration, and of the body or force which has to carry it into execution.
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  • Thane Wallaf has to be relieved from fiscal exactions when his estate is converted from folkland into bookland (c.o.
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  • In some cases of diarrhoea an entirely milk diet has to be prescribed, and in the diarrhoea of children it is sometimes necessary to alternate a diet of barley water with one of beef juice or white of egg and water, or to give whey instead of milk.
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  • He did not appreciate as sufficiently as David Strauss and the Tubingen critics the difficulties which a natural theory has to surmount, nor did he support his conclusions by such elaborate discussions as they deemed necessary.
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  • The roots extend horizontally in the ground on all sides for about 9 ft., and from these the earth has to be carefully scraped away and other roots cut through where such come across.
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  • Besides assisting British subjects who are tried for offences in the local courts, and ascertaining the humanity of their treatment after sentence, he has to consider whether home or foreign law is more appropriate to the case, having regard to the convenience of witnesses and the time required for decision; and, where local courts have wrongfully interfered, he puts the home government in motion through the consul-general or ambassador.
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  • He is practically free from the multifarious duties which the English consul has to discharge in connexion with the mercantile marine, nor has he to perform marriage ceremonies; and financially he is much better off, being allowed to retain as personal all fees obtained from his notarial duties.
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  • We may conceive this pressure to arise from the tendency which the bubble has to contract, or in other words from the surface-tension of the bubble.
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  • As the liquid masses approach one another, the intervening air has to be squeezed out.
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  • of this town it has to force its way across the same granitic offshoot of the Carpathian mountains which interrupts the course of the Dniester and the Bug, and for a distance of about 25 m.
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  • After consecration the bishop is competent to exercise all the spiritual functions of his office; but a bishopric in the Established Church, being a barony, is under the guardianship of the crown during a vacancy, and has to be conferred afresh on each new holder.
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  • It has, indeed, been asserted that, if relays of trained assistants are at hand, no one need die of opium poisoning, even if artificial respiration has to be continued for hours or days.
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  • - Opium, like many other poisons, produces after a time a less effect if frequently administered as a medicine, so that the dose has to be constantly increased to produce the same result on those who take it habitually.
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  • America and Mexico, while in the United States it has to a considerable extent been replaced by smelting.
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  • The stars are held, not only to prognosticate the future but also to influence it; the child born when Mars is in the ascendant will be war-like; Venus has to do with love; the sign of the Lion presides over places where wild beasts are found.
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  • Candidates are nominated in writing by a nomination paper signed by a proposer and seconder, and subscribed by eight other assenting county electors of the division; and in the event of there being more valid nominations than vacancies a poll has to be taken in the manner prescribed by the Ballot Act 1872.
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  • If a candidate is unseated a casual vacancy is created which has to be filled by a new election.
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  • A copy of the accounts has to be deposited for public inspection for seven days before the audit.
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  • The county council must in any case make a payment towards the costs incurred by the district council, and if any difference arises as to the amount of it, it has to be settled by the Local Government Board.
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  • If the scheme is opposed by the prescribed proportion (one-twentieth) of the owners and ratepayers of the proposed new borough, it has to be confirmed by parliament.
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  • If the income from such property is insufficient for the purposes to which it is applicable, as usually, is the case, it has to be supplemented by a borough rate, which may be a separate rate made by the council or may be levied through the overseers as part of the poor rate' by means of a precept addressed to them.
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  • The crown may also on petition of the council grant a separate court of quarter sessions for the borough, and in that event a recorder has to be appointed by the crown.
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  • At the offices, annual meeting, which is held as soon as convenient after the 15th April in each year, a chairman for the succeeding year has to be appointed.
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  • Any dispute as to whether the company are able and willing has to be settled by arbitration.
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  • But it has to be borne in mind that it is not every highway that is repairable by the inhabitants at large.
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  • The scheme has to be confirmed by the Local Government Board, and carried out by means of a provisional order.
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  • A burial ground, properly so called, has to be divided into consecrated and unconsecrated portions, and the former really takes the place of the parish churchyard; and the incumbent of the parish church, the clerk, and the sexton continue to receive the same fees upon burials in the consecrated portion as they would have done in the parish churchyard.
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  • In these primeval forests the vegetation is excessively rank; passage has to be forced through thick underwood and creeping plants, between giant trees, whose foliage shuts out the sun's rays; and the land teems with animal and insect life of every form and colour.
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  • 132) has to say is that the Magi sang "the theogony " at their sacrifices, Pausanias is able to add (v.
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  • It has to be borne in mind that Linnaeus, plainly as he recognized the likeness of the higher simian and the human types, does not seem to have entertained the thought of accounting for this similarity by common descent.
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  • While it is evident that high importance must be attached to the adaptation of the human body to the life of diversified intelligence and occupation he has to lead, this must not be treated as though it were the principal element of the superiority of man, whose comparison with all lower genera of mammals must be mainly directed to the intellectual organ, the brain.
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  • Thus the modern Hindu, though using civilized means for lighting his household fires, retains the savage " fire-drill " for obtaining fire by friction of wood when what he considers pure or sacred fire has to be produced for sacrificial purposes; while in Europe into modern times the same primitive process has been kept up in producing the sacred and magical " need-fire," which was lighted to deliver cattle from a murrain.
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  • Particular attention has to be given to the stone implements used by these earliest known of mankind.
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  • With all reverence, an historical student has to deduct something from both these statements.
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  • that any one has to do as he pleases."
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  • The richness of colouring on which Vasari expatiates has indeed flown, partly from injury, partly because in striving for effects of light and shade the painter was accustomed to model his figures on a dark ground, and in this as in his other oil-pictures the ground has to a large extent come through.
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  • It is with the ultimate synthesis that philosophy concerns itself; it has to show that the subject-matter which we are all dealing with in detail really is a whole, consisting of articulated members.
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  • Steelwork that has to come in contact with brickwork or concrete should not be painted, but should receive a wash of cement as the brickwork or concrete-work proceeds.
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  • The Alexandrian philosopher wavers between the two theories and has to accord to the Logos of Hellas a semiindependent position beside the supreme God of Judaea.
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  • As an historical figure, it is impossible to dogmatize concerning the personality of Joan of Arc. The modern clerical view has to some extent provoked what appears, in Anatole France's learned account, ably presented as it is, to be a retaliation, in regarding her as a clerical tool in her own day.
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  • Of Pertharite it need only be said that no single critic has to our knowledge disputed the justice of its damnation.
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  • The devout Moslem has to make a set response to each phrase of the Muezzin.
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  • Having crossed the Little Karroo, from which rise minor mountain chains, a second high range has to be climbed.
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  • The comparison of standard weights has to be con - ducted at the standard temperature, and the room must be brought to that temperature and maintained at it.
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  • Since so small a weight as a penny has to move the lever, J, together with the dial finger, &c., it is evident that the workmanship must be good and the friction kept very low by means of friction wheels.
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  • If four coins are laid on a table, close together, they can (by most adults) be seen to be four, without counting; but seven coins have to be separated mentally into two groups, the numbers of which are added, or one group has to be seen and the remaining objects counted, before the number is known to be seven.
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  • The subtraction of 4 from 9 may mean either " What has to be added to 4 in order to make up a total of 9," or " To what has 4 to be added in order to make up a total of 9."
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  • The symbol - is used to denote both kinds of division; thus A = n denotes the unit, n of which make up A, and A= B denotes the number of times that B has to be taken to make up A.
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  • In actual practice, however, decimals only represent approximations, and the process has to be modified (§ 111).
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  • When a mixed quantity or a mixed number has to be multiplied by a large number, it is sometimes convenient to express the former in terms of one only of its denominations.
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  • The vast mass of material made known by these and many other distinguished writers has to be included in our classification, and that classification itself must be controlled by the story it reveals.
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  • No one is allowed to receive holy communion, if guilty of "mortal" sin, without resorting to confession; only if a priest has to celebrate mass, and there is no other priest to hear his confession, may he receive "unabsolved" after mortal sin.
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  • To come to England, Wesley provided for spiritual discipline through the class-meeting, whose leader has to advise, comfort or exhort as occasion may arise; and (2) through the ministers, who have to bear the chief responsibility in the reproof, suspension or expulsion from communion of erring brethren.
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  • From the foregoing epitome which applies to many species, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus for example, it is evident that every individual tick has to find a host on three occasions, namely, as larva, nymph and adult.
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  • Finally, in the jumping forms we meet with an increase in the length and weight of the tail, which has to act as a counterpoise.
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  • The gas developed by the coal near the mouth of the retort is quickly washed out into the ascension pipe by the push of the gas behind, and the period for which it has been exposed to the radiant heat from the walls of the retort is practically nil; whilst the gas evolved in the portion of the retort farthest from the mouthpiece has only its own rate of evolution to drive it forward, and has to traverse the longest run possible in tile retort, exposed during the whole of that period to radiant heat and to contact with the highly heated surface of the retort itself.
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  • Condensation takes place in the ascension pipe, in the arch piece leading to the hydraulic main, and to a still greater extent in the hydraulic main itself where the gas has to pass through water.
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  • The gas enters in the centre, and to make its escape again it has to pass into long wrought iron inverted troughs through perforations one-twentieth of an inch in diameter.
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  • " In contrast with this, orthodox Lutheranism has to teach baptismal regeneration and consubstantiation, as well as justification by faith.
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  • A Protestant has to view the past history of doctrine very much as a succession of de clensions and revivals, the latter more than counter - Hyperius has been further termed the father of Homiletics.
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  • Jonathan Edwards, a very stern Calvinist, is one of the few first-rate geniuses America has to boast in theology.
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  • No man who has to deal daily and hourly with nature can trouble himself about a priori difficulties.
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  • Again, when Thessaly, is entered from the south by the pass of Coela, another plain, containing a small lake, which was formerly called Xynias, intervenes, and a line of low hills has to be crossed before the town of Thaumaki is reached, which from its commanding position overlooks the whole of the upper plain.
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  • In general, oxides are the most important compounds with which the chemist has to deal, a study of their composition and properties permitting a valuable comparative investigation of the elements.
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  • Nor, finally, does Aristotle's account of the relation of pleasure to human well-being (although he has to combat the extreme anti-hedonism to which the Platonic school under Speusippus had been led) differ materially from the outcome of Plato's thought on this point, as the later dialogues present it to us.
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  • The question, however, still remains, what motive any individual has to conform to these social principles when they conflict with his natural desires.
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  • Let us grant that there is as much intellectual absurdity in acting unjustly as in denying that two and two make four; still, if a man has to choose between absurdity and unhappiness, he will naturally prefer the former; and Clarke, as we have already seen, is not really prepared to maintain that such preference is irrational.'
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  • Most of the streets in the heart of the city are narrow and irregular, and the quaint aspect of a free medieval town has to a considerable extent been maintained.
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  • When an astronomer has made an observation, it still has to be " reduced," and this commonly requires more labour than that involved in making it.
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  • We may, in fact, regard the fabric of astronomical science as a building in the construction of which no stone can be added without a readjustment of some of the stones on which it has to rest.
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  • The problem of determining the perturbations of the (2) Q heavenly bodies is perhaps the most complicated with which the mathematical astronomer has to grapple; and the forms under which it has to be studied are so numerous that they cannot be easily arranged under any one head.
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  • This suggests that inequalities in the action of the planets may have been still overlooked, the subject being the most intricate with which celestial mechanics has to deal.
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  • Of those species that frequent the North Atlantic, the common StormPetrel, Procellaria pelagica, a little bird which has to the ordinary eye rather the look of a Swift or Swallow, is the "Mother Carey's chicken" of sailors, and is widely believed to be the harbinger of bad weather; but seamen hardly discriminate between this and others nearly resembling it in appearance, such as Leach's or the Fork-tailed Petrel, Cymochorea leucorrhoa, a rather larger but less common bird, and Wilson's Petrel, Oceanites oceanicus, the type of the Family Oceanitidae mentioned above, which is more common on the American side.
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  • For while he maintains constantly his favourite maxim "that there is nothing in the intellect which has not been in the senses" (nihil in intellectu quod non pries fuerit in sensu), while he contends that the imaginative faculty (phantasia) is the counterpart of sense - that, as it has to do with material images, it is itself, like sense, material, and essentially the same both in men and brutes; he at the same time admits that the intellect, which he affirms to be immaterial and immortal - the most characteristic distinction of humanity - attains notions and truths of which no effort of sensation or imagination can give us the slightest apprehension (Op. ii..383).
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  • His point of view may be described as Scholasticism; for, like the scholastic doctors, he believes that theology and philosophy are not opposed sciences, but that reason has to make clear the truths given by authority and revelation.
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  • The science of mythology has to account, if it can, not only for the existence of certain stories in the legends of certain races, but also for the presence of stories practically the same among almost all races.
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  • Tylor replies, " When the attention of a man in the myth-making stage of intellect is drawn to any phenomenon or custom which has to him no obvious reason, he invents and tells a story to account for it.
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  • It is directly beheld (intuited) by reason, but in order to be of use it has to be reflected on, and this by means of language.
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  • 5, 8), Ishmael is a young child who has to be carried (xxi.
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  • Logic, which stands first, has to render our conceptions and the judgments and reasonings arising from them clear and distinct.
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  • For an accurate determination of the plane of polarization analysers that act by extinction are not of much practical use, and a different device has to be employed.
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  • The most serious disease with which the bee-keeper has to contend is that commonly known as " bee-pest " or " foul brood," so called because of the young brood dying and rotting in the cells.
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  • How far the more serious claim is likely to be revived in connexion with the renewal of research into the "occult" sciences generally, it is still too early to speculate; and it has to be recognized that such a point of view is opposed to the generally established belief that astrology is either mere superstition or absolute imposture, and that its former vogue was due either to deception or to the tyranny of an unscientific environment.
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  • The descending colon is much narrower than the rest, and not sacculated, and, being considerably longer than the distance it has to traverse, is thrown into numerous folds.
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  • To avoid colic an animal has to be gradually prepared by giving small quantities of green food for a few days before going to grass.
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  • The government, strikingly unlike the Jesuit autocracy, is of a republican form; and the superior, though first in honour, has to take his turn in discharging all the duties which come to each priest of the society in the order of his seniority, including that of waiting at table, which is not entrusted in the Oratory to lay brothers, according to the practice in most other communities.
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  • The demands made upon the eyepiece, which has to represent a relatively large field by narrow cones of rays, are not very considerable.
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  • In dark field illumination care has to be taken that no direct rays reach the objective, and hence a good dark field illumination can be produced if the condenser system has a larger aperture than the objective.
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  • The direct measure of this distance being impracticable, it has to be determined by astronomical observations.
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  • The quantity of water poured daily into the sea is not less than 6,000,000 tons, all of which has to be carried off by evaporation.
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  • A company may act beneficially so long as a country is undeveloped, but as soon as it becomes even semi-civilized its conflicts with private interests become so frequent and serious that its authority has to make way for that of the central government.
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  • In other words, the liquid-refrigerating agent enters the refrigerator at the condenser temperature and introduces heat which has to be taken up by the evaporating liquid before any useful refrigerating effect can be performed.
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  • With the same temperature range, however, the same amount of heat has to be acquired in both cases, though from the nature of the process the actual amount of heat demanded from the steam is much greater in the absorption system than in the compression.
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  • This is chiefly due to the fact that in the former the heat of vaporization acquired in the refrigerator is rejected in the absorber, so that the whole heat of vaporization has to be supplied again by the steam in the generator.
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  • In the latter the vapour passes direct from the refrigerator to the pump, and power has to be expended merely in raising the temperature to a sufficient degree to enable condensation to occur at the temperature of the cooling water.
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  • Each pound of steam can thus be made to give up some 950 units of heat; while in a good steam engine only about 200 units are utilized in the steam cylinder per pound of steam, and in addition allowance has to be made for mechanical inefficiency.
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  • In the absorption machine the cooling water has to take up about twice as much heat as in the compression system, owing to the ammonia being twice liquefied - namely, once in the absorber and once in the condenser.
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  • This difficulty will disappear as the strata become better known; but at present each of the silted-up lakes has to be studied separately, for we cannot expect so close a correspondence in their faunas and floras as is found in the more crowded and smaller basins in central Europe.
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  • he complains to Siegfried next morning; and once more the hero has to intervene; invisible in his tarnkappe he wrestles with Brunhild, and, after a desperate struggle, takes from her her girdle and ring before yielding place to Gunther.
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  • A remarkable feature of the bequest was that while the will is read one of the boys has to stand on his head.
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  • A member of such a college is a canon in virtue of the spiritual duties which he has to perform, and the assignation to him of a stall in choir and a place in chapter; he is a prebendary in virtue of his benefice.
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  • This principle is capable of very wide extension, the blast furnace being mainly limited in height by the strength the column of materials or "burden" has to resist crushing, under the weight due to the head adopted, and the power of the blowing engine to supply blast of sufficient density to overcome the resistance of the closely packed materials to the free passage of the spent gases.
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  • Where the operation is simply one of fusion, as in the ironfounder's cupola, in which there is no very great change in volume in the materials on their descent to the tuyeres, the stack is nearly or quite straight-sided; but when, as is the case with the smelting of iron ores with limestone flux, a large proportion of volatile matter has to be removed in the process, a wall of varying inclination is used, so that the body of the furnace is formed of two dissimilar truncated cones, joined by their bases, the lower one passing downwards into a short, nearly cylindrical, position.
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  • In the construction of furnaces provision has to be made for the unequal expansion of the different parts under the effect of heat.
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  • In reverberatory and air furnaces used in the different operations of iron manufacture, where an extremely high temperature has to be maintained in spaces of comparatively small extent, such as the beds of puddling, welding and steel-melting furnaces, the temperature of the exhaust gases is exceedingly high, and if allowed to pass directly into the chimney they appear as a great body of flame at the top. It is now general to save a portion of this heat by passing the flame through flues of steam boilers, air-heating apparatus, or both - so that the steam required for the necessary operations of the forge and heated blast for the furnace itself may be obtained without further expenditure of fuel.
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  • He likes to surprise people, so I guess he has to have secrets, right?
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  • It's a timed experiment and it has to run for a precise period.
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  • I haven't had personal contact with him lately but I hear he's trying to snow ball them but he's subject to subpoena so he has to be careful.
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  • To take his place as the Grey God, he has to overcome some really large hurdles.
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  • The blood bond has to take.
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  • If you're going to go to work for the woman—and God knows she needs your help—she has to agree to the rules of engagement.
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  • Anyway, now, by Immortal law, you're his mate, so he legally has to protect you instead of get revenge.
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  • The reason I.m lying here in pain has to do with my accidental ambush of Darkyn.s demons, the demon replied.
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  • Your shell has to shed wind, water and snow to maintain a warm and dry climate inside.
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  • It is what he has to lose – his honor.
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  • Maybe because someone who's lived so long has to have a little more going on than a constant hard-on.
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  • A decision of a vote does not create a binding precedent that has to be followed in other similar cases.
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  • The most frequently reiterated question has to do with the cost of parking downtown.
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  • Anyone fearing repercussions from the circumstantial evidence merely has to tell their story to the DA.
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  • The professional writer has to undergo many sad vicissitudes.
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  • One has to ask whether or not any of the major banks have implemented this system.
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  • accountable officer who has to answer within two months.
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  • Acrostic poetry An acrostic poetry An acrostic poem has to be one of the simplest poems that I found to write.
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  • The latter point has to be stressed since we did not address the question of empirical adequacy at all.
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  • They are in pdf format and so the person looking has to have adobe or similar reader.
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  • Jacobs' assessment of the place adverbial in (42 ), however, has to be rejected.
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  • But regulation has to tread a fine line between protecting the public interest and stifling the industry by being too risk adverse.
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  • But I was so aghast at the cost that I thought ' there has to be a better way ' .
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  • agrarian revolution, which has taken place in Western Europe, still has to take place in the East.
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  • For proper functioning of the system the building has to be sufficiently airtight.
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  • The main character, played by Matt Dillon, can't afford to join-in, because he has to pay alimony to his ex-wife.
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  • alternation of mood has been called the hill and valley experience that the mystic has to endure.
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  • These guys get very little annual holiday so wherever they go has to carry a guarantee of perfection.
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  • answer how do I find out more about what the College has to offer?
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  • So the relationship has to be an equable one - for who wants to be locked into mutual antagonism for a decade?
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  • Each patient's particular circumstances must be considered and the need to inform has to be balanced against possible creation of unnecessary anxiety.
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  • The next person who says anything has to do the washing up.
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  • The reader has to carry out " information archeology " using the few bricks that remain from the building.
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  • Some feel that OUR hi-tech version of that high-performance vehicle now has to have wings arid noisy jet engines.
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  • Aries ruler has to show up somewhere) Why?
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  • ashes series in Australia, it just has to be Mission Impossible!
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  • A: The stagecoach driver only has to look at four horses ' asses.
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  • This is an ideal location for exploring the many attractions the North West has to enjoy... .
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  • And the convention's outcome still has to be unanimously passed by the next government conference beginning this autumn.
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  • bad luck for Martha, then, who has to stand out in the cold all night.
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  • In a girl the condition has to be inherited from both parents for her to run any risk at all of becoming bald.
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  • benzodiazepine addiction across the NHS has to be approached.
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  • Tell us about your most memorable filming disaster. âIt has to be when we were filming Pebble Mill for the Australian bicentenary.
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